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6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of

This forming of light particles into atoms may be the result of particle
collision, gravitation (an attraction of matter with itself) or a combination
of both.
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7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.

Most galaxies are too far away for even one particle of light they emit to be
going in the exact direction of our tiny location, and all the light particles
they emit are captured by atoms in between there and here.

One estimate has 70e21 (sextillion) stars in only the universe we can see. That
is 10 times more stars than grains of sand on all the earth.

As telescopes grow larger, the number of galaxies we see will increase.
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4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which exist as
gas clouds (like the Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula). These gas clouds,
called nebulae continue to accumulate trapped light particles. At points of
high density planets and stars form and the cloud is eventually dense enough to
become a galaxy of stars. The stars emit light particles back out to the rest
of the universe, where the light again becomes trapped and forms new clouds.
Around each star are many planets and pieces of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant emitting of light particles (decay). Like
bacteria, these living objects grow in number, with the most successful
organisms occupying and moving around many stars. These advanced organisms then
move the groups of stars they control, as a globular cluster, away from the
plane of the spiral galaxy. As time continues, all of the stars of a galaxy are
occupied by living objects who have organized their stars into globular
clusters, and these globular clusters together, form a globular galaxy. The
globular galaxy may then exist for a long time living off the matter emitting
from stars, in addition to the accumulation of light particles from external

So free light particles are trapped into volumes of space that grow in density
first forming atoms, then gas clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, and finally
a globular galaxy.

Stars at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale, just as light
particles at our scale may be stars at a much smaller scale. This system may go
on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.

For any given volume of space, there is a ratio of light particles going in
versus light particles going out. If more light particles are entering than
exiting the volume has a deficit of light particles, and so acts as a vacuum
and grows in size, if more particles are exiting than entering, the volume is
already very dense, has a surplus of light particles, and is losing density.
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8) An expanding universe seems unlikely to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken observation, for one reason because of the
different sizes of spectra as clearly seen in the 1936 Humason image, and
because distance of light source changes the position, but not the frequency of

Beyond this, the claim of a "background radiation" is probably simply low
frequencies of light particles from light sources that are close enough to be
detected. Most light sources are too far away for even one particle emitted
from them to reach us.
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9) Quasars may be very distant regular galaxies.

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10) Globular clusters and elliptical galaxies may be made by intelligent life,
and spiral galaxies formed without the direct help of living objects. The star
types are almost all long lived yellow stars, and there is little or no
Hydrogen or Helium "dust" as there are in spiral galaxies. The stars in
elliptical galaxies are light weeks apart, much closer together than our star
which is 4 light years to the closest star system. Life orbiting any star of a
spiral galaxy probably would leave the plane of the galaxy by going up or down.

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12) How photons form atoms may still be unknown. Perhaps simply from
gravitational attraction, or maybe there need to be large groups of photons to
limit available spaces for photons to move in (for example in stars, or
galactic centers, and or supernovas.

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14) Photons take on a variety of shapes at different scales from the smallest
forms in light, up to atoms, molecules, molecule groups (like living objects),
planets, stars, galaxies, galactic clusters and the visible universe is the
largest formation of photons we can see.


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22) In a star system, because of gravitation, heavier masses move closer to the
center and lighter masses move farther out.
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32) Allende Meteorite 4,566 million years old.

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34) Oldest "terrestrial" zircon; evidence that the crust and liquid water are
on the surface of earth. A terrestrial zircon is not from a meteorite. This
zircon if from Gneiss in West Australia that is 4.4 billion years old.
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18) Larger molecules like amino acids, phosphates and sugars, the components of
living objects, form on Earth.

These molecules are made in the oceans, fresh water, and atmosphere of earth
(and other planets) by lightning, light particles with ultraviolet frequency
from the Sun, and from ocean floor volcanoes.
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19) Nucleic acids form on Earth. One of these RNA molecules may be the ancestor
of all of life on Earth, being part of the series of copies that leads to all
later living objects on Earth.

Even if bacteria survived the journey from a different star to this star and
seeded the earth, the chemical evolution of the first cell is necessary
somewhere in the universe.

The initial building blocks of living objects are very easy to produce, but the
next step is more difficult: assembling the simple building blocks into
longer-chain molecules, or polymers. Amino acids link up to form longer
polymers called proteins, simple fatty acids plus alcohols link up to form
lipids (oils and fats), simple sugars like glucose and sucrose link together to
form complex carbohydrates and starches, and finally, the nucleotide bases
(plus phosphates and sugars) link up to form nucleic acids, the genetic code of
organisms, known as RNA and DNA.

How nucleic acids (polymers made of nucleotides), proteins (polymers made of
amino acids), carbohydrates (polymers made of sugars) and lipids (glycerol
attached to fatty acids) evolved is not clearly known. Possibly all proteins,
carbohydrates and lipids are strictly the products of living objects.

Some proteins and nucleic acids have been formed in labs by using clay which
can dehydrate and which provides long linear crystal structures to build
proteins and nucleic acids on. Amino acids join together to form polypeptides
when an H2O molecule is formed from a Hydrogen (H) on 1 amino acid and a
hydroxyl (OH) on the second.

Perhaps proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and DNA are the products of living
objects, with RNA being made without the help of living objects.

The most popular theory now has RNA (and potentially lipids) evolving first
before any living objects. But perhaps proteins evolved first, and a protein
linked together the first nucleic acid.

A bacteria can survive the trip between two stars, and possibly a eukaryote
cell could survive frozen and be waken up again many years later, but it seems
unlikely that a multicellular eukaryotic organism could survive and be revived
from one star to another.

Probably bacteria from a variety of stars lands on all planets and asteroids,
and is revived on many where the temperature allows them to copy.

There is still a large amount of experiment, exploration and education that
needs to be done to understand the origins of living objects on planet earth.
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25) An RNA molecule may evolve that can copy other RNA molecules.

Perhaps RNA molecules, called "ribozymes" evolve which can make copies of RNA,
by connecting free floating nucleotides that match a nucleotide on the same or
a different RNA, much like tRNA do in assembling amino acids into proteins. But
until such ribozyme RNA molecules are found, the only molecule known to copy
nucleic acids are proteins called polymerases.

These early RNA molecules may have been protected by liposomes (spheres of

This process of RNA (and then later DNA) duplication is the most basic aspect
of life on Earth, and for all the diversity, the one common element of all life
is this constant process of DNA duplication, which will later evolve to include
cell division. This starts the unbroken thread of copying and division that
connects the earliest ancestor, perhaps some RNA molecule, to all life on earth
that has ever lived.

This may be the start of the constant conversion of other matter into nucleic
acids. This constant copying will ultimately result in billions of living
objects on earth.
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167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amimo acids into proteins using other RNA molecules (mRNA) as a template.

For the first time, a nucleic acid functions both as a template for building
other nucleic acid molecules, and also as a template for building proteins
(with the help of tRNA molecules).

This protein assembly system is the main system responsible for all the
proteins on Earth.

Whether the first tRNA and protein assembly evolved before or after the
evolution of the ribosome is currently unknown.

Random mutations in the copying (and perhaps even in the natural formation) of
RNA molecules probably creates a number of the necessary tRNAs (tRNA, are RNA
molecules responsible for matching free floating amino acid molecules to
three-nucleotide sequences on other RNA molecules).

This is a precellular, pre-ribosome protein assembly system, where tRNA
(transfer RNA) molecules build polypeptide chains of amino acids by linking
directly to other RNA strands.

Part of each tRNA molecule bonds with a specific amino acid, and a 3 nucleotide
sequence from a different part of the tRNA molecule bonds with the opposite
matching 3 nucleotide sequence on an mRNA molecule.

Since there are tRNA molecules for each amino acid (although some tRNAs can
attach to more than one amino acid), there must have been a slow accumulation
of various tRNA molecules for each of the 20 amino acids used in constructing
polypeptides in cells living now. Perhaps after the evolution of the first
tRNA, the first polypeptides were chains of all the same one amino acid. With
the evolution of a second tRNA polypeptides would have more variety because now
two amino acids would be available to build polypeptides.

This polypeptide assembly system may exist freely in water, or within a
liposome. This system builds many more proteins than would be built without
such a system. The mRNA with the code to make copier RNA, now also contains the
code to produce various tRNA molecules. These molecules function as a unit, and
proto-cell, with the rest of the mRNA initially containing random codes for
random proteins.
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168) The ribosome evolves. First Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing a platform for more
efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all the instructions
needed to make more ribosomes.

Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry out protein synthesis, through
a process called translation. They are found in both prokaryotes and
eukaryotes. These molecular machines are responsible for accurately translating
the linear genetic code on the messenger RNA (mRNA), into a linear sequence of
amino acids to produce a protein. All cells contain ribosomes because growth
requires the continued synthesis of new proteins. Ribosomes can exist in great
numbers, ranging from thousands in a bacterial cell to hundreds of thousands in
some human cells and hundreds of millions in a frog ovum. Ribosomes are also
found in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

This early ribosome may function as a protocell, holding an mRNA molecule which
is used as a template by tRNA molecules to assemble amino acids into proteins.
A single mRNA molecule may contain the instructions for an RNA polymerase and
for all the necessary rRNA, and tRNA molecules needed to make more ribosomes.

This ribosomal RNA may serve as an early ribosome. As time continues the
ribosome will grow to include two more RNA molecules, some protein molecules,
and a second half that will make polypeptide construction more efficient.

The modern ribosome is a large ribonucleoprotein (RNA-protein) complex, roughly
20 to 30 nanometers in diameter. It is formed from two unequally sized
subunits, referred to as the small subunit and the large subunit. The two
subunits of the ribosome must join together to become active in protein
synthesis. However, they have distinguishable functions. The small subunit is
involved in decoding the genetic information, while the large subunit has the
catalytic activity responsible for peptide bond formation (that is, the joining
of new amino acids to the growing protein chain).
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40) A protein can copy RNA. This protein is called an RNA polymerase, and may
be more efficient than RNA itself, at copying other RNA molecules, or may be
the first molecule that can copy RNA.

An RNA polymerase must have been one of the first useful proteins to be
assembled by the early (presumably) precellular protein production system.
Eventually an mRNA that codes for the necessary tRNA, and RNA polymerase may be
copied many times.
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166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that can
assemble DNA from RNA.

This protein, built by a ribosome, changes ribonucleotides into
deoxyribonucleotides, which allows the first DNA molecule on Earth to be

Ribonucleotide reductase may be the molecule that allows DNA to be the template
for the line of cells that survives to now.

If RNA and DNA evolved at the same or different times is not clear yet.
Possibly RNA and DNA were created by the same process.
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212) A protein can copy DNA molecules, a DNA polymerase.
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20) The first cell on earth (a bacterium). DNA is surrounded by a membrane of
proteins made by ribosomes. The first cytoplasm.

This cell may form in either fresh or salt water, near the sunlit water surface
or near underwater volcanoes on the ocean floor.

Binary fission evolves. A protein duplicates DNA within the cell and then the
cell divides into two parts.

Procaryotes reproduce by binary fission. The chromosome begins to replicate at
a specific place on the chromosome called the "origin of replication" producing
two origins. As the chromosome continues to replicate, one origin moves rapidly
toward to opposite end of the cell. While the chromosome is replicating, the
cell grows longer. When replication is complete and the bacterium has reached
about twice its initial size, its plasma membrane grows inward, dividing the
parent cell into two child cells, each with a complete genome.

The DNA of this cell contains the template for itself: a copying molecule (DNA
polymerase), and the necessary mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA molecules needed to build
the cytoplasm. For the first time, ribosomes and DNA build cell structure. DNA
protected by cytoplasm is more likely to survive and be copied. Copies of this
cell also have cytoplasm.

This cell structure forms the basis of all future cells of every living object
on earth. These first cells are probably anaerobic (do not require free oxygen)
and heterotrophic, meaning that they do not make their own food: amino acids,
nucleotides, phosphates, and sugars. These early bacteria depend on obtaining
external sources of these molecules and light particles in the form of heat to
reproduce and grow.

Amino acids, nucleotides, water, and other molecules enter and exit the
cytoplasm only because of a difference in concentration from inside and outside
the cell (passive transport) and represent the beginnings of the first
digestive system.

This membrane forms the first protective barrier between for DNA and the
external universe, and serves as a container to hold water.

Two important evolutionary steps evolve: DNA duplication in cytoplasm, and cell
(DNA with cytoplasm) division. Not only must the DNA copy and divide, but the
cell membrane must divide too.

A system of division may evolve which attaches the original and newly
synthesized copy of DNA to the cytoplasm, so that as the cell grows, the two
copies of DNA can be separated and the first membraned cells can divide into
two cells.

The process of DNA duplication is probably similar if not the same process
using the same proteins that were used to duplicate DNA without cytoplasm.

It is possible that bacteria could arrive on Earth from some other star, or
even from a different galaxy and be the ancestor of all life on Earth.
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183) The first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, waxes). Cells evolve that make
proteins that can assemble lipids.
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196) Active transport evolves. Cells evolve in which both proteins and ATP are
used to transport molecules into and out of the cytoplasm.

Active transport enabled a cell to maintain internal concentrations of small
molecules that differ from the cell's surroundings.

A transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane is called an
"electrogenic pump". Proton pumps, the main electrogenic pumps of plants,
fungi, and bacteria are proteins that create an voltage across membranes. Using
ATP, a proton pump moves a positive charge in the form of hydrogen ions out of
the cell.

Another example of active transport is how Escherichia coli imports lactose
using an ion gradient-mediated active transport. Lactose is transported across
the plasma membrane by a membrane associated permease which is coded for by a
gene of the lac operon.
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64) Operons evolve which allow for turning off the assembly of any protein.

Operons, sequences of DNA that allow certain proteins coded by DNA to not be
built, evolve. Proteins bind with these DNA sequences to stop RNA polymerase
from building mRNA molecules which would be translated into proteins. Operons
allow a bacterium to produce certain proteins only when necessary. Bacteria
before now can only build a constant stream of all proteins encoded in their
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27) Peptidoglycan occurs only in the Bacteria (except for those without a cell
wall, such as Mycoplasma). Peptidoglycan is a long-chain polymer of two
repeating sugars (N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetyl muramic acid), in which
adjacent sugar chains are linked to one another by peptide bridges that give
the link rigid stability. The nature of the peptide bridges differs
considerably between species of bacteria. Peptidoglycan synthesis is the target
of many useful antimicrobial agents, including the β-lactam antibiotics (e.g.,
penicillin) that block the cross-linking of the peptide bridges. Some of the
proteins that animals synthesize as natural antibacterial defense factors
attack the cell walls of bacteria.
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77) Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve. Phylum Nanoarcheota.

Eubacteria and Archaea are the two major lines of Prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are
the most primitive living objects ever found. Prokaryotes differ from the later
evolved eukaryotes in have a circle of DNA located in their cytoplasm (not
chromosomes) and have no nucleus. There are many widely varying estimates of
when the last common ancestor between Eubacteria and Archaea evolved. At least
one genetic comparison shows the common ancestor of Eubacteria and Archaea
evolving now.
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292) (It seems logical that the prokaryote flagellum would evolve in
proteobacteria because most prokaryotes with a flagellum are in the
Proteobacteria domain. There is a unity between pili, flagellum, and exchange
of DNA (sex), in particular, in the proteobacterium E. Coli.)
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78) Archaea Phylum: Korarchaeota evolves according to genetic comparison.
This group,
originally identified by two environmental sample sequences from the Obsidian
Pool hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, currently includes only
environmental DNA sequences and no Korarchaeota have been cultured yet.
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180) Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} (methanogens, halobacteria)
evolve according to genetic comparison.

Earliest cell response to light.

The Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} are a major group of Archaea (or
Archaebacteria). They include the methanogens, which produce methane and are
often found in intestines, the halobacteria, which survive extreme
concentrations of salt, and some extremely thermophilic aerobes and anaerobes.
They are separated from the other archaeans based mainly on rRNA sequences.

The Euryarchaeotes may be the living object with the most primitive DNA still
found on earth (depending on the accurate determination of the origin of
Eubacteria and Archaea).

Halophilic archaebacteria, such as Halobacterium salinarum, use sensory
rhodopsins for phototaxis (positive or negative movement along a light gradient
or vector).
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181) Genetic comparison shows the Archaea Phylum, Crenarchaeotes evolving now.

The phylum Crenarchaeota, commonly referred to as the Crenarchaea, contains
many extremely thermophilic (hot-loving) and psychrophilic (cold-loving)
organisms. They were originally separated from the other archaeons based on
rRNA sequences, since then physiological features, such as lack of histones
have supported this division. Until recently all cultured crenarchaea have been
thermophilic or hyperthermophilic organisms, some of which have the ability to
grow up to 113 degrees C. These organisms stain gram negative and are
morphologically diverse having rod, cocci, filamentous and unusually shaped
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49) replace wiki source
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43) The simple equation of photosynthesis is: 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + photons = C6H12O6
(glucose) + 6O2. The detailed steps of photosynthesis are called the "Calvin
Cycle". Prokaryote cells can now produce their own glucose to store and be
converted to ATP by glycolysis and fermentation later.

Of the 5 phyla of eubacteria that can photosynthesize, only 1, cyanobacteria,
produces oxygen.
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Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
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45) Oldest sediment, the Banded Iron Formation begins.
Banded Iron Formation is
sedimentary rock that spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years ago, made of
iron-rich silicates (like silicon dioxide SiO2) with alternating layers of
black colored ferrous (reduced) iron and red colored ferric (oxidized) iron and
represents a seasonal cycle where the quantity of free oxygen in the ocean
rises and falls, possibly linked to photosynthetic organisms.
Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
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189) Possible earliest fossils. Microstructures from Isua Banded iron
formation, Southerwest Greenland. Because of the simple shape, the biotic
nature of these fossils is not certain.
(Isua BIF) SW Greenland  
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Isua, Greenland  
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Isua, Greenland  
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215) The Carbon-13 to Carbon-12 ratio in 3700+ million year old carbon grains
is consistent with biotic remains, possibly the remains of planktonic
photosynthesizing organisms. These carbon-13 "depleted" grains support the
earlier finding by Mojzsis et al of carbon-13 to carbon-12 ratios that imply
living objects on Greenland earlier than 3850 million years before now.
Isua, Greenland  
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Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa  
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Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa  
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North Pole, Australia  
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190) Earliest fossils of coccoid {KoKOED} (spherical) bacteria from the
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa.
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa  
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71) Earliest fossil evidence of prokaryote reproduction by budding.

Fossils from Swartkoppie chert, South Africa are oldest evidence of procaryotes
that reproduce by budding and not binary fission.

Budding evolves in prokaryotes. Like binary division, budding is a form of
asexual reproduction. However, with budding a new individual develops from a
certain point of the parent organism. The new individual may separate to exist
independently, or the buds may remain attached, forming colonies. Budding is
characteristic of a few unicellular organisms (certain bacteria, yeasts,
protozoans) but some metazoan animals (certain cnidarian species) regularly
reproduce by budding.
Swartkoppie, South Africa  
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(Sulphur Springs Deposit) Pilbara Craton of Australia  
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66) Earliest acritarch fossils (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity). These acritarchs are also the earliest possible eukaryote fossils.

Organic-walled microfossils of large size (50 micrometres or more) and of
uncertain biological affinities are known as acritarchs. The oldest known
acritarchs are from rocks of the Moodies Group of South Africa that date to
about 3.2 billion years ago, and are almost twice as old as the next known
acritarchs which come from mid-Proterozoic rocks that are about 1.8 billion
years old.

Acritarchs, the name coined by Evitt in 1963 which means "of uncertain origin",
are an artificial group. The group includes any small (most are between 20-150
microns across), organic-walled microfossil which cannot be assigned to a
natural group. They are characterised by varied sculpture, some being spiny and
others smooth. They are believed to have algal affinities, probably the cysts
of planktonic eukaryotic algae. They are valuable Proterozoic and Palaeozoic
biostratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental tools.

Living spherical prokaryotic cells rarely exceed 20 microns in diameter, but
eukaryotic cells are nearly always larger than 60 microns. Although their
precise nature is uncertain, acritarchs appear to be phytoplankton that grew
thick coverings during a resting stage in their life cycle. Some resemble the
resting stage of modern marine algae known as dinoflagellates (known from the
"red tides" that periodically poison fish and other marine animals).

Chitinozoa are large (50-2000 microns) flask-shaped palynomorphs which appear
dark, almost opaque when viewed using a light microscope. They are important
Palaeozoic microfossils as stratigraphic markers.

The oldest known Acritarchs are recorded from shales of Palaeoproterozoic
(1900-1600 Ma) age in the former Soviet Union. They are stratigraphically
useful in the Upper Proterozoic through to the Permian. From Devonian times
onwards the abundance of acritarchs appears to have declined, whether this is a
reflection of their true abundance or the volume of scientific research is
difficult to tell.

Although these acritarch fossils may be from eukaryotes, they may also be from
ancestors of eukaryotes before a nucleus existed which there may be some
genetic support for.
(Moodies Group) South Africa  
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178) Eubacteria Phylum Firmicutes evolves (low G+C {Guanine and Cytosine count}
Gram positive bacteria: botulism, tetanus, anthrax).
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288) First endospores. The ability to form endospores evolve in some
firmicutes. An endospore is a tough reduced dry form of a bacterium triggered
by a lack of nutrients that protects the bacterium, and allows it to be revived
after long periods of time. Some 25 million year old spores have been revived.
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177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo KOlE}
bacteria. Conjugation is the exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor {male}
bacterium through a pilus to a recipient {female} bacterium. This may be the
process that evolves into eukaryote sexual reproduction.

In addition to pili and conjugation, proteins that can cut DNA and other
proteins that can connect two strands of DNA together evolve.

Some protists (cilliates and some algae) reproduce sexually by conjugation.
So perhaps
conjugation is related to the transition from a single circle of DNA to
multiple linear chromosomes in eukaryotes. If conjugation in eukaryotes
descends directly from a proteobacteria then perhaps the ancestor of all
eukaryotes, or certainly those that can conjugate was a proteobacteria.
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179) The Phylum Actinobacteria have 5 Orders:
ORDER Acidimicrobiales
ORDER Actinobacteriales
ORDER Coriobacteriales
ORDER Rubrobacteriales
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174) Genetic comparison shows the Eubacteria Phylum, Spirochaetes (Syphilis,
Lyme disease) evolving now.

The spirochaetes (or spirochetes) are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which
have long, helically coiled cells. They are distinguished by the presence of
flagella running lengthwise between the cell membrane and cell wall, called
axial filaments. These cause a twisting motion which allows the spirochaete to
move around. Most spirochaetes are free-living and anaerobic, but there are
numerous exceptions.

Spirochaetes only have one order:
ORDER Spirochaetales
and 3 families.
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217) Chlamydiae have a life-cycle involving two distinct forms. Infection takes
place by means of elementary bodies (EB), which are metabolically inactive.
These are taken up within a cellular vacuole, where they grow into larger
reticulate bodies (RB), which reproduce. Ultimately new elementary bodies are
produced and expelled from the cell.

Verrucomicrobia is a recently described phylum of bacteria. This phylum
contains only a few described species (Verrucomicrobia spinosum, is an example,
the phylum is named after this). The species identified have been isolated from
fresh water and soil environments and human feces. A number of as-yet
uncultivated species have been identified in association with eukaryotic hosts
including extrusive explosive ectosymbionts of protists and endosymbionts of
nematodes residing in their gametes.

Evidence suggests that verrucomicrobia are abundant within the environment, and
important (especially to soil cultures). This phylum is considered to have two
sister phyla Chlamydiae and Lentisphaera.

There are three main species of chlamydiae that infect humans:

* Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes the eye-disease trachoma and the
sexually transmitted infection chlamydia;
* Chlamydophila pneumoniae, which causes a
form of pneumonia;
* Chlamydophila psittaci, which causes psittacosis.

CLASS Chlamydiae
ORDER Chlamydiales

PHYLA Verrucomicrobia
ORDER Verrucomicrobiales
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6310) Verrucomicrobia is a recently described phylum of bacteria. This phylum
contains only a few described species (Verrucomicrobia spinosum, is an example,
the phylum is named after this). The species identified have been isolated from
fresh water and soil environments and human feces. A number of as-yet
uncultivated species have been identified in association with eukaryotic hosts
including extrusive explosive ectosymbionts of protists and endosymbionts of
nematodes residing in their gametes.

Evidence suggests that verrucomicrobia are abundant within the environment, and
important (especially to soil cultures). This phylum is considered to have two
sister phyla Chlamydiae and Lentisphaera.

There are three main species of chlamydiae that infect humans:

* Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes the eye-disease trachoma and the
sexually transmitted infection chlamydia;
* Chlamydophila pneumoniae, which causes a
form of pneumonia;
* Chlamydophila psittaci, which causes psittacosis.

CLASS Chlamydiae
ORDER Chlamydiales

PHYLA Verrucomicrobia
ORDER Verrucomicrobiales
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60) Eukaryotic cell. The first cell with a nucleus. The first protist. The
nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.

The word "Eukaryote" is from the Greek "eu" which means "true" and "karyon"
which means "kernel", in this case refering to the nucleus.

All cells have several basic features in common: They are all bounded by a
selective barrier, called the plasma membrane. Enclosed by the membrane is a
semifluid, jellylike substance called cytosol, in which organelles and other
components are found. All cells contain chromosomes, which carry genes in the
form of DNA. And all cells have ribosomes, tiny bodies that make proteins
according to instructions from the genes.

There are some difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
In prokaryotic
cells the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed called
the "nucleoid" while in eukaryotic cells most of the DNA is contained in a
nucleus that is bounded by a double membrane. Eukaryotic cells are generally
much larger than prokaryotic cells. Typical bacteria are between 1-5 um in
diameter, while eukaryotic cells are typically 10-100 um in diameter. Unlike
prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton
enables eukaryotic cells to change their shape and to surround and engulf other
cells. Eukaryotic cells also have internal structures that prokaryotic cells
lack such as mitochondria and plastids. DNA in prokaryotic cells is usually in
the form of a single cicular chromosome (sometimes with additional small
circles of DNA known as plasmids), while DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes
contains linear chromosomes (some organelles in eukaryotes also contain DNA,
most mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA is also circular reflecting their
prokaryote origin).

All protists, fungi, animals and plant cells descend from this common
eukaryotic cell ancestor.

Like prokaryotes, this first eukaryote cell is probably haploid, having only a
single unique DNA. Most later eukaryotes will be diploid, having two sets of

Other alternative theories are that the nucleus may be a captured bacterium,
virus, or plasmid.

That a eukaryote cell survived the journey from a different star or galaxy
cannot be ruled out.
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Northwestern Australia  
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(Bulawaya rock sequence) Zimbabwe  
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65) Eukaryote cells with linear chromosomes (instead of a circular chromosome)

Perhaps the first eukaryote descended from one of those prokaryotes with linear

Some prokaryotes without a single circular chromosome are: Agrobacterium
tumefaciens (Proteobacteria), Borrellia burgdorferi (Spirochaete), Streptomyces
griseus (Actinobacteria).
Some prokaryotes do not have just one circle of DNA. Brucella
melitensis has 2 circular chromosomes. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a circular
and a linear chromosome. Streptomyces griseus can have one linear chromosome.
Borrelia burgdorferi contains a linear chromosome and a number of variable
circular and linear plasmids. Chromosomes are linear in eukaryotic nuclei, but
circular in eukaryote organelles except for the mitochondria of most cnidarians
and some other forms.
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291) Eukaryote cell evolves two intermediate stages between cell division and
DNA synthesis.

In prokaryotes, DNA synthesis can take place uninterrupted between cell
divisions, but eukaryotes duplicate their DNA exactly once during a discrete
period between cell divisions. This period is called the S (for synthetic)
phase. It is preceded by a period called G1 (meaning "first gap") and followed
by a period called G2, during which nuclear DNA synthesis does not occur.

For the first time, a cell is not constantly synthesizing DNA and then having a
division period (as is the case for all known prokaryotes), but this cell has a
period in between cell division and DNA synthesis where DNA synthesis is not
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72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cell division in which the chromosomes are
separated and the nucleus divides resulting in two new nuclei, each of which
contains a complete and identical copy of the parental chromosomes. Mitosis is
usually immediately followed by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm.

All eukaryote cells divide using the same general plan. The cell division cycle
contains four stages, G1 ("first gap"), S ("synthesis"), G2 ("second gap"), and
M ("mitotic phase". The first three stages are called "interphase" which
alternates with the mitotic phase. Interphase is a much longer stage that often
accounts for 90% of the cycle. During interphase the cell grows and copies its
chromosomes in preparation for cell division. In the mitotic phase, mitosis,
division of the nucleus is followed by cytokinesis.

Mitosis is thought to have evolved from
prokaryote binary fission. That some proteins involved in prokaryote binary
fission are related to eukaryotic proteins that function in mitosis supports
the idea that mitosis evolved from prokaryote binary fission. Possible
intermediate stages can be seen in some protists. In dinoflagellates,
replicated chromosomes are attached to the nuclear envelope which remains in
one piece during cell division. Microtubules from outside the nucleus pass
through the nucleus inside cytoplasmic tunnels. The nucleus then divides in a
process similar to prokaryote binary fission. In diatoms and yeasts the nuclear
envelope also reamins together during cell division, but inthese eukaryotes the
microtubules form a spindle within the nucleus. Microtubules separate the
chromosomes and the nucleus splits into two nuclei. Finally, in most eukaryotes
including plant and animal cells, the spindle forms outside the nucleus, and
the nuclear envelope breaks down during mitosis. Microtubules separate the
chromosomes, and the nuclear envelope then forms again.
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73) Eukaryote sex evolves. Two identical cells fuse (isogamy). First diploid
cell. First zygote. Increase in genetic variety. Haplontic life cycle.

Eukaryotic sexual reproduction, which is initially the fusion of two cells and
their nuclei, probably first occurs in a single cell protist that usually
reproduces asexually by mitosis. Two haploid eukaryote cells (cells with one
set of chromosomes each) merge and then their nuclei merge (karyogamy) to form
the first diploid cell, a cell with two sets of chromosomes, the first zygote.

This fusion of two haploid cells results in the first diploid single-celled
organism, which then may immediately divide (both nucleus and cytoplasm by a
single division) back to two haploid cells.

Because of sex, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more genetic
variety. Having two chromosome sets also provides a backup copy of important
genes (sequences that code for proteins, or nucleic acids) that might be lost
with only a set of single chromosomes.

This first sexual eukaryote cell and its descendants will have a life cycle
with two phases, alternating between haploid and diploid.

Conjugation, the second major kind of sexual phenomenon, which occurs in the
eukaryotes ciliates, involves the fusion of gametic nuclei instead of
independent gamete cells.

"Syngamy" refers to gamete fusion and "karyogamy" to nucleus fusion. In most
cases syngamy is immediately followed by karyogamy, as a result, a fertilized
zygote is produced.

Note that gender (anisogamy) probably evolves later, initially sex is probably
the fusion of two indistinguishable cells (isogamy).

Some protists have diploid nuclei with two chromosomes of each type, such as
those found in the somatic cells of most higher animals and plants, and other
protists have haploid nuclei with unpaired chromosomes, such as those found in
the gametes of higher animals and plants; polyploid nuclei with several sets of
chromosomes also occur in protists. Diploid nuclei in protists may undergo a
process of meiosis to produce haploid nuclei (a reduciton division), but more
commonly both haploid and diploid nuclei divide by mitosis to produce two child
nuclei like the original parent cell.

Some of the genes related to the process of meiosis occur in Giardia, one of
the most primitive living protists, which is evidence that meiosis may have
evolved before the evolution of all known eukaryotes.

Now, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more chance of variety and
mutation. Two chromosome sets provides a backup copy of important genes
(sequences that code for proteins, or nucleic acids) that might be lost with
only a set of single chromosomes.

This first sexual eukaryote cell and its descendants will have two phases, a
gamophase (haploid until syngamy becoming diploid), and a zygophase (from
diploid until meiosis becoming haploid).

For sexual species there are 3 basic life cycles:
1) Haploid (Haplontic) life cycle:
(zygotic meiosis) Life as haploid cells, cell division immediately after
creation of zygote from fusion. (All fungi, Some green algae, Many protozoa)
2) Diploid
(Diplontic) life cycle: (gametic meiosis) Instead of immediate cell division,
zygote reproduces by mitosis. Haploid gametes never copy by mitosis. (animals,
some brown algae)
3) Haplodiploid (Haplodiplontic, Diplohaplontic, Diplobiontic) life
cycle: (sporic meiosis) Diploid cell (sporocyte) meiosis results in two haploid
sporophytes (gamonts), not two haploid gametes. These haploid cells then
differentiate? or mitosis? to form haploid gametes. Haplodiplontic organisms
have alternation of generations, one generation involves diploid
spore-producing single or multicellular sporophytes (makes spores) and the
other generation involves haploid single or multicellular gamete-producing
multicellular gametophytes (makes gametes). (Plants and many algae)

These first sexual cells are haplontic, with zygotic meiosis; they reproduce
asexually through mitosis as haploid cells, fusing to a diploid cell without
mitosis, then dividing back into haploid cells.

An important evolutionary step evolves here in that now two cells can
completely merge into one cell. This merge not only includes their nuclei, but
also their cytoplasm (although the DNA do not merge). Before now, as far as
has ever been observed, no two cells have ever completely merged, although,
through conjugation some prokaryotes have been observed to exchange DNA.

This is the beginning of the label "gamete" for haploid cells that can merge to
form a diploid zygote. In addition, the label "gametocyte" or "gamont" is any
polyploid cell that divides (meiosis) into haploid gamete cells which can merge
to form a zygote.

The alternation of meiosis and fertilization is common to all organisms that
reproduce sexually, but there are three main different types of life cycles;
haplontic, haplodiplontic, and diplontic. Haplontic organisms are predominantly
haploid; mitosis does not occur in the diploid phase. In Haplodiplontic
organisms, mitosis occurs in both the haploid and diploid phases. Diplontic
organisms are predominantly diploid; mitosis does not occur in the haploid
phase. Most fungi and some protists including some algae have a "haplontic"
life cycle where after gametes fuse and form a diploid zygote, meiosis occurs
without a multicellular diploid offspring developing. Meiosis produces not
gametes but haploid cells that then divide by mitosis and give rise to either
unicellular descendents or a haploid multicellular adult organism. The haploid
oganism then carries out further mitoses producing cells that develop into
gametes. The only diplod stage found in these species is the singe-celled
zygote. Plants and some algae have a second type of lifestyle called
"haplodiplontic" or "alternation of generations". This type includes both
diploid and haploid stages that are multicellular. The multicellular diploid
stage is called the "sporophyte". Meiosis in the sporophyte produces haploid
cells called spores. Unlike a gamete, a haploid spore doesn't fuse with another
cell but divides mitotically, generating a multicellular haploid stage called
the gametophyte. Cells of the gametophyte give rise to gametes by mitosis.
Fusion of two haploid gametes at fertilizations results in a diploid zygote,
which develops into the next sporophyte generation. A third type of sexual life
cycle, "diplontic", occurs in animals in which gametes are the only haploid
cells. Meiosis occurs in germ cells producing haploid gametes that no other
cell division prior to fertilization. After fertilization the diploid zygote
divides by mitosis producing a multicellular organism that is diploid.
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206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis: 2 haploid cells or two pronuclei fuse
into a diploid cell and a divide into 2 haploid cells).

Meiosis, which looks similar to mitosis, is the process of cell division in
sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in
reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of
gametes in animals and spores in plants.

Most protists divide by two-step meiosis, and meiosis with only one cell
division is rare. Some view one-divisional meiosis as having an independent and
secondary origin while others view one-step meiosis as the primitive meiotic

Without the reduction back to haploid, genomes would double in size with every

Mitosis and one-step meiosis are the same with the only exception that: in
meiosis two haploid cells join (or 2 pronuclei fuse) before cell division, but
in mitosis the DNA is duplicated internally in the nucleus before cell

Meiosis can be one step (one fusion and then one cell division) or two step
(fusion, DNA duplication and then two divisions). Probably one step meiosis
evolved first and two step meiosis later. The Protists Pyrsonympha and
Dinenympha have up to a four step meiosis.

Because meiosis is similar and complex in detail in all species that do
meiosis, people think that meiosis only evolved once, and was inherited by all
species that do meiosis.
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298) Sex between a flagellated gamete and an unflagellated gamete evolves in
protists (oogamy {OoGomE}, a form of anisogamy).
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300) Only a few species exhibit this property (e.g. the Oxymonad Notilla,
Diatoms, Dasicladales {Acetabularia}, in many foraminiferans, and in

Gamontogamy may have evolved into two-step meiosis.

The vast majority of eukaryotes living now that reproduce sexually fuse haploid
cells. All "gametes" are haploid cells that can merge, diploid cells that can
merge are gamonts. Gamonts (Meiocytes) are cells that produce gametes.

In theory this should be very similar if not exactly like haploid cell fusion,
so perhaps this is not a major evolutionary step.
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295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides twice into
four haploid cells).

Meiosis and mitosis are similar in being nucleus and cell division, but are
Differences between meiosis and mitosis:
1) At least one crossover per
homologous pair happens in 2 step meiosis but crossover usually does not happen
in mitosis. (explain crossover)
2) Two step meiosis involves cell divisions that happen
one after the other, where the cell division of mitosis only happens after one
DNA duplication (there are never 2 mitosis divisions together without a DNA
duplication between them to my knowledge).

The cell division in two step meiosis that involves a separation of sister
chromatids (not homologous chromosome pairs) is basically identical to mitosis.
For two step meiosis, this is the second nucleus and cell division.

Later multistep meiosis evolves, where there may be as many as 4 divisions (for
example in the protists Pyrsonympha and Dinenympha).

(Determine if it can be said that meiosis is simply a division after the fusion
of two nuclei while mitosis is a division after an internucleus DNA copy.
Clearly the duplication of two complete nuclei within a single Eukaryote cell
must include the inte r-nucleus copying of DNA - and is probably similar to a
typical prokaryote cell division. This process just goes further in duplicating
the nuclear membrane too. Then the division after the fusion of two nuclei must
be basically the same as a mitosis division. So really, in this view, the
unique processes are: DNA, nucleus, and/or cell copy, nucleus and/or cell
fusion, nucleus and/or cell division.)
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171) The Eubacteria phylum "Deinococcus-Thermus" evoles now (includes Thermus
Aquaticus {used in PCR}, Deinococcus radiodurans {can survive long exposure to

The Deinococcus-Thermus are a small group of bacteria comprised of cocci highly
resistant to environmental hazards. There are two main groups. The
Deinococcales include a single genus, Deinococcus, with several species that
are resistant to radiation; they have become famous for their ability to eat
nuclear waste and other toxic materials, survive in the vacuum of space and
survive extremes of heat and cold. The Thermales include several genera
resistant to heat. Thermus aquaticus was important in the development of the
polymerase chain reaction where repeated cycles of heating DNA to near boiling
make it advantageous to use a thermo-stable DNA polymerase enzyme. These
bacteria have thick cell walls that give them gram-positive stains, but they
include a second membrane and so are closer in structure to those of
gram-negative bacteria.

PHYLUM Deinococcus-Thermus
CLASS Deinococci
ORDER Deinococcales
ORDER Thermales
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315) PHYLUM Chloroflexi
CLASS Chloroflexi
CLASS Thermomicrobia
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52) End of the Archean and start of the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or ProTReZOiK}

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542 million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.
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56) Banded Iron Formation starts to appear in many places.
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316) (Determine if this is just an example of a cell forming a spore. Clearly
forming a spore can be viewed as cell differentiation. But clearly, a cell
changes form in small ways all the time.)

Which cell differentiation is first is unknown, between cells that form spores,
or cysts, and the cell differentiation that is observed in cyanobacterial
filamentous cells.

Heterocysts are specialized nitrogen-fixing cells formed by some filamentous
cyanobacteria, such as Nostoc punctiforme and Anabaena sperica, during nitrogen
starvation. They fix nitrogen from dinitrogen (N2) in the air using the enzyme
nitrogenase, in order to provide the cells in the filament with nitrogen for
biosynthesis. Nitrogenase is inactivated by oxygen, so the heterocyst must
create a microanaerobic environment. The heterocysts' unique structure and
physiology requires a global change in gene expression. For example,

* produce three additional cell walls, including one of glycolipid that
forms a hydrophobic barrier to oxygen
* produce nitrogenase and other proteins
involved in nitrogen fixation
* degrade photosystem II, which produces oxygen
* up
regulate glycolytic enzymes, which use up oxygen and provide energy for
* produce proteins that scavenge any remaining oxygen

Cyanobacteria usually obtain a fixed carbon (carbohydrate) by photosynthesis.
The lack of photosystem II prevents heterocysts from photosynthesising, so the
vegetative cells provide them with carbohydrates, which is thought to be
sucrose. The fixed carbon and nitrogen sources are exchanged though channels
between the cells in the filament. Heterocysts maintain photosystem I, allowing
them to generate ATP by cyclic photophosphorylation.

Single heterocysts develop about every 9-15 cells, producing a one-dimensional
pattern along the filament. The interval between heterocysts remains
approximately constant even though the cells in the filament are dividing. The
bacterial filament can be seen as a multicellular organism with two distinct
yet interdependent cell types. Such behaviour is highly unusual in prokaryotes
and may have been the first example of multicellular patterning in evolution.
Once a heterocyst has formed, it cannot revert to a vegetative cell, so this
differentiation can be seen as a form of apoptosis. Certain heterocyst-forming
bacteria can differentiate into spore-like cells called akinetes or motile
cells called hormogonia, making them the most phenotyptically versatile of all

The mechanism of controlling heterocysts is thought to involve the diffusion of
an inhibitor of differentiation called PatS. Heterocyst formation is inhibited
in the presence of a fixed nitrogen source, such as ammonium or nitrate. The
bacteria may also enter a symbiotic relationship with certain plants. In such a
relationship, the bacteria do not respond to the availability of nitrogen, but
to signals produced by the plant. Up to 60% of the cells can become
heterocysts, providing fixed nitrogen to the plant in return for fixed carbon.

The cyanobacteria that form heterocysts are divided into the orders Nostocales
and Stigonematales, which form simple and branching filaments respectively.
Together they form a monophyletic group, with very low genetic variability.
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322) Nitrogen fixation. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia from
Nitrogen gas.

Without bacteria that convert N2 into nitrogen compounds, the supply of
nitrogen necessary for much of life would be seriously limited and would
drastically slow evolution on earth.

Nitrogen fixation is the process by which
nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the
atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical
processes (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide).

Nitrogen fixation is performed naturally by a number of different prokaryotes,
including bacteria, and actinobacteria certain types of anaerobic bacteria.
Many higher plants, and some animals (termites), have formed associations with
these microorganisms.

The best-known are legumes (such as clover, beans, alfalfa and peanuts,) which
contain symbiotic bacteria called rhizobia within nodules in their root
systems, producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete
with other plants. When the plant dies, the nitrogen helps to fertilize the
soil. The great majority of legumes have this association, but a few genera
(e.g., Styphnolobium) do not.
West Africa  
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199) Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves (packages proteins and lipids into
vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations).

A vesicle is a closed structure, found only in eukaryotic cells, that is
completely surrounded by a membrane but, unlike a vacuole, contains material
that is not in the liquid state.

(Is this the only form of cellular digestion?)
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47) Evidence of free oxygen accumulating in the air of Earth for the first
time, most recent uraninite {YRANninIT}, a mineral that cannot exist for much
time if exposed to oxygen.
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48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide formed on land, begin here, and are also
evidence of more free oxygen in the air of Earth.
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63) A parasitic bacterium, closely related to Rickettsia prowazekii, an aerobic
proteobacteria, is engulfed by an early eukaryote cell and over time a
symbiotic relationship evolves, where the Rickettsia forms the mitochondria.

Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of almost all
eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs and most of the ATP in a
eukaryote cell is produced. Mitochondria are typically round to oval in shape
and range in size from 0.5 to 10 μm. The number of mitochondria per cell
varies widely; for example, in humans, erythrocytes (red blood cells) do not
contain any mitochondria, whereas liver cells and muscle cells may contain
hundreds or even thousands. Mitochondria are unlike other cellular organelles
in that they have two distinct membranes and a unique genome and reproduce by
binary fission; these features indicate that mitochondria share an evolutionary
past with prokaryotes.

In eukaryotes the mitochondria perform the Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative
phosphorylation using oxygen to breakdown pyruvagte from glycolysis into CO2
and H2O, and provide up 36 ATP molecules.

This presumes that all known living eukaryotes descend from a eukaryote that
had mitochondria, and that eukaryotes without mitochondria, like the
metamonada, lost their mitochondria secondarily.
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(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA  
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46) End of the Banded Iron Formation.
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6279) Earliest possible multicellular brown algae (and Stramenopiles) fossil.
These fossils help support a limit for multicellular algal fossil (metaphyta)
of at least 1700 million years ago.

If eukaryote these would be the earliest eukaryote fossils with both
filamentous multicellularity and cell differentiation and also the earliest
algae fossil with leaf structures.

Knoll et al write in 2006 that: "Examination of Tuanshanzi structures in
outcrop by one of us (A. H. Knoll) suggests that the features in question can
alternatively be interpreted as rare, fortuitously shaped fragments deposited
among many irregular mat shards.".
(Tuanshanzi Formation) Jixian Area, North China  
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202) Ribosomal RNA shows the Protist Phylum Amoebozoa (also called
Ramicristates) which includes amoeba and slime molds evolving now.

The Amoebozoa are a major group of amoeboid protozoa, including the majority
that move by means of internal cytoplasmic flow. Their pseudopodia are
characteristically blunt and finger-like, called lobopodia. Most are
unicellular, and are common in soils and aquatic habitats, with some found as
symbiotes of other organisms, including several pathogens. The Amoebozoa also
include the slime moulds, multinucleate or multicellular forms that produce
spores and are usually visible to the unaided eye.

Mycetozoa are the slime molds.
4. Plasmodial Slime Molds
a. Plasmodial
slime molds exist as a plasmodium. (the earlier evolved acrasid cellular slime
molds exist as individual amoeboid cells.)
b. This diploid multinucleated
cytoplasmic mass creeps along, phagocytizing decaying plant material.
Fan-shaped plasmodium contains tubules of concentrated cytoplasm in which
liquefied cytoplasm streams.
d. Under unfavorable environmental conditions
(e.g., drought), the plasmodium develops many sporangia
that produce
spores by meiosis.
e. When mature, spores are released and survive until
more favorable environmental conditions return;
then each releases a
haploid flagellated cell or an amoeboid cell.
f. Two flagellated or
amoeboid cells fuse to form diploid zygote that produces a multi-nucleated

Nuclear division in giant amoebas (Peolobiont/Amoebozoa) is neither mitosis nor
binary fission, but incorporates aspects of both (Fig. 3-7). Chromosomes are
attached permanently to the nuclear membrane by their centromeres (MTOCs,
microtubule organizing centers), and the nuclear membrane remains intact
throughout division. After DNA duplication produces two chromatids, the point
of attachment, the MTOC duplicates or divides, and microtubules are assembled
between the two resulting MTOCs. Elongating microtubules form something akin to
a spindle within the nuclear membrane that pushes the daughter chromosomes
apart and elongate the membrane-bounded nucleus until it blebs in half in
something akin to binary fission. Simple assembly of microtubules accomplishes
the separation of daughter genomes in this simple nuclear division. In typical
eukaryotic mitosis, the separation of daughter chromosomes is accomplished by a
dual action, the disassembly of spindle fibers connecting the daughter
chromosome to the polar MTOC, and assembly of spindle fibers running pole to

Thomas Cavalier-Smith and Ema E. -Y. Chao write: "Amoebozoa are a key protozoan
phylum because of the possibility that they are ancestrally uniciliate and
unicentriolar (Cavalier-Smith 2000a,b); present data on the DHFR-TS gene fusion
leaves open the possibility that they might be the earliest-diverging
eukaryotes (Stechmann and Cavalier-Smith 2002), but they may be evolutionarily
closer to bikonts or even opisthokonts. Amoebozoa comprise two subphyla
(Cavalier-Smith 1998a): Lobosa, classical aerobic amoebae with broad ("lobose")
pseudopods (including the testate Arcellinida), and Conosa (slime molds
{Mycetozoa, e.g., Dictyostelium} and amitochondrial-often
uniciliate-archamaebae {entamoebae, mastigamoebae}). Contrary to early analyses
(Sogin 1991; Cavalier-Smith 1993a), there is no reason to regard Amoebozoa as
polyphyletic; the defects of those classical uncorrected rRNA trees are shown
by trees using 123 proteins that robustly establish the monophyly of both
Archamoebae and Conosa (Bapteste et al. 2002). Unless the tree's root is within
Conosa, Dictyostelium and Entamoeba must have evolved independently from
aerobic flagellates by ciliary losses. A recent mitochondrial gene tree based
on concatenating six different proteins grouped Dictyostelium with Physarum
(99% support) and both Mycetozoa as sisters to Acanthamoeba (99% support), thus
providing strong evidence for the monophyly of Mycetozoa and the grouping of
Lobosa and Conosa as Amoebozoa (Forget et al. 2002)-the same tree also strongly
supports the idea based on morphology that Allomyces should be excluded from
Chytridiomycetes (in the separate class Allomycetes) and is phylogenetically
closer to zygomycetes and higher fungi (Cavalier-Smith 1998a, 2000c).
Furthermore, the derived gene fusion between two cytochrome oxidase genes, coxI
and coxII (Lang et al. 1999), strongly supports the holophyly of Mycetozoa.
Since Archamoebae secondarily lost mitochondria, the root cannot lie among them
either-although anaerobiosis in Archamoebae is derived, it is unjustified to
conclude from this that their simple ciliary root organization, which was a key
reason for considering them early eukaryotes (Cavalier-Smith 1991c), is also
secondarily derived (Edgcomb et al. 2002). Thus the root of the eukaryote tree
cannot lie within the Conosa.

As Mycetozoa and Archamoebae have very long-branch rRNA sequences, Conosa were
excluded from the analysis in Fig. 1, which includes only Lobosa. Although the
monophyly of Acanthamoebida (99%) and of Euamoebida (85%) is well supported,
the basal branching of the Lobosa is so poorly resolved that the monophyly of
Lobosa might appear open to question. The four lobosan lineages apparently
diverged early. However, in the 279- and 227-species trees, which included
Conosa, anaeromonads did not intrude into the Amoebozoa as they do in Fig. 1,
and Amoebozoa were monophyletic (low support) except for the exclusion of M.
invertens. M. invertens is another wandering branch, which in some taxon
sample/methods groups very weakly with other Amoebozoa, but more often ends up
in a different place in each tree! We concur with the judgment of Milyutina et
al. (2001)Edgcomb et al. (2002) that it should not be regarded as a pelobiont
or Archamoeba, but as a lobosan that independently became an anaerobe with
degenerate mitochondria. Its tendency to drift around the tree, coupled with
its short branch, suggests that it may be a particularly early-diverging
amoebozoan lineage. If so, its unicentriolar condition would give added support
to the idea that Amoebozoa are ancestrally uniciliate, if it could be shown
that Amoebozoa are either holophyletic or not at the base of the tree.

Most, if not all, amoebae evolved from amoeboid zooflagellates by multiple
ciliary losses (Cavalier-Smith 2000a). As the uniciliate condition is
widespread within Amoebozoa (Cavalier-Smith 2000a, 2002b), it may be their
ancestral condition; if so, ordinary nonciliate amoebozoan amoebae arose
several times independently. Evolution of amoebae from zooflagellates by
ciliary loss also occurred separately in Choanozoa to produce Nuclearia and in
several bikont groups, notably Percolozoa (heterolobosean amoebae, e.g.,
Vahlkampfia) and Cercozoa. However, we cannot currently exclude the possibility
that the eukaryote tree is rooted within the lobosan Amoebozoa, in which case
one of its nonciliate lineages (Euamoebida or Vanellidae) might be primitively
nonciliate and the earliest-diverging eukaryotic lineage. However, as the idea
that the nucleus and a single centriole and cilium coevolved in the ancestral
eukaryote (Cavalier-Smith 1987a) retains its theoretical merits, we think it
more likely that all Amoebozoa are derived from a uniciliate ancestor and that
crown Amoebozoa are a clade.".

Amoebozoa vary greatly in size. Many are only 10-20 μm in size, but they also
include many of the larger protozoa. The famous species Amoeba proteus may
reach 800 μm in length, and partly on account of its size is often studied as
a representative cell. Multinucleate amoebae like Chaos and Pelomyxa may be
several millimetres in length, and some slime moulds cover several square feet.

The cell is typically divided into a granular central mass, called endoplasm,
and a clear outer layer, called ectoplasm. During locomotion the endoplasm
flows forwards and the ectoplasm runs backwards along the outside of the cell.
Many amoebae move with a definite anterior and posterior; in essence the cell
functions as a single pseudopod. They usually produce numerous clear
projections called subpseudopodia (or determinate pseudopodia), which have a
defined length and are not directly involved in locomotion.

Other amoebozoans may form multiple indeterminate pseudopodia, which are more
or less tubular and are mostly filled with granular endoplasm. The cell mass
flows into a leading pseudopod, and the others ultimately retract unless it
changes direction. Subpseudopodia are usually absent. In addition to a few
naked forms like Amoeba and Chaos, this includes most amoebae that produce
shells. These may be composed of organic materials, as in Arcella, or of
collected particles cemented together, as in Difflugia, with a single opening
through which the pseudopodia emerge.

The primary mode of nutrition is by phagocytosis: the cell surrounds potential
food particles, sealing them into vacuoles where the may be digested and
absorbed. Some amoebae have a posterior bulb called a uroid, which may serve to
accumulate waste, periodically detaching from the rest of the cell. When food
is scarce, most species can form cysts, which may be carried aerially and
introduce them to new environments. In slime moulds, these structures are
called spores, and form on stalked structures called fruiting bodies or

Most Amoebozoa lack flagella and more generally do not form
microtubule-supported structures except during mitosis. However, flagella occur
among the pelobionts, and many slime moulds produce biflagellate gametes. The
flagella is generally anchored by a cone of microtubules, suggesting a close
relationship to the opisthokonts. The mitochondria characteristically have
branching tubular cristae, but have been lost among pelobionts and the
parasitic entamoebids, collectively referred to as archamoebae based on the
earlier assumption that the absence was primitive.

Traditionally all amoebae with lobose pseudopods were treated together as the
Lobosea, placed with other amoeboids in the phylum Sarcodina or Rhizopoda, but
these were considered to be unnatural groups. Structural and genetic studies
identified several independent groups: the percolozoans, pelobionts, and
entamoebids. In phylogenies based on rRNA their representatives were separate
from other amoebae, and appeared to diverge near the base of eukaryotic
evolution, as did most slime molds.

However, revised trees by Cavalier-Smith and Chao in 1996 suggested that the
remaining lobosans do form a monophyletic group, and that the archamoebae and
Mycetozoa are closely related to it, although the percolozoans are not.
Subsequently they emended (to improve by editing) the older phylum Amoebozoa to
refer to this supergroup. Studies based on other genes have provided strong
support for the unity of this group. Patterson treated most with the testate
filose amoebae as the ramicristates, based on mitochondrial similarities, but
the latter are now removed to the Cercozoa.

Amoebae are difficult to classify, and relationships within the phylum remain
confused. Originally it was divided into the subphyla Conosa, comprising the
archamoebae and Mycetozoa, and Lobosa, including the more typical lobose
amoebae. Molecular phylogenies provide some support for this division if the
Lobosa are understood to be paraphyletic. They also suggest the morphological
families of naked lobosans may correspond at least partly to natural groups:

* Leptomyxida
* Amoebidae
* Hartmannellidae
* Paramoebidae
* Vannellidae
* Vexilliferidae
* Acanthamoebidae
* Stereomyxidae

However, many amoebae have not yet been studied via molecular techniques,
including all those that produce shells (Arcellinida).

PHYLUM Amoebozoa (Lühe, 1913 emend.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
CLASS Variosea
CLASS Phalansterea (T. Cavalier-Smith,
SUBPHYLUM Lobosa (Carpenter, 1861) Cavalier-Smith, 1997 (lobose
CLASS Amoebaea
CLASS Testacealobosea (includes shelled lobosid
amebas {testate amoebas})
CLASS Holomastigea T. Cavalier-Smith, 1997
SUBPHYLUM Conosa (Cavalier-Smith, 1998)
Mycetozoa (De Bary, 1859) Cavalier-Smith, 1998 (Slime Molds)
(Cavalier-Smith, 1993) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
CLASS Protostelea (C.J.
Alexopoulos & C.W. Mims, 1979 orthog. emend.)
CLASS Myxogastrea (E.M.
Fries, 1829 stat. nov. J. Feltgen, 1889 orthog. emend.) (plasmodial slime
SUPERCLASS Dictyostelia (Lister, 1909) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
Dictyostelea™ (D.L. Hawksworth et al., 1983, orthog. emend.)
Archamoebae (Cavalier-Smith, 1983) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
CLASS Pelobiontea
(F.C. Page, 1976 stat. nov. T. Cavalier-Smith, 1981)
CLASS Entamoebea
(T. Cavalier-Smith, 1991)


The Conosea unifies amoebae which usually possess flagellate stages
or are amoeboflagellates. This clade consists of two relatively solid groups
� the Mycetozoa and Archamoebae, grouped by Cavalier-Smith (1998) in the
taxon Conosa, as well as a number of independent lineages, including two
flagellates � Phalansterium (Cavalier-Smith et al. 2004) and Multicilia
(Nikolaev et al. 2004), and two gymnamoebae � Gephyramoeba and Filamoeba
(Amaral Zettler et al. 2000). Because of large variations of the substitution
rates in SSU rRNA genes within this clade, its internal relationships are not
resolved yet.

The Mycetozoa comprises two distinct groups of "slime molds", the Myxogastria
and Protostelia (Dykstra and Keller 2000). This is a well-defined group of
protists, characterized by the ability to form so-called "fruiting bodies". In
some lineages of Mycetozoa the fruiting body is raised over the substratum on a
distinct stalk. Both groups possess complex life cycles including an
aggregation of cells, however the essential difference between them is that in
Protostelia, only a pseudoplasmodium is formed (without fusion of the cells
constituting the aggregate), while in Myxogastria a true plasmodium is formed
(the cells completely fuse, forming a single organism) (Olive 1975; Dykstra and
Keller 2000). The monophyly of Mycetozoa was proposed based on elongation
factor 1-alpha gene sequences (Baldauf and Doolittle 1997) but it is not always
recovered in SSU rRNA trees (Cavalier-Smith et al. 2004; Nikolaev et al.

The Archamoebae comprise amoeboid and amoeboflagellate protists characterized
by a secondary absence of mitochondria (mostly due to parasitism or life in
anoxic environments). This group includes the free-living genera Mastigamoeba,
Mastigella, and Pelomyxa (the pelobionts) and the parasitic genera Entamoeba
and Endolimax (the entamoebids). The consistent grouping of all these
amitochondriate amoeboid organisms in both SSU rRNA and actin gene phylogenies
(Fahrni et al. 2003) suggests a single loss of the mitochondria during the
evolution of Amoebozoa.

CLASS Amoebaea
ORDER Euamoebida Lepsi, 1960
FAMILY Amoebidae (Ehrenberg 1838)
Amoebidae are a family of amoebozoa, including naked amoebae that produce
multiple pseudopodia of indeterminate length. These are roughly cylindrical in
form, with a central stream of granular endoplasm, and do not have
subpseudopodia. During locomotion one pseudopod typically becomes dominant, and
the others are retracted as the body flows into it. In some cases the cell
moves by "walking", with the relatively permanent pseudopodia serving as limbs.

The most important genera are Amoeba and Chaos, which are set apart from the
others by longitudinal ridges. They group together on molecular trees,
suggesting the Amoebidae are a natural group. Shelled amoebozoans have not been
studied molecularly but produce very similar pseudopodia, so although they are
traditionally classified separately they may be closely related to this group.

GENUS Amoeba (Bery de St. Vincent 1822)
Amoeba (also spelled ameba) is a genus
of protozoa that moves by means of temporary projections called pseudopods, and
is well-known as a representative unicellular organism. The word amoeba is
variously used to refer to it and its close relatives, now grouped as the
Amoebozoa, or to all protozoa that move using pseudopods, otherwise termed

Amoeba itself is found in freshwater, typically on decaying vegetation from
streams, but is not especially common in nature. However, because of the ease
with which they may be obtained and kept in the lab, they are common objects of
study, both as representative protozoa and to demonstrate cell structure and
function. The cells have several lobose pseudopods, with one large tubular
pseudopod at the anterior and several secondary ones branching to the sides.
The most famous species, Amoeba proteus, is 700-800 μm in length, but many
others are much smaller. Each has a single nucleus, and a simple contractile
vacuole which maintains its osmotic pressure, as its most recognizable

Early naturalists referred to Amoeba as the Proteus animalcule, after a Greek
god who could change his shape. The name "amibe" was given to it by Bery St.
Vincent, from the Greek amoibe, meaning change.

A good method of collecting amoeba is to lower a jar upside down until it is
just above the sediment surface. Then one should slowly let the air escape so
the top layer will be sucked into the jar. Deeper sediment should not be
allowed to get sucked in. It is possible to slowly move the jar when tilting it
to collect from a larger area. If no amoeba are found, one can try introducing
some rice grains into the jar and waiting for them to start to rot. The
bacteria eating the rice will be eaten by the amoeba, thus increasing the
population and making them easier to find.

Family Hartmannellidae (Volkonsky 1931)
The Hartmannellidae are a common family of
amoebozoa, usually found in soils. When active they tend to be roughly
cylindrical in shape, with a single leading pseudopod and no subpseudopodia.
This form somewhat resembles a slug, and as such they are also called limax
amoebae. Trees based on rRNA show the Hartmannellidae are paraphyletic to the
Amoebidae and Leptomyxida, which may adopt similar forms.

FAMILY Vannellidae (Bovee 1970)
The Vannellidae are a distinctive family of
amoebozoa. During locomotion they tend to be flattened and fan-shaped, although
some are long and narrow, and have a prominent clear margin at the anterior. In
most amoebae, the endoplasm glides forwards through the center of the cell, but
in vannellids the cell undergoes a sort of rolling motion, with the outer
membrane sliding around like a tank tread.

These amoebae are usually 10-40 μm in size, but some are smaller or larger.
The most common genus is Vannella, found mainly in soils, but also in
freshwater and marine habitats. Trees based on rRNA support the monophyly of
the family.

SUBPHYLUM Conosa Cavalier-Smith, 1998
INTRAPHYLUM Archamoebae (Cavalier-Smith,
1983) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
CLASS Pelobiontea F.C. Page, 1976 stat. nov. T.
Cavalier-Smith, 1981
ORDER Pelobiontida (Page 1976)
The pelobionts are a small group
of amoebozoa. The most notable member is Pelomyxa, a giant amoeba with multiple
nuclei and inconspicuous non-motile flagella. The other genera, called
mastigamoebae, are often uninucleate, have a single anterior flagellum used in
swimming, and produce numerous determinate pseudopodia.

Pelobionts are closely related to the entamoebids and like them have no
mitochondria; in addition, pelobionts also do not have dictyosomes. At one
point these absences were considered primitive. However, molecular trees place
the two groups with other lobose amoebae in the phylum Amoebozoa, so these are
secondary losses.

SUBPHYLUM Conosa Cavalier-Smith, 1998
INTRAPHYLUM Archamoebae (Cavalier-Smith,
1983) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
CLASS Entamoebea T. Cavalier-Smith, 1991
The entamoebids
or entamoebae are a group of amoebozoa found as internal parasites or
commensals of animals. The cells are uninucleate small, typically 10-100 μm
across, and usually have a single lobose pseudopod taking the form of a clear
anterior bulge. There are two major genera, Entamoeba and Endolimax. They
include several species that are pathogenic in humans, most notably Entamoeba
histolytica, which causes amoebic dysentery.

Entamoebids lack mitochondria. This is a secondary loss, possibly associated
with their parasitic life-cycle. Studies show they are close relatives of the
pelobionts, another group of amitochondriate amoebae, but unlike them
entamoebids retain dictyosomes. Both groups are now placed alongside other
lobose amoebae in the phylum Amoebozoa.

Studying Entamoeba invadens, David Biron of the Weizmann Institute of Science
and coworkers found that about one third of the cells are unable to separate
unaided and recruit a neighboring amoeba (dubbed the "midwife") to complete the
fission. He writes:

"When an amoeba divides, the two daughter cells stay attached by a tubular
tether which remains intact unless mechanically severed. If called upon, the
neighbouring amoeba midwife travels up to 200 μm towards the dividing amoeba,
usually advancing in a straight trajectory with an average velocity of about
0.5 μm/s. The midwife then proceeds to rupture the connection, after which all
three amoebae move on."

They also reported a similar behavior in Dictyostelium.

Entamoeba coli is a non-pathogenic species of entamoebid that is important
clinically in humans only because it can be confused with Entamoeba
histolytica, which is pathogenic, on microscopic examination of stained stool
specimens. A simple finding of Entamoeba coli trophozoites or cysts in a stool
specimen requires no treatment.

Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, classified as an
entamoebid. It infects predominantly humans and other primates. Diverse mammals
such as dogs and cats can become infected but usually do not shed cysts (the
environmental survival form of the organism) with their feces, thus do not
contribute significantly to transmission. The active (trophozoite) stage exists
only in the host and in fresh feces; cysts survive outside the host in water
and soils and on foods, especially under moist conditions on the latter. When
swallowed they cause infections by excysting (to the trophozoite stage) in the
digestive tract.

Endolimax nana, a small entamoebid that is a commensal of the human intestine,
causes no known disease. It is most significant in medicine because it can
provide false positives for other tests, such as for the related species
Entamoeba histolytica which causes amoebic dysentery, and because its presence
indicates that the host once consumed feces. It forms cysts with four nuclei
which excyst in the body and become trophozoites. Endolimax nana nuclei have a
large endosome somewhat off-center and small amounts of visible chromatin or
none at all.

Actinopod reproduction may involve binary fission or the formation of swarmer
cells, and sexual processes occur in some groups. Their mitochondrial cristae
are usually tubular, but in some groups there are vesicular or flattened,
plate-like cristae.

(Are amoeba haplodiploid?)
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173) Earliest probable fungi microfossils, "Tappania plana". If true this would
be the oldest eukaryote fossil.

Neoproterozoic fossils of Tappania from the Neoproterozoic (800-900 MY) have
fused branches, a process found in higher fungi.
(Roper Group) Northern Australia  
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220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).
Mitochondria with flattened christae.
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67) First "plastids". Cyanobacteria form plastids (chloroplasts) through
symbiosis, within a eukaryote cell (endosymbiosis). Like mitochondria, these
organelles copy themselves and are not made by the cell DNA.

Chloroplasts use their green pigment to trap light particles to synthesize
carbon compounds from carbon dioxide and water supplied by the host plant.

This is a primary plastid endosymbiosis, and genetic analysis supports the
theory that all green plants, which are eukaryotes with double membrane
plastids, are descended from a single common ancestor. All primary plastids are
surrounded by two membranes, because the cyanobacteria was enclosed in a
vacuole. The inner wall being that of the bacterium, the outer wall that of the
alga. Most plastids contain a single, circular chromosome of about 200
kilobases and encode about 100-120 genes, while a free-living cyanobacteria
typically has a genome of about 2500 Kilobases. The genes that remain in the
plastid are primarily involved in photosynthesis, transcription and translation
of plastid genes, and ATP synthesis. But, most of the genes needed to maintain
the plastid are encoded in the cell nucleus.

A secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured instead of a
cyanobacteria, which results in a plastid with more than two membranes, has
happened at least three times. Euglenozoa and chlorarachniophytes acquired
plastids from green alga, and the Chromalveolates (the most abundant group with
secondary plastids) acquired them from a red alga.

A third (tertiary) plastid endosymbiosis occurs when an alga containing a
plastid of secondary endosymbiotic origin (for example a chromist) is engulfed
and reduced to a photosynthetic organelle. Dinoflagellates are the only group
currently known to have tertiary plastids. Tertiary plastids in dinoflagellates
have been acquired from haptophyte and prasinophyte algae and from diatoms.
Currently there are five plastids known in dinoflagellates, each with its own
evolutionary history.

There are different kinds of plastids including aleuroplasts, amyloplasts,
chloroplasts, chromoplasts, elaioplasts, and etioplasts.
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219) unicellular to multicellular (up to 1 m) mostly free-living but some
parasitic or symbiotic, with chloroplasts containing phycobilins. Cell walls
made of cellulose with mucopolysaccharides penetrated in many red algae by
pores partially blocked by proteins (complex referred to as pit connections).
Usually with separated phases of vegetative growth and sexual reproduction.
Common and widespread, ecologically important, economically important (source
of agar). No flagella. Ultrastructural identity: Mitochondria with flat
cristae, sometimes associated with forming faces of dictyosomes. Thylakoids
single, with phycobilisomes, plastids with peripheral thylakoid. During
mitosis, nuclear envelope mostly remains intact but some microtubules of
spindle extend from noncentriolar polar bodies through polar gaps in the
nuclear envelope. Synapomorphy: No clear-cut feature available; possibly pit
connections Composition: About 4,000 species.
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187) A captured red alga (rhodophyte), through endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid
in the ancestor of all chromalveolates.

A secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured instead of a
cyanobacteria, has happened at least three times. A secondary plastid symbiosis
results in a plastid with more than two membranes. Two groups have acquired
plastids from green algae independently: the euglenozoa, which are fresh-water
algae, and the chlorarachniophytes. The most abundant groups with secondary
plastids acquired them from the red algae. Five algal lineages have plastids of
red algal origin. These include the crytophytes, the haptophytes, the
Strameopiles, which all together are the Chromista, and the Alveolates
apicomplexans and dinoflagellates. The alveolate ciliates are thought to have
lost their plastid and no traces of the organelle have yet been found. The
parasitic apicomplexans have lost the ability to do photosynthesis, probably
because of their intercellular lifestyle, but do maintain a vestigial organelle
derived from a plastid called the apicoplast, which is surrounded by four
membranes and has a small genome.
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15) Differentiation in multicellular eukaryote. Gamete (or spore) cells and
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells are asexual (non-fusing), and
are not omnipotent. Start of death by aging.

Cell differentiation is how cells in a multicellular organism become
specialized to perform specific functions in a variety of tissues and organs.

All cells of an organism, except the sperm and egg cells, the cells from which
they arise (gametocytes) and undifferentiated stem cells, are somatic cells.

Although the DNA in each cell of a multicellular organism is the same, each
differentiated cell type produces a different set of specific proteins, for
example liver cells make albumin while lens cells make crystallin.

Another early cell differentiation are that only the cell at the tip of the
filament can divide while the older cells below the tip do not divide.
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(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada  
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(Stirling Range Formation) Southwestern Australia  
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305) Chromista "Cryptophyta" {KriPTuFITu} (Cryptomonads {KRiPToMunaDZ}).
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86) (I think it's tough to say that the more ancient Heterokonts, brown algae
(Phaeophyta), and golden algae (Chrysophyta) are not also plants, and the
oldest living plants. Perhaps glaucophyta are the first green plants, or
perhaps that should be reserved for multicellular species.)
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188) Plant Green Algae evolves now according to genetic comparison. Green Algae
is composed of the two Phlya Chlorophyta (volvox, sea lettuce) and Charophyta

The first land plants most likely evolved from green algae.

Cysts resembling modern Micromonadophyceae cysts date from about 1.2 billion
years ago. Tasmanites formed the Permian "white coal", or tasmanite, deposits
of Tasmania and similar deposits in Alaska. Certain Ulvophyceae fossils that
date from about one billion years ago are abundant in Paleozoic rocks.

Knoll et al cite the earliest recognized green algae fossil as Proterocladus
which dates to 750 million years ago.
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87) Excavate Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS}, ancestor of protists which have
mitochondria with discoidal shaped cristae (includes euglenids, leishmanias
{lEsmaNEuZ}, trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ}, kinetoplastids {KiNeTuPlaSTiDZ}, and
acrasid {oKrASiD} slime molds).

The discicristates include photosynthetic flagellates, such as the green
Euglena, and parasitic ones, such as Trypanosoma, which causes sleeping
sickness. There are also the acrasid slime molds, which are not closely related
to the amoebozoan dictyostelid and plasmodial slime molds.

Some euglenids exhibit colonialism and have a cell covering ("pellicle").

In eukaryote mitochondria there are three kinds of christae (the inner membrane
protrustions of mitochondria): discoidal, tubular, and flattened. Discoidal are
found in kinetoplasts and euglynoids, tubular christae are found in diatoms,
crysophyte algae, and apicomplexans, and Flattened cristae are found in
opisthokonts (animals and fungi) and both green and red algae.
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97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.

Eyes evolve at least eight times independently in eukaryotes.

The earliest eye probably evolves from a plastid. The first proto eye is a
light sensitive area in a unicellular eukaryote.

Eukaryotes are the first organisms to evolve the ability to follow light
direction in three dimensions in open water.

Halophilic archaebacteria, such as Halobacterium salinarum, use sensory
rhodopsins (SRs) for phototaxis (positive or negative movement along a light
gradient or vector), and some cyanobacteria (e.g. Anabaena, Synechocystis) can
slowly orient along a light vector.

Eukaryotes are the first organisms to evolve the ability to follow light
direction in three dimensions in open water. The eukaryotic sensory
integration, sensory processing and the speed and mechanics of tactic responses
is fundamentally different from that found in prokaryotes. Both single-celled
and multi-cellular eukaryotic phototactic organisms have a fixed shape, are
polarized, swim in a spiral and use cilia for swimming and phototactic
steering. Three-dimensional phototaxis can be found in five out of the six
eukaryotic major groups (opisthokonts, Amoebozoa, plants, chromalveolates,
excavates, rhizaria).
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297) Diplontic life cycle; organism is predominantly diploid, mitosis in the
haploid phase does not occur.
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313) The ciliophora, apicomplexa and dinoflagelatta are under the title
alveolata because they have an alveolar membrane system, which contains
flattened membrane-bound sacs (alveoli) lying beneath the outer cell membrane.

In dinoflagellates, the chromosomes are always visible and do not condense
prior to mitosis. The chromosomes are attached to the nuclear envelope, which
persists during mitosis.

The main method of reproduction of the dinoflagellates is by longitudinal cell
division, with each daughter cell receiving one of the flagella and a portion
of the theca and then constructing the missing parts in a very intricate
sequence. Some nonmotile species form zoospores, which may be colonial. A
number of species reproduce sexually, mostly by isogamy, but a few species
reproduce by anisogamy.

Dinoflagellate zygotes are similar to some acritarchs (early eukaryote

The earliest undisputed, structural fossils of dinoflagellates are cysts dating
from the Triassic (251-201 Ma), with a few likely Permian records. Some
Silurian (c410 Ma) fossils have been attributed to the group but the relation
is uncertain. Acritarchs are microfossils with no known affinity. Some people
have tried to link acritarchs with dinoflagellates. Some later acritarchs from
the Jurassic and Cretaceous, have been shown to be dinoflagellate cysts and so
are no longer treated like acritarchs. A correlation has been noted between the
presence of triaromatic dinosteroids and acritarch abundance, implying that
these acritarchs may be the cysts of ancestral dinoflagellates.

If acritachs are dinoflagellates, then dinoflagellates may date back to at
least 1.8 billion years and perhaps even 3.5 billion years to the earliest
known acritarchs.
Dinosterane, derived from dinosterol produced by
dinoflagellates, occurs in the 1.1 Ga Nonesuch Formation, in the United States.
1,005,000,000 YBN
306) Earliest certain Stramenopiles fossil a xanthophyte (or yellow-green
algae): "Palaeovaucheria".
(Lakhanda Group) Siberia  
1,000,000,000 YBN
1,000,000,000 YBN
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324) Protists (Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u} (also called DRIPS).

Mesomycetozoea are in the protist Phylum Choanozoa (which includes
Choanoflagellates). This phylum contains the first protozoans
(Choanoflagellates), thought to be the ancestor of sponges.

DRIP is an acronym for a small group of parasites mostly of fish and other
freshwater animals.
985,000,000 YBN
309) Protist Phylum Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu} evolves according to genetic
comparison, (includes the Class Oomycetes) (Water molds).

Oomycetes (Water molds), with about 580 species, vary from unicellular, to
multicellular highly brached filamentous forms.

Oomycetes have mitochondria with tubular christae.

Oomycetes grow by closed (or nearly closed) mitosis with pairs of centrioles
near the poles.
965,000,000 YBN
900,000,000 YBN
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855,000,000 YBN
286) In sponges all cells are "totipotent", which means that every cell is
capable of becoming any of the sponge's different cell types. Any isolated cell
is capable of growing an entire new sponge. In sponges there is no distinction
between germ line and soma.

Some people think that multicellular organisms arose at least six times: in
animals, fungi and several groups of algae.
850,000,000 YBN
81) The first animal and first metazoan evolves (Porifera: sponges). Metazoans
are multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform different
functions). There are only three major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians,
and bilaterians (which include all insects and vertebrates).

Sponges have a variety of different cell types: cells that line surfaces
(pinacocytes, porocytes, choanocytes), cells that secrete the skeleton
(collencytes, sclerocytes), contractile cells (myocytes), archaeocytes
(amoeboid cells that play a major role in digestion and food transport), and
several other cell types.

Sponges have many holes which is why they are good at holding water in the

All sponge cells are totipotent and are capable of regrowing a new sponge.
Mixtures of sponge cells of two species reconstitute into the separate sponge
species. The process involves cell-cell recognition, which is a basic attribute
for building and retaining a multicellular body. The molecular mechanisms that
guide this process involve many proteoglycans (compounds made of 95%
polysaccharide and 5% protein) on the cell surface.

Sponges have no nerve cells or muscles. Like plants their movement is at the
cellular level. Sponges live by passing a constant current of water through
their body from which they filter food particles.

The sponges have no obvious symmetry while Cnidarians have radial symmetry, and
Ctenophores have biradial symmetry. Porifera have a simple level of cellular
integration and are loosely constructed, but all other later animals including
cnidarians and ctenophores have cells which are grouped together as tissues
that are arranged in layers.

All sponges are capable of sexual and asexual reproduction. There is a large
diversity of sexual reproductive sequences in sponges. Sperm are formed from
choanocytes, and eggs from choanocytes or archaeocytes. Generally, sperm are
contained in spermatic cysts, which are choanocyte chambers transformed by
spermatogenesis. Eggs are distributed throughout the mesohyl. Some sponges are
oviparous (zygote develops outside the body). Following gamete release,
fertilization and development occur externally. Other sponges are viviparous,
with fertilization and development both occurring in the mesohyl.

Some sponges can live for over 1000 years.
850,000,000 YBN
850,000,000 YBN
804,000,000 YBN
319) Protist Phylum "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo} evolves now according to genetic
comparison. Radiolaria are ocean protozoa, many with silica shells.

Radiolarians are protists found in the upper layers of all oceans.
Radiolarians, are mostly spherically symmetrical, and known for their complex
and beautifully tiny skeletons, called "tests". Tests are usually made of
silica. Pseudopodia extend through the perforated skeleton. A chitinous central
capsule encloses the nuclei and divides the cytoplasm into two zones. The outer
cytoplasm contains many vacuoles that control the organism’s buoyancy.

Asexual reproduction is by budding, binary fission, or multiple fission.
Generally, the skeleton divides, and each daughter cell regenerates the missing
half. In some cases, however, one daughter cell escapes and develops an
entirely new shell, the other daughter remaining within the parent skeleton.
804,000,000 YBN
321) Protist Phylum "Foraminifera" evolves now according to genetic

Foraminifera (or "forams" for short), are unicellular protists characterized by
long, fine pseudopodia that extend from a uninucleated or multinucleated
cytoplasmic body encased within a test, or shell. Shell sizes may be as large
as 5 cm in diameter and vary in shape and chemical composition.

Foraminifera are the most diverse and most widely studied of microfossils.
Forams are related to the amoeba but unlike an amoeba they have a shell. Forams
secret skeletons of calcium carbonate (the mineral calcite), which is different
than radiolarians which secrete skeletons of silica. Most are marine and live
on or in the sea bottom (are benthic) but one family, Globigerinidae, are tiny
and buoyant and make up a major part of the marine plankton.

Foraminifera, especially the calcareous forms, have a fossil record stretching
back to the Early Cambrian, and are especially important biostratigraphically.

Much of the Earth's chalk, limestone, and marble is composed largely of
foraminiferan tests.
780,000,000 YBN
79) Metazoan Phylum "Placozoa" evolves.

Placozoans look like amoebas but are multicellular. The only known species in
this phylum is Trichoplax adhaerens. Trichoplax lives in the sea and feeds on
single celled organisms, mostly algae. Trichoplax has only 4 cell types
compared to the more than 200 cell types in humans. Trichoplax has two main
cell layers, like a cnidarian or ctenophore. Between these two layers are a few
contractile cells that are similar to muscle cells, however placozoans lack
muscle and nerve cells and have no symmetry or organs. Trichoplax has only 1
hox gene (Trox-2).

Possible eggs have been observed, but they degrade at the 32-64 cell stage.
Neither embryonic development nor sperm have been observed, however Trichoplax
genomes show evidence of sexual reproduction.
767,000,000 YBN
312) Protist Phylum "Ciliophora" ("Ciliates") evolves according to genetic
comparison (includes parameceum). Earliest mitochondria with tubular christae.

There are about 12,000 described species of ciliates. Ciliates are very common
in benthic and planktonic communities in both marine and fresh water. Both
sessile and free moving types are known and many are ecto- or endosymbionts,
including some parasitic species. Most are single celled, but branching and
linear colonies are known in several species. Ciliates have a fixed shape which
is maintained by the alveolar membrane system and underlying fibrous layer.
Ciliates use their cilia for locomotion. Mitochondria in ciliates have tubular
cristae. Ciliates have two distinct types of nuclei, a hyperpolyploid
macronucleus and a diploid micronucleus. Ciliates reproduce by asexual
reproduction using transverse binary fission, and by sexual reproduction using
conjugation: a pair of ciliates fuse and exchange micronuclei through a
cytoplasmic connection at a point of joining. Ciliates include many different
feeding types. Some are filter feeders, others capture and inject other
protists or small invertebrates, many eat algal filaments or diatoms, some eat
attached bacteria, and a few are saprophytic parasites (live on dead or
decaying organic matter). In almost all ciliates feeding is restricted to a
specialized area containing the "cytostome or "cell mouth". Food vacuoles are
formed at the cytosome and then circulated through the cytoplasm as digestion
occurs. A few ciliates (for example Laboea, and Stronbidium) contain
photosynthetically functional chloroplasts derived from injested algae. The
chloroplasts lie free in the cytoplasm, beneath the pellicle, where they
actively contribute to the ciliate's carbon budget.

A few ciliates (for example tintinnids), secrete external skeletons, or
loricae, which have been found in the fossil record as early as the Late
Proterozoic in the Doushantuo Formation (580 million years ago). Biomarkers for
ciliates have been found dating back ever farther to 850 million years ago.
767,000,000 YBN
750,000,000 YBN
41) Cells that group as tissues that are arranged in layers evolve in
750,000,000 YBN
83) First nerve cell (neuron), and nervous system evolves in the ancestor of
the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. This leads to the first ganglion and brain.
Earliest touch and sound detection.

The most primitive extant organisms that contain a neuron cell are the

Simple and sessile cnidarians have no sense organs, but they do have sensory
cells in both tissues that respond to light, chemical or mechanical stimuli.
These sensory cells are often structurally similar to those of vertebrates.
Each has a cilium that protrudes into the water. The sensory cells synapse (are
closely spaced to) with nerve cells, allowing the animal to generally respond
to stimuli at a distance instead of responding at the site of the stimulus.

Some Cnidarians have ganglia, aggregations of nerve cells.
750,000,000 YBN
750,000,000 YBN
204) Earliest known fossil protozoan (single celled nonphotosynthesizing
eukaryotes) and earliest fossil of a testate amoeba.

This fossil indicates that the last common ancestor of animals and fungi
appeared at least 750 million years ago.

This fossil was found in the Grand Canyon in Arizona.
( black shales of Chuar Group) Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  
750,000,000 YBN
750,000,000 YBN
750,000,000 YBN
458) Fungi Phylum "Glomeromycota" (Arbuscular {oRBuSKYUlR} mycorrhizal
{MIKerIZL} fungi).

Glomeromycota {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu} are also know by their class name
Glomeromycetes {GlO-mi-rO-mI-SETS}
713,000,000 YBN
6320) Earliest chemical biomarker evidence of animals (metazoans), steranes
associated with demosponges.

Demosponges comprise 85% of all extant sponge species.
(Huqf Supergroup) South Oman Salt Basin, Oman  
700,000,000 YBN
82) Radiata Phylum Cnidarians {NIDAREeNS} evolve (sea anemones, corals,
jellyfish). Earliest animal eye.

Cnidaria {NIDAREeo} are a phylum of invertebrate animals composed of the sea
anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydroids. Cnidarians are radially symmetrical.
The mouth, located at the center of one end of the body, opens into a
gastrovascular cavity, which is used for digestion and distribution of food,
there is no anus. Cnidarians have a body wall composed of three layers: an
outer epidermis, an inner gastrodermis, and a middle mesogloea. Tentacles
encircle the mouth and are used in part for food capture. Specialized stinging
structures, called nematocysts, are a characteristic of the phylum and are
located in the tentacles and often in other body parts. These contain a coiled
fiber that can be extruded suddenly. Some nematocysts contain toxic substances
and are defense mechanisms, while others are adhesive, helping to anchor the
animal or to entangle prey.

Cnidarians have two alternate body plans, the polyp and the medusa. A sea
anemone or Hydra is a typical polyp: non-moving, mouth on top, bottom end fixed
to the ground like a plant. A jellyfish is a typical medusa, swimming through
the open sea. Many cnidarians have both polyp and medusa forms, alternating
them through life cycle, like caterpillar and butterfly. Polyps often reproduce
by budding, like plants. A new baby polyp grows on the side of a freshwater
Hydra, eventually breaking off as a separate individual clone of the parent. In
many marine relatives of Hydra, the clone doesn't break off but stays attached,
and becomes a branch like a plant. Sometimes more than one kind of polyp grows
on the same polyp tree, specialized for different roles, such as feeding,
defense, or reproduction.

Cnidarians have a nervous system which is a network, not centralized into a
brain, ganglia or major nerve trunks. They also have muscles which are
contracted to propel them. Their digestive organ is a single cavity with only
one opening which is both mouth and anus. They have no circulatory system. All
cnidarians have cells called cnidocytes, each with its own cell-sized harpoon
called a cnida. All cnidarians have cnidae, and only cnidarians have them. Once
triggered the harpoon cell cannot be used again, but are constantly replaced.

Simple and sessile cnidarians have no sense organs, but they do have sensory
cells in both tissues that respond to light, chemical or mechanical stimuli.
These sensory cells are often structurally similar to those of vertebrates.
Each has a cilium that protrudes into the water. The sensory cells and nerve
cells are separated by a small space (synapse), allowing the animal to
generally respond to stimuli at a distance instead of responding at the site of
the stimulus. Medusae and complex motile colonies of Cnidaria have more complex
sense organs: the statocyts detect the degree of tilt of the body, and the
ocelli {OSeLlE or OSeLlI} are light receptors. Cnidarian ocelli range from
patches of photoreceptors alternating with pigment cells, to complex structures
in which the light receptors have a cup shaped shield of pigmented cells behind
them and are covered by a lens formed from cytoplasmic extensions from
neighboring cells {see image}.

Cnidarians see in black or white, because their eyes have only one pigment, for
color vision the eye must have more than one pigment.

Porifera (sponges have no obvious symmetry), while Cnidarians are radially
symmetrical and Ctenophores are biradially symmetrical.

There are differences between Cnidaria and Ctenophora. In Cnidaria, cells have
a single flagellum or cilium, while the cells of Ctenophora have large numbers
of cilia. Stinging cells called cnidocytes, are unique to cnidarians, and
adhesive cells called "coloblasts" are unique to Ctenophora. Ctenophora swim by
using arrays of fused cilia arranged in eight rows, while the Cnidaria move by
means of muscle contraction of an epithelial cell. Cnidarians lack true muscle
cells. The muscle fibers in Cnidaria are always extensions of an epithelial
cell. Ctenophora have true muscles. Unlike Cnidaria, Ctenophora have gonoducts
and gonopores by which gametes exit the body.

Cnidaria do not have complex reproductive organs; gonads develop in the body
wall or mesenteries by differentiation of interstitial cells. In many species
the gonads are absorbed again after spawning has occurred. Gonads may be formed
in the tissue and gametes released directly into the water or gonads may be
endodermal and the gametes released into the water through breaks in the body
wall or through the mouth. Genders are usually separate, but some species are
hermaphroditic (produce both ova and sperm). Sperm are released into the water
and fertilization is usually external. In species that brood their eggs,
fertilization occurs at the brooding site, which may be in the gastrovascular
cavity or on the outside of the body. Sperm are often attracted to the eggs by
highly specific chemicals.

Digestion in Cnidarians starts in the gastrovascular cavity, but once the food
is reduced to particles small enough to enter the digestive cells of the
gastrodermis, digestion is completed inside the cell (intracellularly).

Cnidarians make the great barrier reef which is more than 2,000 kilometers
long. The cnidarian, the box jellyfish, is one of the most dangerously venomous
animals on earth.
700,000,000 YBN
226) The second largest Fungi phylum, "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu}
evolves now according to genetic comparison (most mushrooms, rusts, club

The Division Basidiomycota is a large taxon within the Kingdom Fungi that
includes those species that produce spores in a club-shaped structure called a
basidium. Essentially the sibling group of the Ascomycota, it contains some
30,000 species (37% of the described fungi)
700,000,000 YBN
227) The largest Fungi phylum "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu} evolves now
according to genetic comparison: (yeasts, truffles, Penicillium, morels, sac

There are 47,000 described Ascomycota species.
700,000,000 YBN
680,000,000 YBN
222) Fungi Ascomycota Class "Archaeascomycetes" (fission yeast, pneumonia
fungus) evolve.
675,000,000 YBN
650,000,000 YBN
69) Start of 60 million year (Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).
630,000,000 YBN
107) Bilateral species evolve (two sided symmetry).
Earliest animal brain (ganglion,
memory). First triploblastic species (third embryonic layer: the mesoderm).

In bilaterians food enters in one end (the mouth) and waste exists at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an advantage for sense organs: light, sound,
touch, smell, and taste detection to be located on the head near the mouth to
help with catching food.

Unlike the diploblastic Cnidaria and Ctenophora, flatworms and all later
metazoans are triploblastic. A third embryonic layer, the mesoderm, lies
between the ectoderm and endoderm. This layer increases the options for the
development of organs with specific functions, formed by the association of
tissues of various kinds.

The earliest brain (ganglion, memory) develop in a bilaterian worm.

This begins the Animal Subkingdom "Bilateria".
630,000,000 YBN
403) Earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and

The phylum Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and nemertodermatida) is the oldest
surviving bilaterian. This begins the Subkingdom "Bilateria".

Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track, anus and coelom.

Flatworms have no lungs or gills and breathe through their skin. Flatworms also
have no circulating blood and so their branched gut presumably transports
nutrients to all parts of the body.
630,000,000 YBN
630,000,000 YBN
532) Cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian.

All bilaterally symmetrical metazoans except the Phyla Acoelomorpha and
Platyhelminthes, have a tubular gut with an anus, mouth, and through-put of
food. The Phyla Nemertea and Entoprocta are the earliest bilaterians with an
630,000,000 YBN
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.
630,000,000 YBN
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.
625,000,000 YBN
610,000,000 YBN
95) (Perhaps the space in between body and gut walls separates potentially
harm-food food from mixing with and damaging important mechanical, chemical and
other parts of the metazoan.)
600,000,000 YBN
Sonora, Mexico|Adelaide, Australia| Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
600,000,000 YBN
590,000,000 YBN
590,000,000 YBN
93) Bilaterians Protostomes evolve. Protostomes are divided into two major
groups: the Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} and the Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu}. The
Ecdysozoa are animals that molt or lose their outer skin as they grow, and
include Priapulids {PrIaPYUliDZ}, Nematodes, Tardigrades {ToRDiGRADZ},
Onychophorens {oniKoFereNS}, and the arthropods {which is a large group
including all crustaceans and insects}. The Lophotrochozoa, is subdivided into
the Platyzoa {PlaTiZOu}, which includes rotifers, gastrotrics and
Platyhelminthes, and the Trochozoa, which includes bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ},
Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu}, Phoronids {FerOniDZ}, brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ},
Entoprocts {eNtoProKTS}, molluscs and annelids.
580,000,000 YBN
131) First shell (or skeleton) evolves in unicellular protists.

The first known shell belongs to unicellular protists ciliates called the
tintinnids. This shell is called a lorica. These fossils are thought to be in
shallow marine waters, not far from the coastline.

Similar modes of skeleton formation have evolved independently in different
groups to fulfill similar needs.

These are also the earliest known ciliate fossils.

Unfortunately there has been no consistent terminology for coverings. The
terms lorica, shell, test, and case are often used synonymously. Euglenozoa
have an outside covering which is called a "pellicle". A pellicle usually has
openings for injestion, egestion, and water expulsion. Some ciliates
(tintinnids) secrete an external skeleton called a "lorica", which start to
appear in the fossil record around 500 million years ago. Foraminifera secrete
a heavy shell of silica or calcium carbonate. The shape of Dinoflagellates is
maintained by alveoli beneath the cell surface, and by a layer of supporting
microtubules. In some, these alveoli are filled with polysaccharides, typically
cellulose, and these dinoflagellates are said to be "thecate", or "armored",
while dinoflagellates that have empty alveoli are said to be "athecate", or
"naked". Diatoms secrete silicon in the form of an internal test or frustule,
that contains two parts called valves. Beneath the test is the cell membrane
enclosing the nucleus, chloroplasts and cytoplasm. Some protists build a "test"
of sand grains or other particles cemented together. Resistant covering are
sometime formed for brief parts of the life cycle. This is especially true for
parasites, which usually pass from one host to another as cysts or spores,
covered by a resistant membrane that protects them while out of the host.

In addition to its supportive function, the animal skeleton may provide
protection, facilitate movement, and aid in certain sensory functions. Support
of the body is achieved in many protozoans by a simple stiff, translucent,
nonliving envelope called a pellicle. In nonmoving (sessile) coelenterates,
such as coral, whose colonies attain great size, body support is provided by
non-living structures, both internal and external, which form supporting axes.
In the many groups of animals that can move, body support is provided either by
external structures known as exoskeletons or by internal structures known as

The skeleton may be on the body surface, for example the lateral sclerites of
centipedes and the shell of crabs. These structures carry no muscle and form
part of a protective surface armor. Similarly, the scales of fish, the
projecting spines of echinoderms (for example sea urchins), the needle-like
structures (spicules) of sponges, and the tubes of hydroids, raised from the
body surface, all provide protection. The bones of the vertebrate skull protect
the brain. In the more advanced vertebrates and invertebrates, many skeletal
structures provide a rigid base for the insertion of muscles as well as
providing protection.

The skeleton assists movement in a variety of ways, depending on the nature of
the animal. The bones of vertebrates and the exoskeletal and endoskeletal units
of the cuticle of arthropods (insects, spiders, crabs, etc.) support opposing
sets of muscles.
(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
580,000,000 YBN
165) Earliest bilaterian fossil, Vernanimalcula, 178 um in length. First fossil
of organism with bilateral symmetry, mouth, digestive track, gut and anus.
(Doushantuo Formation) China  
580,000,000 YBN
318) Protostome Infrakingdom Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} evolves. Ecdysozoa are
animals that molt (lose their outer skin) as they grow. This is the ancestor of
round worms, and arthropods (which includes insects and crustaceans {also known
as "shell-fish"}).
580,000,000 YBN
331) Protosomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} evolve. Ancestor of all
brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ}, bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ}, and molluscs.
580,000,000 YBN
6293) Earliest cnidarian fossil.

These are fossil cnidarian embryos and larvae from Doushantuo Formation in

Cnidarians which possessed hard skeletons, in particular the corals, have left
a significant fossil record of their existence.
(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
578,000,000 YBN
575,000,000 YBN
139) Earliest sea pen fossils ("Charnia"). A member of the Cnidarnian
Anthozoans (sea pens, corals, anemones).

Sea pens are grouped in the Class "Pennatulacea".

Some people have suggested that a fossil from China shows that the fronds are
ciliated which implies that these fossil organisms are possibly more closely
related to Ctenophores than sea pens.
(Drook Formation) Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland  
570,000,000 YBN
89) Protostome Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} subgroup Trochozoa evolve.
Ancestor of all Bryozoans, Nemerteans, Phoronids, Brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ},
Molluscs and Annelids.
570,000,000 YBN
(Doushantuo formation) China  
570,000,000 YBN
105) Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve. This is the ancestor of all Echinoderms
(iKIniDRMS } (Phylum Echinodermata: sea cucumbers, sea urchins, starfish),
hemichordates (Phylum Hemichordata: acorn worms), and Chordates (Phylum
Chordata: all tunicates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds).
570,000,000 YBN
311) Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu} evolve (Arrow Worms).

Earliest teeth. Animals start to eat other animals.

The evolution of teeth and then of animal predation starts an "arms race" that
rapidly transforms ecosystems around the Earth. So in this sense hard teeth
evolve first and then the shell evolves as an advantage to survival.

Chaetognaths are bilaterally symmetrical enterocoelous animals, with an
elongated cylndrical body; they are usually colourless, transparent or slightly
opaque. The body is divided in three parts by internal partitioning: head,
trunk and tail. The head is slightly rounded and separated from the trunk by a
constricted neck. Each side of the head bears a group of curved grasping hooks
and one or two rows of teeth, called the anterior and posterior teeth; the
hooks and teeth are made of chitin. A pair of uniquely arranged pigmented
eyespots is present.

The earliest Chaetognath fossil is from around 520 mya.

The placement (phylogeny) of the Chaetognatha within the Bilateria is currently
somewhat uncertain. Some place them as protostomes, others as deuterostomes.
Some people group them with the Ecdysozoa, others as Lophotrochozoa, others as
an independent group in between Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa.

Chaetognatha appears close to the base of the protostome tree in most studies
of their molecular phylogeny. This may be evidence that protostomes descend
from a deuterostome ancestor, like a chaetognath.
570,000,000 YBN
327) Protostome Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} subgroup Platyzoa
{PlaT-i-ZO-u} evolves. Ancestor of rotifers, gastrotrichs and Platyhelminthes

Thomas Cavalier-Smith proposed the new infrakingdom in 1998 for "ciliated
non-segmented acoelomates or pseudocoelomates lacking vascular system; gut
(when present) straight, with or without anus".
570,000,000 YBN
570,000,000 YBN
346) Deuterostome Phylum Echinodermata ("Echinoderms" (iKIniDRMS }) (sea
cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars, star fish).
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347) Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves. Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds. The most primitive living chordate is the tunicate. Chordates get
their name from the notochord, the cartilage rod that runs along the back of
the animal, in the embryo if not in the adult.

Chordata is the highest phylum in the animal kingdom, which includes the
lancelets or amphioxi (Cephalochordata), the tunicates (Urochordata), the acorn
worms and pterobranchs (Hemichordata), and the vertebrates (Craniata)
comprising the lampreys, sharks and rays, bony fish, amphibians, reptiles,
birds, and mammals. Members of the first three groups, the lower chordates, are
small and strictly marine. The vertebrates are free-living; the aquatic ones
are primitively fresh-water types with marine groups being advanced; and the
members include animals of small and medium size, as well as the largest of all

The typical chordate characteristics are the notochord, the dorsal hollow nerve
cord, the pharyngeal slits, and a postanal tail. The notochord appears in the
embryo as a slender, flexible rod filled with gelatinous cells and surrounded
by a tough fibrous sheath, and contains, at least in some forms, transverse
striated muscle fibers; it lies above the primitive gut. In lower chordates and
the early groups of vertebrates, the notochord persists as the axial support
for the body throughout life, but it is surrounded and gradually replaced by
segmental vertebrae in the higher fish.
565,000,000 YBN
348) Earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (sea squirts).
565,000,000 YBN
6294) Earliest coral fossil (corals are cnidarian anthozoans).

These are fossil cnidarian coral (tabulata) from Doushantuo Formation in

The tabulata are an extinct Paleozoic order of corals of the subclass
Zoantharia characterized by an exclusively colonial mode of growth and by
secretion of a calcareous exoskeleton of slender tubes.
(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
560,000,000 YBN
117) Earliest chordate fossil.
(Flinders Ranges, 490 km north of Adelaide) Australia  
560,000,000 YBN
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6290) Earliest extant fish, Lancelets {laNSleTS} (also called amphioxus

Lancelets are the most primitive chordates to have a liver and a kidney, which
are not found in hemichordates or tunicates.

The Lancelet is a protochordate and not a vertebrate. Lancelets have only a
nerve tube on the notochord and no brain other than a small swelling at the
front end of the nerve tube. They also have an eye-spot. There are gill slits
at the sides used for filter feeding and not primarily for breathing which
would mean that gills for breathing evolve later. The Lancelet is not like a
worm in not being cylindrical, and swims like a fish using its muscles with
side-to-side undulations.
560,000,000 YBN
6292) Oldest mollusc fossil.
560,000,000 YBN
6318) Earliest animal shell (or skeleton).
Earliest evidence of animals eating other
animals (predation).
Appearance of the small shelly fossils and deep burrows correlated with
a decline in stromatolites possibly from feeding.

The earliest animal shells are made by tiny organisms with simple tubelike
skeletons, such as Cloudina and Sinotubulites in addition to sponge skeleton

The shell of Cloudina is made of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), possibly made by
some kind of worm.

Predatory bore holes have been found in Cloudina shells. This is the oldest
evidence of predation known.

The earliest animal shells are agglutinated tubes built of foreign objects by
the animals inhabiting them, an example being the worm Onuphionella, with its
collection of mica flakes lining its shelter.

The appearance of the small shelly fossils and deep burrows are correlated with
a decline in stromatolites. Before the appearance of small invertebrate
animals, nothing fed on cyanobacterial mats. Some small shelly fossils must be
primitive molluscs that graze on stromatolites. Stromatolites survive today
only in environments that are hostile to grazing invertebrates. Tehse include
lagoons too salty for grazing snails like Shark Bay, Australia, and shallow
channels in the Bahamas where currents are too strong for clinging

The soft-bodied multicellular (but non-skeletonized) Ediacaran fauna appear
starting around 600 mybn and may represent the next logical step up from
single-celled life. The next stage is the appearance of small mineralized
shells starting around 545 million years ago. These small shells are referred
to as "small shelly fossils" and were first reported by a team of Soviet
scientists headed by Alexi Rozanov of the Paleontological Institute in Moscow.
Rozanov reports in 1966 that the oldest limestones of Cambrian age contain many
small and unfamiliar skeletons, few larger than 1 cm (1/2 inch) long. These
fossils are referred to as "small shelly fossils". At the time these are the
earliest known fossils of hard skeletons. Their discovery rewrites the story of
the earliest Cambrian and sheds light on the Cambrian radiation.

Most of the small shelly fossils are made of calcium phosphate, the same
mineral that makes up the bones of vertebrates, but today, most marine
invertebrate shells are made of calcium carbonate (the minerals calcite and
aragonite). To some scientists this suggests that the later appearance of large
calcified trilobites and other fossils, represents a time when atmospheric
oxygen is abundant enough to allow calcite skeletons to be secreted.

There is evidence that seawater chemistry favored aragonite precipitation
during the late Precambrian and favored calcite precipitation during the
Tommotian, and that carbonate skeletal mineralogy is determined by the
chemistry of seawater at the time carbonate skeletons first evolve in a clade.

Prokaryotic cyanobacteria also develop the ability to secrete carbonate
skeletons around the same time.

Eventually, the expansion of infaunal life destroys the widespread and vast
cyanobacterial mats in shallow regions of the sea.
(Ara Formation) Oman|Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province  
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328) Ecdysozoa Superphylum "Aschelminthes" evolves. This includes the 5 Phyla:

Kinorhyncha (kinorhynchs),
Loricifera (loriciferans),
Nematoda (round worms),
Nematomorpha (horsehair
Priapulida (priapulids).
550,000,000 YBN
550,000,000 YBN
(Rawnsley Quartzite -same as White Sea Assemblage) Nilpena, South
547,000,000 YBN
333) Trochozoa Phyla Phoronida (phoronids {FerOniDZ}).
547,000,000 YBN
334) Trochozoa Phylum Brachiopoda (brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}).

Brachiopods are marine invertebrates that have bivalve dorsal and ventral
shells enclosing a pair of tentacled, armlike structures that are used to sweep
minute food particles into the mouth. Also called lampshells.
547,000,000 YBN
335) The Lophotrochozoa (Trochozoa) Phylum Entoprocta (entoprocts).
544,000,000 YBN
southwestern Mongolia  
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336) Lophotrochozoa (Trochozoa) Phylum Bryozoa (Bryozoans or moss animals).
542,000,000 YBN
53) End of the "Precambrian". End of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK} Eon, and the start of the Cambrian Period.

The term "Precambrian", was traditionally used for the division of time older
than the Phanerozoic, and is currently considered to be informal and without
specific stratigraphic rank.
542,000,000 YBN
Ediacara, Australia  
542,000,000 YBN
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many (between 20 and 35) of the major phyla
of animals. An increase of animals with shells.

It was once thought that the Cambrian rocks contained the first and oldest
fossil animals, but these are now to be found in the earlier Ediacaran (or
Vendian) strata. Ediacaran animals are soft-bodied and so are infrequently
preserved. When animals begin to develop hard parts, their probability of
preservation greatly improves. The first animals to develop hard parts are
small shelly fossils, like sponge spicules, gastropods, and others with
uncertain affinity. Small shelly fossils can be found back into the

Two fossil locations preserve this period on Earth, the Burgess Shale in
British Columbia Canada, and the Chengjiang in the Yunnan Province of China.
The Burgess Shale fossils were discovered in 1909 by Charles D. Wolcott (CE
1850-1927), and are shiny black impressions on the shale bedding planes. Many
are the remains of animals that lacked hard parts. Altogether there are four
major groups of arthropods (trilobites, crustaceans, and the groups that
include scorpions and insects), in addition to sponges, onycophorans, crinoids,
mollusks, three phyla of worms, corals, chordates, and many species that cannot
be placed in any known phylum. The Chengjiang Fauna resemble that of the
Burgess Shale, but the Chengjiang fossils are older and better preserved. The
fossils include many soft-bodied animals that are not usually not preserved.
For example jellyfish show the detailed structure of tentacles, radial canals,
and muscles, and on soft-bodies worms, eyes, segmentation, digestive organs,
and patterns on the outer skin can be recognized. The Chengjiang fossils
include the earliest fossil of a fish.

One theory is that the Cambrian radiation is triggered by predation, since the
oldest traces of feeding within the mud occur around this time in addition to
the various ways to protect the body by secretion of a mineral skeleton or
building tubes by collected mineral grains that are developed by animals around
this time.
541,000,000 YBN
540,000,000 YBN
104) Platyzoa Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ} evolve (flatworms).
540,000,000 YBN
6287) Platyzoa Phylum Gastrotricha (Gastrotrichs {GaSTreTriKS}).
539,000,000 YBN
461) The first circulatory system (blood cells actively moved by muscle
contraction) evolves in bilaterians.

Circulatory systems can be divided into two kinds, "open" and "closed", both
which contain a circulatory fluid or blood. In an open circulatory system, the
blood and body cavity (hemocoelic) fluid are one and the same; the blood, often
called hemolymph, empties from vessels into the body cavity (hemocoel) and
directly bathes organs. In a closed circulatory system blood is kept separate
from the coelomic {SElomiK} fluid. Circulatory systems, open or closed,
generally have structural mechanisms for pumping the blood and maintaining
adequate blood pressures. Beyond the influence of general body movements, most
of these structures fall into the categories: contractile vessels (as in
annelids); osiate hearts (as in arthropods); and chambered hearts (as in
molluscs and vertebrates). The method of initiating contraction of these
different pumps (the pacemaker mechanism) may be intrinsic (originating within
the muscles of the structure itself) or extrinsic (originating from motor
nerves from outside the structure).

Nemerteans, cylindrical worms evolved from an earlier ancestor, have a network
of blood channels in the mesenchyme (undifferentiated tissue between organs)
but have no heart or pumping vessel. This bilaterian, a coelomate (the earliest
of which are the molluscs), like some surviving coelomates, has a series of
channels or blood spaces outside the coelom tissue, that form a circulatory
system, often with muscle cell contractible walls connected to the larger
vessels that act as pumps to move the blood cells through the channels.
539,000,000 YBN
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341) The Lophotrochozoa (Trochozoa) Phylum Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu} (ribbon worms).
537,000,000 YBN
344) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Sipuncula (peanut worms) evolve.
533,000,000 YBN
342) Trochozoa Mollusks evolve.

The phylum name is derived from mollis, meaning soft, referring to the soft
body within a hard calcareous shell. Soft-bodied mollusks make extensive use of
ciliary and mucous mechanisms in feeding, locomotion, and reproduction. The
Mollusca are a successful phylum with probably over 110,000 living species,
more than double the number of vertebrate species. More than 99% of living
molluscan species belong to two classes: Gastropoda {GaSTroPeDu} (snails) and
Bivalvia (muscles and clams). These two classes can make up a dominant fraction
of the animal biomass in many natural communities, both marine and

The haemocoel forms the major body cavity of molluscs, usually in the form of
several large, connected sinuses. Haemocyanin is the chief oxygen-carrying
blood pigment, although a number of species have haemoglobin. A heart of
variable complexity is usually present. A coelomic space is represented by the
pericardium, kidneys and gonads.

Among the most primitive mollusks are the Aplacophora which do not have shells
but their epidermis secretes aragonite (calcareous) spicules and their body has
a repetition of structures along their front-back (antero-posterior) axis.
Mollusks are thought, by some, to be descended from a segemented worm (annelid)
because of this segmented repetition of structure which is lost in most of the
other later evolved mollusks. But others think mollusks descend from a
nonsegmented ancestor.

An early Cambrian fossil mollusk named Maikhanella, which has a shell made from
sclerites that are only loosely fused together, implies that after millions of
years of evolution the spines become more fused into a single, rigid shell
familiar in mollusks of the present time.

Among the earliest fossil mollusks known from the Cambrian are simple
cap-shaped shells, similar to an extant mollusk named "Neopilina". Neopilina is
clearly a mollusk with a single cap-shaped shell secreted by the mantle, as
well as a mouth, digestive tract, anus, and gills. But unlike all other known
mollusks alive today, Neopilina still retains the segmentation of its worm-like
ancestors. Around the body are segemented gills, kidneys, hearts, gonads, and
paired retractor muscles to pull down the shell.

Beyond the difference in segmentation, in terms of skeleton, some annelids have
chaetae which are tiny, spinelike structures and are derived from single
epidermal cells, while mollusks are covered by a thick sheet of skin called a
mantle which secretes a hard calcareous (KaL-KAREuS} (calcium) skeleton
(aragonite or calcite), either as tiny sclerites or as plates. A sclerite
{SKli-rIT} is a chitinous or calcareous plate, spicule, or similar part of an
invertebrate, especially one of the hard outer plates forming part of the
exoskeleton of an arthropod. In addition annelids have a well developed coelon
and a closed circulatory system while mollusks have a reduced coelon and an
open circulatory system.
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338) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Arthropoda "Arthropods" evolve (includes crustaceans
and insects).

Arthropods can be compared to a segmented worm encased in a rigid exoskeleton.

The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. Arthropoda
consists of more than one million known invertebrate species in four subphyla:
Uniramia (includes insects), Chelicerata (includes arachnids and horseshoe
crabs), Crustacea (crustaceans), and Trilobita (trilobites). All arthropods
have a segmented body with bilateral symmetry covered by an exoskeleton
containing chitin, which serves as both armor and as a surface for muscle
attachment. Each body segment may have pair of jointed appendages. The phylum
includes carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, detritus feeders, filter feeders,
and parasites in both aquatic and terrestrial environments.
530,000,000 YBN
339) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Onychophora (onychophorans) evolves.

Onychophorans, know as "velvet worms", are the living transitional form between
worms and arthropods. Although they have segmented worm-like bodies, they also
have jointed appendages, antennae, and shed their cuticle like arthropods do.
530,000,000 YBN
340) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Tardigrada (tardigrades) evolves.

Tardigrades are slow-moving, microscopic invertebrates, related to the
arthropods. Tardigrades have four body segments, eight legs, and live in water
or damp moss. Tardigrades are also called "water bears".
530,000,000 YBN
343) The Lophotrochozoa (Trochozoa) Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) evolves.

Annelids are various worms or wormlike animals, characterized by an elongated,
cylindrical, segmented body and including the earthworm and leech.
530,000,000 YBN
350) Chordata Vertebrates evolve. This Subphylum, Vertebrata, contains most
fishes, and all amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

The characteristic features of the Vertebrata are a vertebral column, or
backbone, and a cranium, which protects the central nervous system (brain and
spinal cord) and major sense organs.

Vertebrates evolved from a lower chordate similar to the present-day
Cephalochordata (lancelets). Vertebrates originate in fresh water and develop a
kidney as their organ of water balance. The main line of evolution in the
vertebrates which leads to the tetrapods remains in fresh waters, however,
several vertebrate lines invade the oceans.
530,000,000 YBN
351) Vetebrates Jawless fish (agnatha) evolve.

Some extinct jawless fish, that lived in the Devonian 'Age of Fish', such as
ostracoderms, had hard, bony armor plating.
530,000,000 YBN
386) Earliest vertebrate and fish fossil.

Haikouichthys ercaicunensis: About 25 mm in length.
(Chengjiang) Kunming, Yunnan Province, China  
525,000,000 YBN
6329) Earliest hemichordate fossil: a Pterobranch "graptolite".
(Chengjiang Konservat-Lagerstätte) Yunnan Province, China  
521,000,000 YBN
137) Start of Sirius Passet fossils in Canada, early Cambrian fossils (521

520,000,000 YBN
133) Earliest trilobite fossils.

Trilobites are numerous extinct marine arthropods of the Paleozoic Era.
Trilobites have a segmented body divided by grooves into three vertical lobes
and are found as fossils throughout the world.

There is a transition, after the soft-bodied (unshelled) organisms of the
Ediacaran are the earliest small cylindrical shells of Cloudina and
Sinotubulites, later in the Proterozoic, to the clam-like shells of the
brachiopods in the Tommotian (Early Cambrian) to the segmented calcite and
chitin shells of the trilobites in the Atdabianian.

One fossil arthropod, known as aglaspids, may be related to both trilobites and
horseshoe crabs. Horseshoe crabs are not true crabs, but instead are members of
the group known as the Chelicerata- a group that includes spiders and
scorpions. True crabs are a family within the Crustacea, a different group
entirely. So horseshoe crabs may be descended from trilobites.

The segmented shell of the trilobite, which provides more movement then the
clam shell may have been a selective advantage. (verify)

The largest known trilobite, Isotelus rex, reached 72 centimeters in length.
520,000,000 YBN
134) Trilobite, Brachiopod, and Echinoderm fossils abundant all over earth.

520,000,000 YBN
135) Start of Chengjiang fossils in China, early Cambrian fossils (520 to 515

520,000,000 YBN
144) Two agnathan (jawless) lamprey-like and primitive hagfish fossils found in

520,000,000 YBN
520,000,000 YBN
6296) Earliest worm fossil, a Chaetognath {KETOnat} (arrow worm).

The fossil is a member of the phylum Chaetognatha (also called arrow worm),
with only about 100 living species, is found in oceans throughout the world and
plays an important role in the food web as primary predators
(Maotianshan Shale ) near Haikou, Kunming, China  
517,000,000 YBN
115) Earliest certain Echinoderm fossils, Helicoplacus.

Helicoplacoids are stem group echinoderms with spiral plating and three
ambulacra arranged radially around a lateral mouth. They are the most primitive
echinoderms and the first to show a radial arrangement of the water vascular
and ambulacral systems. Unlike later echinoderms, their skeleton shows no
dorsal/ventral (aboral/oral) differentiation. They were probably sedentary
suspension feeders.

One theory is that Echinoderms evolved from sessile filter feeding organisms
similar to Pterobranchs.
(Poleta Formation) Bishop, California, USA  
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6351) Ancestor of all Arthropod Crustacea (shrimps, crabs, lobsters,

The earliest crustacean fossils are from the early Cambrian (542-513 MYBN) of
Shropshire, England.

Molecular phylogenetics has suggested to some that the subphylum Crustacea may
be paraphyletic including the Hexapods within it, and so the Hexapoda and
Crustacea have been named Pancrustacea. Not all experts agree that Crustacea is
paraphyletic, some put hexapods as descended from the Atelocerata, a
hypothetical ancestor of both myriapoda and hexapoda that split from the
crustaceans before the Myriapod and Hexapod branching, citing complex
anatomical features shared by Myriapod and Hexapod and not the crustaceans that
would need to be independently evolved, in particular the tentorium {internal
head skeleton}, tracheae {fine respiratory tubules}, and Malpighian tubules of
the Myriapods and Hexapods).
(earliest fossils) Shropshire, England  
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136) Start of Burgess shale fossils in Canada, middle Cambrian fossils (507

507,000,000 YBN
140) Aysheaia (onychophoran, also described as lobopod) fossil, from Burgess
507,000,000 YBN
141) Sponge fossil, from Burgess shale.

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145) Priapulid worm fossils of Burgess Shale.
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146) Opabinia fossils of Burgess Shale.
507,000,000 YBN
147) Anomalocaris fossils of Burgess Shale.
507,000,000 YBN
Burgess Shale  
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74) Oldest fossil of an arthropod in the process of moulting (ecdysis), the
soft-bodied arthropod Marrella splendens.
(Burgess Shale) British Columbia, Canada.  
505,000,000 YBN
6291) Early Chordata fossil "Pikaia".
(Burgess Shale) Mount Wapta, British Columbia  
501,000,000 YBN
6348) Arthropod subphylum Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu} (centipedes and millipedes).

The earliest possible Myriapoda fossil are marine fossils from the middle
Cambrian of Utah and the late Cambrian (488-501 MYBN) of East Siberia, and the
earliest certain Myriapod fossils, are land Myriapods from the late Silurian
(416 MYO) from Shropshire, England.
(earliest possible fossils Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA and
(Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia|(earliest fossils) Shropshire, England  
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138) Start of Orsted fossils in ???, late Cambrian fossils (495 mybn).

488,300,000 YBN
121) End of the Cambrian (542-488.3 mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN} (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.
488,000,000 YBN
6314) The Ordovician radiation.
During the Ordovician (488-444 million years ago), the
number of genera will quadruple.
488,000,000 YBN
6349) Arthropod subphylum Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo) (horseshoe crabs, mites,
spiders, scorpions).

Chelicerata probably appeared during the Cambrian period. By the late
Cambrian there is evidence for both Pycnogonida and Euchelicerata. The earliest
pycnogonid (sea spider) fossils are larval sea spiders from the Late Cambrian
(488-501 MYO), Orsten of Sweden.
(sea spider fossils, Orsten) Sweden  
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244) Non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta, (ancestor of Liverworts, Hornworts,

The Bryophytes are the simplest land plants, and reproduce with spores.

The Division Bryophyta contains green, seedless land plants that contain at
least 18,000 species and are divided into three classes: mosses, liverworts,
and hornworts. Bryophytes are distinguished from vascular plants and seed
plants by the production of only one spore-containing organ in their
spore-producing stage. Most bryophytes are 2-5 cm (0.8-2 in.) tall. Bryophytes
are found throughout the surface of earth, from polar regions to the tropics,
they are most abundant in humid environments, though none is marine. Bryophytes
are extremely tolerant of dry and freezing conditions.
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352) Jawless fish lampreys and hagfish lines separate.

475,000,000 YBN
398) Plants live on land. Earliest fossil spores belonging to land plants.
These spores look like the spores of living liverworts and Cooksonia.

Plants conquer land before animals do, and like animals may move to land not by
sea but by freshwater.
Caradoc, Libya  
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402) The first animals live on land, arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and

The earliest fossil land tracks are from the Ordovician and are at least 472
MYO. The organism that produced these fossil tracks is possibly an
Euthycarcinoidea, a rare arthropod group thought to be descended from the

Marine stem-group hexapods support the theory that the invasion of the land
occurred independently by the Myriapoda and Hexapoda. Adaptation to life on
land also occurred independently in the Crustacea (Isopoda), Cheliceriformes
(Chelicerata), Tardigrada, and Onychophhora.
(earliest arthropod tracks) Kingston, Ontario, Canada  
470,000,000 YBN
234) Non-vascular plants Hornworts.
460,000,000 YBN
Wisconsin, USA  
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235) Non-vasular plants Mosses.
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353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Infraphylum Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo}. This
large group includes all jawed fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.
First vertebrate teeth.

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill skeleton. The earliest jawed
vertebrates, have no bone, there skeleton is made of cartilage. Humans have
cartilage too, for example, in the lining of joints and the human skeleton
starts as flexible cartilage in the embyro. Most of the human skeleton becomes
ossified when mineral crystals, mostly calcium phosphate, become integrated
into the skeleton. Except for teeth, the shark skeleton never undergoes this
mineral transformation. Sharks lack the swim bladder of the later bony fish,
and many sharks have to swim continuously to maintain their desired level in
the water. Sharks and rays almost all live in the sea. Unlike the bony fish, no
sharks ever climb onto land. Sharks have been the top of the food chains of the
sea for hundreds of millions of years. The largest shark known is the whale
shark, Rhincodon typus, which can be up to 12 meters long and weigh 12 tons.
460,000,000 YBN
404) Jawed fishes Chondrichthyes {KoN-DriK-tE-EZ} (Cartilaginous fishes:
ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates, and sawfishes).

The fossil record of Chondrichthyans dates to around 455 million years ago, but
the earliest Chondrichthyan fossil dates to 409 million years ago.
450,000,000 YBN
443,700,000 YBN
122) End of the Ordovician (488.3-443.7 mybn), and start of the Silurian
(443.7-416) Period.
443,000,000 YBN
90) End-Ordovician mass extinction. 60% of all genera are observed extinct.

Many species go extinct, mostly trilobites, echinoderms, corals, nautiloids,
brachiopods, graptolites, conodonts, and acritarchs.
440,000,000 YBN
236) Vascular plants evolve (Phylum: Tracheophytes).

Vascular plants are any plant that has a specialized conducting system
consisting mostly of phloem (food-conducting tissue) and xylem
(water-conducting tissue), collectively called vascular tissue. The phloem
transports sugar and the xylem transports water and salts. Ferns, gymnosperms,
and flowering plants are all vascular plants. In contrast to the nonvascular
bryophytes, where the gametophyte is the dominant phase, the dominant phase
among vascular plants is the sporophyte. Because they have vascular tissues,
these plants have true stems, leaves, and roots, modifications of which enable
species of vascular plants to survive in a variety of habitats under diverse,
even extreme, environmental conditions. This ability to flourish in so many
different habitats is the primary reason that vascular plants have become
dominant among terrestrial plants.

Earliest spores of vascular plants.
440,000,000 YBN
360) Ray-finned fishes (Jawed, Class Osteichthyes, Subclass Actinopterygii)
evolve. This is the fist bony fish (Osteichthyes) which includes the
ray-finned, lobefin, and lung fishes. Bony-fish have a skeleton at least partly
composed of true bone. Other features include, in most species, a swim bladder
(an air-filled sac to give buoyancy), gill covers over the gill chamber, bony
platelike scales, a skull with sutures, and external fertilization of eggs.

Most of the ray-finned fish are known as teleosts. They exist in both salt and
freshwater. The name ray is because their fins have a skeleton similar to a
handheld fan. The teleost fish are a very successful evolutionary line, with
about 23,500 species, 30 times the number of shark species.

Fish with a swim bladder use the bladder to change their depth, to sink, the
fish absorbs some molecules of gas from its swim bladder into the blood which
reduces the volume of the bladder, to rise, the fish does the reverse,
releasing molecules of gas from the blood into the swim bladder increasing the
volume of the bladder.

Some teleost fish can gulp air from the surface, but still use their gills to
extract oxygen from the oxygenated gill water. However, the lung does not
evolve from gills but from the swim bladder. The swim bladder appears to have
evolved from a primitive lung, and some surviving teleosts, for example
bowfins, gars and bichirs (BiCRZ), still use the swim bladder for breathing.

The Anabas and mudskipper are two teleost fish that can walk over land. The
mudskipper can crawl on land using its pectoral (arm) fin muscles which can
support its weight, and eats insects and spiders.
Ocean and fresh water  
440,000,000 YBN
6172) The first lung evolves, in ray-finned fishes, from the swim bladder. Some
surviving teleosts, such as bowfins, gars, and bichirs still use their swim
bladder for breathing. Fish that breathe air through their gill chamber evolved
breathing through a completely different route than those fish that breathe
with a lung.

Bichirs (BiCR) are among the most primitive of the ray-finned fishes. Instead
of the swim bladder of most ray-finned fishes, the bichir has a pair of lungs,
which enables it to survive out of water for several hours.
Ocean (presumably)  
425,000,000 YBN
377) Jawed fishes, Lobefin fishes evolve. Coelacanths. Lobefin fish have a
fleshy lobe at the base of each fin.
There are 2 living species of coelacanths

The Coelacanths are well known in the fossil record, but were thought to have
gone extinct before the dinosaurs, but are found to be still alive in 1938.
420,000,000 YBN
6350) Arthropods Hexapoda {HeKsoPeDu} (arthropods with six legs, includes all
The closest relative of the Hexapoda is most likely the Branchiopoda, the brine
shrimps and their

The earliest hexapod fossils are 396 million years old and from the Rhynie
chert of Scotland. They are Rhyniella praecursor and a pair of mandibles
described as Rhyniognatha hirsti.

The proturans, (class Protura), are any of a group of about 150 species of
minute (0.5 to 2 mm), pale, wingless, blind, primitive insects that live in
damp humus and soil and feed on decaying organic matter. Proturans, frequently
known as telsontails, include some of the most primitive hexapods.

The first major division among hexapods is between Entognatha and Ectognatha.
Ectognatha are more widely known as the Insecta. In entognaths the mouthpart
appendages are recessed within a gnathal pouch on the head capsule. Ectognathy
is more primitive and all other hexapods have ectognathous mouthparts.
(Rhynie chert) Scotland  
417,000,000 YBN
378) Lobefin fish, Lungfishes.

There are only six species of lungfish alive today. The Australian lungfish has
a single lung, the others have two. The African and South American species bury
themselves in mud during the dry season, breathing air through a little
breathing hole in the mud.

The earliest fossil lungfish dates to around this time.
416,000,000 YBN
123) End of the Silurian (443.7-416 mybn), and start of the Devonian {DiVONEiN}
(416-359.2 mybn) Period.
415,000,000 YBN
401) Earliest fossil of land plant, Cooksonia. This is also the oldest fossil
of a vascular land plant.

Cooksonia is only a few centimeters tall. It has slender, leafless branches
with Y shaped forks, topped by capsules that relase microscopic spores. Some
fossils have a dark stripe in their stems which may be the remains of vascular
tissue, used by plants to move water.

They have been found in an area stretching from Siberia to the Eastern USA, and
in Brazil. They are found mostly in the area of Euramerica, and most of the
type specimens are from Britain.
(Wenlock strata) Devilsbit Mountain district of County Tipperary, Ireland  
410,000,000 YBN
6352) The most primitive living insects are the order Archaeognatha, the
Bristletails, of which there are around 500 known species. The members of this
order are distinctive because their mandibles connect with the head capsule in
only one place (monocondylic). The mandibles of all other insects have two
points of articulation with the head (dicondylic). Other ancestral features of
Archaeognatha include their method of reproduction in which species do not
copulate and sperm transfer is indirect even though fertilization is

In the most primitive wingless insects (apterygotes) such as the silverfish
Lepisma, there is almost no change in form throughout growth to the adult.
These are known as ametabolous insects.

Engel and Grimaldi write: "...By most measures of evolutionary success, insects
are unmatched: the longevity of their lineage, their species numbers, the
diversity of their adaptations, their biomass, and their ecological impact.

The insects co-radiate with angiosperms; 85% of the 250,000 species of
angiosperms are pollinated by insects. The diversity of flowers is due in large
part to the insects lured to them.
410,000,000 YBN
6354) Early arachnid fossils: trigonotarbids, spider-like arthropods with
lung-books, the typical breathing organs of most of the larger recent living
Unlike true spiders, Pleophrynus lacks poison and silk glands.
(Rhynie chert) Scotland  
410,000,000 YBN
6363) Dicondylic insects (insects in which the mandible has two points of
articulation with the head instead of one). Ancestor of Insects Zygentoma
(Silverfish). Silverfish and all pterygota (winged insects) have dicondylic
mandibles. This second articulation results in the movement of the mandible
being roughly confined to a single plane of motion instead of the rotating
motion possible in Archeognatha (bristletails) and Entognatha (springtails and

Silverfish have more in common with insects than the more primitive
400,000,000 YBN
400,000,000 YBN
399) Earliest fossil of an insect; thought to be a winged insect.

The oldest known insect fossil for which there is significant remaining
structure (head and thorax fragments) is a bristletail (Archaeognatha),
estimated to be 390 to 392 million years old.
Rhynie Chert , Scotland (and Gaspé Peninsula of Québec, Canada)  
390,000,000 YBN
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect. Ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu}) (Mayflies, Dragonflies, Damselflies).

The most primitive living pterygotes are the Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) and the
Odonata (Dragonflies and damselflies). Unlike most other flying insects both
the Ephemeroptera and Odonata have freshwater aquatic larvae, presumed to be an
ancestral habit.

Arthropods evolve flight 90 million years before the first flight among

Insect wings evolved only once, and all winged insects descend from the first
winged insect.

How flight evolved in insects is still debated. A terrestrial origin of
pterygotes is supported by the fact that the most basal insects (apterygotes),
the Zygentoma and Archeognatha are fully terrestrial. One theory suggests that
wings develop as fixed extensions to the thoracic terga, called paranotal
lobes. The paranotal lobes provide early insects with the ability to glide, and
eventually to control the aerial descent of the insect from perches of tall
plants, and from one Carbiniferous gymnosperm sporangia (which are located on
branchlets) to another. Another theory has the wing evolving like the movable
abdominal gills on aquatic naiads of mayflies which look like tiny wings and
move in a similar way. The development of wings may have helped early insects
to escape predators.

The earliest full body imprint fossil of a flying insect is like a may-fly
(Ephemeropterida) that landed in soft mud, during the late Carboniferous
(318-299 mybn) around a fresh water habitat in Massachusetts. Some wing
impressions from the Czech Republic date to 324 mybn.

The Pterygota is the larger of two subclasses of Insecta. All have wings in the
adult stage or have lost their wings secondarily.

Some interesting facts about Mayflies are:
-The subimagos of mayflies are the only
insects that molt when they have wings.
-Mayflies have paired genital openings. During
copulation, the two penes of the male are inserted simultaneously into the two
openings of the female. Sperm is transferred quickly (there is no
spermatophore) and eggs are fertilized immediately.
-A few species of mayflies reproduce
parthenogenically -- no males have ever been found.
-Although most mayflies are
herbivores, a few are predaceous.
-Adult mayflies do not feed. Their digestive system is
filled with air, making them light enough to float.
-Some mayfly species require up to
four years to complete development. In that time they may molt more than 20
(Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts and Upper Silesian Basin, Czech
386,000,000 YBN
406) Oldest fossil spider (Attercopus {aTRKoPuS}).
These spiders represent the first use of
silk by animals.
(Givetian of) Gilboa, New York  
385,000,000 YBN
405) The first forests. Earliest large trees fossils.

First progymnosperms (treelike plants).
Gilboa, New York, USA  
380,000,000 YBN
6330) The fish "Tiktaalik" {TiK ToLiK}, an important transition between fish
and amphibian.
(Fram Formation) Nunavut Territory, Canada  
375,000,000 YBN
380) The first tetrapods (organisms with four feet), the amphibians evolve in
fresh water. The first vertebrate limbs (arms and legs) and fingers. Ancestor
of caecillians, frogs, toads, and salamanders.

Almost no amphibians live in sea water.

The earliest fossil amphibian is Elginerpeton, found in Scotland, dates back
368 million years.The earliest well known amphibians come from around 360
million years ago, and are Acanthostega and Ichthyostega. Acanthostega
represents the most primitive tetrapod that has hands and feet for which there
is a full skeleton. Acanthostega has eight toes per limb, no fin rays, a large
load-bearing pelvis and is thought to have retained gills into adulthood.
Ichthyostega is a large carnivore, ranging in size from 0.5 - 1.2 m. The
earliest known Ichthyostega comes from 363 million year old deposits in
Greenland (then on the equator). Ichthyostega is largely aquatic but has
massive broad ribs that may be used for support of internal organs while on
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  

375,000,000 YBN
Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, in northern Canada  
368,000,000 YBN
407) Oldest amphibian (and tetrapod) fossil.
Tetrapods are four-limbed, vertebrate
animals (all vertebrates except fish).
Elgin, Morayshire, Scotland  
367,000,000 YBN
408) Late Devonian mass extinction caused by ice age. 57% of all genera are
observed extinct.

70% of all species go extinct. This include 3 of 5 trilobite orders, 90% of
brachiopod genera, and major loss of reefs.
365,000,000 YBN
363,000,000 YBN
379) The first vertebrates live on land (amphibians).
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
360,000,000 YBN
237) Vascular plants ferns evolve.

Ferns are are flowerless, seedless vascular plants having roots, stems, and
fronds (the leaf-like part of a fern or leaf of a palm) and reproducing by

There are around 12,000 species of Ferns (Plant division Pteridophyta), which
are nonflowering vascular plants that have true roots, stems, and complex
leaves and reproduce by spores. The life cycle is characterized by an
alternation of generations between the mature, fronded form (the sporophyte)
familiar in greenhouses and gardens and the form that strongly resembles a moss
or liverwort (the gametophyte).
360,000,000 YBN
6353) The Neoptera, folding wing insects. Neoptera, means "new wing".

Ephemeroptera and Odonata, the most primitive living pterygota, do not live on
the ground. It seems likely that selective pressures on the first winged
insects heavily favor the development of some mechanism for folding the wings
against the body after landing, making them less conspicuous, less awkward, and
less susceptible to breakage. The neoptera represent a remarkably successful
lineage and are the ancestors of all "higher" orders of insects.

Unfoldable wings appear in butterflies and various moths, in many dipterans and
some hymenopterans.
(Fossil: Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte) Staffordshire, UK  
359,200,000 YBN
124) End of the Devonian (416-359.2 mybn), and start of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn) Period.
359,000,000 YBN
350,000,000 YBN
361) Ray-finned fishes, (Chondrostei), Sturgeons and Paddlefish.
350,000,000 YBN
362) Ray finned fishes: Bichirs evolve.
350,000,000 YBN
6355) The Neoptera: Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu} (Cockroaches, Termites, and

Paleozoic "roachoids" are among the most abundant animals that live in the
extensive coal swamps of the Carboniferous. Earliest fossils are from the early
part of the Late Carboniferous (around 320 MYBN).
340,000,000 YBN
384) The hard-shell egg evolves. The Amniota {aMnEOtu} (ancestor of reptiles,
mammals and birds). The hard-shell egg is waterproof. This is the start of
vertebrate internal fertilization, because on land the egg cannot be fertilized
as most fishes and amphibians do, by a male swimming near the eggs and spraying
them with sperm. Amniote males and females must copulate so that the sperm can
reach the eggs inside the female. Much of the development of Amniote fetuses
occurs inside the female, not in the water.

Amniotes (reptiles, mammals, and birds) are distinguished from non-amniote
tetrapods (amphibians) by the presence of complex embryonic membranes. One of
these, the amnion, gives its name to the group.

This group of tetropods, the Amniota, will branch into Sauropsida
{SOR-roP-SiDu} (which includes reptiles and birds) and Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du}
(which includes mammals).

All living amniotes (reptiles, birds, and mammals) lay hard-shelled eggs,
except in most mammals and some snakes and lizards, where egg laying has been
replaced by live birth.

The earliest known amniotes, Westlothiana (~338 MY) and Hylonomus (~300 MY),
are also the earliest known reptiles.
Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland  
338,000,000 YBN
410) Earliest amniote fossil.

The next earliest amniote fossil is Hylonomus, a small lizard-like reptile that
was trapped in the trunk of a swamp tree in what is now Joggins, Nova Scotia,
Canada (~300 MYBN).
Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland  
335,000,000 YBN
6331) The tetrapod Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu} (which
includes reptiles and birds) and the Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du} (which includes

The Sauropsida include birds, dinosaurs and modern reptiles. Sauropsids have
two major lineages: the Parareptilia (turtles) and the Eureptilia (dinosaurs,
crocodiles and birds).

The Synapsida are a subclass of extinct amniota from which mammals descend.
Synapsids are sometimes called "mammal-like reptiles" but it is incorrect to
call them reptiles because they diverge at the beginning of amniote evolution,
before the reptiles do. There are two major groups of synapsids: pelycosaurs
(sail-backed) and therapsids (mammal-like).

The earliest Sauropsid fossils, are Lethiscus(~ 330 MYA) and Westlothiana (~328
MY) from Scotland. The earliest Synapsid fossil is Protoclepsydrops (~314 MY)
from Joggins, Nova Scotia, although some people reject the Protoclepsydrops
fossil in favor the next oldest possible synapsid fossils, such as Echinerpeton
and Archaeothyris from Florence, Nova Scotia (~307 MY).
(earliest possible Synapsid fossil: Cumberland group, Joggins formation.)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada  
330,000,000 YBN
330,000,000 YBN
6307) The Synapsids Pelycosauria {PeLiKuSOREu} evolve (includes Edaphosaurus
{eDaFoSORuS}, Dimetrodon).

There are two main groups of synapsids: pelycosaurs (sail-backed reptiles) and
therapsids (mammal-like reptiles). Pelycosaurs arise in the mid-Carboniferous
from cotylosaurs and soon enjoy an extensive radiation through the early
Permian, coming to constitute about half of the known amniote genera of the
time. Some like Edaphosaurus are herbivorous, however, most are carnivores that
prey on fish and aquatic amphibians. Pelycosaurs differ in size but not in
design. The most notable feature in some species is a broad "sail" along the
back consisting of an extensive layer of skin supported internally by a row of
fixed neural spines projecting from successive vertebrae. If the sail is
brightly colored, it might have been used in courtship or in bluff displays
with rivals, similar to ornamentations in birds. The sail may be a sun light
collector: when turned broadside to the sun, blood moving through the sail is
heated, then carried to the rest of the body. Somewhat suddenly pelycosaurs
decline in numbers and are extinct by the end of the Permian. Therapsides
evolve from them, and largely replace the Pelycosauria for a time as the
dominant terrestrial vertebrates.
325,000,000 YBN
381) The Amphibians: Caecilians evolve.
320,000,000 YBN
238) Gymnosperms evolve. Gymnosperm is Greek for "Naked Seed". Gymnosperms are
the earliest surviving seed plants, Spermatophyta, and ancestor of all Cycads,
Ginkos and Conifers) evolve.

The most primitive extant Gymnosperms, the Cycads evolve now.

The earliest known seed bearing plants are the Pteridosperms, seed ferns known
only from the fossil record. Gymnosperms are the most primitive seed bearing
plants still living.

A gymnosperm is any woody plant that reproduces by means of a seed (or ovule)
in direct contact with the environment, as opposed to an angiosperm, or
flowering plant, whose seeds are enclosed by mature ovaries, or fruits. The
four surviving gymnosperm divisions are Pinophyta (conifers, the most
widespread), Cycadophyta (cycads), Ginkgophyta (ginkos), and Gnetophyta (a
small division with only three genera). More than half are trees; most of the
rest are shrubs. Those widely found in the Northern Hemisphere are junipers,
firs, larches, spruces, and pines; in the Southern Hemisphere, podocarps. The
wood of gymnosperms is often called softwood to differentiate it from the
hardwood of angiosperms. Many timber and pulp trees are also planted as
ornamentals. Gymnosperms also are a minor source of food; of essential oils
used in soaps, air fresheners, disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and
perfumes; of tannin, used for curing leather; and of turpentines. Gymnosperms
were a major component in the vegetation that was compressed over millions of
years into coal. Most are evergreen. They produce male and female reproductive
cells in separate male and female strobili.
320,000,000 YBN
6356) The Neoptera: Orthoptera evolve (Crickets, Grasshoppers, Locusts, Walking

The Orthoptera and the later Hemiptera are termed hemimetabolous, and are said
to undergo incomplete metamorphosis. In incomplete metamorphosis, the general
form is constant until the final molt, when the larva undergoes substantial
changes in body form to become a winged adult with fully developed genitalia.

Many insects in the order Orthoptera produce sound (known as a "stridulation")
by rubbing their wings against each other or their legs, the wings or legs
containing rows of corrugated bumps. The tympanum or ear is located in the
front tibia in crickets, mole crickets, and katydids, and on the first
abdominal segment in the grasshoppers and locusts.

One characteristic of Orthoptera are jumping hind legs and a thick femur packed
with muscles. Orthopterans are the most "vocal" of all the orders, with calling
behavior playing a major role in the biolkogy and evolution of the order.
Mating calls are critical to recognize many species. Males regularly chorus on
warm evenings for females. Sound is produced wither by rubbing a specialized
area of the wing against a corresponding area on the other, overlapping
forewing or by scraping the legs against stiff edges of the forewings. Scrapers
of files are used to create the rasping sounds which are amplified by the
specialized membranes of the wings called "mirrors".

The earliest Orthoptera fossils are from the Late Permian of France.
320,000,000 YBN
6364) Neoptera: Plectopterida (Stoneflies, webspinners, and zorapterans).
317,000,000 YBN
385) Sauropsids Reptiles evolve (ancestor of all turtles, crocodiles,
pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds).

The class Reptila contains approximately 8,700 species and is a group of
air-breathing vertebrates that have internal fertilization, and with the
exception of the birds, have a scaly body, and are cold-blooded. Most species
have short legs (or none), long tails, and lay eggs. Living reptiles include
the scaly reptiles (snakes and lizards: Squamata), the crocodiles (Crocodylia),
the turtles (Testudines), and the unique tuatara (Sphenodontida). Being
cold-blooded, reptiles are not found in very cold regions; in regions with cold
winters, reptiles usually hibernate. Reptiles range in size from geckos that
measure about 3 cm (1 in.) long to the python, which grows to 9m (30 ft); the
largest turtle, the marine leatherback, weighs about 1,500 lb (680 kg). Extinct
reptiles include the dinosaurs, the pterosaurs, and the dolphin-like
(Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada  
315,000,000 YBN
453) Allegheny mountains form as a result of the collision of Europe and
eastern North America.
Add other mountain range origins too.
310,000,000 YBN
6357) The Neoptera: Paraneoptera (bark lice, true lice, thrips, and the
Hemiptera {HemiPTRu} who have mouthparts adapted for piercing and sucking:
Cicadas, Aphids, and "true bugs": such as Bed bugs, and Stink bugs).

The evolutionary history of the Paraneoptera is reflected in structure and
function of their mouthparts. There is a general trend from the "picking"
mouthparts of bark lice with standard insect mandibles, to the probing and
puncturing mouthparts of thrips and anopluran lice, and the distinctive
piercing-sucking rostrum or beak of the Hemiptera.

The Paraneopteran family tree splits into two major branches, one with the lice
and the other with the thrips and Hemiptera (aphids, cicadas and Heteroptera:
the true bugs). The bark-lice and book lice are very basal Paraneopterans.

Not long after the piercing and sucking mouthparts evolve, Hemiptera divides
into two sister groups. In one group, Homoptera, (leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids,
etc.) , the rostrum is relatively short (1-3 segments) and emerges from near
the ventral posterior margin of the head. In members of the second group,
Heteroptera, the rostrum is relatively long (3-4 segments) and arises near the
front or lower front of the head (prognathous or hypognathous). These insects
are known as the "true bugs".
310,000,000 YBN
6359) Ancestor of all Neoptera Holometabola: Holometabolous insects (beetles,
bees, true flies, and butterflies). Complete metamorphosis.

Neoptera Holometabola (also called Endopterygota) are insects that have
complete metamorphosis (holometabolous development), These insects have four
developmental stages in the life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and adult (imago).
Unlike hemimetabolous insects in which the immature structures (legs, eyes,
antennae, etc.) must also serve the adults, holometabolous insects have a
larval stage and acquire a completely new body during the pupal stage. Start of

The larva is a defining feature of Holometabola. There are two theories about
how larva evolved. One is that holometabolous larvae and hemimetabolous nymphs
are homologous life stages, the other theory is that the holometabolan larva is
a protracted version of the hemimetabolous pronymph- that larvae are
essentially free-living embryos. The pronymph is a stage between hatching and
the first instar nymph in hemimetabolous insects.
310,000,000 YBN
6366) Holometabolous Insects: Panorpida {PaNORPidu}, ancestor of all Mecoptera
(scorpionflies), Siphonaptera (fleas), Diptera (true flies), Trichoptera
{TriKoPTRu} (caddis flies), and Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies).
305,000,000 YBN
242) Earliest frogs fossil, Prosalire.
305,000,000 YBN
382) Amphibians: Anura {unRu} (Frogs and Toads) evolve.

The order Anura, are tailless amphibians that include all frogs and toads.
305,000,000 YBN
383) Amphibians: Salamanders evolve.
300,000,000 YBN
300,000,000 YBN
387) Reptiles Testudines {TeSTUDinEZ}: Ancestor of Turtles, Tortoises and

Testudines is the order of all turtles, tortoises and terrapins. Testudines are
reptiles, most are aquatic or semiaquatic, fresh water or marine, but lay eggs
on land. They have webbed feet or flippers and their body is covered by a horny
shell from which only the legs, head and neck, and tail protrude when needed.
The upper shell is called the carapace and the undershell the plastron.

Tortoises are any of various terrestrial turtles, especially one of the family
Testudinidae, characteristically having thick clublike hind limbs and a high,
rounded carapace.

Terrapins are any of various North American aquatic turtles of the family
Emydiolae, especially the genus Malaclemys, which includes the diamondback

There are inconsistencies in terminology. In the USA "turtle" is used broadly
for all reptiles with a shell, "terrapin" applies to a large family, Emydidae,
and "tortoise" refers to the slow moving terrestrial species (the land turtles)
that enter water only to drink or soak. In Great Britain and Australia
"tortoise" is applied generally to all members of the group except the marine
species with paddle-shaped limbs which are called "turtles".

DOMAIN Eukaryota - eukaryotes
KINGDOM Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
(Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
BRANCH Deuterostomia Grobben,
1908 - deuterostomes
INFRAKINGDOM Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998

PHYLUM Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
SUBPHYLUM Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 -
INFRAPHYLUM Gnathostomata auct. - jawed vertebrates

SUPERCLASS Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930 - tetrapods
SERIES Amniota

CLASS Sauropsida
ORDER Testudines
- turtles
300,000,000 YBN
1310) Stramenopiles Golden algae (Chrysophyta {KriSoFiTu}).
299,000,000 YBN
125) End of the Carboniferous (359.2-299 mybn), and start of the Permian
(299-251 mybn) Period.
299,000,000 YBN
6360) Holometabola: Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu} (Beetles).

The earliest fossil beetle, Adiphlebia lacoana.

Coleoptera contains 350,000 named species and is the largest order of organisms
and 40% of all insects.

Well known beetles are: Ladybugs, Fireflies, Dung beetles, Japanese beetles,
weevils, and scarabs.

Some beetles have horns, in particular the Scarabaeoidea (scarab related
families). The male usually has horns, females very rarely do and they are
always small, which indicates that horns are the product of sexual selection,
or intense competition among males for mating. In many Scarabaeoidea males
fight to control access to breeding sites and to females. Some beetles secrete
defensive fluids, and are bioluminescent (like the familiar Lampyridae more
commonly called "lightning bugs" or "fireflies"). Among all bioluminescent
insects the mechanism of light emission involves a luciferan in the presence of
oxygen, the enzyme luciferase, and ATP. The reaction of these produces
oxyluciferin, CO2 and light.
(Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA  
290,000,000 YBN
239) Gymnosperms: Ginkgophyta (Ginkgos).
290,000,000 YBN
6358) Holometabola: Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps).

The earliest fossil evidence of Hymenoptera is the stem gall of
Pteridotorichnos stipitopteri in the Late Carboniferous. A gall is an abnormal
swelling of plant tissue caused by insects, microorganisms, or external injury.
But the earliest definitive Hymenoptera, recognized by the distinctive wing
venation, are from the Triassic.

The Hymenoptera are currently divided into two suborders: "Symphyta" (sawflies
and wood wasps) and the Apocrita (true wasps or parasitic wasps) which includes
the Aculeata (ants, bees, and other stinging wasps).

In all members of the Hymenoptera order, females have two sets of chromosomes
(are diploid), being the union of two gametes, but males are produced from
unfertilized eggs and so have only a single copy of the genome (are haploid),
although diploid males do sometimes occur. Hymenoptera are well known as
parasitoids. Parasitoids, unlike parasites develop from nutrients extracted
from a single host, and they kill the host as a direct result or indirect
result (a parasite, while inflicting minimal to severe ill effects, does not
kill its host). The host remains alive for the larger part of the of the
parasitoid's period of feeding. Some larvae even change the behavior of their
host to the benefit of the parasitoid. Some bees are cleptoparasitic, instead
of the adult contructing and supplying her own nest, females steal into the
nest of a host bee and deposit an egg into the brood cell before escaping.
290,000,000 YBN
6367) Holometabolous Insects Antliophora (ancestor of Diptera: true flies and
Mecopterids: scorpionflies and fleas).
287,000,000 YBN
6308) Synapsid Therapsids evolve (Cynodonts).

Therapsids evolve from Pelycosaurs and largely replace them for a time as the
dominant terrestrial vertebrates. Therapsids appear in the late Permian and
prosper during the early Triassic. The Therapsids are quadruperal and their
feet have five digits, but their legs are more directly positioned under the
weight of their body. This reflects a more efficient and active mode of
locomotion. Teeth are differentiated into distinct types. Some herbivorous
therapsids become specialized for rooting or grubbing, some for digging, some
for browsing. The overall selection for more efficient terrestrial locomotion
and feeding specializations results in greateer diversity within therapsids.
There is some evidence that therapsids become endothermic in parallel with
their archosaur (avian) contemporaries.

One particularly successful group of therapsids are the cynodonts. Some are
herbivores but more are carnivores. They arise in the late Permian and become
dominant land carnivores in the early part of the Triassic, until largely
replaced by the terrestrial sauropsids of the late Triassic. Cynodonts have
teeth specialized for slicing together with muscular cheeck that keep the food
between tooth rows that chew the food. The Cynodont limbs are direectly under
the body, contributing to the ease and efficiency of ative terrestrial
locomotion. In addition, extensive turbinals are likely present in the nose.
These are thin, scrolled, and folded plates of bone that warm and humidify the
incoming air (as well as hold the olfactory epithelium). These characteristics
suggest that cynodonts had an endothermic metabolism. During their evolution
the cynodonts decline in body size from the size of a large dog to slightly
larger than a weasel. By the Triassic, only one group of cynodonts, the
mammals, will remain and eventually prosper after the great dinosaur
extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous.
280,000,000 YBN
6365) Ancestor of Holometablous insects Neuropterida (Neuroptera: lacewings,
Raphidioptera: snakeflies, and Megaloptera: alderflies and dobsonflies).
280,000,000 YBN
6368) Holometabolous Insects Mecopterids (ancestor of Mecoptera: scorpionflies
and Siphonaptera: fleas).
274,000,000 YBN
307) Ancestor of all Protists: Phaeophyta {FEoFiTu} (Brown Algae).

The Phaeophyta are a phylum (division) of the kingdom Protista consisting of
those organisms commonly called brown algae. Many of the Earth's familiar
seaweeds are members of Phaeophyta. There are approximately 1,500 species. Like
the chrysophytes, brown algae derive their color from the presence, in the cell
chloroplasts, of several brownish carotenoid pigments, including fucoxanthin,
in addition to the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and c. With only a few
exceptions, brown algae are marine, growing in the colder oceans of the world,
many in the tidal zone, where they are subjected to great stress from wave
action; others grow in deep water. Among the brown algae are the largest of all
algae, the giant kelps, which may reach a length of over 100 ft (30 m). Fucus
(rockweed), Sargassum (gulfweed), and the simple filamentous Ectocarpus are
other examples of brown algae.

The cell wall of the brown algae consists of a cellulose differing chemically
from that of plants. The outside is covered with a series of gelatinous pectic
compounds, generically called algin; this substance, for which the large brown
algae, or kelps, of the Pacific coast are harvested commercially, is used
industrially as a stabilizer in emulsions and for other purposes. The normal
food reserve of the brown algal cell is a soluble polysaccharide called
laminarin; mannitol and oil also occur as storage products. The body, or
thallus, of the larger brown algae may contain tissues differentiated for
different functions, with stemlike, rootlike, and leaflike organs, the most
complex structures of all algae.

Some groups of brown algae have evolved an interesting type of alternation of
generations, in which physiologically independent haploid gametophyte plants
produce gametes, the fusion of which initiates the diploid sporophyte
generation. The mature sporophyte plant produces, through meiosis, haploid
spores, which develop into new gametophytes. The two generations, or phases,
may be indistinguishable in size and form, or they may differ greatly. The
genus Ectocarpus, for example, is found growing attached to larger algae. It
has similar-looking gametophyte and sporophyte plants. In the kelps, however,
the gametophyte is only a microscopic filament, in contrast to the occasionally
tree-sized sporophyte.
270,000,000 YBN
240) Gymnosperms: Pinophyta {PInoFiTu} (Conifers: includes Pine, Fir, Spruce,
Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, Hemlock, Larch, and Cypress).

The gymnosperms, are a division of seed plants characterized as vascular plants
with roots, stems, and leaves, and with seeds that are not enclosed in an ovary
but are borne on cone scales or exposed at the end of a stalk.
266,000,000 YBN
308) Protist Stramenopiles: Diatoms.

Diatoms are microscopic one-celled or colonial algae, having cell walls of
silica consisting of two interlocking symmetrical valves.

The silica shell often has intricate and beautiful sculpturing. Diatoms are
usually yellowish or brownish, and are found in fresh and saltwater, in moist
soil, and on the moist surface of plants. Diatoms carry chlorophylls a and c
and the carotenoid fucoxanthin contained in plastids. They reproduce asexually
by cell division.
260,000,000 YBN
232) Earliest warm-blooded and hair growing animal.

This is possibly a therocephalian reptile..

Both birds and mammals are endothermic (also called "warm blooded") as opposed
to other vertebrates which are ectothermic (or "cold blooded) and cannot
internally generate heat.
Endothermy is the physiological maintenance, by a body, of
a constant temperature independent of the external environmental temperature.
Hair for insulation is correlated to endothermy. Endothermy allows birds and
mammals to maintain a high and relatively constant body temperature, even at
rest, during a wide range of external environmental conditions.

Respiratory conchae (or turbinates) (small curved bones in the nasal passage,
some which reduce respiratory water loss with rapid breathing), found in the
primitive therocephalian Glanosuchus and in several cynodonts, are the first
reliable morphological indicator of endothermy. Although the actual nasal
turbinal bones are rarely preserved in fossils, their presence can be deduced
from characteristic ridges on the walls of the nasal cavity. Ridges probably
associated with respiratory turbinals first appear among advanced therapsids,
the therocephalians and cynodonts. This suggests that the evolution of the
higher oxygen consumption rates of mammals may begin as early as the Late
Permian and develop in parallel in therocephalians and cynodonts, with full
mammalian endothermy taking perhaps 40 to 50 million more years to develop.

The earliest fossil that has hair is a Pterosaur fossil that is around 215
million years old, and some argue that Pterosaurs are endothermic

The common ancestor of monotremes is 180 MYBN, and all monotremes are
260,000,000 YBN
364) Ray-finned fishes: Gars.
256,000,000 YBN
6362) Holometabola: Diptera {DiPTRe} true flies, single pair of wings:
mosquito, gnat, fruit fly, house fly).
255,000,000 YBN
389) Reptiles: Tuataras {TUeToRoZ} evolve.

The tuatara is a lizardlike reptile, and is the last survivor of the reptilian
order Rhynchocephalia, which flourishes in the early Mesozoic era before the
rise of the dinosaurs. Also called sphenodon, it is found on islands off the
New Zealand coast and in Karori Wildlife Sanctuary, Wellington, New Zealand.
The olive colored, yellow-speckled tuatara reaches a length of 60 cm (2 ft) or
more. It is very lizardlike in external form, with a crest of spines down its
neck and back. However, its internal anatomy, its scales, and the attachment of
its teeth are different from those of lizards, and its body chemistry allows it
to function at temperatures close to freezing. Like certain lizards, tuataras
have a vestigial third eye (pineal eye) on top of their head, but this organ is
probably not sensitive to light. Tuataras usually inhabit the breeding burrows
of certain small petrels (sea birds). They feed on small animals, especially
insects, and reproduce by laying eggs. Captive tuataras mature in about 20
years, and it appears that their life span may exceed a century by several
(Islands of) New Zealand  
251,400,000 YBN
102) End-Permian mass extinction. 82% of all genera are observed extinct.

The Permian–Triassic extinction event is the Earth's most severe extinction
event, with up to 96% of all marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate
species becoming extinct It is the only known mass extinction of insects.

The are 5 known major mass extinctions.

Many organisms go extinct. Among invertebrates: all fusulinid forminifera,
rugose and tabulate corals, trilobites, eurypterids, strophomenid brachiopods,
and 5 orders of insects go extinct. Among vertebrates: two-thirds of
amphibians, reptiles, and therapsids go extinct.
251,000,000 YBN
54) End of the Paleozoic and start of the Mesozoic Era, and the end of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) and start of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn) period.
251,000,000 YBN
251,000,000 YBN
6306) Oldest fossil amniote egg.
Texas (verify)  
250,000,000 YBN
241) Fourth oldest living Plant Division "Gnetales".
Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra,
Welwitschia 80 species.
250,000,000 YBN
368) Bowfin (Ray-finned) fishes evolve.

Bowfins (Amiiformes) are a primitive bony freshwater fish of central and
eastern North America, with a long spineless dorsal fin.
245,000,000 YBN
392) Reptiles: Crocodilia {KroKoDiLEu} (Crocodiles, allegators, and caimans
{KAmeNS}) evolve.
228,000,000 YBN
412) Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.
(Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina  
228,000,000 YBN
611) Dinosaurs divide into two major lines: Ornithischians {ORnitiSKEiNZ}
(Bird-hipped dinosaurs) and Saurischians {SoriSKEiNZ} (Lizard-hipped
dinosaurs). The Ornithischians will evolve into both bipedal and quadrupedal
plant-eaters (herbavores), and the Saurischians will evolve into bipedal
meat-eaters (carnivores) and quadrupedal plant-eaters.
228,000,000 YBN
6282) Saurischian {SoriSKEiN} Dinosaurs split into two major lines: The
Sauropodomorpha (SoroPiDimORFu} and the Therapoda {tiRoPiDu}.

Sauropodomorphs are divided into prosauropods and sauropods, are mostly
plant-eating, and include the large, long-necked dinosaurs like Apatosaurus.

Theropod {tERePoD} dinosaurs are bipedal and carnivorous and include
Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Velociraptor. All birds descend from a Therapod
(Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina  
228,000,000 YBN
6283) Earliest dinosaur fossil, the Theropod Eoraptor.
This dinosaur is a cat-sized meat
(Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina  
225,000,000 YBN
(Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA  
225,000,000 YBN
6370) Holometabolous Insect Order Tricoptera: Caddisflies. Caddisflies are
closely related to the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).
220,000,000 YBN
400) Earliest mammal fossil (Adelobasileus).

This is a fingernail-sized skull found in Texas.
(Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA  
220,000,000 YBN
428) The first flying vertebrate (Pterosaur).
Oldest Pterosaur fossils (Preondactylus and

Pterosaurs have hair, and some argue have endothermy (are warm-blooded) and
actively fly (contracting their wing muscles to flap, as opposed to only

Bonde and Christiansen cite a report of a juvenile Eudimorphon ranzii with skin
and 'hairy' impressions. However, Benton only cites the pterosaur fossils from
the Upper Jurassic and that the details of pterosaur hair are currently
210,000,000 YBN
317) Reptile Order: Squamata evolves (ancestor of lizards and snakes).
210,000,000 YBN
210,000,000 YBN
390) Reptiles Iguania evolves: (iguanas, chameleons, and spiny lizards).
210,000,000 YBN
391) Reptiles: Scleroglossa evolve (snakes, skinks, and geckos).
210,000,000 YBN
210,000,000 YBN
6313) Earliest extant Teleosts: Bonytongues.

Teleosts (Subdivision Teleostei) are a large group of fishes with bony
skeletons, including most common fishes, different from cartilaginous fishes
such as sharks and rays.

Teleosts will grow to include (bonytongues, eels, herrings, anchovies, carp,
minnows, piranha, salmon, trout, pike, perch, seahorse, cod).

DOMAIN Eukaryota - eukaryotes
KINGDOM Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
(Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
BRANCH Deuterostomia Grobben,
1908 - deuterostomes
INFRAKINGDOM Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998

PHYLUM Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
SUBPHYLUM Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 -
INFRAPHYLUM Gnathostomata auct. - jawed vertebrates
Osteichthyes Huxley, 1880
SUBCLASS Actinopterygii - ray-finned
INFRACLASS Actinopteri

DIVISION Halecostomi

209,500,000 YBN
489) Triconodonta (extinct mammals) evolve.
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
201,600,000 YBN
127) End of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn), and start of the Jurassic
(201.6-145.5 mybn) Period.
201,400,000 YBN
200,000,000 YBN
200,000,000 YBN
200,000,000 YBN
6372) Ornithischians Thyreophora {tIrEoFeru} evolve; ancestor of the armored
ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} and the plated stegosaurs {STeGeSORZ}.

One of the most primitive Thyreophorans is Scutellosaurus which has rows of
armored plates along its body and tail.
(Kayenta Formation) Arizona, USA  
195,000,000 YBN
246) Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ} evolve; ancestor of the large, long-necked dinosaurs
like Apatosaurus {uPaTuSORuS}, Brachiosaurus {BrAKEuSORuS}, and Diplodocus
western USA  
195,000,000 YBN
6373) Ornithischians ornithopoda {ORnitoPiDu} evolve; the duck-billed
dinosaurs, ancestor of the Hadrosaurs.

One of the most primitive Ornithopods is Heterodontosaurus.
190,000,000 YBN
358) Cartilaginous fishes: squalea {SKWAlEo} evolve, ancestor of all rays,
skates, and sawfishes.
190,000,000 YBN
359) Cartilaginous fishes: "Galea" {GAlEu} evolve, (ancestor of all sharks:
includes great white, hammerhead, mako, tiger and nurse sharks).
190,000,000 YBN
371) Teleosts: herrings and anchovies.
190,000,000 YBN
190,000,000 YBN
6347) Holometabola Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu} evolve (moths, butterflies,

The Lepidoptera comprise the largest lineage of plant-feeding organisms. The
plant eating beetles form the other largest group.

Butterflies are only about 6% of all species the Lepidoptera, the rest being
moths. Because unlike the day flying butterflies, moths are generally smaller,
night flying insects, butterflies get all the attention.

The Leptidoptera, among all Orders of insects, appears to have radiated most
Dorset, England  
185,000,000 YBN
194) Earliest diatom fossils.
180,000,000 YBN
456) Biota
Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotes
Kingdom Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals

Subkingdom Bilateria (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
Deuterostomia Grobben, 1908 - deuterostomes
Infrakingdom Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874)
Cavalier-Smith, 1998
Phylum Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates

Subphylum Vertebrata Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
Infraphylum Gnathostomata
auct. - jawed vertebrates
Superclass Tetrapoda Goodrich, 1930 -
Series Amniota
Mammaliaformes Rowe, 1988

Class Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758 - mammals

Subclass Prototheria Gill, 1872:vi
Order Platypoda (Gill,
1872) McKenna in Stucky & McKenna in Benton, ed., 1993:740

Order Tachyglossa (Gill, 1872) McKenna in Stucky & McKenna in Benton, ed.,
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
170,000,000 YBN
372) DOMAIN Eukaryota - eukaryotes
KINGDOM Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Bilateria (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
BRANCH Deuterostomia
Grobben, 1908 - deuterostomes
INFRAKINGDOM Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith,
PHYLUM Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
SUBPHYLUM Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
INFRAPHYLUM Gnathostomata auct. - jawed
CLASS Osteichthyes Huxley, 1880
Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes

INFRACLASS Actinopteri
170,000,000 YBN
373) DOMAIN Eukaryota - eukaryotes
KINGDOM Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Bilateria (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
BRANCH Deuterostomia
Grobben, 1908 - deuterostomes
INFRAKINGDOM Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith,
PHYLUM Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
SUBPHYLUM Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
INFRAPHYLUM Gnathostomata auct. - jawed
CLASS Osteichthyes Huxley, 1880
Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes

INFRACLASS Actinopteri
165,000,000 YBN
457) Ancestor of all Marsupials. This is the last common ancestor of Eutheria
(includes Placental) and Metatheria (includes Marsupial) mammals.

Marsupium means pouch in Latin. Marsupials are born as tiny embryos and crawl
through their mother's fur into the pouch where they clamp their mouths to a
nipple (teat). The other main group of mammals are called placentals because
they feed their embryos with a placenta which allows the baby top be born much
later. The pouch is like an external womb.

The earliest known marsupial is Sinodelphys szalayi, which lived in China
around 125 million years ago (mya).
161,000,000 YBN
6369) Holometabola Siphonaptera: fleas.

The oldest flea fossils, which are much larger than modern species date to this
(Jiulongshan Formation) Daohugou, Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia  
160,000,000 YBN
(Daxigou) Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China  
150,000,000 YBN
330) Stegosaurus, an armored, plant-eating Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereN} dinosaur
lives around this time. Stegosaurus has sharp spikes on its tail and large bony
plates on its back. The plates may be used for display or for controlling its
body temperature.
western USA  
150,000,000 YBN
374) DOMAIN Eukaryota - eukaryotes
KINGDOM Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Bilateria (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983 - bilaterians
BRANCH Deuterostomia
Grobben, 1908 - deuterostomes
INFRAKINGDOM Chordonia (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith,
PHYLUM Chordata Bateson, 1885 - chordates
SUBPHYLUM Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812 - vertebrates
INFRAPHYLUM Gnathostomata auct. - jawed
CLASS Osteichthyes Huxley, 1880
Actinopterygii - ray-finned fishes

INFRACLASS Actinopteri
150,000,000 YBN
150,000,000 YBN
394) Oldest bird (and feather) fossil, Archaeopteryx.

The Archaeopteryx fossil is from the Solnhofen Limestone of the Upper Jurassic
of Germany.

John Ostrom describes the historical background of the Archaeopteryx fossils:
Possibly no other zoological specimens, fossil or Recent, are considered so
nt as are those of Archeopteryx lithographica (see Figs 1, 2 and 3).
Certainly few
other specimens have generated such widespread interest or
provoked as much
speculation and controversy. The reasons are several: these
specimens are the oldest
(Tithonian = Late Jurassic) known fossil bird remains;
they are extremely rare, only
five specimens (excluding the solitary feather) are
known at present; several of
these preserve remarkably detailed impressions of
feathers and an extraordinary
mixture of reptilian and avian characters; and
most important of all, because of
the last fact, out of all presently known fossil
and living organisms, these specimens
are widely recognized as constituting the
best example of an organism perfectly
intermediate between two higher
taxonomic categories-representing an ideal
transitional stage between ancestral
and descendant stocks. Archaeopteryx may well be the
most impressive fossil
evidence of the fact of organic evolution.
The first still-verifiable evidence of Jurassic birds is the imprint of a
solitary feather in a small slab of these same Solnhofen limestones (Fig. 2A).
This find was reported by von
Meyer (1861a) in a letter to Professor H. Bronn,
published in Bronn’s Neues
Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie (p. 561). Less than two months
later, von Meyer
(1861b) reported the discovery in the same limestone strata of a
skeleton associated with distinct impressions of feathers. This find, the now
nown London specimen (Fig. 1A), is currently in the British Museum
(Natural History)
in London. At first, some scholars questioned the authenticity
of both specimens, but von
Meyer (1862) established them as genuine.".

Some scientists view Archaeopteryx as probably a flightless feathered dinosaur.
Solnhofen, Germany  
150,000,000 YBN
6334) Probable fungi microfossils of "Tappania plana" with fused branches, a
process found in higher fungi.
(Wynniatt Formation) Victoria Island, northwestern Canada  
150,000,000 YBN
6374) Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ} are common; large, long-necked dinosaurs like
Apatosaurus {uPaTuSORuS}, Brachiosaurus {BrAKEuSORuS}, and Diplodocus
western USA  
146,000,000 YBN
490) Multituberculata (extinct major branch of mammals) evolve.
145,000,000 YBN
245) The first flowering plant (angiosperm).

Almost all grains, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices come from
plants with flowers. Tea, coffee, chocolate, wine, beer, tequila, and cola all
come from flowing plants. Much of our clothing comes from flowering plants too:
cotton and linen are made from "fibers" of flowering plants, as are rope and
burlap, and many commercial dyes are extracted from other flowering plants.
Many drugs also come from flowering plants including: aspirin, digitalis,
opium, cocaine, marijuana, and tobacco.

Aside from primitive flowers like the Magnoliids, most later angiosperms can be
divided into the more primitive Monocotyledons (Monocots), flowering plants
that have a single cotyledon (seed leaf) in the embryo, and the more recent
Dicotyledons (Dicots), which have two cotyledons in the embryo. The dicots
contain two groups that account for two-thirds of all angiosperm species: the
asterids, and the rosids.

The earliest fossil evidence of angiosperms is pollen 130-140 MYO in Israel,
Morocco, Libya, and possibly China. The earliest macrofossils are leaves and
flowers around 120-130 MYO.

Archaefructus, is an early angiosperm fossil that dates to around 125 MYO from
northeastern China. Archaefrcutus does not have petals or sepals, but does have
carpels and stamens which are attached to an elongated stem with the staminate
(pollen-producing) flowers below, and pistillate (fruit-producing) flowers
above. This ancient flower is similar in some ways to Trithuria, a genus of
Nymphaeles (waterlilies).

Estimates of angiosperm origins based on molecular divergence are typically far
older than those estimates based on fossils. These rate estimates may be a
result of using living species in a group where the basal branches of a lineage
have been extensively pruned by extinction, which may be the case for the
angiosperm tree.
Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly China  
145,000,000 YBN
415) Oldest flower fossil, Archaefructus, in China, a submerged wetland plant.
(Yixian Formation) Liaoning Province, northeastern China  
144,000,000 YBN
128) End of the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 mybn), and start of the Cretaceous
(145.5-65.5 mybn) Period.
143,000,000 YBN
6288) Earliest extant flowering plant (Angiosperm) "Amborella".
140,000,000 YBN
247) The second most primitive living Angiosperms, the Water Lilies

70 species.
138,000,000 YBN
248) Angiosperm "Austrobaileyales".
136,000,000 YBN
249) Angiosperm "Chloranthaceae".

70 living species.
136,000,000 YBN
460) Enantiornithes {iNaNTEORNitEZ} evolve (early birds).
134,000,000 YBN
250) Ancestor of all flowers: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ} (nutmeg, avocado,
sassafras, cinnamon, black and white pepper, camphor, bay (or laurel) leaves,

There are 9,000 living species.
133,000,000 YBN
253) Flowers Eudicots {YUDIKoTS} evolve (the largest lineage of flowers).

Eudicots are also called "tricolpates" which refers to the structure of the

The two main groups of the Eudicots are the "rosids" and the "asterids".
132,000,000 YBN
130,000,000 YBN
375) Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying fish, pufferfish, barracuda.
130,000,000 YBN
376) Teleosts: cod, anglerfish.
130,000,000 YBN
6338) Feathered dinosaur microraptors fossils.
Northeastern China  
125,000,000 YBN
(Yixian Formation) Liaoning Province, northeastern China  
120,000,000 YBN
463) Neornithes {nEORnitEZ} evolve (modern birds: the most recent common
ancestor of all living birds).

Neornithes is the subclass of Aves that contains all of the known birds other
than those placed in the Archaeornithes. Neornithes includes more than 30
orders, both fossil and living, its members are characterized by a bony, keeled
sternum with fully developed powers of flapping flight (secondarily lost in a
number of groups); a short tail with fused vertebrae to which all tail feathers
attach; a large fused pelvic girdle; and a large brain and eyes contained
within a fused braincase. In addition Neornithes have a fully-separated
four-chambered heart and typically exhibit complex social behaviors.
120,000,000 YBN
6361) Bees. The earliest bee fossil is from the Late Cretaceous, but presumed
nests that date to 95 MYO indicate that bees are older, perhaps as old as
around 120 MYO.
119,000,000 YBN
251) Ancestor of all Angiosperm "Ceratophyllaceae".

Closest surviving relative of all eudicots.

6 living species.
112,000,000 YBN
252) Flowers Monocotyledons (or "Monocots") evolve: Flowering plants that have
a single cotyledon (or seed leaf) in the embryo.

Monocots are the second largest lineage of flowers after the Eudicots (formally
Dicotyledons) with
70,000 living species (20,000 species of orchids, and 15,000
species of grasses).

The two main orders of Monocots are "Base Monocots" and "Commelinids".
112,000,000 YBN
481) Earliest Monotreme fossil, Steropodon galmani, the earliest platypus-like
Earliest Monotreme fossil, Steropodon galmani, the earliest platypus-like
Lightning Ridge in north central New South Wales, Australia  
110,000,000 YBN
Oklahoma, USA  
108,000,000 YBN
254) Flowers: "Basal Eudicots" (buttercup, clematis, poppy (source of opium and
morphine), macadamia, lotus, sycamore).
106,000,000 YBN
267) Flowers "Core Eudicots" (carnation, cactus, caper, buckwheat, rhubarb,
sundew, venus flytrap, old world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa, spinach,
currant, sweet gum, peony, witch-hazel, mistletoe, grape plants.).
105,000,000 YBN
417) Sauropod Argentinosaurus {oRJeNTiNuSORuS}, a long-neck (sauropod)
titanosaur from South America, possibly the longest animal of all time, at an
estimated 130 to 140 feet length.
105,000,000 YBN
491) Ancestor of all placental mammal Afrotheres evolves (elephants, manatees,

Afrotheres originate in Africa and are the earliest extant placental mammals.
100,000,000 YBN
100,000,000 YBN
South America  
100,000,000 YBN
100,000,000 YBN
465) Birds "Ratites" evolve (ostrich, emu, cassowary {KaSOwaRE}, kiwis).
100,000,000 YBN
480) Kollikodon ritchiei, an extinct monotreme.
95,000,000 YBN
419) The Therapod {tERePoD} Spinosaurus {SPINuSORuS}, perhaps the largest
meat-eating dinosaur, estimated to have been 45 to 50 feet long.

The only skeleton ever found was destroyed during World War 2.
95,000,000 YBN
498) Mammals "Xenarthrans" {ZeNoRtreNZ} evolve (Sloths, Anteaters, Armadillos).
93,000,000 YBN
256) Flowers: "Rosids" evolve (Basal Rosids include: geranium, pomegranate,
myrtle, clove, guava, allspice, and eucalyptus).
93,000,000 YBN
258) Flowers "Eurosid I" Order "Celastrales".
93,000,000 YBN
261) Angiosperm Eudicot "Eurosids I" Order "Fabales" {FoBAlEZ}.

Fabales include many beans (green, lima, kidney, pinto, navy, black, mung,
fava, cow (or black-eyed), popping), pea, peanut, soy {used in tofu, miso,
tempeh, and milk}, lentil, chick pea (or garbonzo) {used in falafel}, lupin,
clover, alfalfa {used as sprouts}, cassia {Kasu}, jicama, Judas tree, tamarind
{TaMuriND}, acacia {uKAsYu}, mesquite.
93,000,000 YBN
265) Angiosperms "Base Monocots" evolve (vanilla, orchid, asparagus, onion,
garlic, agave, aloe, lily).
93,000,000 YBN
266) Monocots "Commelinids" {KomelIniDZ} evolve (palms, coconut, corn, rice,
barley, oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo, grass, pineapple, papyrus, turmeric
{TRmRiK}, banana, ginger).
93,000,000 YBN
268) Angiosperm Eudicot "Eurosids I" Order "Zygophyllales" evolves.
93,000,000 YBN
274) Ancestor of flowers "Basal Asterids". Earliest surviving Order "Cornales"
(dogwoods, tupelos, dove tree).
93,000,000 YBN
275) Angiosperm "Basal Asterids" Order "Ericales" {AReKAlEZ} .
Ericales includes
kiwifruit (kiwi), Impatiens, ebony, persimmon, heather, crowberry,
rhododendrons, azalias, cranberries, blueberries, lingonberry, bilberry,
huckleberry, brazil nut, primrose, sapodilla, mamey sapote (sapota), chicle,
balatá, canistel, new world pitcher plants {carniverous}, tea {Camellia
93,000,000 YBN
277) Angiosperm "Euasterids I" evolve, with earliest surviving order
93,000,000 YBN
282) Angiosperm "Euasterids II" order "Aquifoliales" (includes holly).
93,000,000 YBN
283) Angiosperm "Euasterids II" order "Apiales" {APEAlEZ} evolving now.
includes dill, angelica, chervil {CRViL}, celery, caraway, cumin, sea holly,
poison hemlock, coriander (or cilantro), carrot, lovage {LuViJ}, parsnip, anise
{aNiS}, fennel, cicely {SiSelE}, parsley, ivy, ginseng.
93,000,000 YBN
285) Angiosperms "Euasterids II" order "Asterales" {aSTRAlEZ} evolves.

Asterales includes burdock, tarragon, daisy, marigold, safflower, chrysanthemum
(mums), chickory, endive, artichoke, sunflower, sunroot (Jerusalem artichoke),
lettuce, chamomile, black-eyed susan, salsify {SoLSiFE}, dandelion, and zinnia.
91,000,000 YBN
259) Flowers: Eurosid I "Malpighiales" {maLPiGEAlEZ} evolves (includes gamboge
{GaM BOJ}, mangosteen {mANGuSTEN}, coca {used in cocaine and drinks}, rubber
tree, cassava (or manioc {maNEoK}) {used like a potato, and in tapioca}, castor
oil, poinsettia, flax, acerola {aSorOlu} (barbados cherry), willow, poplar,
aspen, and violet (or pansy).
91,000,000 YBN
260) Angiosperm Eudicot "Eurosids I" Order "Oxalidales" (fly-catcher plant,
wood sorrel family {leaves show "sleep movements"}, oca {edible tuber}).
90,000,000 YBN
270) Angiosperm Eudicots "Eurosids II" evolves: the most primitive Order is
"Brassicales" {BraSiKAlEZ}.

Brassicales includes horseradish, rapeseed, mustard {plain, brown, black,
indian, sarepta, asian}, rutabaga, kale, Chinese broccoli (kai-lan {KI laN}),
cauliflower, collard greens, cabbage (white and red {used in coleslaw and
sauerkraut}), Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi {KOLroBE}, broccoli, watercress,
radish, wasabi, mignonette {miNYuNeT}, and papaya.
89,000,000 YBN
262) Angiosperm "Eurosids I" Order "Rosales" {ROZAlEZ}.

Rosales includes hemp (cannibis, marijuana) {used for rope, oil, recreational
drug}, hackberry, hop {used in beer}, breadfruit, cempedak, jackfruit, marang,
paper mulberry, fig, banyan, strawberry, rose, red raspberry, black raspberry,
blackberry, cloudberry, loganberry, salmonberry, thimbleberry, serviceberry,
chokeberry, quince, loquat, apple, crabapple, pear, plum, cherry, peach,
apricot, almond, jujube, and elm.
89,000,000 YBN
279) Flowers "Euasterids I" order "Gentianales" {JeNsinAlEZ} evolves.
s includes gentian, dogbane, carissa (Natal plum), oleander, logania, and
88,000,000 YBN
284) Angiosperm "Euasterids II" order "Dipsacales".
Dipsacales includes Elderberry,
Honeysuckle, Teasel, Corn Salad.
86,000,000 YBN
278) Angiosperm "Euasterids I" order "Solanales" {SOlanAlEZ} evolve.
includes deadly nightshade or belladonna, capsicum (bell pepper, paprika,
Jalapeño, Pimento), cayenne pepper {KI YeN}, datura, tomato, mandrake,
tobacco, petunia, tomatillo, potato, eggplant, morning glory, sweet potato, and
water spinach.
85,000,000 YBN
263) Angiosperm "Eurosids I" Order "Cucurbitales" (KYUKRBiTAlEZ} evolve.
includes watermelon, musk, cantaloupe, honeydew, casaba, cucumbers, gourds,
pumpkins, squashes (acorn, buttercup, butternut, cushaw {Kuso}, hubbard,
pattypan, spaghetti), zucchini, and begonia.
85,000,000 YBN
264) Angiosperm "Eurosids I" Order "Fagales" {FaGAlEZ} evolves.
Fagales includes many
flowers that produce edible nuts: Birch, Hazel {nut}, Filbert {nut}, Chestnut,
Beech {nut}, Oak {used for wood, and cork}, Walnut, Pecan, Hickory, and
85,000,000 YBN
466) Birds "Galliformes" {GaLliFORmEZ} evolve (Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant,
Peacock, Quail).
85,000,000 YBN
467) Birds "Anseriformes" {aNSRiFORmEZ} evolve (waterfowl: ducks, geese,

The "Anseriformes" are an order of birds, characterized by a broad, flat bill
and webbed feet.
85,000,000 YBN
499) Ancestor of all placental mammal "Laurasiatheres" evolves. This major line
of mammals includes the Insectivora (shrews, moles, hedgehogs), Chiroptera
(bats), Cetartiodactyla (camels, pigs, deer, sheep, hippos, whales),
Perissodactyla (horses, rhinos), Carnivora (cats, dogs, bears, seals, walruses)
and Pholidota (pangolins).

Laurasiatheres originate in the old northern continent Laurasia.
84,000,000 YBN
454) The Rocky mountains start to form.
82,000,000 YBN
271) Angiosperm "Eurosids II" Order "Malvales" {moLVAlEZ} evolve.
Malvales includes
okra, marsh mallow {malO}, kola nut, cotton, hibiscus, balsa, and cacao {KoKoU}
(used in chocolate).
82,000,000 YBN
272) Angiosperm "Eurosids II" Order "Sapindales" {SaPiNDAlEZ} evolves.
Sapindales includes maple, buckeye, horse chestnut, longan, lychee, rambutan,
guarana, bael, langsat (or duku), mahogany, cashew, mango, pistachio, sumac,
peppertree, poison-ivy, frankincense, and the citris trees: orange, lemon,
grapefruit, lime, tangerine, pomelo, and kumquat}.
82,000,000 YBN
420) Hadrosaurs, Ornithopod {ORniTePoD} duck-billed dinosaurs.

Duck-billed dinosaurs (hadrosaurs) are common. The Hadrosaurs Maiasaurs are
examples of dinosaurs from which fossil nests, eggs, and baby dinosaurs have
been found.
82,000,000 YBN
500) Laurasiatheres "Insectivora" evolves (shrews, moles, hedgehogs).
81,000,000 YBN
281) Angiosperms "Euasterids I" family "Boraginaceae" (includes forget-me-not).
80,000,000 YBN
421) The Ornithiscian Ceratopsian dinosaurs evolve. Protoceratops, an early
shield-headed (ceratopsian) dinosaur fossil.

This is the first dinosaur discovered with fossil eggs. These eggs and nests
were found in Mongolia in the 1920's.
Mongolia, China  
80,000,000 YBN
422) Therapods {tERePoD} Dromaeosaurs {DrOmEoSORZ}: Raptor fossils.

Raptors (dromaeosaurs) are Cretaceous dinosaurs, which have large, hook claws
on their feet. Velociraptor is one example.

The most famous Velociraptor is a skeleton preserved in combat with a
Protoceratops from Mongolia, China.
80,000,000 YBN
482) Marsupials "Didelphimorphia" evolve (New World opossums).
80,000,000 YBN
501) Laurasiatheres mammals "Megachiroptera" {KIroPTRu} (Old World fruit bats)
and "Microchiroptera" (Echolocating Bats) evolve.
78,000,000 YBN
502) Laurasiatheres "Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu} evolve (ancestor of all
Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu} also called "even-toed ungulates" {uNGYUlATS or
uNGYUliTS}: camels, pigs, ruminants {includes deer, giraffe, cattle, sheep, and
antelope}, hippos, and all Cetacea {SiTASEu or SiTAsEu}: Whales, and

Hippos are the closest living relative to whales.

Cetartiodactyla is an unranked taxonomic group, equivalent to a superorder,
containing the orders Artiodactyla and Cetacea. It is proposed on the basis of
molecular evidence suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between the two

The artiodactyla are an order comprising the even-toed ungulates (hoofed
mammals). There are two main radiations: the predominantly omnivorous
Bunodontia, including suoids (such as pigs, peccaries, and hippos); and the
more herbivorous Selenodontia, including camels and ruminants (such as deer,
giraffe, cattle, sheep, and antelope). Artiodactyla contains about 213 living
species, making it the fifth most speciose order of mammals. First known from
the early Eocene, artiodactyls have proliferated during the last 55 million
years to reach great diversity (especially among the family Bovidae). Their
radiation is often contrasted with that of the odd-toed ungulates, or
Perissodactyla (horses, rhinos, and tapirs). Artiodactyls are also important
for human economy and agriculture, comprising most of the domestic animals,
providing milk, wool, and most of the meat supply.

Ruminants are any of various hoofed, even-toed, usually horned mammals of the
suborder Ruminantia, such as cattle, sheep, goats, deer, and giraffes,
characteristically having a stomach divided into four compartments and chewing
a cud consisting of regurgitated, partially digested food.

Cetacea is an order or marine mammals that includes the whales, dolphins, and
porpoises, characterized by a nearly hairless body, anterior limbs modified
into broad flippers, vestigial posterior limbs, and a flat notched tail.
77,000,000 YBN
483) Marsupials "Paucituberculata" evolve (Shrew opossums).

The Marsupial Order Paucituberculata contains 6 surviving species confined to
Andes mountains in South America.
Andes Mountains, South America  
76,000,000 YBN
503) Laurasiatheres order "Perissodactyla" {PeriSODaKTilu} evolve (also called
"odd-toed ungulates") {uNGYUlATS or uNGYUliTS} (Horses, Tapirs {TAPRZ },

Perissodactyla is an order of herbivorous, odd-toed, hoofed mammals, including
the living horses, zebras, asses, tapirs, rhinoceroses, and their extinct
relatives. They are defined by a number of unique specializations, but the most
diagnostic feature is their feet. Most perissodactyls have either one or three
toes on each foot, and the axis of symmetry of the foot runs through the middle
75,000,000 YBN
423) Ceratopsian dinosaurs are common (Monoclonius, Styrakosaurus,
Triceratops). Triceratops, is the largest of its kind, reaching 30 feet in
75,000,000 YBN
492) Afrotheres: Aardvark.
75,000,000 YBN
504) Laurasiatheres order "Carnivora" (Cats, Dogs, Bears, Weasels, Hyenas,
Seals, Walruses).
75,000,000 YBN
74,000,000 YBN
280) Angiosperm "Euasterids I" order "Lamiales" {lAmEAlEZ} evolves.

Lamiales includes lavender, mint, peppermint, basil, marjoram {moRJ uruM},
oregano, perilla, rosemary, sage, savory, thyme, teak, sesame, corkscrew
plants, bladderwort, snapdragon, olive, ash, lilac, and jasmine.
73,000,000 YBN
484) Australian Marsupial Order Peramelemorphia evolves (Bandicoots and Bilbies
70,000,000 YBN
424) Two of the largest meat-eating dinosaurs known are common (both Therapods
{tERePoD}): Tyrannosaurus rex is the top predator in North America and
Giganotosaurus is in South America.
70,000,000 YBN
425) The Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereNZ} ankylosaurs evolve (shield back and/or
clubbed tail dinosaurs) and are the most heavily armored land-animals known.
These plant-eating dinosaurs are low to the ground for optimal protection. Many
have spikes that stick out from their bone-covered back. Ankylosaurus even has
bony plates on its eyelids.
70,000,000 YBN
426) Mosasaurs {mOSeSORZ}, marine reptiles evolve.
70,000,000 YBN
469) Birds "Podicipediformes" {PoDiSiPeDeFORmEZ} (grebes {GreBS}).
70,000,000 YBN
493) Afrotheres: Tenrecs and golden moles.
70,000,000 YBN
494) Afrotheres: Elephant Shrews.
70,000,000 YBN
507) Placental Mammal Order "Lagomorpha": Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas {PIKuZ}.

Rabbits were once classified as rodents, because they also have very prominent
gnawing teeth at the front, but were separated into their own order called
"Lagomorpha". Lagomorphs and rodents are grouped together in a cohort named
70,000,000 YBN
516) Placental Mammals: Tree Shrews and Colugos {KolUGOZ}.
70,000,000 YBN
1383) Theropod Giant bird-like dinosaur Gigantoraptor.
66,000,000 YBN
120) Largest Pterosaur and largest flying animal ever known, Quetzalcoatlus
Quetzalcoatlus has a wing span of 40 ft.
65,500,000 YBN
129) End of the Mesozoic and start of the Cenozoic Era, and the end of the
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 mybn), and start of the Tertiary (65.5-1.8 mybn) Period.
65,500,000 YBN
397) End-Cretaceous mass extinction. 47% of all genera are observed extinct.
become extinct.
Also called the K-T (Kretaceous-Tertiary) extinction.
Huge amounts of lava erupted
from India, and a comet or meteor collided with the Earth in what is now the
Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. No large animals survived on land, in the air, or
in the sea.

Extinction of 60% of plant species, and all dinosaurs, mosasaurs, pterodactyls,
plesiosaurs and pliosaurs.
65,000,000 YBN
429) There is a rapid increase in new species of fossil mammals after the
extinction of the dinosaurs.

Most early Cenozoic mammal fossils are small.
65,000,000 YBN
468) Birds "Gruiformes" {GrUiFORmEZ} evolve (cranes, rails, bustards).
65,000,000 YBN
470) Birds "Strigiformes" {STriJiFORmEZ} evolve (owls).
65,000,000 YBN
485) Australian marsupial order "Notoryctemorphia" evolve (Marsupial moles).
65,000,000 YBN
486) Australian Marsupial order "Dasyuromorphia" (Tasmanian Devil, Numbat).
65,000,000 YBN
487) Marsupial Order "Microbiotheria" evolves (Monita Del Monte).
65,000,000 YBN
488) Australian Marsupial Order "Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu} evolve
(Wombats, Kangeroos, Possums, Koalas).
65,000,000 YBN
508) Rodents evolve. Mammal Order "Rodentia".
Rodent suborder: "Myomorpha" {MIemORFu}
(rats, mice, gerbils, voles {VOLZ}, lemmings, hamsters).

Rodents are an order of mammals characterized by a single pair of ever-growing
upper and lower incisors, a maximum of five upper and four lower cheek teeth on
each side, and free movement of the lower jaw in an anteroposterior direction.

Rodents are the most diverse group of mammals on Earth, consisting of over 2000
species, more than 40% of the known species of mammals on Earth today. Rodents
range in size from mice, weighing only a few grams, to the Central American
capybara, which is up to 130 cm (4 ft) in length and weighs up to 79 kg (170
lb). Rodents have been found on every continent except Antarctica. Rodents
include the semiaquatic swimming (beavers and muskrats), gliding ("flying"
squirrels), burrowing (gophers and African mole rats), arboreal (dormice and
tree squirrels), and hopping (kangaroo rats and jerboas). Nearly all rodents
are herbivorous, with a few exceptions that are partially insectivorous to
totally omnivorous, such as the domestic rat. The great adaptability and rapid
evolution and diversity of rodents are mainly due to their short gestation
periods (only 3 weeks in some mice) and rapid turnover of generations. The most
diagnostic feature of the Rodentia is the presence of two pair of ever-growing
incisors (one pair above and one below) at the front of the jaws. These teeth
have enamel only on the front surface, which allows them to wear into a
chisellike shape, giving rodents the ability to gnaw.
65,000,000 YBN
509) Rodents: Beavers, Pocket gophers, Pocket mice and kangaroo rats evolve.
65,000,000 YBN
807) Ancestor of camels and llamas splits from the Even-Toed Ungulates line

This is just after death of dinosaurs. Both these ancestors are still small
and probably look like shrews.
64,000,000 YBN
585) Birds Psittaciformes {SiTaS-iFORmEZ} (Parrots).
63,000,000 YBN
510) Rodents: Springhares and Scaly-tailed Squirrels.
63,000,000 YBN
587) Primates evolve, most likely in Africa or the Indian subcontinent.

The order primates contains more than 300 species, including monkeys, apes, and
humans. The primates are one of the most diverse orders of mammals on Earth.
They include the lemurs (more than 70 species in six families), the lorises
(three or more species in one subfamily), the tarsiers (six or more species in
one family), the New World monkeys (almost 100 species in five families), the
Old World monkeys (more than 100 species in one family), and the apes and
humans (about 20 species in two families). The oldest known fossil remains of
primates are about 60 million years old.

Unlike most other mammalian orders, the primates cannot be defined by a
diagnostic suite of specializations, but are characterized by a combination of
primitive features and progressive trends. These include: 1) Increased
dominance of vision over olfaction, with eyes more frontally directed,
development of stereoscopic vision, and reduction in the length of the snout.
2) Eye sockets of the skull completely encircled by bone. 3) Loss of an incisor
and premolar from each half of the upper and lower jaws with respect to
primitive placental mammals. 4) Increased size and complexity of the brain,
especially those centers involving vision, memory, and learning. 5) Development
of grasping hands and feet, with a tendency to use the hands rather than the
snout as the primary exploratory and manipulative organ. 6) Progressive
elaboration of the placenta in conjunction with longer gestation period, small
litter size (only one or two infants), and precocial young. 7) Increased period
of infant dependency and more intensive parenting.
Africa or India  
62,000,000 YBN
495) Afrotheres: Elephants.
60,000,000 YBN
430) In South America, the Andes mountains start to form.
60,000,000 YBN
431) Earliest fossil rodent.
60,000,000 YBN
432) The cat-like Laurasiatheres Creodonts {KrEuDoNTS} like Oxyaena are

Creodonts are the dominant predators throughout the Eocene and Oligocene and
occupy many of the same niches as the carnivores which eventually replace them.
There are two families of Creodonts, Oxyaenidae and the more widespread
Hyaenodontidae which includes Megistotherium one of the largest land predators
to have ever lived.

The last creodont, Dissopsalis carnifex, became extinct about 9 million years
ago, giving the group a more than 50-million-year history.
60,000,000 YBN
586) Earliest primate fossils.

The earliest primate fossils belong to the primate order "Plesiadapiformes" and
are found near the start of the Paleocene (~55 mybn). These include Purgatorius
from Montana, Plesiadapis, and Dryomomys from Wyoming, and Altiatlasius which
appears in Africa and is known from a handful of isolated upper and lower teeth
from Morocco.

During the early Cenozoic the Earth is much warmer and more densely populated
with plants and trees, and there is a large diversity of different early
primates, but the planet becomes cooler and drier in the Oligocene and the
forests disappear and primates vanish from North America and Europe and become
restricted to Southeast Asia and Africa. During the Oligocene, one group of
primates, the New World Monkeys (Cebidae) manage to cross the South Atlantic
Ocean and then radiate into great diversity.
Morocco, Africa, (Willwood Formation) Clarks Fork Basin, Wyoming, USA), and
Montana, USA  
60,000,000 YBN
60,000,000 YBN
808) The ancestors of pigs splits from the line that leads to the Ruminants
(cattle, goats, sheep, giraffes, bison, buffalo, deer, wildebeast, antelope),
hippos, dolphins, and whales.
59,000,000 YBN
496) Afrotheres: Hyraxes.
59,000,000 YBN
497) Afrotheres: Manatee and Dugong.
58,000,000 YBN
511) Rodents: Dormice, Mountain Beaver, Squirrels and Marmots {moRmuTS}.
58,000,000 YBN
524) Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ}.
57,000,000 YBN
433) Earliest hooved mammal fossil.
Earliest hooved mammal fossil.
55,800,000 YBN
588) Widespread appearance of primates.

Cantius and Teilhardina are the earliest euprimates in North America, followed
quickly by Steinius and others. Cantius and Teilhardina also appear in Europe
with Donrussellia.
55,000,000 YBN
435) Rhinoceros-like Placental mammals Uintatherium {YUiNTutEREuM} are the
largest land animals at this time.
55,000,000 YBN
436) Horses. Earliest fossil horse, Hyractotherium, about the size of a dog).
55,000,000 YBN
55,000,000 YBN
809) Last common ancestor of Ruminants with Hippos, Dolphins and Whales.
54,970,000 YBN
434) Earliest primate skull.

From the Hunan Province, China. Other fossils from the same genus are found in
The earliest euprimates can be distinguished as Cantius, Donrussellia and
Hunan Province, China  
54,000,000 YBN
810) Last common ancestor between hippos with dolphins and whales.
53,500,000 YBN
812) Earliest fossils of marine mammal "Pakicetus".
52,500,000 YBN
6179) Earliest bat fossils (Icaronycteris and Onychonycteris).
(Green River Formation) Wyoming  
51,000,000 YBN
513) Rodents: Old World Porcupines.
50,000,000 YBN
437) Elephants. Earliest elephant fossil, an unnamed fossil from Algeria.
Algeria, Africa  
50,000,000 YBN
438) Himalayan mountains start to form as India collides with Eurasia.
will continue for millions of years.
Himalyia Mountains, India  
50,000,000 YBN
518) Primates: Lorises {LORiSEZ}, Bushbabies, Pottos {PoTTOZ}.
50,000,000 YBN
816) Earliest Ambulocetus (an early whale) fossil.
49,000,000 YBN
439) The largest meat-eating land animals of the Paleocene and Eocene epochs
were flightless birds, like Diatryma from America, and Gastornis from Europe.
49,000,000 YBN
472) Birds "Caprimulgiformes" (nightjars, night hawks, potoos, oilbirds).
49,000,000 YBN
474) Birds "Falconiformes" {FaLKeNiFORmEZ} (falcons, hawks, eagles, Old World
49,000,000 YBN
49,000,000 YBN
515) Rodents: New World porcupines, guinea pigs, agoutis {uGUTEZ}, capybaras
46,000,000 YBN
817) Earliest Rodhocetus fossil (early whale).
45,000,000 YBN
519) Primate: Aye-aye {I-I}.
40,000,000 YBN
440) In Europe the Alpine mountains start to form.
Alpine mountains  
40,000,000 YBN
40,000,000 YBN
525) Ancestor of all Primates "New World Monkeys" (Sakis, Spider, Howler and
Squirrel monkeys, Capuchins {KaP YU CiNZ}, Tamarins).

The ancestor of all New World monkeys probably originates in Africa, but all
surviving descendants now live in the Americas, which suggests that a small
group of New World monkeys got across the early Atlantic Ocean to South
America, perhaps by rafting on fallen trees over a chain of islands.
40,000,000 YBN
815) Earliest Basilosaurus fossil (early whale).
Basilosaurus was renamed "Zeuglodon"
by Richard Owen because it is a mammal not a reptile (saurus=lizard).
37,000,000 YBN
442) Oldest fossil of dog, similar to a weasel, Hesperocyon.
37,000,000 YBN
471) Birds "Apodiformes" {oPoD-i-FORmEZ} (hummingbirds, swifts).
37,000,000 YBN
37,000,000 YBN
475) Birds: Cuculiformes {KUKUliFORmEZ} evolve (cuckoos, roadrunners).
37,000,000 YBN
476) Birds "Piciformes" {PESiFORmEZ} (woodpeckers, toucans).
35,000,000 YBN
811) Last common ancestor of dolphins and whales.

(Toothed and Baleen split.)
34,000,000 YBN
34,000,000 YBN
814) Earliest Baleen {BulEN} whale fossils, Janjucetus and Llanocetus.
33,000,000 YBN
560) Primates Aegyptopithecus evolves in East Africa.
30,000,000 YBN
443) The largest land mammal ever known, the hornless Rhinoceros,
Paraceratherium lives at this time.
30,000,000 YBN
520) Primates: True Lemurs.
28,000,000 YBN
477) Birds "Passeriformes" {PaSRiFORmEZ} (perching songbirds) evolve. This
order includes many common birds: crows, jays, sparrows, warblers,
mockingbirds, robins, orioles, bluebirds, vireos {VEREOZ}, larks, finches.

More than half of all species of bird are passerines. Sometimes known as
perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines are one of the
most spectacularly successful vertebrate orders: with around 5,400 species,
they are roughly twice as diverse as the largest of the mammal orders, the
27,000,000 YBN
25,000,000 YBN
444) Earliest cat fossil, "Proailurus".
25,000,000 YBN
25,000,000 YBN
531) Ancestor of all Primates "Old World Monkeys" (Macaques, Baboons,
Mandrills, Proboscis and Colobus {KoLiBeS} monkeys).

This is also the last common ancestor of the Old World monkeys and the
hominoids, the superfamily Hominoidea, which includes apes and humans.

There are around 100 species of Old World Monkey.
(perhaps around Lake Victoria) Africa  
24,000,000 YBN
662) The ancestor of all Hominoids (Gibbons and Hominids) loses its tail.

This may be a genetic mutation or because a tail might be an obstacle for
species like gibbons that swing from branch to branch as opposed to more
ancient primates that leap from branches.
23,000,000 YBN
478) Monotreme: Echidna.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
23,000,000 YBN
479) Monotreme: Duck-Billed Platypus.
Australia and Tasmania  
22,000,000 YBN
526) New World Monkeys: Sakis, Uakaris {WoKoREZ}, and Titis {TETEZ}.
22,000,000 YBN
527) New World Monkeys: Howler, Spider and Woolly monkeys.

22,000,000 YBN
528) New World Monkeys: Capuchin {KaPYUCiN} and Squirrel monkeys.

22,000,000 YBN
558) Afropithecus evolves in Africa.

This tree-dwelling ape had some anatomical features in common with the
better-known Proconsul, and it also seems to have been closely related to
Sivapithecus as well.
22,000,000 YBN
559) Hominoid Proconsul evolves in East Africa.
21,000,000 YBN
529) New World Monkeys: Night (or Owl) monkeys.
21,000,000 YBN
530) New World Monkeys: Tamarins {TaMariNZ} and Marmosets {moRmoSeTS}.
21,000,000 YBN
556) Hominoid Kenyapithecus evolves in Africa.
20,000,000 YBN
549) The ancestor of all Homonids may move (over land) from Africa into

An alternative theory has this ancestor in Africa, with a large number of
Africa to Eurasia migrations by later species.
18,000,000 YBN
537) Primates: Gibbons.
Gibbons are very sexual, and polygamous.
There are 12 species of Gibbons.
South-East Asia  
16,000,000 YBN
555) Hominoid Oreopithecus.
15,000,000 YBN
553) Lufengpithecus evolves in China.

14,000,000 YBN
542) Earliest extant Hominid: Orangutans.
South-East Asia  
13,000,000 YBN
551) Dryopithecus evolves in Eurasia.
12,500,000 YBN
552) Hominoid Sivapithecus, possible ancestor of modern orangutan. The animal
was about the size of a chimpanzee but had the facial morphology of an
orangutan; it ate soft fruit (detected in the toothwear pattern) and was
probably mainly arboreal.
Petwar platein, Pakistan and India  
10,500,000 YBN
538) Gibbons: Crested Gibbons.
South-East Asia  
10,000,000 YBN
533) Old World Monkeys: Colobus {KoLiBeS} monkeys.
10,000,000 YBN
534) Old World Monkeys: Langurs {LoNGURZ} and Proboscis monkeys.

10,000,000 YBN
535) Old World Monkeys: Guenons {GenONZ}.

10,000,000 YBN
543) Hominids: Gorillas evolve in Africa.

The earliest possible Gorilla fossils, are some teeth found in Ethiopia and
date to around 10 million years old and a jaw from Kenya that is around 9.8
million years old.
9,000,000 YBN
550) The ancestor of all Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and archaic humans may move
over land from Eurasia back into Africa.

Alternatively, this ancestor could have evolved in Africa if many earlier
ancestors frequently migrated to Eurasia.
7,750,000 YBN
539) Gibbons: Siamangs {SEumANGZ}.
South-East Asia  
6,000,000 YBN
540) Gibbons: Hylobates {HIlOBATEZ}.
South-East Asia  
6,000,000 YBN
541) Gibbons: Hoolocks {HUleKS}.
South-East Asia  
6,000,000 YBN
544) Chimpanzees evolve. Last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.
6,000,000 YBN
565) Hominid fossils "Toumai" (Sahelanthropus), from Chad, central Africa
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Subfamily: Homininae
Tribe: Hominini
Subtribe: Hominina
Sahelanthropus (Brunet et al, 2002)
Species: S. tchadensis (Brunet et al, 2002)
Chad, Central Africa  
6,000,000 YBN
566) Hominid fossils "Orrorin" in Kenya, east Africa.
Lukeino Formation, Kenya  
6,000,000 YBN
5,000,000 YBN
554) Hominid Gigantopithecus {JIGaNTOPitiKuS} evolves in China.
4,400,000 YBN
546) Hominid: Ardipithecus. Earliest bipedal primate.

Some theories to explain why bipedalism evolved are:
1) to carry food home, for
later use or for others (a leopard uses its jaws)
2) using weapons is easier
3) walking may
be more efficient in traveling long distances.
4) sexual selection

Primates walking upright on two legs may signal that hominids have become the
top of the food chain on land, which might be the result of the use of tools,
since other land animals cannot defend themselves or attack others with tools.
Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya, Africa  
4,000,000 YBN
547) Hominid: Australopithecus (x-STrA-lO-PitiKuS}.
Sterkfontein, South Africa  
3,700,000 YBN
570) Hominid footprints in Laetoli {lITOlE}, thought to be made by
Australopithicus Afarensis.

Some analysts have noted that the smaller of the two clearest trails suggests
that whoever left the prints was burdened on one side - perhaps a female
carrying an infant on her hip.
Laetoli, Tanzania  
3,390,000 YBN
269) Hominids use stones as tools. Earliest evidence of stone used as tool.
Dikika, Ethiopia  
3,180,000 YBN
571) Australopithecus afarensis fossil, "Lucy".
3,000,000 YBN
446) North and South America connect.
2,700,000 YBN
564) Hominid: Paranthropus {Pa raN tru PuS}, a line of extinct early bipedal
2,500,000 YBN
455) Oldest formed stone tools.

This begins the Paleolithic or "Stone Age".

Other species have been observed to use tools, including Chimpanzees using
sticks they sharpen with their teeth to rouse pray.
Gona, Ethiopia  
2,400,000 YBN
2,200,000 YBN
447) Hominids: Homo Habilis evolve in Africa (earliest member of the genus

This is when the human brain begins to get bigger.

Homo habilis is thought to be the ancestor of Homo ergaster.

As the habilis brain grows, habilis gains a larger memory for storing sensory
information such as eye images, sounds, pain, etc. and to play back remembered
images and sounds in thought.
(Kenya and Tanzania) Africa  
2,000,000 YBN
545) Hominids: Bonobos {BunOBOZ}.
1,800,000 YBN
130) End of the Tertiary {TRsEARE} (65-1.8 mybn), and start of the Quaternary
{KWoTRnARE or KWoTRNRE} (1.8 mybn-now) Period.
1,800,000 YBN
563) Homo erectus {hOmO ireKTuS} evolves.

Some people call Homo Erectus in Africa, "Homo Ergaster", and think that
Ergaster leaves Africa and evolves into Homo erectus in Asia, and into Homo
Neaderthalensis in Europe and western Asia.
Lake Turkana, East Africa  
1,700,000 YBN
449) Homo erectus moves into Eurasia from Africa.

Homo sapiens have been around for only 200,000 years, but Homo erectus lived
for almost a million years before going extinct.
1,500,000 YBN
583) Earliest evidence of use of fire, burned bones from Swartkrans cave in
South Africa.

This fire could have been made by Australopithecus (or Paranthropus) robustus
and an early species of Homo, possibly Homo erectus.
(Swartkrans cave) Swartkrans, South Africa  
1,440,000 YBN
448) Latest Homo Habilis fossil.

This skull shows that Homo habilis and Homo erectus both were living at this
Kenya, Africa  
1,000,000 YBN
589) Homo erectus evolves less body hair, except head hair, facial hair,
airpit, chest and groin areas.

This is thought to be driven by male sexual selection of less haired females,
perhaps because less hair means less body lice and so is more desirable.

No other surviving apes have taken this direction. Perhaps wearing furs and
other clothes for heat may have eliminated the need for bodily hair.
1,000,000 YBN
Madrid, Spain  
970,000 YBN
200) Hominids wear clothing.

That humans (Homo antecessor) wear clothing at this time is implied by the cold
climate that occurred at the same time that stone tools found in the area were

The earliest genetic evidence of humans wearing clothes, is based on the
differences of the head and body louse and puts the change to around 80,000
years before now.
Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK  
790,000 YBN
Gesher Benot Ya`aqov, Israel  
400,000 YBN
615) Oldest evidence of spear.
Schöningen, Germany.  
200,000 YBN
548) Humans (Homo sapiens) evolve in Africa.

The oldest Homo sapiens fossils (Omo I and II) are from Ethiopia.
Ethiopia, Africa  
200,000 YBN
561) Genetic evidence that complex human language evolves in early Homo
200,000 YBN
590) Humans language of thirty short sounds begins to develop. All words are
single syllable.

This is the beginning of the transition from the verbal language of chimps and
monkeys, that will result in the "staccato" (short sound duration) language
humans use now.

Either the majority of the 30 basic sounds in human language (U, o, K, S, etc.)
were learned before humans moved out of Africa, or after. That sapiens of
Eurasia, Australia and America do not have unique base sounds is evidence that
the 30 plus base sounds of all human language completely developed in Africa
before the sapiens movement from Africa into Eurasia, Australia and the
Americas. In addition, that the native humans of Eurasia, Australia and America
have different words, is evidence that word of mouth, being not adequate to
spread words, was not adequate to spread the base sounds shared by all humans,
after their move out of Africa.

It is difficult to determine when but probably early Homo sapiens in Africa
evolve a larger vocabulary of sound combinations to label objects and
activities than the other more primitive primates like the chimpanzees.

These sounds eventually become shortened and more finely controlled, perhaps
quicker communication being a selective advantage, and ultimately evolve to the
30 plus basic sounds used to construct words in all human languages. The vowel
sounds may develop before any consonants. Perhaps the earliest vowels are: U
(food), o (mama), O (no), E (eat) and perhaps i (big), e (bed), u (cup). (These
sounds are in use by the first Sumerian writing.) For centuries early human
language may have been vowels only until consonants attached to vowels are
added and in regular use.

The first consonants are probably (the so-called "stop consonants") T and D,
then K and G, then perhaps B and P. But it may be impossible to know the order,
and the number of years between the three sound families.

Initially, this language may be very simple, one sound applying to many objects
and situations. Some time near here, words made of more than one sound
(compound words) evolves, then objects and actions might have compound sounds,
although still one word.

Clearly many mammals and birds have a vocabulary of remembered sounds, which
are used to label other species, objects, and situations. Chimpanzees use
sounds that sound similar to sounds humans make, for example the U (in food),
and perhaps "E", although not sounded in short duration breaths.

Perhaps the development of language is assisted by trading which requires
object name translation, because these new sounds and words are remembered,
accepted, and included into the language of both trading groups.

Clearly some less common vowel sounds evolve later based on these main sounds,
for example "i" (big), "u" (cup), "v" (food), "a" (cat), etc.

Perhaps there are some base (letter) sounds that have been lost to the past.
190,000 YBN
601) The "Stop" family of sounds, B, D, G, K, P and T are in use.

The major sounds of language for any species can be cataloged and sorted into
groups. Humans language has 30 or so base sounds which can be grouped into at
least 4 major families, all of which probably originated at different times.

The short duration, "stop" family of sounds (B,D,G,K,P,T) probably evolve the
earliest of all consonent sounds in the language of sapiens. Initially, these
sounds may have formed (naturally) before the long vowel sound (for example a
"B" sound when opening the mouth to howl a vowel sound). This language may be
simply single syllable consonant plus vowel words (for example "GO", "Po",
etc.) with short durations. This is basically the form of language all humans
use today, short duration (50 ms each) sounds from a family of only 30 sounds,
combined together to form words used to describe objects and activities
(nouns), movements and actions (verbs), and later a second word added to
further describe objects (adjectives) and actions (adverbs).

This "short duration" language, means communication must have been very routine
and optimized, which implies that this happened through hunting or perhaps
through trading where language is a selective advantage.
170,000 YBN
600) The "Fricative" sound family is in use (the sounds S, Z, s, H, F, V).

The "S" sounds may have been an imitation of snakes, and may have represented
an early snake alarm signal to others. The sound "s" may be related to cause
fear in others to signal to be quiet.
160,000 YBN
591) Second oldest human (Homo sapiens) skull, like the oldest in Ethiopia,
Ethiopia, Africa  
150,000 YBN
592) The sounds M, N, L, and R are in use.

The M and N family are called "Nasals", and the L and R family are called
130,000 YBN
450) Homo Neanderthalensis evolves in Europe and Western Asia.

The oldest Neanderthal fossil is from Croatia.

For decades, anthropologists treated Neanderthals as a subspecies of Homo
sapiens, (Homo sapiens Neaderthalensis), but recent work suggests that they
were a distinct species and did not interbreed with or give rise to Homo
sapiens sapiens. The best evidence for this comes from the Skhul and Qafzeh
caves in Israel, where layers bearing Neaderthals remains are interbedded and
alternate with layers containing early modern humans. In addition, Neaderthals
appear later than the earliest archaic Homo sapiens, so they can not be the
ancestors of Homo sapiens. Recently Neaderthal DNA has been sequenced, and they
are clearly not Homo sapiens, and are now named Homo Neaderthalensis.

Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA has been compared to sapiens and a common
ancestor of the two is estimated to be 500,000, long before the oldest sapien
fossils in Africa, which supports the idea that sapiens did not evolve or
interbreed with Neanderthals.
Europe and Western Asia  
120,000 YBN
572) Start of Wurm glaciation (120,000-20,000 YBN), which connects a land
bridge between Asia and America.
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
257) Theory of Gods.

The explanation that many phenomena in the universe are controlled by objects
with human and animal bodies that have supernatural powers is one of the
earliest theories that tries to explain how the universe works.

This theory will last for all of recorded history to the present time, over
5000 years. Although polytheism will fall in popularity to monotheism which is
introduced around 1300 BCE by the Egyptian Pharoah Amenhotep IV.

The theory of gods is recorded in the earliest recorded stories of history 4600
years before now.

The theory that a god or gods controls the universe is perhaps the oldest
theory that is still believed by some humans.

Perhaps by this time Humans have created a word to mean "every thing" like
"universe" or "world".
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
(es-Skhul cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
95,000 YBN
[93000 BC]
92,000 YBN
[90000 BC]
597) Oldest Homo sapiens skull outside Africa, in Israel, the Jebel Qafzeh
(Skhul Cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
60,000 YBN
[58000 BC]
573) Earliest evidence of humans in Americas, from a rock shelter in Pedra
Furada, Brazil.
The evidence is controversial. Some people argue that the chipped
stones are geoartifacts, but the artifact finders argue that the chips are too
regular to be made from falling rocks.
53,300 YBN
[51300 BC]
557) Homo Erectus extinct. Most recent Homo Erectus fossil in Southeast Asia
This shows that Homo erectus lived at the same time as Homo sapiens.
These ages are
20,000 to 400,000 years younger than previous age estimates for these hominids
and indicate that H. erectus may have survived on Java at least 250,000 years
longer than on the Asian mainland, and perhaps 1 million years longer than in
Ngandong, Indonesia  
46,000 YBN
[44000 BC]
577) Earliest evidence of water ship. Sapiens from Southeast Asia reach
Australia by water ship.

Earliest sapians fossils Australia, "Mungo man".
43,000 YBN
[41000 BC]
1187) Earliest known mine: "Lion Cave" in Swaziland, Africa is in use. At this
site, which by radiocarbon dating is 43,000 years old, paleolithic humans mined
for the iron-containing mineral hematite, which they ground to produce the red
pigment ochre. Sites of a similar age where Neanderthals may have mined flint
for weapons and tools have been found in Hungary.
Swaziland, Africa  
40,800 YBN
[01/01/38800 BC]
1262) Earliest known human-made painting.

In El Castillo Cave in Spain, one of several large red disks on the "Panel de
las Manos", made by using a blowing technique, has a minimum age of 40.8 ky.
This age is measured using uranium-series disequilibrium of calcite deposits
overlying or underlying the cave art. This implies that depictions of the human
hand are among the oldest art known from Europe. The cave art may have been
created by the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or possibly by
(The Panel de las Manos,) El Castillo Cave, Spain|Southern France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
598) Oldest Homo sapiens fossils in Europe from the Cro-Magnon site in France
time (40,000 YA) also marks the decline of Neaderthal populations until their
extinction 10,000 years later.
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
604) Earliest evidence of oil lamp.
Southwest France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
5871) Oldest indisputable musical instrument, a flute made from the wing bone
of a vulture.
Hohle Fels Cave, Germany  
39,000 YBN
[37000 BC]
599) Sapiens reach China.

Earliest Homo sapiens fossil in China, from the Zhoukoudian Cave in China.
(Tianyuan Cave) Zhoukoudian, China  
38,000 YBN
[36000 BC]
35,000 YBN
[33000 BC]
Hohle Fels Cave, Germany  
35,000 YBN
[33000 BC]
32,000 YBN
[30000 BC]
602) Weaving and textiles.

The earliest evidence of weaving are 32,000 year old flax fibers. Some of the
flax fibers are spun, dyed, and knotted.

Other early evidence of weaving is from textile and flexible basketry
impressions on burnt clay from Pavlov in the Czech Republic which date to
between 27,000-25,000 ybn (see image). The oldest woven cloth so far discovered
is made from flax, dates to about 9000 ybn, and comes from Çayönü, Turkey.
Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia  
31,700 YBN
[29700 BC]
42) Humans raise dogs. (Dog domesticated). One theory supported by evidence is
that dog anatomy changes abruptly from wolf anatomy as a result of
domestication by humans.
Goyet cave, Belgium  
30,000 YBN
[28000 BC]
575) Mitochondrial DNA shows a sapiens migration to the Americas now.
29,000 YBN
[27000 BC]
6215) Earliest ceramic object, the Venus figurines.

The Venus figurines are created around this time. The Venus of Dolní
Věstonice is the oldest of these ceramic objects at 29,000 years old. This
figurine, together with a few others from nearby locations, is the oldest known
ceramic in the world, predating the earliest pottery of China (18,000) by
11,000 years. Some of the figurines appear to be wearing clothing.
Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia  
28,000 YBN
[26000 BC]
451) Neanderthals extinct. Most recent Neanderthal fossil.

Genetic evidence suggests interbreeding took place with Homo sapiens between
roughly 80,000 and 50,000 years ago in the Middle East, resulting in 1–4% of
the genome of people from Eurasia having been contributed by Neanderthals.
Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, Spain  
26,000 YBN
[24000 BC]
6224) Earliest "fired" clay (clay dried and hardened by fire).
Dolní Věstonice, Pavlov, Czech Republic  
23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6231) Earliest human-made structure. A stone wall. The oldest wall in Jericho,
also a stone wall dates to 8,000 BCE.
(Theopetra Cave) Kalambaka, Greece  
20,000 YBN
[18000 BC]
576) Y Chromosome DNA shows a sapiens migration to the Americas now.
20,000 YBN
[18000 BC]
in the Peloponnese, in the southeastern Argolid, is a cave overlooking the
Argolic Gulf opposite the Greek village of Koilada.  
19,000 YBN
[17000 BC]
6184) Cereal gathering.
Near East (Southwest Asia Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi
18,000 YBN
[16000 BC]
603) Oldest evidence of pottery.

The oldest known ceramic objects are the "Venus" figurines which date back to
29,000 years before present, 11,000 years earlier.
(Yuchanyan cave), Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6225) Earliest rope, a 30 cm fragment of rope, only 7 or 8 mm in diameter.
Lascaux, France  
14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6227) Earliest known map.
Mezhirich, Ukraine  
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
578) Humans enter America. Oldest human bones in America.

The earliest bones of a human in the Americas, a skull (Peñon woman) from
Mexico and bones from "Arlington Springs" woman, in the California Channel
Islands date to now.

These three bones are discovered on the Channel Islands, on a ridge called
Arlington, just off the California coastline.
Mexico City and Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA  
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
12,500 YBN
[10500 BC]
582) Human artifacts from Monte Verde, southern Chile.

This date puts the possibility of walking over the Being Straight in doubt.
11,500 YBN
[9500 BC]
581) Spear Head from Clovis, New Mexico.
11,500 YBN
[9500 BC]
719) Earliest evidence of rice cultivation in China.
Yangtze (in Hubei and Hunan provinces), China  
11,130 YBN
[9130 BC]
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
606) Oldest city, Jericho.

Jericho is located in the West bank, near the Jordan river (east of

Jericho is one of the earliest continuous settlements on Earth, starting from
perhaps about 9000 bce. This city provides evidence of the first permanent
Jericho, (modern West Bank) Palestine  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
608) Oldest saddle quern {KWRN}.

A saddle quern consists simply of a flat stone bed and a rounded stone to be
operated manually against it, to grind grain into flour.
Abu Hureyra, Syria  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
617) Goats kept, fed, milked, and killed for food.
Euphrates river valley at Nevali Çori, Turkey (11,000 bp), and the Zagros
Mountains of Iran at Ganj Dareh (10,000).  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
Pangmapha district, Mae Hong Son Province, northwest Thailand  
10,700 YBN
[8700 BC]
829) Humans shape metal objects.
Oldest copper (and metal) artifact, from Northern
This starts the "Copper Age" (Chalcolithic).
This is a copper ear ring.
Copper is the first metal
shaped by humans.
Northern Iraq  
10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
6315) Sheep raised for wool, skins, meat and dung (for fuel).
Northern Zagros to southeastern Anatolia|(Middle East) Eastern
10,350 YBN
[8350 BC]
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
205) Pigs raised and killed for food.
(Near East) Eastern Mediterranean and Island South East Asia|southeastern
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
614) Oldest evidence of bow and arrow.

The earliest potential arrow heads date from about 64,000 ybn in the South
African Sibudu Cave.

The first actual bow fragments are the Stellmoor bows from northern Germany.
Stellmoor (near Hamburg), Germany  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
1259) Clay tokens of various geometrical shapes are used for counting in

From the neolithic age (7000 BCE) on, stone tokens used to represent counted
units, such as sheep or grain, are gradually replaced by tokens of baked clay.
Clay has the advantage of being formed into any desired shape. Clay tokens are
particularly popular in stoneless Babylonia. Large quantities of clay tokens
found in various geometric shapes such as spheres, rhombuses, discs, and
tetrahedrons are thought to represent different specific numerical values.

These tokens may initially be kept in small bags of materials like cloth or
leather. But after 4000 BCE, tokens will be kept inside clay bullas (spherical
clay sealed containers used to protect the contents until broken).
eastern Iran, southern Turkey, Israel, Sumer (modern Iraq)|Babylonia|Syria,
Sumer and Highland Iran  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
Jericho (modern West Bank)  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
6316) Cows raised for milk, meat and for plowing.
upper Euphrates Valley  
9,300 YBN
[7300 BC]
6185) Wheat grown.
southeastern Turkey and northern Syria (Nevali Cori, Turkey)  
9,240 YBN
[7240 BC]
1478) Oldest domesticated plants in the Americas. Squash grown in Peru.
Paiján, Peru  
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
273) Woven cloth. The oldest woven cloth is made from flax, comes from
Çayönü, Turkey.

Weaving apparently precedes spinning of yarn; woven fabrics probably originate
from basket weaving.
Çayönü, Turkey  
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
1288) Mehrgarh, an Indus Valley neolithic city begins now.

Mehrgarh is one of the most important Neolithic (7000 BCE to 3200 BCE) sites in
archaeology. Mehrgarh lies on the "Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and is
one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and
herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in South Asia.
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
8,600 YBN
[6600 BC]
848) Symbols created on a tortoise shell from a neolithic grave in China may be
the ancestors of Chinese writing.

These symbols predate the earliest recorded writings from Mesopotamia by more
than 2,000 years. The archaeologists say they bear similarities to written
characters used thousands of years later during the Shang dynasty, which lasted
from 1700-1100 BC.

This creates a space of about 5,000 years between these symbols and the next
oldest which may indicate that they are not related.
Jiahu, in central China's Henan Province  
8,410 YBN
[6410 BC]
8,200 YBN
[6200 BC]
Catal Huyuk  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
605) Oldest known boat, the Pesse canoe, a dug-out boat.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
607) Oldest flint sickle.

A sickle has a semicircular blade and is used for cutting grain or tall grass.
flint sickle.

A sickle has a semicircular blade and is used for cutting grain or tall grass.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
609) Einkorn (one-seeded wheat) grown.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
610) Flax grown. The flax plant is the source of flaxseed for linseed oil and
fiber for linen products.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
612) Barley grown.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
613) Millet grown. Millet is a grass grown for its grains and as hay to feed
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
616) City "Catal Hüyük" {CaTL HvEK or KeToL HoYqK} in modern Turkey.
Çatal Hüyük, (modern:) Turkey  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
6220) Earliest drum. Giant frame drums are used in the temples of ancient
Sumer. Mesopotamian objects from about 3000 bce depict frame drums and small
cylindrical drums played horizontally and vertically. Early Egyptian artifacts
(c. 4000 bce) show a drum with skins stretched by a network of thongs.

Mesopotamian art works show at least four types of drums: 1) shallow or frame
drums of all sizes, 2) a small cylindrical drum held in a horizontal position,
3) a large drum played with foot, and 4) a small drum with one head, carried
vertically on a belt and struck with both hands.
Moravia, Czeck Republic  
7,300 YBN
[5300 BC]
south Iraq, shore of Persian Gulf  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
618) City of Sumer (in Mesopotamia, modern southern Iraq).
Sumer. (Mesopotamia, modern southern Iraq)  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
619) City of Ur (in Sumer).
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
627) Oldest evidence of copper melting and casting.

Moorey writes "Casting involves, at its simplest, pouring liquid metal into a
suitably shaped mould of baked clay, stone, metal, or sand. The earliest moulds
to survive in archaeological contexts are one-piece, of clay or stone. They
remained usual for the manufacture of simple tools, flat weapons such as tanged
arrowheads, bar-ingots...and jewellery. Simple jewellery moulds of stone are
more common in excavations than their more complex relatives used for tools and
weapons. ...
Two-piece (bivalve) moulds, probably of baked clay at first, were
introduced some time in the fourth millenium, if not before, with core pieces
for sockets when required, as on axe, adze- and hammer0heads. ...It was
probably common practice to cast the simple tools in open moulds and
subsequently hammer them to the desired shape. ...".
Belovode, Eastern Serbia  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
727) Earliest Reed boats.
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
1296) The city of Uruk is founded in southern Babylonia. Uruk will last until
the 400s CE.
Uruk, southern Babylonia  
6,900 YBN
[4900 BC]
648) Oldest evidence of sail boat.
6,500 YBN
[01/01/4500 BC]
Vinča, a suburb of Belgrade (Serbia)  
6,500 YBN
[4500 BC]
Nabta, Egypt  
6,250 YBN
[4250 BC]
720) Earliest evidence of Corn (maize) grown in Mexico.
Oaxaca, Mexico  
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6232) Sun-dried mud brick and mud-brick house.

Mud brick, dried in the sun, is one of the first building materials. Before
sun-dried bricks, perhaps mud deposited by a river could be used to shape into
huts or building units for protection from the weather. In the ancient city of
Ur, in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), the first true arch of sun-baked brick is
made about 4000 BCE. The arch itself has not survived, but a description of it
includes the first known reference to mortars other than mud. A bitumen mixture
is used to bind the bricks together. Burned brick can be produced simply by
containing a fire with mud bricks.

The early Ubaid period settlement is founded on marshy soil and may have been a
camping place, because no walls exist at this level. A thick layer of reed
matting is the earliest sign of occupation. Above that in later Ubaid levels,
walls are found to have been built, first of pisé (Clay, earth, or gravel
beaten down until it is solid and used as a building material for floors and
walls) and then mud-brick.
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
5,800 YBN
[3800 BC]
Harran, Mesopotamia  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
621) Earliest plow (used to break up ground). Pictographs from Mesopotamia show
a beam-ard, a simple machine that scratches a trench without turning the soil.
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
622) Irrigation (artificial supply of water to land to maintain or increase
yields of food crops), in the "Middle east" (eastern part of Mediterranean).
Middle east (eastern part of Mediterranean)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
625) Donkeys raised and used for transport.

Perhaps the donkey also provides food in times of starvation.
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
634) The Egyptian Calendar. The "years" of ancient Egyptian history consisted
of 12 months of 30 days each and 5 additional ("epagomenal") days at the end.
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
646) The earliest known wheel, a pottery wheel, in Mesopotamia.

Sir Leonard Woolley who excavates Ur (in modern Iraq) between 1922 and 1934,
writes "...Low down in this 'Uruk' stratum we found a remarkable object, a
heavy disc of baked clay about 3 feet in diameter with a central pivot-hole and
a small hole near the rim to take a handle; it was a pooter's wheel as used by
the makers of the Uruk vases, the earliest known example of that invention
whereby man passed from the age of pure handicraft into the age of

Moorey writes "There are no certain illustrations of potters' wheels from
Mesopotamia and the material evidence is ... meagre... No certain example of a
tournette - a slowly turning wheel- has yet been published from a prehistoric
context, though their use has been assumed from the evidence of the vessels
produced on them. Nissen...has postulated the emergence of a 'pivoted working
surface (tournette)' towards the end of the Halaf period {ULSF: 5500 BC},
largely on the basis of changes in the type and layout of painted patterns on
pottery at this time. By the end of the Ubaid period {ULSF: 4000BC}, he argued,
a more sophisticated device had appeared to be fully exploited for the first
time in the Uruk period: 'setting the wheel's axle in bearings and hence the
creation of an actual potter's wheel. It is possible that plano-convex disks
of gypsum from Tell Abada in the Hamrin, where there is other evidence for
on-site pottery manufacture, may have been pivoted for pot-building on the
upper flat surface...".

Another similar pottery wheel dates back to the Protoliterate Period which is
approximately 3500BC-2900BC. The piece was excavated at the site of Choga Mish
(Iran) and is one of a few pieces to have survived the excavation due to the
destruction of the dig house during the Iranian Revolution.
Mesopotamia (and a similar pottery wheel from Choga Mish, Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
1260) Writing (on clay tablets). First numbers. First stamp (or seal).

The first writing begins as numbers on clay tablets and stamped seals.

This system of writing on clay tablets will evolve into modern written
language. Writing was first used to solve simple accounting problems; for
example to count large numbers of sheep or bales of hay. Writing may have
arisen out of the need for arithmetic and storage of information, but will grow
to record and perpetuate stories, songs, and most of what we know about human
Sumer (Syria, Sumer, Highland Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
1285) Symbols on pottery from Harrapa an Indus Valley civilization.
Harrapa, Indus Valley  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
6223) Sundial, earliest timekeeping device. The first device for indicating the
time of day was probably the gnomon, dating from about 3500 bc. The gnomon is a
vertical object and the length of it's shadow indicates the time of day. The
earliest known sundial still preserved is an Egyptian shadow clock of green
schist dating to the 8th century BCE. The hour-glass, which uses a fixed
quantity of fine sand falling through a small hole, is also invented around
this time..
China and Chaldea  
5,490 YBN
[3490 BC]
702) Earliest cotton grown.
Northwestern Peru|Indus valley  
5,400 YBN
[3400 BC]
5,310 YBN
[3310 BC]
704) Ox pulled vehicles with wheels in Krakow Poland. This is the earliest
evidence for both animal pulled vehicles and wheeled vehicles. The earliest
instance of a wheeled vehicle is from the TRB (Funnel Beaker) culture in
Bronocice, in north-east Krakow Poland and is a pot incised decoration that has
the repeated motif of a schematically rendered four-wheeled vehicle. Note the
Y-junction with the yoke.

Stuart and Piggot reject the claim that the first wheeled vehicle originated in
Sumer, home of the earliest pottery wheel, writing: "...The calibrated range of
date for phase III at Bronocice, to which the cup with the wagon representation
belongs is c. 3530-3310 BC, but it would be improper to compare this date with
that of 3200-3100 BC assigned to Uruk IVa, in which sledge-on-wheels
pictographs appear. ...".
(TRB - Funnel Beaker culture) Bronocice, Krakow, Poland  
5,300 YBN
[3300 BC]
1261) Symbols of the Alphabet.

Now along with numbers on clay tablets are symbols that represent the
commodity (such as cows, sheep, and cereals). These symbols represent the
earliest record of what will become the modern alphabet.

First training and industry of scribes. This will ultimately evolve into the
modern school system. Writing will be continuously taught eventually in all
major civilizations (even through the Dark Ages) until now.

These tablets are all economic records, used to keep a record of objects owned
or traded, and contain no stories. Writing begins as a method for increasing
the human memory to keep track of the many transactions of a city, and not for
the purpose of recording or remembering stories.

The symbol for ox ("gud" in Sumerian, later "aleph" in Egyptian) will become
the letter "A" (alpha), the symbol for house, (/e/ in Sumerian and /bitum/ in
Akkadian ) will become "B" (beta).

These symbols are drawn with curved lines which will later be replaced by the
easier and faster to draw straight lines and later the wedges of cuneiform. In
Latin "Cuneus" means "wedge".

Around 1200 symbols have been identified in these ancient texts, around 60 are

This writing is evidence that most of the 30 or so basic sounds of humans
language were already in use by the origin of writing.

One text from this time is a "titles and professions", which is the most
popular list, copies of these lists span over a thousand years. This list
describes titles and professions probably arranged according to rank, starting
with the symbol for king, and is evidence that the social order is already well
defined in a strict hierarchy by the time writing is invented.

This early writing shows that there is a standardized system of measures in
place. Tablets describe quantities of bread, jars of beer, silver, barley,
fish, cows, lambs, laborer-days, and specific measures of land.

Among tablets found in the third millenium BCE (2000-2999 BCE) are long lists
of names of trees, plants, animals (including insects and birds), countries,
cities and villages, and of stones and minerals. These lists represent a
familiarity with botany, zoology, geography and mineralology. Sumerian scholars
also prepared mathematical tables and detailed mathematical problems with their

From tablets dating to 2000 BCE, scribes who identify themselves all appear to
be males indicating that few if any females are formally taught to be scribes.
In addition the parents of the scribes are all high ranking wealthy people.
5,250 YBN
[3250 BC]
637) Scribes in Sumer (seeing that writing is smudged when writing in columns)
change from writing in columns to writing left to right. Pictures are also
turned 90 degrees.
5,200 YBN
[3200 BC]
650) Oldest artifact with cuneiform writing, at Uruk which is a large city at
this time. These are clay and stone tablets that have names of humans (thought
to be wage lists), lists of objects, plus receipts and memos. Pictures are not
drawn with pointed reed, but drawn with (diagonally) cut reed-stem pressed in
to the wet clay to make wedges. What were pictures (of oxen, etc.) are changed
to be made of all single presses, not pictures drawn freehand. This writing
contains about 600 unique symbols.
5,200 YBN
[3200 BC]
1266) Earliest writing in Egypt.
a group ivory, bone and stone tags attached to jugs,
bags and boxes containing linens and oils in the tomb of King Scorpian I in

Günter Dreyer, director of the German Institute of Archaeology in Cairo, found
writing on a group ivory, bone and stone tags attached to jugs, bags and boxes
containing linens and oils in the tomb of King Scorpian I in Egypt which date
to around 3,400 to 3,200 BCE. The tags are thought to indicate the quantity or
size (on number tags) and the origin location or institution of the
(Tomb U-j supposedly of King Scorpian, Royal Cemetery of:) Abydos (modern:) Umm
5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
641) The Narmer Palette, early Egyptian hieroglyphic writing.

Narmer palette (tablet) carved with pictures showing unification of Egypt under
king Narmer, who starts the first Egyptian Dynasty of history (Dynasty 1). The
top of the palette has two faces of the cow-headed goddess Hathor. Between the
Hathor heads is name of Narmer, a "n'r" fish and a "mr" chisel (this is the
oldest egyptian writing).
5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
628) Oldest evidence of bronze (copper mixed with tin) melted, and casted.

Figurines of men and women from Tell Judaidah, Turkey, are the oldest examples
of true bronze (combination of copper and tin) known.
Tell Judaidah, Turkey|Egypt  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
651) Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian languages all use cuneiform writing.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
666) Hemp grown in China.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
668) Silk making in China.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
669) Evidence of the wheel in China.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
671) Evidence of the arch in Egypt.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
675) Earliest silver objects, in Ur.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
676) Melting wax in clay (cire-perdu) metal casting.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
1265) Written symbols combined to form words.

In the proto-cuneiform Sumarian script, symbols are combined to form words
based on their sound.

Evidence of this is the sign /ti/, for "arrow" that is now also defined as the
Sumarian word for "life" /til/ which starts with the same sound. After this
phonetic abstraction, the introduction of multi-symbol words, names and words
for which no symbols had existed can be created. For example, the symbol
originally defined as the Summerian verb "bal" (to dig) can also be spelled
with the syllabic signs "ba" + "al", while the Akkadian word for dig ("heru")
sounds differently.(show image if possible)

The vast majority of Sumerian language is made of one-syllable words. This
suggests that all earlier spoken languages contained only single-syllable

Sumerian contains syllabic symbols, where a symbol represents a consonent and a
vowel together such as /Bo/ (ball), or /Bv/ (put), although some vowel sounds
have one symbol and are true letters. This writing will later be fully
alphabetic when the consonents are represented by one symbol and the vowel at
the end dropped.

Sumerian and the languages that follow in the 3000 year history of cuneiform,
all have monophony (one sound has more than one symbol), and polyphony (many
sounds may be represented by one symbol).
Jemdet Nasr  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
modern southwest Iran  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6219) Earliest stringed musical instrument (lyre and harp). The lyre is first
depicted in Sumerian art works around 3000 BC. Harps have the plane of the
strings vertical, not parallel, to the soundboard. There are two main types,
the "arched harp" in which the body is curved into an arch, and an "angular
harp", in which the body and neck form an angle. Sumer has only arched harps,
which originate from the bow. Arched harps are depicted on a stone slab from
Khafage that dates to around 3000 BC.
Sumer (modern Iraq)  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6222) Inclined plane (ramp).

The inclined plane is thought to be older than any of the other basic machines,
and is based on the concept that moving an object from a lower to higher
elevation is easier when pushed up a flatter slope.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
4,980 YBN
[2980 BC]
Sakkara, Egypt  
4,925 YBN
[2925 BC]
643) Hieratic script, a cursive script of traditional Egyptian hieroglyphs
replaces traditional hieroglyphs. Hieratic script was almost always written in
ink with a reed pen on papyrus. The word 'hieratikos' means 'priestly' because
by the Greco-Roman period this writing was used only by priest humans.
4,800 YBN
[2800 BC]
4,800 YBN
[2800 BC]
Sumer, Uruk, Kish,   
4,750 YBN
[2750 BC]
320) Earliest metal saw.
4,613 YBN
[2613 BC]
4,600 YBN
[01/01/2600 BC]
4,600 YBN
[2600 BC]
1269) Enmebaragesi is the earliest ruler on the Sumerian king list whose name
is attested directly from archaeological remains, two alabaster vase fragments
with inscriptions about him found at Nippur - where he is said to have built
the first temple according to the Sumerian Tummal chronicle.

Enmebaragesi is also mentioned in a section of the Epic of Gilgamesh, which
places Gilgamesh as a historical king of Uruk.
Kish, a city in Sumer, 80km south of modern Bagdad  
4,600 YBN
[2600 BC]
1271) The oldest known written story (or literature), the Sumerian flood story,
the "Ziusudra epic" is known from a single fragmentary tablet, writing in
Sumerian. The name Ziusudra means "found long life" or "life of long days". The
first part tells the story of the creation of man, animals and the first
cities, Eridu, Badtibira, Larak, Sippar, and Shuruppak. After a missing section
in the tablet, the story describes how the gods send a flood to destroy
mankind. The god Enki (lord of the underworld ocean of fresh water and Sumerian
equivalent of Ea) warns Ziusudra of Shuruppak to build a large boat (the
passage describing the directions for the boat is also lost). When the tablet
resumes, it tells about a terrible storm that rages for seven days. Then (the
god) Utu (|vTv| or |oTo| or |uTu|) (the sun) appears and Ziusudra opens a
window, prostrates himself, and sacrifices an ox and a sheep. After another
break the text resumes, the flood is apparently over, and Ziusudra is
prostrating himself before An (|oN|) (the sky-god) and Enlil (the chief of the
gods), who give him "breath eternal" and take him to live in Dilmun. The rest
of the poem is lost.

More than 80% of all known Sumerian literary compositions have been found at

The name Ziusudra also appears in the WB-62 version of the Sumerian king list
as a king/chief of Shuruppak who reigned for 10 (shar) years. Ziusudra was
preceded in this king list by his father SU.KUR.LAM who was also king of
Shuruppak and ruled 8 (shar) years. On the next line of the King List are the
sentences "The flood swept thereover. After the flood swept thereover, ... the
kingship was in Kish." The city of Kish flourished in the Early Dynastic II
period soon after an archaeologically attested river flood in Shuruppak that
has been radio-carbon dated about 2900 BC. Polychrome pottery from below the
flood deposit have be dated to the Jemdet Nasr period that immediately preceded
the Early Dynastic I period.

The importance of Ziusudra in the King List is that it links the flood
mentioned in the Epics of Ziusudra, Atrahasis, Utnapishtim, etc to river flood
sediments in Shuruppak, Uruk, and Kish that have been radio carbon dated as
2900 BCE. So scholars conclude that the flood hero was king of Shuruppak at the
end of the Jemdet Nasr period (3100-2900) which ended with the river flood of
2900 BCE.

Ziusudra being king of Shuruppak is supported in the Gilgamesh XI tablet by the
reference to Utnapishtim as "man of Shuruppak" at line 23.

A Sumerian document known as "The Instructions of Shuruppak" dated to around
2500 BCE, refers in a later version to Ziusudra indicating that Ziusudra may
have become a venerable figure in the literary tradition by 2500 BCE.

Scholars have found many similarities between the stories of Ziusudra,
Atrahasis, Utnapishtim and Noah.

At this time, the scribes learning in the tablet houses must be transferring
their oral stories onto clay, in addition to studying, copying and imitating
earlier texts. Works created in these years are almost all poetic in form, some
extending to thousands of lines. These texts are mainly myths and epic tales in
the form of narrative poems celebrating the adventures of Sumerian gods and
heros, hymns to gods and kings, lamentations of Sumerian cities, wisdom
compositions that include proverbs, fables, and essays. In the scribal schools,
students attend school from sunrise to sunset, and teachers use a rod to
inflict discipline.

The Sumerians belief in a variety of gods and goddesses, so already, by the
time of the invention of writing we see the theory of gods and goddesses. This
inaccurate belief in a god theory will continue into present times. The
Sumerians have around 50 gods and 50 goddesses so far counted. The view
expressed is the traditional view that many of the gods have human form, many
are related, and they control various objects such as the sky (the god Anu,
also god of heaven which indicates belief in a heaven (but this may be
Christian misinterpretation, do dead people go to sky/heaven in Sumerian
myths?)), the earth (the goddess Ki, consort to Anu), the wind (the god
Ishkur), the sun (the god Utu), the earth (the god Enki), grain (the goddess
Ashnan), venus (the goddess Inanna), and many more.

Many of the gods will be renamed as time continues, for example, the Sumerian
goddess "Inanna", the first god known to be associated with the planet Venus,
is named "Ishtar" by the Akkadians and Babylonians, "Isis" by the Egyptians,
"Aphrodite" by the Greeks, "Turan" by the Etruscans, and "Venus" by the Romans.
The Sumerians call Inanna the "Holy Virgin" and this may indicate an early
example of the erroneous belief that a female that has not had sex is somehow
more pure.

It is possible that the Sumerian influence through their invention of writing
is the origin of the idea of human-like gods controlling nature, but more
likely this idea developed long before writing and spread through oral
interaction only. Possibly the idea of human-like gods was originated even
before humans left Africa. The beginning of writing creates the first memory of
the past, where before writing, any events of history have to be passed on
through talking which vastly reduces the number of events remembered by any
generation of people.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
677) Bronze sickle.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
688) Seed drills in Babylonia.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
689) First animal and vegetable coloring dyes.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
691) Oldest evidence of skis used in Skandinavia.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
1151) Oars mounted on the side of ships for steering are documented from the
3rd millennium BCE in Ancient Egypt in artwork, wooden models, and even
remnants of actual boats. These will evolve into quarter rudders, which will be
used until the end of the Middle Ages in Europe.

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
6230) Earliest dice and boardgame. There is a claim of earlier dice and
boardgame from Iran (see image of dice - but there is no image of the actual
Ur, Mesopotamia  
4,450 YBN
[2450 BC]
708) Animal skin (leather) used for writing. After the use of leather, the
refined forms of leather parchment and vellum (made from calf skins) are also
4,400 YBN
[2400 BC]
4,400 YBN
[2400 BC]
Sumer, Lagash, Umma   
4,345 YBN
[2345 BC]
4,345 YBN
[2345 BC]
800) Writing on Papyrus.

Fibrous layers within the stem of the papyrus plant are removed and placed side
by side. They are then crossed at right angles with another set of strips. The
two layers form a sheet, which is then dampened and pressed. The gluelike sap
of the plant acts as an adhesive to join the layers together. The sheet is
finally hammered and dried in the sun. These sheets are then joined together
with paste to form a roll.
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
667) Earliest evidence of glass making, glass beads.

The first human-made glass beads and pendants are made around 4,300 years ago
(2300 BC) in
the area of modern Iraq and northern Syria (Mesopotamia), with the
first strikingly colored (coreformed) vessels appearing there in the 16th/15th
centuries BC.
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
4,234 YBN
[2234 BC]
4,200 YBN
[2200 BC]
Lima, Peru  
4,181 YBN
[2181 BC]
4,160 YBN
[2160 BC]
4,134 YBN
[2134 BC]
4,134 YBN
[2134 BC]
4,130 YBN
[2130 BC]
6234) Earliest evidence of horn used as musical instrument. Several
inscriptions of the Sumerian priest-king Gudea mention an instrument, si-im,
alongside with the temple drums, a-lal and balag. As si (Akkadian qarnu) means
'horn,' and im 'wind,' there is little doubt that this was a blowing horn. One
of the Carchemish reliefs, dating from about 1250 B.C. depicts a rather short
and thick horn played together with a large frame drum which...corresponds
either to the a-lal or to the balag.
From Gudea's time on (c2130 BCE), the si is
occasionally mentioned; some texts add the metal determinative and some refer
to horns made of gold. ...".

The oldest survivng animal horn is from around 2300 BC, from a deep bog in
Visnum, Sweden. It is a cow horn, dated from the late Iron Age, and has five
finger holes. (verify)

A list of the presents offered by King Tushratta to King Amenophis IV of Egypt
around 1400 BC contains a list of forty horns, all covered with gold and some
studded with precious stones. Seventeen of them are called ox horns. The rest
of the horns are probably not straight trumpets since straight trumpets are
more often made of gold instead of covered with gold.

The earliest specimen of a silver trumpet is from the tomb of Tutankhamen
(1300s bce).
Lagash, Mesopotamia  
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
1279) The earliest Health science (medical) text, found in Nippur.

There are more than 10 remedies listed on this clay tablet. Materials used are
mostly from plants, such as cassia, myrtle, asafoetida, thyme, and from trees
such as the willow, pear, fir, fig and date trees, but also include sodium
chloride (salt), potassium nitrate (saltpeter), milk, snake skin, and turtle
shell. For mixtures taken internally, beer, milk and or oil are used to make
the "medicine" more palatable.

In this, the oldest medical text, there are no references to any god, demon,
magic spell or incantation.
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
6376) The first place value number system, a sexagesimal (base 60) number
system. Fractional values such as 1/60 and 1/3600 are also in use.

This sexagesimal, base 60, number system is still in use to measure time (60
seconds, 60 minutes), and angles (for example in astronomical and geographic
4,050 YBN
[2050 BC]
1278) The earliest recorded laws, the Ur-Nammu tablet. Ur-Nammu founded the
Third Dynasty of Ur. The laws are written in Sumerian cuneiform and are damaged
so only a few have been deciphered. One law involves a trial by water, another
describes the return of a slave to their master. Other laws describe monetary
penalties for violent crimes such as for cutting off a foot or nose.

This tablet was found in Nippur.
4,040 YBN
[2040 BC]
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
705) Stonehenge built.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
706) Horse riding in Asian steppes.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
710) Shaduf (Shadoof), an irrigation tool.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
711) Spoked wheel. Toy-cart wheels made of clay with spokes painted on and in
relief were made in the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley and
Northwestern India. Spokes make the wheel lighter in weight.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
733) Oldest lock, found in ruins of the palace of Khorsabad near Nineveh. The
lock is made of wood and uses a tumbler design, similar to modern locks. This
kind of lock will be used widely in Egypt.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
830) Shaped iron artifacts made from meteorites.
Oldest iron artifacts, made of iron from
meteorites, in Egypt.

Some might argue this is the beginning of the Iron Age, but others would start
the Iron Age only at smelting and casting of Iron.
Egpyt (and near East)  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
1275) The "School Days" essay dates to now. This is the story of a scribal
student who is late for school and is caned for various offenses such as
talking and because his copying is not good enough. So the student invites a
teacher to his house for dinner. The teacher is brought from school, seated in
the seat of honor and served dinner. The father of the student dresses the
teacher in a new garment, gives him a gift, and puts a ring on his hand. After
this the teacher praises the student.

4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
1286) The earliest known versions of the Gilgamesh (or Gish-gi(n)-mash) story
are written in Sumerian on clay tablets.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
5860) Earliest written musical composition.
Nippur, Babylonia (now Iraq) (verify)  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
6236) Metal traded as money.

The use of metal for money can be traced back to Babylonia more than 2000 years
bc, but standardization in the form of coins does not occur systematically
until the 7th century bc. Historians generally ascribe the first use of coined
money to Croesus, king of Lydia, a state in Anatolia. The earliest coins are
made of electrum, a natural mixture of gold and silver, and are bean-shaped
ingots bearing a primitive punch mark certifying to either weight or fineness
or both.
3,842 YBN
[1842 BC]
712) First all phonetic language and alphabet. Proto-semitic alphabet made in
turquoise mines probably by Semitic humans. This alphabet is thought to have
replaced cuneiform, and may be root of all other alphabets.

This first strictly phonetic alphabet is in use until 1797 BCE.

Encyclopedia Britannica states that the evolution of the alphabet involves two
important achievements. The first step is the invention of an all-consonant
writing system. The second is the invention of characters for representing
vowels which is made by Greek people between 800 and 700 bce.

Around this time the Egyptians have a large-scale project to search for
turquoise in the high mountains of southern Sinai at a site today called
Serabit el-Khadem. In this mine an alphabetic script, is found with has far
fewer signs than the Egyptian hieroglyphic system. In 1916, Sir Alan Gardiner,
an English Egyptologist, notices that a group of four signs are frequently
repeated in these inscriptions. Gardiner correctly identified the repetitive
group as a series of four letters in an alphabetic script that represent a word
in a Canaanite language: b-‘-l-t, vocalized as Baalat, "the Mistress".
Gardiner suggests that Baalat was the Canaanite name for Hathor, the goddess of
the turquoise mines.
An important key to the decipherment is a unique bilingual
inscription. It is inscribed on a small sphinx from the temple and features a
short inscription in what appears to be parallel texts in Egyptian and in the
new script.
The Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription on the sphinx reads:
"The beloved of
Hathor, the mistress of turquoise."
Each of the critical letters in the word Baalat is a
picture—a house, an eye, an ox goad and a cross.
Gardiner correctly recognizes
that each pictograph has a single phonic value: The picture stands not for the
depicted word but only for its initial sound. So the pictograph bêt, "house",
represents only the initial consonant b.
This principle is at the root of all of
our alphabetic systems. Each sign in this script stands for one consonant in
the language. (The representation of vowels happens later).
The alphabet is invented
in this way by Canaanites at Serabit in the Middle Bronze Age, in the middle of
the 19th century B.C.E., probably during the reign of Amenemhet III of the
XIIth Dynasty.
(Caanan modern:) Palestine|(turquoise mines ) Serabit el-Khadem, Sinai
3,800 YBN
[1800 BC]
3,800 YBN
[1800 BC]
3,800 YBN
[1800 BC]
3,786 YBN
[1786 BC]
3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
Nippur and Ur, Sumer  
3,650 YBN
[1650 BC]
3,635 YBN
[01/01/1635 BC]
1272) A library of 3,000 clay tablets in a priest's house in Tell ed-Der dates
to this time.

Tell ed-Der  
3,600 YBN
[1600 BC]
3,595 YBN
[01/01/1595 BC]
3,595 YBN
[1595 BC]
3,551 YBN
[1551 BC]
3,550 YBN
[1550 BC]
3,531 YBN
[1531 BC]
639) First planet recognized, Venus.

Evidence of this comes from the so-called "Venus Tablet of Ammi-saduqa", which
is known only from copies from the 600 BCE only. The Venus Tablet records
astronomical observations placing Venus on the horizon just before sunrise on
the date of the new moon for the 21 year reign of Ammi-saduqa.
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
624) Oven-baked mud brick (also called "burned brick").
A burned brick is a mud brick
that been baked in an oven (kiln) at an elevated temperature to harden it, give
it mechanical strength, and improve its resistance to moisture.
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
723) Earliest pulley.

The oldest simple pulleys are used in Assyria.
A pulley is a wheel that has a grooved
rim for carrying a rope or other line and turning in a frame. The pulley wheel
is also called a "sheave".

One or more independently rotating pulleys can be used to gain mechanical
advantage, especially for lifting weights. The shafts around which the pulleys
turn may attach them to frames or blocks, and a combination of pulleys, blocks,
and rope is called a block and tackle. The pulley is considered one of the five
simple machines.
Nimroud, Assyria  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
6228) Water clock (Clepsydra {KlePSiDru}).

The science of telling the time of day (horology) began around 3500 BC with the
invention of the gnomon and sundial, and the hour-glass. Around 1500 BC, the
Egyptian clepsydra (water clock) used dripping water between two containers
which were marked to indicate the time.

In China, in the 100s CE, astronomer Zhang Heng built a celestial globe whose
movement is regulated by clepsydra. In the 700s Yi Xing and Liang Lingzan
added a mechanical clock.
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
Nippur, Mesopotamia  
3,358 YBN
[1358 BC]
2727) When Akhenaton dies, he will be succeeded briefly by Smenkhkare and then
by a second son-in-law, Tutankhaton. Tutankhaton is forced to change his name
to Tutankhamen, dropping the Aton and embracing Amon, to abandon Amarna and
move back to Thebes, and to pay penance by giving the old gods new riches and
privileges. A few years after the death of the young king, Tutankhamen, the
army takes over the throne led by General Horemheb. Horemheb institutes
counterreforms in order to restore the old system fully.

As was done at the command of Akhenaten years before, the new kings attempt to
erase all traces of the heretical religion. Akhenaten's name and images of the
Aten sun disk are ordered removed from monuments and official king lists.
Akhenaten's temples are dismantled and the stone reused. Amarna is left to
crumble in the desert. Inscriptions refer to Akhenaten only as the heretic
pharaoh of Akhetaten.
There is an interesting similarity between "Aton" and "Satan" being
3 of 4 sounds/letters the same. It may be coincidence, but perhaps Aton was
given a negative connotation to try to erase the history of the origin of
Judaism, or remove suspicions of the monotheistic theorists as copying
Amenhotep. If the name "Aton" is used, people will recognize the ancient deity
Aton, however, by adding a letter, only a subtle reference or connotation to
the ancient God, Aton remains. It is interesting also the way Amon is viewed
against Aton as if rival gods with Amenhotep switching to place his belief in

There is a claim that followers of Akhenaton's new monotheistic religion ended
each prayer with the name of Amenhotep and that this is the origin of the use
of the word "amen" at the end of Judean, Christian and Islamic prayers.

What about the possible relation of the word "Aton" to the Greek word "atom"?
Amarna, Egypt  
3,310 YBN
[1310 BC]
3,300 YBN
[1300 BC]
3,300 YBN
[1300 BC]
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3,198 YBN
[1198 BC]
3,180 YBN
[1180 BC]
3,087 YBN
[1087 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
746) Complex pulleys. The lifting power of a pulley is multiplied by the number
of strands acting directly upon the moving pulleys.
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6237) Earliest lens, a plano-convex lens (one side plane the other convex) made
from rock-crystal found in Nimrud, a magnifying and burning glass.

Sir David Brewster described the lens writing: "This lens is plano-convex, and
of a slightly oval form, its length being 1 6/10 inch, and its breadth l 4/10
inch. It is about 9/10ths of an inch thick, and a little thicker at one side
than the other. Its plane surface is pretty even, though ill polished and
scratched. Its convex surface has not been ground, or polished, on a spherical
concave disc, but has been fashioned on a lapidary's wheel, or by some method
equally rude. The convex side is tolerably well polished, and though uneven
from the mode in which it has been ground, it gives a tolerably distinct focus,
at the distance of 4 1/2 inches from the plane side. There are about twelve
cavities in the lens, that have been opened during the process of grinding it:
these cavities, doubtless contained either naphtha, or the same fluid which is
discovered in (opazi quartz, and other minerals. As the lens does not show the
polarised rays at great obliquities, its plane surface must be greatly inclined
to the axis of the hexagonal prism of quartz from which it must have been
taken. It is obvious, from the shape and rude cutting of the lens, that it
could not have been intended as an ornament; we are entitled, therefore, to
consider it as intended to be used as a lens, either for magnifying, or for
concentrating the rays of the sun, which it does, however, very imperfectly.".

Another, possibly 5th century BC, lens was found in a sacred cave on Mount Ida
on Crete and is more powerful and of far better quality than the Nimrud lens.
Aristophanes (c450-c388 bce), Greek playwright, in his play "Clouds", around
423 BCE, describes a crystal lens used for burning. Also, Roman writers Pliny
and Seneca refer to a lens used by an engraver in Pompeii.
Nimrud, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
2,999 YBN
[999 BC]
1181) Calamine Brass is first made in this millenium {narrow time}, brass made
with copper and clamine, a zinc ore (instead of zinc metal, because extracting
zinc metal from ore will not be understood until around 1781).

2,945 YBN
[945 BC]
2,922 YBN
[922 BC]
2,910 YBN
[910 BC]
635) The oldest smelted iron artifacts are from Tell Hammeh (az-Zarqa), Jordan
and date to around 2800-2700 years ago, but two charcoal samples from the same
site date to 2930-2910 years before now.

This is the start of the Iron Age, as iron becomes more popular because iron is
more abundant.
in Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Egypt.

It is possible, under certain conditions, to produce iron when smelting copper,
and so it may be that iron produced before the late Bronze Age may have been
produced in the process of smelting copper, or possibly lead. If iron oxide in
any one of its three forms (haematite; limonite; magnetite) is accidentally or
deliberately added to the furnace charge as a fluxing agent (a mineral added to
the metals in a furnace to promote fusing or to prevent the formation of
oxides), in smelting copper or lead, the iron will combine with the silica in
the ore to form slag that will melt and eventually run off. In circumstances of
high temperature and extreme reducing atmosphere, small bits of relatively pure
iron could have been produced.
Tell Hammeh (az-Zarqa), Jordan  
2,900 YBN
[900 BC]
2,850 YBN
[850 BC]
2,848 YBN
[848 BC]
2,819 YBN
[819 BC]
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
818) Theta sound {t} sound invented, (for example in the words "theater",
"fifth") and in use in Greece.

Theta (Θ) is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the
Phoenician letter Teth.

The theta sound survives only in Greek and later languages.
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
2,785 YBN
[785 BC]
771) Babylonian astronomers can predict eclipses.

The reason there are not two eclipses a month is because the orbit of the Moon
around the Earth is tilted 5 degrees from the Earth's plane of rotation around
the Sun. This means that the moon must be at or near the two points in its
orbit that intersects the Earth's plane of rotation around the Sun when the
Moon is between the Earth and Sun or behind them. This alignment occurs at
least twice a year, and at most rarely 5 times a year.
Usually, if an eclipse of the
Sun occurs, an eclipse of the Moon precedes of follows it by 2 weeks, because
the Sun, Earth and Moon are then in alignment with each other.
2,731 YBN
[731 BC]
6299) Lunar eclipses recorded.
2,728 YBN
[728 BC]
2,722 YBN
[722 BC]
2,716 YBN
[716 BC]
2,715 YBN
[715 BC]
2,700 YBN
[700 BC]
2,700 YBN
[700 BC]
1075) Consonant letters can represent more than one sound. Letter "C" sounded
as "K" in addition to traditional "G" sound.

Latin or Etruscan speaking people start using the letter "C" (Gamma), not only
to represent it's traditional sound "G", but also for the sound "K", usually
reserved for the letter "K" (Kappa). This will add confusion to how to
pronounce a word, and violates a more simple, logical system where one letter
equals only one sound.

At this time Latin speaking people start replacing words with K with the letter
2,688 YBN
[688 BC]
2,669 YBN
[669 BC]
1287) The "standard" version of the story of Gilgamesh: a wild-man Enkidu is
tamed by having sex with a woman, Enkidu and Gilgamesh destroy Humbaba, the
beast-like guardian of the forest, and a bull sent from Heaven, Enkidu is
killed as a punishment by the Gods, and Gilgamesh visits him in the Underworld.
2,668 YBN
[668 BC]
2,668 YBN
[668 BC]
1284) Clay tablet library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh, an early systematically
organized library from which 20,720 Assyrian tablets and fragments have been
Nineveh (Assyria)  
2,664 YBN
[664 BC]
2,660 YBN
[660 BC]
644) In Egypt, the Demotic script replaces hieratic in most secular writing,
but hieratic continued to be used by priests for several more centuries.

The Demotic symbol set, is a short hand, very rapid, abbreviated form of
hieratic, and looks like series of "agitated commas". The word "demotic" is
from Greek meaning "of the people" or "popular".
2,651 YBN
[651 BC]
6337) All planets visible to the naked eye clearly distinguished from stars
(Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) in Babylonia. The position of these
five planets compared to the stars is found in a series of baked clay tablet
astronomical "diaries". The earliest datable tablet, from 651 BCE contains the
names of all five planets.
2,650 YBN
[650 BC]
1066) Evidence of the earliest aquaduct, a channel used to move water from one
place to another, is in Assyria. This aquaduct is built of and carries water
across a valley to the capital city, Nineveh.
2,640 YBN
[640 BC]
2,624 YBN
[624 BC]
2,622 YBN
[622 BC]
2,622 YBN
[622 BC]
826) Old Testament (The Torah, Hebrew Bible, The Ten Commandments, The Story of

The earliest record of the reading of a “Torah book” is provided by the
narrative describing the reformation instituted by King Josiah of Judah in 622
BCE following the fortuitous discovery of a “book of the Torah” during the
renovation of the Temple.
2,621 YBN
[621 BC]
Athens, Greece  
2,609 YBN
[609 BC]
2,609 YBN
[609 BC]
2,605 YBN
[605 BC]
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
630) Metal coin money.

Historians generally ascribe the first use of coined money to Croesus, king of
Lydia, a state in Anatolia. The earliest coins are made of electrum, a natural
mixture of gold and silver, and are crude, bean-shaped ingots bearing a
primitive punch mark certifying to either weight or fineness or both.
Lydia, Anatolia  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
762) Thales (in Greek: Θαλης) is the first human of record to explain the
universe with out using any gods in the explanation, claiming the universe
originated as water.

Thales explains that moon light is reflected sun light.

Thales measures a pyramid by comparing the pyramid shadow with the shadow from
a stick.
Miletus, Greece  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
2619) This concept of a Devil will grow to be included in the Christian
religion, and coupled with the concept of a Hell will work as a powerful myth
against science and free inquiry into the scientific nature of the universe.
2,590 YBN
[590 BC]
1518) At this time people in Greece have not yet begun to write history or
biography. It will not be until the 400s BCE that accounts of the life of Solon
and his works began to be put together.

Before Solon's reforms, the Athenian state is administered by nine archons
appointed or elected annually by the Areopagus on the basis of noble birth and
wealth. The Areopagus is made of former archons and therefore has, in addition
to the power of appointment, a large amount of influence. The nine archons take
the oath of office while ceremonially standing on a stone in the agora,
declaring their readiness to dedicate a golden statue if they should ever be
found to have violated the laws. There is an assembly of Athenian citizens (the
Ekklesia) but the lowest class (the Thetes) are not admitted and its
deliberative procedures are controlled by the nobles. There is no method to
control or punish an archon who violates a law unless the Areopagus decides to
prosecute the archon.

According to Aristotle, Solon creates a law to allow all citizens to be
admitted into the Ekklesia and for a court (the Heliaia) to be formed from all
the citizens. The Heliaia appears to have been the Ekklesia, or some
representative portion of it, sitting as a jury. Ancient sources credit Solon
with the creation of a Council of Four Hundred, drawn from the four Athenian
income groups to serve as a steering committee for the enlarged Ekklesia.

Solon broadens the financial and social qualifications required for election to
public office. The Solonian constitution divides citizens into four political
classes defined according to assessable property, a classification that might
previously have served the state for military or taxation purposes only. The
standard unit for this assessment is one medimnos (approximately 12 gallons) of
Athens, Greece  
2,587 YBN
[587 BC]
2,585 YBN
[05/08/585 BC]
2,580 YBN
[580 BC]
764) Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος) (Anaximandros) oNoKSEMoNDrOS
or ANAKSEmANDrOS? (BCE 610-546), friend and student of Thales, describes an
Earth-centered Universe theory, and a theory that humans evolved from fish, the
first recorded theory of evolution in history..

Anaximander had a more abstract idea of the universe than Thales. Anaximander
introduced the science of the ancient east to Greece, made use of the sundial
(known for centuries in Egypt and Babylonia), was the first to draw a map of
the entire known earth. Anaximander recognized that the stars appeared to orbit
the pole star, and so viewed the sky as a complete sphere (not just a
semisphere over the earth). This is the first evidence for the idea of spheres
in astronomy. This would grow to contribute to the complicated and erroneus
system of Ptolomy which will dominate science until Copernicus and Kepler.
Anaximander thinks that the earth is curved to explain the change in position
of the stars, thinking the earth to be a cylinder. The first papyrus by
Anaximander is lost.
2,580 YBN
[580 BC]
1522) The bulk of her poetry, which is well-known and greatly admired
throughout antiquity, has been lost, but her immense reputation has endured.
Because she
writes love poems addressed to both women and men, Sappho has long been
considered bisexual. The word "lesbian" derives from the name of the island of
her birth, Lesbos.
Her homoerotica should be placed in a 600s BCE Greece context. The
poems of Alcaeus and later Pindar record similar romantic bonds between the
members of a given circle
Ancient sources state that Sappho produced nine volumes of
poetry, but only a small proportion of her work survives. Papyrus fragments,
such as those found in the ancient rubbish heaps of Oxyrhynchus, are an
important source. One substantial fragment is preserved on a potsherd. The rest
of what we know of Sappho comes through citations in other ancient writers,
often made to illustrate grammar, vocabulary, or meter. There is a single
complete poem, Fragment 1, Hymn to Aphrodite.

The themes of Sappho's known writing are primarily concerned with her thiasos,
the usual term (not actually found in any of Sappho's surviving writings) for
the female community, with a religious and educational background, that meets
under her leadership. In her poems, Sappho attacks other thiasoi directed by
other women.

The goal of the thiasos is the education of young women, especially for
marriage. Aphrodite is the group's tutelary divinity and inspiration. Sappho is
the intimate and servant of the goddess and her intermediary with the girls. In
the ode to Aphrodite, the poet invokes the goddess to appear, as she has in the
past, and to be her ally in persuading a girl she desires to love her. Frequent
images in Sappho's poetry include flowers, bright garlands, naturalistic
outdoor scenes, altars smoking with incense, perfumed unguents to sprinkle on
the body and bathe the hair-that is, all the elements of Aphrodite's rituals.
In the thiasos the girls are educated and initiated into grace and elegance for
seduction and love. Singing, dancing, and poetry play a central role in this
educational process and other cultural occasions. As is true for other female
contemporary communities, including the Spartan, and for the corresponding
masculine institutions, the practice of homoeroticism (allusions to same gender
physical love and sexuality) within the thiasos plays a role in the context of
initiation and education. In Sappho's poetry love is passion, an inescapable
power that moves at the will of the goddess; it is desire and sensual emotion;
it is nostalgia and memory of affections that are now distant, but shared by
the community of the thiasos. There is a personal poetic dimension, which is
also collective because all the girls of the group recognize themselves in it.
An important part of Sappho's poetry is occupied by epithalamia, or nuptial

It is not known how her poems were published and circulated in her own lifetime
and for the following three or four centuries. In the era of Alexandrian
scholarship (3rd and 2nd centuries BC), what survives of her work will be
collected and published in a standard edition of nine books of lyrical verse,
divided according to metre. This edition will not endure beyond the early
Middle Ages. By the 8th or 9th century CE Sappho wil be represented only by
quotations in other authors. Only the ode to Aphrodite, 28 lines long, is
complete. The next longest fragment is 16 lines long. Since 1898 these
fragments have been greatly increased by papyrus finds, though, in the opinion
of some scholars, nothing equal in quality to the two longer poems.
2,575 YBN
[575 BC]
2,550 YBN
[550 BC]
2,545 YBN
[545 BC]
2,545 YBN
[545 BC]
920) Herodotus' invention will earn him the title "The Father of History" and
the word he uses for his achievement, "historie", which previously had meant
simply "inquiry", will pass into Latin and take its modern connotation of
"history" or "story". This nickname will be given to him by Cicero (De legibus
Herodotos writes that doctors are very specialized in Egypt. There are
doctors for eyes, head, teeth, stomach, and for "invisible diseases", which may
be disturbances of the "nervous system". or perhaps simply any disease without
a clear cause (incl bacteria, virus).
2,540 YBN
[540 BC]
2,540 YBN
[540 BC]
784) Xenophanes (~570 BC - ~480 BC), a Greek philosopher, poet, social and
religious critic , learns from Pythagoras, but leaves Ionia for Southern Italy,
(to a town named "Elea"). Xenophanes is less mystical than Pythagoras and
writes about the school of Pythagoras. Xenophanes did not believe in
transmigrartion of souls, or in the primitive Greek Gods, but instead in a
monotheism rare to Greek people. Xenophanes finds seashells on mountain tops
and reasons that the earth changes over time, so that mountains must have been
in the sea and then rose, therefore Xenophanes is the first human in history to
make a contribution to the science of Geology. Not until Hutton were any other
contributions to Geology made.

Our knowledge of his views comes from his surviving poetry, all of which are
fragments passed down as quotations by later Greek writers. His poetry
criticized and satirized a wide range of ideas, including the belief in the
pantheon of human-like gods and the Greek people's continued support of

Xenophanes rejected the idea that the gods resembled humans in form. One famous
passage ridiculed the idea by claiming that, if oxen were able to imagine gods,
then those gods would be in the image of oxen. Because of his development of
the concept of a "one god greatest among gods and men" that is abstract,
universal, unchanging, immobile and always present, Xenophanes is often seen as
one of the first monotheists.

This shows that there was a large amount of tolerence of religious criticism,
without any serious punishment.
Elea, Southern Italy  
2,538 YBN
[538 BC]
2,530 YBN
[530 BC]
797) Eupalinus, Eupalinus of Megara (20 mi west of athens), a Greek architect,
constructed for the tyrant Polycrates of Samos a tunnel to bring water to the
city, passing the tunnel through a hill for half a mile, starting at both ends,
meeting at the center and unaligned by only a few inches.
Samos, Greece  
2,529 YBN
[529 BC]
772) Pythagoras describes the earth as a sphere. "Pythagorean Theorem" (in a
right triangle: the square of the lengths of the hypotenuse always equals the
sum of the square of the length of the two other sides).

Pythagoras is credited with being the first person to recognize that the
morning star (Phosphorus) and evening star (Hesperus) are the same star, after
this time, the star is called "Aphrodite" (this "star" is later recognized to
be planet Venus). Pythagoras is the first to write that the orbit of the earth
moon is not in the plane of the Earth equator but at an angle to that plane.
Pythagoras is the first to teach that the Sun, Moon, and planets do not follow
the motion of the stars, but have paths of their own. This changes the star
system theory from the theory of Anaximander of a single heavenly crystalline
sphere, to adding separate spheres for the planets. This theory of the star
system will last until Kepler.

Pythagoras moves from Samos to Croton in Southern Italy, to escape the harsh
rule of Polycrates, and starts a school in Croton.

Pythagoras experiments with a monochord, an instrument that has a single string
is stretched over a sound box. The string is fixed at both ends and a moveable
bridge alters the pitch. Pythagoras finds that strings of musical instruments
make higher pitch sounds when made shorter, finding pitch related to length.
Pythagoras finds, for example, twice the length equals 1 octave lower, a 3 to 2
ratio equals a fifth, a 4 to 3 ratio equals a fourth. Pythagoras finds that
also increasing tension raises pitch.

A Pythagorean named Hippasus is credited with the proof that the square root of
2 can not be expressed as a ratio of two numbers (is irrational). Pythagorian
humans decide to keep secret "irrational numbers".

Pythagoras mistakenly thinks that vibrations from the crystaline spheres
rubbing together create a harmonious "Music of the Spheres", which will last
for a long time.
Croton, Italy  
2,525 YBN
[525 BC]
2,520 YBN
[520 BC]
785) This skepticism of religion appears to be widespread and higly tolerated
in this time of history in Ionia.
Hecataeus was one of the first classical
writers to mention the Celtic people.
Some have credited Hecataeus with a work entitled
Ges Periodos ("Travels round the Earth" or "World Survey'), in two books each
organized in the manner of a periplus, a point-to-point coastal survey. One on
Europe, is essentially a periplus of the Mediterranean, describing each region
in turn, reaching as far north as Scythia. The other book, on Asia, is arranged
similarly to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea of which a version of the 1st
century CE survives. Hecataeus described the countries and inhabitants of the
known world, the account of Egypt being particularly comprehensive; the
descriptive matter was accompanied by a map, based upon Anaximander"s map of
the earth, which he corrected and enlarged. The work only survives in some 374
fragments, by far the majority being quoted in the geographical lexicon Ethnika
compiled by Stephanus of Byzantium.

The other known work of Hecataeus was the Genealogiai, a rationally
systematized account of the traditions and mythology of the Greeks, a break
with the epic myth-making tradition, which survives in a few fragments, just
enough to show what we are missing.

Hecataeus' work, especially the Genealogiai, shows a marked scepticism, opening
with "Hecataeus of Miletus thus speaks: I write what I deem true; for the
stories of the Greeks are manifold and seem to me ridiculous."1 Unlike his
contemporary Xenophanes, he did not criticize the myths on their own terms; his
disbelief rather stems from his broad exposure to the many contradictory
mythologies he encountered in his travels.

An anecdote from Herodotus (II, 143), of a visit to an Egyptian temple at
Thebes, is illustrative. It recounts how the priests showed Herodotus a series
of statues in the temple's inner sanctum, each one supposedly set up by the
high priest of each generation. Hecataeus, says Herodotus, had seen the same
spectacle, after mentioning that he traced his descent, through sixteen
generations, from a god. The Egyptians compared his genealogy to their own, as
recorded by the statues; since the generations of their high priests had
numbered three hundred and forty-five, all entirely mortal, they refused to
believe Hecataeus's claim of descent from a mythological figure. This encounter
with the immemorial antiquity of Egypt has been identified as a crucial
influence on Hecataeus's scepticism: the mythologized past of the Hellenes
shrank into insignificant fancy next to the history of a civilization that was
already ancient before Mycenae was built.
Miletus, Greece  
2,515 YBN
[03/12/515 BC]
2,515 YBN
[515 BC]
Persia (Kermanshah Province of Iran)  
2,510 YBN
[510 BC]
786) Heraclitus (~540 BC Ephesus 30 mi north of Miletus, ~540 bc - ~475 bc)
disagrees with Thales, Anaximander, and Pythagorus about the nature of the
ultimate substance, thinking fire to be a fundamental element of the universe.
Heraclitus claims that the nature of everything is change itself. A typically
pessimistic view led to Herkleitos being called the "weeping philosopher". Only
fragments of text by Heraclitus have been found.
Miletus, Greece  
2,510 YBN
[510 BC]
787) Parmenides (~540 BC Elea (now Velia), Italy - ??) a student of Ameinias,
and pre-Socratic philosopher, follows in the tradition of the Ionian exiled
Pythagorus and Xenophanes. Parmenides opposed the view of Heraclitus, claiming
that one object can not turn in to other object fundamentally different.
Parmenides argued that creation (something from nothing) and destruction
(nothing from something) is impossible. Parmenides chose reason over senses,
feeling senses to be untrustworthy. Parmenides founds school in Elea, the
"Eliatic School" based on this philosophy of reason over senses. Zeno was the
most recognized person educated in the school. Zeno, will use distrust of
senses to describe a set of paradoxes.
2,508 YBN
[508 BC]
Athens, Greece  
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
2,499 YBN
[499 BC]
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[490 BC]
789) Hanno (BCE c530-???), Cathaginian (a branch of the Phoenicians) Navigator,
sails 60 ships with 3000 people, down the coast of Africa in order to start new
settlements. Much of what is learned about Hanno is from an 18 sentence
travel-record, or "Periplus" of this journey, from Herodotus, and Pliny the
Elder. Herodotus will express doubts about the accuracy of Hanno's story,
because of a report that in the far south the sun at noon was in the nothern
half of the sky, which Herodotus will think is impossible, but is in fact true
for the southern hemisphere of earth. This is strong evidence, taken together
with the Periplus of Hanno's journey that Hanno is the first Mediterranean
human to sail over the equator into the Southern Hemisphere. Herodotus also
declares that Hanno claimed to have circumnavigated Africa.
Carthage (modern: Tunis)  
2,490 YBN
[490 BC]
2,470 YBN
[470 BC]
836) Anaxagoras views the Sun to be a mass of red-hot metal, that people live
on the Moon, and thinks that the Universe is made of tiny bodies. The
contemporary prevailing belief is that the Sun and the Moon are gods. Diogenes
Laerteus confirms that this is the belief of the Egyptian people writing
(translated from Greek): "...They (the Egyptians) say that the first principle
is matter then that the four elements were formed out of matter and divided and
that some animals were created and that the sun and moon are gods of whom the
former is called Osiris and the latter Isis and they are symbolised under the
names of beetles and dragons and hawks and other animals...".

Anaxagoras (BCE c500-c428) introduces the Ionian science of Thales to Athens,
saying that the universe is not made by a deity, but through the action of
infinite "seeds", which will later develop into atomic theory under Leucippos.
Anaxagoras accurately explains the phases of the earth moon, and both eclipses
of moon and sun in terms of their movements.

Anaxagoras teaches in Athens for 30 years, and the school formed by Anaxagoras
starts the scholarly tradition that lasts for 1000 years.
2,470 YBN
[470 BC]
2,470 YBN
[470 BC]
2,468 YBN
[468 BC]
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[467 BC]
1894) Particle (or wireless) communication. The optical telegraph (or

An optical telegraph is an apparatus for conveying information by using visual
signals, for example, using towers with turnable blades or paddles, shutters,
or hand-held flags etc.

The Greek playwright, Aeschylus, describes in the play "Agamemnon" how news of
the fall of Troy reaches the city of Argos (600 km away) in only a few hours by
the use of fire signals.

Robert Hooke (CE 1635-1703) gives a clear description of an optical telegraph
(or semaphore) using telescopes to the Royal Society in 1684.

Claude Chappe in France will develop one of the first practical optical
telegraphs in 1794.
Greece (presumably)  
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
841) Theory that all matter is made of atoms.

Leukippos (Greek Λευκιππος ) (lEUKEPOS?) (BCE c490-???) is the first
person to support an atomic theory. Leukippos theorizes that the universe is
made of two different elements, which he calls "solid" and "empty", and that
matter is composed entirely of an infinity of small indivisible particles
called atoms, which are constantly in motion, and through their collisions and
regroupings form various compounds.

The most famous among Leucippus' lost works are titled "Megas Diakosmos" ("The
Great Order of the Universe" or "The great world-system") and "Peri Nou" ("On

The argument for indivisible atoms is said to have been a response to Zeno's
argument about the absurdities that follow if magnitudes are divisible to

Leukippos represents the final part of science and logic in Asia Minor before
the destruction of the coastal cities by humans from Persia. Leukippos teaches
Leukippos is the first person to say that every event has a natural cause.
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
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[458 BC]
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[454 BC]
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[451 BC]
906) Protagoras (Greek: Πρωταγόρας) (c. 481-c. 420 BC) publishes an
agnostic text. Diogenes describes it this way (translated from Greek):
"...another of his treatises he begins in this way: "Concerning the Gods, I am
not able to know to a certainty whether they exist or whether they do not. For
there are many things which prevent one from knowing, especially the obscurity
of the subject, and the shortness of the life of man.". And on account of this
beginning of his treatise he was banished by the Athenians. And they burnt his
books in the market-place, calling them in by the public crier, and compelling
all who possessed them to surrender them.".
2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
Croton, Italy  
2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China  
2,438 YBN
[438 BC]
2,434 YBN
[434 BC]
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[432 BC]
849) Metonic calendar: 12 years of 12 months, 7 years of 13 months.

Greek astronomer Meton (c440BC Athens - ???) finds that 235 lunar months make
around 19 years, so 12 years of 12 months and 7 years of 13 months will allow
the lunar calendar to match the seasons. The Greek calendar will be based on
the Metonic cycle until 46 BCE when the Julian calendar will be made by Julius
Caesar with the help of Sosigenes. This calendar is also in use in Babylonia
around the same time if not earlier.
Greek astronomer Meton (~440BC Athens - ???) finds
that 235 lunar months (moon rotations of earth) are close to 19 earth years, so
if there are 12 years of 12 lunar months, and 7 years of 13 lunar months, every
19 years, the lunar calendar would match the seasons. This will come to be
called the "Metonic cycle" (although probably recognized by astonomers in
Babylonia before this time). The Greek calendar will be based on the Metonic
cycle until 46 BCE when the Julian calendar will be made by Julius Caesar with
the help of Sosigenes.

This cycle can be used to predict eclipses, forms the basis of the Greek and
Jewish calendars, and is used to determine the date for Easter each year.
Athens, Greece (presumably)  
2,431 YBN
[431 BC]
Sri Lanka  
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
Athens, Greece  
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
Abdera, Thrace  
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
847) There is much uncertainty, but Hippocrates was born of a family in a
hereditary guild of magicians on the Isle of Cos, described to be descended
from Asklepios, the Greek god of medicine. Hippocrates visits Egypt early in
life, there studies medical works credited to Imhotep. Some people claim that
he was a student of Democritus. Hippocrates teaches in Athens (and other
places), before opening his own school of health in Cos.

Humans that graduate with a "medical" degree must still repeat the oath
credited to Hippocrates (although repeating oaths is stupid, and few if any
actually people actually follow this advice of do no harm, in particular in
psychiatric hospitals).
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
2,424 YBN
[424 BC]
1138) Although in the comedy "Clouds", Aristophanes paints Ionian science in a
bad light through a portrayal of Socrates encouraging young people to beat
their parents. But perhaps even then, people paid for such a message to be read
during a play (now newspapers, magazines, television and movies accept money
for such messages), and money for propaganda, a very old (albeit secretive)
system, may have influence Aristophanes even then.
Athens, Greece  
2,409 YBN
[409 BC]
2,408 YBN
[408 BC]
Athens, Greece (or perhaps Macedon)  
2,404 YBN
[404 BC]
2,399 YBN
[399 BC]
Athens, Greece  
2,390 YBN
[390 BC]
2,387 YBN
[387 BC]
851) Plato's Academy.

Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn, "wide, broad-shouldered") (c427BC Athens
- 347 BC Athens) founds a school in western Athens on a piece of land once
owned by a legendary Greek human named "Academus", and so this school comes to
be called "The Academy", and this word will eventually generally apply to any
school. The Academy will be a center for science and education for 900 years
until 529 CE.

Plato is an Athethian aristocrat (of the ruling class or nobility) whose
original name is "Aristocles", but he gets the nick name "Platon" (meaning
"broad") because of his broad shoulders. (Cicero also was a nick name). Plato
is in the "war service" (tph military?) and is interested in politics, but
rejects Athenian democracy.

In this year, Plato returned to Athens. (on the way to Athens, Plato is
supposed to have been captured by pirates and held for ransom).

The Academy has shrine to the muses (mouseion) and is viewed as a religious
organisation by the government.

Plato stayed at the Academy for the rest of his life, except for 2 years in the
360s, when he visited Syracuse, the main city of Greek Sicily, to tutor the new
king Dionysius II. Dionysius II appeared brutal, and Plato returned safely to
Athens. Plato is supposed to have died in his sleep at the age of 80 after
attending a wedding feast of a student. Writing credited to Plato are
consistently popular and are of a series of dialogues between Socrates and
others. Most of what is known about Socrates is from these texts. Like
Socrates, Plato was mainly interested in moral philosophy and hated natural
philosophy (science). To Plato, knowledge had no practical purpose. Plato liked
mathematics, perhaps because the perfection of math, the loftiest form of pure
thought, was different from the reality of the universe (viewed as "gross" and
imperfect). Above the main doorway to the academy were the words in Greek: "Let
no one ignorent of mathematics enter here." Plato did think that math could be
applied to the universe. The planets, he thought, exhibited perfect geometric
form. This is in Timaeus. He describes the 5 and only 5 perfect solids, those
objects with equal faces, lines and angles. (4 sided tetrahedron, six sided
hexahedron (or cube), 8 sided octahedron, 12 sided dodecahedron, and 20 sided
icosahedron. 4 of the 5 represented the 4 elements, while the dodecahdron
represented the whole universe. These solids were first discovered by the
Pythagoreans. Plato thought the planets were spheres and moved in circles
along the crystalline spheres that held them in place. The idea that the
universe must reflect the perfection of abstract mathematics was most popular
until Kepler, even though compromises with reality had to be made constantly,
beginning after the death of Plato with Eudoxus and Callippus. In Timaeus,
Plato invented a moralistic story of a completely fictional land called
"Atlantis". This legend has had unending popularity and has persisted to now.
One Aegean island exploded vocanically in 1400 BC and this may have given rise
to this story. The views of Plato had a strong influence on Christian people
until the 1200s when Aristotle gained more popularity.
Carl Sagan states that:

"Plato and his followers separated the earth from the "heavens" (the rest of
the universe), Plato taught contempt for the real world and disdain for the
practical application of science. Plato served tyrants, and taught the
separation of the body from the mind, a natural enough idea in a slave
and that "{Plato} preferred the perfection of these mathematical
abstractions to the imperfections of everyday life. He believed that ideas were
far more real than the natural world. He advised the astronomers not to waste
their time observing the stars and planets. It was better, he believed, to just
think about them. Plato expressed hostility to observation and experiment. He
taught contempt for the real world and disdain for the practical application of
scientific knowledge. Plato's followers succeeded in extinguishing the light of
science and experiment that had been kindled by Democritus and the other
Ionians. Plato's unease with the world as revealed by the senses was to
dominate and stifle Western philosophy. Even as late as 1600, Johannes Kepler
was still struggling to interpret the structure of the Cosmos in terms of
Pythagorean solids and Platonic perfections." I am not sure that we should
fully blame Pythagoras and Plato for the collapse of science, as much as we
should the tradition of religion that came long before them. But clearly the
support of these incorrect views by a majority of later intellectuals shows
large scale bad judgement. The popularity of Plato is a mystery since Plato
did not make one contribution to science. Sagan says that this popularity is
because the views of Plato justify a corrupt social order, where I think that
this popularity was simply a mistaken belief. In addition the Academy served
as a center for science and education until 529 CE.

In "The Republic", one of the earliest and most influential books on political
theory, Plato presents a plan for the ideal society and government. Plato
disliked Athenian democracy. It was the leaders of the Athenian democracy that
had sentenced his teacher to die for seeking truth and wisdom. Plato preferred
Sparta's model of government. In Sparta, the needs of the state (country) were
put above the individual. Serving the government was more important than
achieving personal goals. Plato believed that too much personal freedom led to
disorder and chaos. Athens was a primary example of this disorder.

" Plato wanted only the most intelligent and best-educated citizens to
participate in government. He divided people into three classes: workers to
produce life's necessities, soldiers to defend the people, and specially
trained leaders to govern the state (country). The specially trained leaders
would be an elite class that included both men and women. The wisest of all
would be a philosopher-king with ultimate authority. The philosopher-king would
be well educated to make decisions for the good of all the people."

"Rather than being remembered for a specific model of the Universe it was his
views on its nature, put forward in his dialogue Timaeus, that were to so
strongly influence subsequent generations. To Plato the Universe was perfect
and unchanging. Stars were eternal and divine, embedded in an outer sphere. All
heavenly motions were circular or spherical as the sphere was the perfect
shape. Such was his influence that the concept of circular paths was not
challenged until Kepler, after many years of painstaking calculations,
discovered the elliptical orbits of planets nearly 2,000 years later."
Athens, Greece  
2,384 YBN
[384 BC]
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[378 BC]
2,378 YBN
[378 BC]
2,372 YBN
[372 BC]
1038) Diogenes "the Cynic", is a Greek philosopher, born in Sinope (in modern
day Sinop, Turkey) about 412 BCE (according to other sources 399 BCE), and died
in 323 BCE at Corinth.

Diogenes lives with no possessions in a tub belonging to the temple of Cybele.

At the Isthmian Games he lectured to large audiences, who turned to him from
his one-time teacher Antisthenes.

When Plato gave Socrates's definition of man as "featherless bipeds" and was
much praised for the definition, Diogenes plucked a cock and brought it into
Plato's school, and said, "This is Plato's man." After this incident, "with
broad flat nails" was added to Plato's definition.

The ideas of Diogenes of Sinope, as well as most of the other Cynics, arrive
indirectly. No writings of Diogenes survive even though he is reported to have
authored a number of books.

Happiness, for Diogenes, was to be found in radical autonomy. For Diogenes and
the other Cynics the best way to achieve this autonomy was to minimize one's
dependence upon things and people. The ascetic lifestyle that Diogenes
pursued--which involved sleeping out of doors in cold weather and eating
whatever he could obtain--was an expression of this ideal, which also prepared
the Cynic for anything that might happen. Nevertheless, it seems that Diogenes
was not against pleasure (as his masturbation implies): when reproved for
walking out of a brothel (where apparently he had been enjoying, apparently for
free, the services offered) he replied that he should be reproved for walking
in rather than walking out.

Diogenes maintained that all the artificial growths of society were
incompatible with happiness and that morality implies a return to the
simplicity of nature. So great was his austerity and simplicity that the Stoics
would later claim him to be a sage or "sophos", a perfect man. In his words,
"Man has complicated every simple gift of the gods."
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[370 BC]
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[366 BC]
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[357 BC]
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[347 BC]
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[342 BC]
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[341 BC]
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[340 BC]
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[336 BC]
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[335 BC]
859) During the thirteen years (335 BCE-322 BCE) which Aristotle spends as
teacher of the Lyceum, he composes most of his writings. Imitating Plato,
Aristotle writes "Dialogues" in which his doctrines were expounded in somewhat
popular language. He also composes the several treatises on sciences, logic,
metaphysics, and ethics, in which the language is more technical than in the
Dialogues. These writings succeeded in bringing together the works of his
predecessors in Greek philosophy, and how he pursued, either personally or
through others, his investigations in the realm of natural phenomena. Pliny
will claim that Alexander placed under Aristotle's orders all the hunters,
fishermen, and fowlers of the royal kingdom and all the overseers of the royal
forests, lakes, ponds and cattle-ranges, and Aristotle's works on zoology make
this statement believable. Aristotle was fully informed about the doctrines of
his predecessors, and Strabo will assert that he was the first to accumulate a
great library.

During the last years of Aristotle's life the relations between him and
Alexander became very strained, owing to the disgrace and punishment of
Callisthenes, whom Aristotle had recommended to Alexander. Nevertheless,
Aristotle continued to be regarded at Athens as a friend of Alexander and a
representative of Macedonia. Consequently, when Alexander's death became known
in Athens, and the outbreak occurred which led to the Lamian war, Aristotle
shared in the general unpopularity of the Macedonians. The charge of impiety,
which had been brought against Anaxagoras and Socrates, was now brought against
Aristotle. He left the city, saying, "I will not allow the Athenians to sin
twice against philosophy" (Vita Marciana 41). He took up residence at his
country house at Chalcis, in Euboea, and there he died the following year, 322
BC. His death was due to a disease, reportedly 'of the stomach', from which he
had long suffered.

Aristotle's legacy also had a profound influence on Islamic thought and
philosophy during the middle ages. Muslim thinkers such as Avicenna, Farabi,
and Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi were a few of the major proponents of the
Aristotelian school of thought during the Golden Age of Islam.

Though we know that Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises (Cicero described
his literary style as "a river of gold"), the originals have been lost in time.
All that we have now are the literary notes of his pupils, which are often
difficult to read (the Nicomachean Ethics is a good example). It is now
believed that we have about one fifth of his original works.

Aristotle underestimated the importance of his written work for humanity. He
thus never published his books, only his dialogues. The story of the original
manuscripts of his treatises is described by Strabo in his Geography and
Plutarch in his "Parallel Lives, Sulla": The manuscripts were left from
Aristotle to Theophrastus, from Theophrastus to Neleus of Scepsis, from Neleus
to his heirs. Their descendants sold them to Apellicon of Teos. When Sulla
occupied Athens in 86 BC, he carried off the library of Appellicon to Rome,
where they were first published in 60 BC from the grammarian Tyrranion of
Amisus and then by philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes.

Aristotle did not like the idea of atoms that Democritos had thought about. If
matter was made up of tiny particles there must be spaces between them, spaces
that would have nothing in them - a vacuum. Aristotle's refusal to accept the
possibility that a vacuum could exist came from his ideas about forces. He said
that non-living objects could have "natural" or "forced" motion. The natural
motion of earth and water was downwards because they had "gravity" while air
and fire always rose because they had "levity". An object was given forced
motion when it was thrown into the air and Aristotle concluded that the speed
of an object depended on the force acting on it - no force, no speed.

Arostotle writes "History of Animals".

Though we know that Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises (Cicero described
his literary style as "a river of gold"), the originals have been lost in time.
All that we have now are the literary notes of his pupils, which are often
difficult to read (the Nicomachean Ethics is a good example). It is now
believed that we have about one fifth of his original works.

Aristotle underestimates the importance of his written work for humanity. He
thus never publishes his books, only his dialogues. The story of the original
manuscripts of his treatises is described by Strabo in his "Geography" and
Plutarch in his "Parallel Lives, Sulla": The manuscripts were left from
Aristotle to Theophrastos, from Theophrastos to Neleus of Scepsis, from Neleus
to his heirs. One of Neleus' descendents (it is unknown who), digs up the
buried scrolls and sells them for a large sum in gold to a bibliophile,
Apellicon of Teos. Apellicon of Teos makes a 'botched up' edition titled the
'Lost Texts of Aristotle'. When Sulla occupies Athens in 86 BCE, he will carry
off the library of Appellicon to Rome. The grammarian Tyrannion of Amisus in
Rome, friend of Atticus and Cicero, obtains the scrolls on loan, gives up on
making his own compiled edition and entrusts the project to Andronicus of
Rhodes, who subdivides the treatises into books. The originals are returned to
Sulla's library. This edition of the texts of Aristotle will be published in 60

Faustus is the son of the Emperor Sulla, and Pompey's son-in-law. The cultural
elite go to Faustus' house to consult these precious texts of Aristotle. Cicero
writes a letter to Atticus about the delight of Faustus' library. To pay off
debts, Faustus sells the scrolls of Aristotle, and they have never been located
since. Much of this story comes from Strabo who was presumably a pupil of
Tyrannion of Amisus.
Athens, Greece  
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921) It is possible that the Museum (Mouseion) of Alexandria is built starting
now, and much of the city was constructed by the time Ptolemy arrives to rule 9
years later in 323 BCE.
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[325 BC]
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[325 BC]
887) Pytheas PitEoS (Πυθέας) (BCE 380-310) sails to Great Britain and
"Thule" (probably Norway or Iceland). Pytheas is the first person to explain
tides as happening because of the influence of the moon. Only 2000 years later
will Newton explain the attraction of the Moon. Pytheas is also the first
person to show that the North star is not exactly at the pole and makes a small
circle in a day. The written history of Britain begins with Pytheas.
Massalia (now: Marseille France)  
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[06/10/323 BC]
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[323 BC]
862) After Aristotle moves to Chalcis, Aristotle choses Theofrastos
(Theophrastus) (Greek: Θεόφραστος) (tEOFrASTOS?) (BCE c372-287) to
preside over the Peripatetic school, which he does for thirty-five years. The
Lyceum maintains it's highest quality under Theophrastos. Theophrastos
describes over 500 species of plants and is the founder of botony, the study of
plants. Theophrastus is charged with asebeia (atheism) but acquitted by a jury
in Athens.
2,323 YBN
[323 BC]
863) The charge of impiety, which had been brought against Anaxagoras and
Socrates, was now brought against Aristotle. He leaves Athens saying, "I will
not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy" (Vita Marciana 41). He
takes up residence at his country house at Chalcis, where his mother had lived,
in Euboea, and there he dies the following year, 322 BC. His death was due to a
disease, reportedly 'of the stomach', from which he had long suffered.

After the death of Alexander, the anti-Macedonian party accuses Aristotle of
impiety. With the example of Socrates behind him, Aristotle escapes to Chalcis
in Euboea, where he dies in the same year.
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885) "Is God willing to prevent evil but not able? Then He is not omnipotent.
Is He able but not willing? Then He is malevolent. Is He both able and willing?
Then whence cometh evil? Is He neither able nor willing? Then why call Him
Admiting of females and slaves shocks and interests the scholarly people
of the time.

After the official approval of Christianity by Constantine, Epicureanism was
repressed. Epicurus' theory that the gods were unconcerned with human affairs
had always clashed strongly with the Judeo-Christian God, and the philosophies
were essentially irreconcilable. For example, the word for a heretic in the
Talmudic literature is "Apikouros". Lactantius criticizes Epicurus at several
points throughout his Divine Institutes. The school endured a long period of
obscurity and decline. However, there was a resurgance of atomism among
scientists in the 18th and 19th Centuries, and in the late 20th Century, the
school was revived.
2,310 YBN
[310 BC]
869) Kidinnu (BCE 340-???), head of the Astronomical school in Sippar
(Babylonia), understands the precession of equinoxes (a wobbling in the
orientation of Earth's axis with a cycle of almost 26,000 years).

Hipparchus will make use of the precession of the equinoxes as documented by
Kidinnu. Kidinnu makes a complicated method of expressing movement of the moon
and planets, differing from the view that these objects must move at a constant
(Astronomical School) Sippar, Babylonia  
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[305 BC]
884) Pre-Christian Greek humans did not object to human dissection, thinking a
"soul" most important, and a dead body just a group of flesh. In Egypt, human
dissection is a serious impiety. He is particularly interested in the brain.
eral of our sources speak of Herophilus and Erasistratus undertaking not merely
dissections, but also vivisections (dissections on living bodies), on human
subjects. The Christian writer Tertullian (ca. 155-230) describes Herophilus as
‘that butcher who cut up innumerable corpses in order to investigate nature
and who hated mankind for the sake of knowledge" ("On the Soul", chap. 10).
However, Tertullian was totally opposed to the scientific investigations of
pagan researchers and did everything he could to defame them and their work.
ny and Rufus both refer in general terms to the practice of human dissection
without specifying who first undertook this. Another first century CE source,
the Roman medical writer Celsus, both identifies the men concerned and reports
the arguments that were used to justify this practice and that of vivisection.
In the introduction (23 ff.) of his work "On Medicine" Celsus writes as follows
concerning the group of doctors known as the Dogmatists:
"Moreover since pains
and various kinds of diseases arise in the internal parts, they hold that no
one who is ignorant about those parts themselves can apply remedies to them.
Therefore it is necessary to cut open the bodies of dead men and to examine
their viscera and intestines. Herophilus and Erasistratus proceeded in by far
the best way, they cut open living men-criminals they obtained out of prison
from the kings-and they observed, while their subjects still breathed, parts
that nature had previously hidden, their position, colour, shape, size,
arrangement, hardness, softness, smoothness, points of contact, and finally the
processes and recesses of each and whether any part is inserted into another or
receives the part of another into itself."
The Dogmatists wrote of the
advantages of vivisection over dissection and defended this viewpoint against
the charge of inhumanity by claiming that the good outweighed the evil: ‘nor
is it cruel, as most people state, to seek remedies for multitudes of innocent
men of all future ages by means of the sacrifice of only a small number of
Unlike Tertullian, Celsus cannot be accused of malicious distortion. He himself
disagrees with the Dogmatists. 'To cut open the bodies of living men,' he says
later in his introduction (74 f), "is both cruel and superfluous: to cut open
the bodies of the dead is necessary for medical students. For they ought to
know the position and arrangement of parts-which the dead body exhibits better
than a wounded living subject. As for the rest, which can only be learnt from
the living, experience itself will demonstrate it rather more slowly, but much
more mildly, in the course of treating the wounded." The tone of his whole
account is restrained and we have no good grounds for rejecting it. No one can
doubt that religious and moral considerations inhibited the opening of the
human body, whether dead or alive, in antiquity. But that is not to say that
such inhibitions could never, under any circumstances, be overcome. The
situation at Alexandria in the third century BCE was clearly an exceptional one
in the particular combination of ambitious scientists and patrons of science
that existed there at that time. For all the ancients' respect for the dead,
corpses were desecrated often enough by people other than scientists. Moreover,
when we reflect that the ancients regularly tortured slaves in public in the
law courts in order to extract evidence from them, and that Galen, for example,
records cases where new poisons were tried out on convicts to test their
effects, it is not too difficult to believe that the Ptolemies permitted
vivisection to be practised on condemned criminals.

Before Herofilos, doctors were called Asclepiadae, in the sense that they were
spiritual descendants of the Greek God of healing, Asclepius. Much of this new
health research is done in Alexandria and rival capital Antioch. Herofilos and
his students are interested in direct knowledge and precise terminology. Galen
(129-200 CE),will praise Herofilos in relation to the ovarian arteries and
veins observed by Herofilos in the womb, writing "I have not seen this myself
in other animals except occasionally in monkeys. But I do not disbelieve that
Herofilos observed them in women; for he was efficient in other aspects of his
art and his knowledge of facts acquired through anatomy was exceedingly
precise, and most of his observations were made not, as is the case with most
of us, on brute beasts but on human beings themselves." Some of Herofilos'
pupils form their own schools. One such student is Callimachus. According to
Polybius around 150 BCE, the medical profession is dominated by two schools,
the Herophileans and the Callimacheans. Another pupil of Herofilos, Philinus of
Cos, will form a rival school, refered to as the Empiricists, who differed from
Herofilos in disregarding anatomy and physiology, focusing mainly on
therapeutics, claiming that a disease must be treated experimentally. They
based their school on experiment and past history of success.
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927) While in Egypt Hekataeos of Abdura writes that priests teach children two
kinds of writing, sacred (hieratic) and the more common (demotic), in addition
to geometry and arithmetic. Hecataeus writes "they (Egyptians) have preserved
to this day the record concerning each of the stars over an incredible number
of years...they have also observed with great interest the motions, ... orbits
and stoppings of the planets".
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[300 BC]
1166) This tomb is constructed to look like a temple (it looks similar to
Dendera). The outside is decorated in typical Late Period style, while the
outer court is decorated in a Greek-style.
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[297 BC]
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902) Museum of Alexandria.

Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαίου Σωτήρα) starts construction of the
Soma, in Alexandria, a mausoleum where Alexander and subsequent kings will be
stored after death, the famous Lighthouse of Pharos, the research center known
as the Mouseion (a temple to the Muses, a "Mousaeion" (Μουσείον also
Μουσείου, Museum: in actuality a University and Library ) and the Royal
Library (which may have been a separate building near the Mousaeion or may have
been inside the Mousaeion), in the Royal Palaces area. The Mousaeion will house
the smartest scientists of this time. This research center will also include a
zoo. Some of these monuments will take more time to build than 2 decades and
will be completed under the reign of Ptolemy II.
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[297 BC]
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878) Euclid may have run a school of mathematics in Alexandria. Pappus of
Alexandria (fl. c320 CE) will write that the Greek mathematician Apollonius
learned geometry from the students of Euclid in Alexandria.

Eukleidis is a Greek mathematician, who lived in Alexandria, Egypt during the
reign of Ptolemy I (323 BC283 BC), and is often considered to be the "father of
geometry". His most popular work, Elements, is the most successful textbook in
the history of mathematics. Within it, the properties of geometrical objects
are deduced from a small set of axioms, thereby founding the axiomatic method
of mathematics.

Although best-known for its geometric results, the Elements also includes
various results in number theory, such as the connection between perfect
numbers and Mersenne primes.

Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, and
possibly quadric surfaces. Neither the year nor place of his birth have been
established, nor the circumstances of his death.

Although many of the results in Elements originated with earlier
mathematicians, one of Euclid's accomplishments was to present them in a
single, logically coherent framework. In addition to providing some missing
proofs, Euclid's text also includes sections on number theory and
three-dimensional geometry. In particular, Euclid's proof of the infinitude of
prime numbers is in Book IX, Proposition 20.

The geometrical system described in Elements was long known simply as the only
"geometry". Today, however, it is often referred to as Euclidean geometry to
distinguish it from other so-called non-Euclidean geometries which will be
found in the 1800s CE. These new geometries will grow out of more than 2000
years of investigation into Euclid's fifth postulate, one of the most-studied
axioms in all of mathematics, known as the "parallel postulate", the postulate
that no two angles in a triangle can be equal or greater than 2 90 degree
angles. This postulate will be shown to only be true for flat surfaces and
not for the surface of a sphere or hyperboloid.

One story about Euclid is from Stobaeus and relates that one of Euclid's
students, when he had learned the first proposition, asked his teacher, "But
what is the good of this and what shall I get by learning these things?", to
which Euclid calls a slave and says, "Give this fellow a penny, since he must
make gain from what he learns. "
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(Book probably funded by and stored in the Museum of Alexandria) Alexandria,
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(Lyceum) Athens, Greece  
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1028) Ktesibios (Ctesibius) (TeSiBEOS) (Greek Κτησίβιος), (fl. 285 -
222 BCE) starts the engineering tradition in Alexandria. Ktesibius invents
several devices using compressed air: a water organ, in which air is forced
through the organ pipes by the weight of water, and an air-powered catapult.
Alexandria, Egpyt  
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Athens, Greece  
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Heliopolis, Egypt  
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[275 BC]
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[274 BC]
886) Erasistratus, is born on the island of Chios in ancient Greece, to a
family with a history of doctors. His father and brother are doctors, and his
mother is the sister of a doctor. He studies health science in Athens and then,
around 280 B.C., enrolls in the University of Cos, a center of the medical
school of Praxagoras. Erisistratos then moves to Asia and is court physician
for Seleucus I, who controls a major portion of what had been the Persian
Empire. Erasistratus then moves to Alexandria, where he teaches and is a
practicing doctor, continuing the work of Herophilus. In his later years, he
retires from being a practice doctor and joins the Alexandrian museum, where he
devotes himself to research. Although Erasistratus writes extensively in a
number of health-related fields, none of his works survive. He is best known
for his observations based on his numerous dissections of human cadavers (and
rumored, his vivisections of criminals, a practice allowed by the Ptolemy
rulers). Erasistratus accurately describes the structure of the brain,
including the cavities and membranes, and makes a distinction between its
cerebrum and cerebellum (larger and smaller parts). He views the brain, not the
heart, as the seat of intelligence. By comparing the brains of humans and other
animals, Erasistratus correctly concludes that a greater number of brain
convolutions results in greater intelligence. He also accurately describes the
structure and function of the gastric (stomach) muscles, and observes the
difference between motor and sensory nerves. Erasistratus promotes hygiene,
diet, and exercise in health care.

In Alexandria, the view at the time is that the nerves carry "nervous spirit",
arteries "animal spirit", and the veins blood, however Erasistratos takes a
step backwards from Herofilos in mistakenly thinking that arteries do not carry
blood. He thinks air is carried from lungs to heart and changed in to the
"animal spirit" that is carried in the arteries.

He is best known for curing Antiochos, Seleucus's son. Erasistratus said that
Antiochos was in love with his stepmother, and that that was what was ailing
him, so he let them marry.
Alexandria, Egpyt  
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[270 BC]
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[265 BC]
931) Pliny the Elder will record in the 1st century CE that Hermippus (Greek:
Ἕρμιππος) of Smyrna, a student of Callimachus writes a commentary on
the versus of Zoroaster now. This implies that these stories have been
translated from Iranian to Greek.
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
663) Lever.

The earliest remaining writings regarding levers date from the 3rd century BC
and were provided by Archimedes. "Give me a place to stand, and I shall move
the earth with a lever" is a remark of Archimedes who formally stated the
correct mathematical principle of levers (quoted by Pappus of Alexandria).

It is assumed that in ancient Egypt, constructors used the lever to move and
uplift obelisks weighting more than 100 tons.
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
822) Screw.

Archimedes (Greek: Αρχιμήδης ) (287-212 BCE) is usually credited with
with the concept of the spiral screw. A spiral screw is an inclined plane
wrapped around a cylinder. The spiral is called a "thread", and the distance
between adjacent edges is called the "pitch" of the screw. The pitch is equal
to the distance that the screw advances in one turn in a solid medium.

Although Archimedes is credited with inventing the screw in the 3rd century BC,
his screw is not the fastener kind of screw, but actually is two other
screw-type devices. One is a kind of water pump, still used today for
large-volume, low-lift, industrial applications, the device is now called the
inclined screw conveyor or "Archimedes screw". The second is the "endless
screw", which is the same as the worm of a worm and gear set, one of the five
ancient devices for raising heavy weights.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
882) Aristarchos understands that the Earth rotates around the Sun each year
and that the earth rotates around its own axis once a day.

In 450 BC, Philolaus had theorized that the earth moves through space.

Aristarchus’s only extant work is "On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and
Moon". Aristarchus finds that as observed during a lunar eclipse, the diameter
of Earth’s shadow is twice the diameter of the Moon. Aristarchos uses the
observation that, at the time when the Moon appears half-lit (quarter Moon),
the angular distance between the Moon and the Sun is 87 degrees, to determine
that the Sun is between 18 and 20 times farther away from Earth than the Moon
is. (The actual ratio is about 390.).

The Greek philosopher Cleanthes, the Stoic, declares in his "Against
Aristarchus" that Aristarchus should be indicted for impiety "for putting into
motion the hearth of the universe".

Aristarchus’s work on the motion of Earth has not survived, but his ideas are
known from references by the Greek mathematician Archimedes, the Greek
biographer Plutarch, and the Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus.

In his manuscript of "Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly
Orbs" (1543), Copernicus will cite Aristarchus as an ancient authority who
supported the motion of Earth, but later crosses out the reference.
(Mousion of Alexandria) Alexandria, Egpyt  
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891) Archimedes calculates the oldest known example of a geometric series with
the ratio 1/4 (see image).
He proves that the ratio of a circle's perimeter to its
diameter is the same as the ratio of the circle's area to the square of the
radius. He does not call this ratio π but gives a procedure to approximate it
to arbitrary accuracy and gave an approximation of it as between 3 + 10/71
(approximately 3.1408) and 3 + 1/7 (approximately 3.1429). He proves that the
area enclosed by a parabola and a straight line is 4/3 the area of a triangle
with equal base and height. (see image)

Archimedes is the first to identify the concept of center of gravity, and he
found the centers of gravity of various geometric figures, assuming uniform
density in their interiors, including triangles, paraboloids, and hemispheres.

Asimov calls Archimedes the greatest in science and math before Newton.
Archimedes is a
Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher born in
the seaport colony of Syracuse, Sicily.

It's possible that in a long duration seige that even the burning of a landed
ship from a roof might be of value.

Cicero writes that the Roman consul Marcellus brought two devices back to Rome
from the sacked city of Syracuse. One device mapped the sky on a sphere and the
other predicted the motions of the sun and the moon and the planets (i.e., an
orrery). He credits Thales and Eudoxus for constructing these devices. For some
time this was assumed to be a legend of doubtful nature, but the discovery of
the Antikythera mechanism has changed the view of this issue, and it is indeed
probable that Archimedes possessed and constructed such devices. Pappus of
Alexandria writes that Archimedes had written a practical book on the
construction of such spheres entitled On Sphere-Making.

Archimedes' works were not widely recognized, even in antiquity. He and his
contemporaries probably constitute the peak of Greek mathematical rigour.
During the Middle Ages the mathematicians who could understand Archimedes' work
were few and far between. Many of his works were lost when the library of
Alexandria was burnt (twice) and survived only in Latin or Arabic translations.
As a result, his mechanical method was lost until around 1900, after the
arithmetization of analysis had been carried out successfully. We can only
speculate about the effect that the "method" would have had on the development
of calculus had it been known in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Archimedes requests that his tombstone include a cylinder circumscribing a
sphere, accompanied by the inscription of his amazing theorem that the sphere
is exactly two-thirds of the circumscribing cylinder in both surface area and

Writings by Archimedes
* On the Equilibrium of Planes (2 volumes)
This scroll explains the law of
the lever and uses it to calculate the areas and centers of gravity of various
geometric figures.

* On Spirals
In this scroll, Archimedes defines what is now called Archimedes' spiral.
This is the first mechanical curve (i.e., traced by a moving point) ever
considered by a Greek mathematician.

* On the Sphere and The Cylinder
In this scroll Archimedes obtains the result he was
most proud of: that the area and volume of a sphere are in the same
relationship to the area and volume of the circumscribed straight cylinder.

* On Conoids and Spheroids
In this scroll Archimedes calculates the areas and volumes of
sections of cones, spheres and paraboloids.

* On Floating Bodies (2 volumes)
In the first part of this scroll, Archimedes spells out
the law of equilibrium of fluids, and proves that water around a center of
gravity will adopt a spherical form. This is probably an attempt at explaining
the observation made by Greek astronomers that the Earth is round. Note that
his fluids are not self-gravitating: he assumes the existence of a point
towards which all things fall and derives the spherical shape. One is led to
wonder what he would have done had he struck upon the idea of universal
In the second part, a veritable tour-de-force, he calculates the equilibrium
positions of sections of paraboloids. This was probably an idealization of the
shapes of ships' hulls. Some of his sections float with the base under water
and the summit above water, which is reminiscent of the way icebergs float,
although Archimedes probably was not thinking of this application.

* The Quadrature of the Parabola
In this scroll, Archimedes calculates the area of a
segment of a parabola (the figure delimited by a parabola and a secant line not
necessarily perpendicular to the axis). The final answer is obtained by
triangulating the area and summing the geometric series with ratio 1/4.

* Stomachion
This is a Greek puzzle similar to Tangram. In this scroll, Archimedes
calculates the areas of the various pieces. This may be the first reference we
have to this game. Recent discoveries indicate that Archimedes was attempting
to determine how many ways the strips of paper could be assembled into the
shape of a square. This is possibly the first use of combinatorics to solve a

* Archimedes' Cattle Problem
Archimedes wrote a letter to the scholars in the Library
of Alexandria, who apparently had downplayed the importance of Archimedes'
works. In these letters, he dares them to count the numbers of cattle in the
Herd of the Sun by solving a number of simultaneous Diophantine equations, some
of them quadratic (in the more complicated version). This problem is one of the
famous problems solved with the aid of a computer. The solution is a very large
number, approximately 7.760271 × 10206544 (See the external links to the
Cattle Problem.)

* The Sand Reckoner
In this scroll, Archimedes counts the number of grains of sand
fitting inside the universe. This book mentions Aristarchus of Samos' theory of
the solar system (concluding that "this is impossible"), contemporary ideas
about the size of the Earth and the distance between various celestial bodies.
From the introductory letter we also learn that Archimedes' father was an

* "The Method"
In this work, which was unknown in the Middle Ages, but the importance
of which was realised after its discovery, Archimedes pioneered the use of
infinitesimals, showing how breaking up a figure in an infinite number of
infinitely small parts could be used to determine its area or volume.
Archimedes did probably consider these methods not mathematically precise, and
he used these methods to find at least some of the areas or volumes he sought,
and then used the more traditional method of exhaustion to prove them. Some
details can be found at how Archimedes used infinitesimals.

What an interesting group of people and interesting time it must have been for
the people at the university in Alexandria, perhaps unknown to them, to be with
the smartest and most interesting humans on earth like Aristarchos, Archimedes,
Eritosthenes, etc.). All people eat together at the university which must have
made for some very enlightened conversations.

Archimedes' father is an astronomer. Archimedes learns in Alexandria, and
decides to move back to Syracuse (which is rare for most people in Alexandria)
perhaps because he is related to the King of Syracuse Hieron II.
Archimedes is
independently wealthy and does not depend on the wealth of royal people in

Archimedes is asked by Hieron if a crown from a gold smith was really all gold,
or if the crown had silver mixed in. Archimedes is told that he cannot damage
the crown in the determination. Archimedes can not think of how to solve the
problem until one time he steps in a bath and notes that the water overflows.
Archimedes realizes that the amount of water that falls out is equal to the
volume of his body. If put in water, Archimedes could measure the volume of the
crown, then measure the weight of the crown, and compare this weight with an
equal volume of pure gold. The crown and the piece of gold with the same volume
should weight the same. If the crown weighes more than the pure gold with the
same volume, then the crown is not pure gold. Archimedes, excited by this
realization, ran naked through the streets of Syracuse (although people were
not as disturbed by nudity then) yelling "eureka! eureka!" (or 'Heureka'; Greek
ηὕρηκα; I have found it). The crown is partly silver and the goldsmith
is executed.

Archimedes makes use of levers (Strato was aware of the idea). Archimedes is
told to have said "give me a place to stand and I can move the world". Hieron
is supposed to have challanged Archimedes, and Archimedes said to have lifted a
ship from a harbor on to shore.
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898) Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Kurinaios) (Ἐρατοσθένης) (BCE 276-196)
is the first person to accurately calculate the size of the earth.

On the day of summer solstace, the longest day of the year, the Sun is directly
over head in Syene (now Aswan) in southern Egypt, but at the same time in
Alexandria, the Sun is a few degrees from the (perpendicular or) zenith in
Alexandria. The difference is because the surface of the earth is curved and
not flat. Erastosthenes is aware that Syene and Alexandria are almost on the
same line of longitude (or meridian) and also knows the distance between Syene
and Alexandria (Erastothenes hired a human to pace out the distance between
Alexandria and Syene ), and uses this distance and the angle of the Sun to
calculate the diameter of the planet earth. This result is in units of
measurement of space called "stadia". Eratosthenes calculates a distance
between Alexandria and Syene as 5,000 stadia, and calculates that the angle of
the Sun (in Alexandria at noon on the longest day of the year) is 1/50th the
circumference of a circle. This puts the circumference Eratosthenes measures at
at 40,000 km (25,000 miles) which is accurate (the current estimate is
40,075.02 km). This number is larger than most humans can accept and so the
smaller estimate of Poseidonius is accepted. From this large number compared to
the "known" earth, Eratosthenes thought the various seas formed a single
interconnected ocean. Eratosthenes teaches that Africa might be
circumnavigated, and that India can be reached by sailing westwards from

Eratosthenes makes the "Sieve of Eratosthenes", a system for determining prime
numbers. Eratosthenes makes a map of the "known" earth which is better than any
before. In astronomy, Eratosthenes measures the angle of the earth's axis with
the plane the sun appears to move in, and gets an accurate value. This value is
called the "obliquity of ecliptic". Eratosthenes makes a star map of 675

Eratosthenes denounces those who divide mankind into two groups, Greeks and
non-Greeks and advocates the Stoic moral principles of virtue and vice as a
criterion for the division of men.

Eratosthenes is a friend of Archimedes.
Alexandria, Egypt  
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923) The Serapeion is a massive raised acropolis of buildings.

The Serapeum is away from the main library in the south west corner of
Alexandria, the Egyptian quarter of Rhakotis. The Serapeum is called the
"daughter library". In the bilingual foundation plaques, the name Serapis is
rendered in the Egyptian form of Osor-Hapi (the Egyptian name is Osorapis). Two
obelisks (a thin 4 sided monument becoming thinner up to the top with a
pyramidal top), are said to have stood there as well as two red granite
sphinxes which are still at the site. A black granite Apis bull (an egyptian
god) now in the Alexandria museum was also in the Serapeum. This shows how the
vision of the Ptolemies was to combine the Egyptian and Greek populations.

Ptolemy 3 creates a temple of Serapis in the South-West part of Alexandria,
some distance from the royal quarters. : The excavations by Alan Rowe and
others in 1943-1944 will find foundation plaques that clearly bear the name of
Ptolemy 3 Euergetes, even though medieval writers will attribute the Serapeum
to Ptolemy 2 At the southern end are two long corridors opening into small
rooms, and in particular a row of 19 uniform rooms, each about 3 by 4 meters.
The excavators theorize that these rooms were used to shelve the scrolls of the
Serapeum library, and that the scrolls were consulted in the corridors.

One source has
the Serapeum started under Ptolemy I Soter but finished under Ptolemy 3 as the
foundation plaques excavated in 1942 indicate.

In the east end is a huge statue of the god Serapeus (who looks like Zeus),
made of wood and covered with ivory and gold, the outstretched arms nearly
reach the two side-walls. In the left hand is a sceptre and under the right
hand was an image of Cerberus, with a triple head of lion, dog and wolf, with a
python coiled around he three heads. An east window behind the statue is
arranged so that the first rays of the rising sun light up the features of the

Under the plateau are underground passages and storerooms.

Aphthonios (a Greek sophist and rhetorician living in the second half of the
4th century CE), in his "Progymnasmata", an introductory book on different
kinds of rhetoric (fable, narration, comparison, etc.), gives a sample for the
style of writing titled "Description" that describes the Sarapeion. Aphthonios
"Description: the temple in Alexandria, together with the acropolis

Citadels are established for the common security of cities - for they are the
highest points of cities. They are not walled round with buildings, so much as
they wall round the cities. The centre of Athens held the Athenian acropolis;
but the citadel which Alexander established for his own city is in fact what he
named it, and it is more accurate to call this an acropolis than that on which
the Athenians pride themselves. For it is somewhat as this discourse shall

A hill juts out of the ground, rising to a great height, and called an
acropolis on both accounts, both because it is raised up on high and because it
is placed in the high-point of the city. There are two roads to it, of
dissimilar nature. One is a road, the other a way of access. The roads have
different names according to their nature. Here it is possible to approach on
foot and the road is shared also with those who approach on a wagon; there
flights of steps have been cut and there is no passage for wagons. For flight
after flight leads higher and higher, not stopping until the hundredth step;
for the limit of their number is one which produces a perfect measure.

After the steps is a gateway, shut in with grilled gates of moderate size. And
four massive columns rise up, bringing four roads to one entrance. On the
columns rises a building with many columns of moderate size in front, not of
one colour, but they are fixed to the edifice as an ornament. The building's
roof is domed, and round the dome is set a great image of the universe.

As one enters the acropolis itself a single space is marked out by four sides;
the plan of the arrangement is that of a hollow rectangle. There is a court in
the centre, surrounded by a colonnade. Other colonnades succeed the court,
colonnades divided by equal columns, and their length could not be exceeded.
Each colonnade ends in another at right angles, and a double column divides
each colonnade, ending the one and starting the other. Chambers are built
within the colonnades. Some are repositories for the books, open to those who
are diligent in philosophy and stirring up the whole city to mastery of wisdom.
Others are established in honour of the ancient gods. The colonnades are
roofed, and the roof is made of gold, and the capitals {tops} of the columns
are made of bronze overlaid with gold. The decoration of the court is not
single. For different parts are differently decorated, and one has the exploits
of Perseus. In the middle there rises a column of great height, making the
place conspicuous (someone on his way does not know where he is going, unless
he uses the pillar as a sign of the direction) and makes the acropolis stand
out by land and sea. The beginnings of the universe stand round the capital of
the column. Before one comes to the middle of the court there is set an edifice
with many entrances, which are named after the ancient gods; and two stone
obelisks rise up, and a fountain better than that of the Peisistratids. And the
marvel had an incredible number of builders. As one was not sufficient for the
making, builders of the whole acropolis were appointed to the number of twelve
{by the dozen}.

As one comes down from the acropolis, here is a flat place resembling a
race-course, which is what the place is called; and here there is another of
similar shape, but not equal in size.

The beauty is unspeakable. If anything has been omitted, it has been bracketed
by amazement; what it was not possible to describe has been omitted."
Alexandria, Egypt  
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1325) Chinese people possibly ob served Halley's comet as early as 2467 BCE.
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1034) The letter "G" is added to the Latin alphabet in Rome. Before this the
letter "C" could be either the "K" or "G" sound, now the letter "G" will have
the "G" sound and the letter "C" will only have the "K" sound. A more logical
system would be to not add any letter "G", and to use the letter "C" only as
"G", "K" for all "K" sounds, but this simple one letter equals one sound only
system is not recognized. This confusion about how to pronounce the letter "C"
will continue for thousands of years, persisting even today. Later the letter
"C" will also take on an "S" and "CH" sound and "G" will take on the "J" sound,
adding to a simple and unnecessary confusion.
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1373) Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of
Ashoka, is recorded by Pliny the Elder as sending an ambassador named Dionysius
to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra in India:
"But {India} has been treated of by
several other Greek writers who resided at the courts of Indian kings, such,
for instance, as Megasthenes, and by Dionysius, who was sent thither by
Philadelphus, expressly for the purpose: all of whom have enlarged upon the
power and vast resources of these nations."
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1117) The Suàn shù shū is an ancient Chinese collection of writings on
mathematics approximately 7000 characters in length, written on 190 bamboo
strips, recovered from a tomb that appears to have been closed in 186 B.C. This
anonymous collection is not a single coherent book, but is made up of
approximately 69 independent sections of text, which appear to have been
assembled from a variety of sources. Problems treated range from elementary
calculations with fractions to applications of the Rule of False Position and
finding the volumes of various solid shapes.
Zhangjiashan, Hubei Provience, China  
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1029) Pliny will claim, in his "Natural History", that Hipparchos compiled his
catalog of stars so that future astronomers can detect changes in positions and
the possible appearance of novae. Lucio Russo writes that Edmund Halley,
"probably without realizing that he was completing an experiment ... started
two thousand years earlier" will be the first to notice this difference in

In the 2nd and 3rd centuries coins were made in his honour in Bithynia that
bear his name and show him with a globe; this confirms the tradition that he
was born there.
Hipparchus is believed to have died on the island of Rhodes, where he
spent most of his later life--Ptolemy attributes observations to him from
Rhodes in the period from 141 BC to 127 BC.
Hipparchus is recognized as the
originator and father of scientific astronomy. He is believed to be the
greatest Greek astronomical observer, and many regard him as the greatest
astronomer of ancient times, although Cicero gave preferences to Aristarchus of
Samos. Some put in this place also Ptolemy of Alexandria. Hipparchus' writings
had been mostly superseded by those of Ptolemy, so later copyists have not
preserved them for posterity.
Earlier Greek astronomers and mathematicians were influenced
by Babylonian astronomy to a limited extent, for instance the period relations
of the Metonic cycle and Saros cycle may have come from Babylonian sources.
Hipparchus seems to have been the first to exploit Babylonian astronomical
knowledge and techniques systematically. He was the first Greek known to divide
the circle in 360 degrees of 60 arc minutes (Eratosthenes before him used a
simpler sexagesimal system dividing a circle into 60 parts). He also used the
Babylonian unit pechus ("cubit") of about 2° or 2½°.

Hipparchus also studied the motion of the Moon and confirmed the accurate
values for some periods of its motion that Chaldean astronomers had obtained
before him. The traditional value (from Babylonian System B) for the mean
synodic month is 29 days;31,50,8,20 (sexagesimal) = 29.5305941... d. Expressed
as 29 days + 12 hours + 793/1080 hours this value has been used later in the
Hebrew calendar (possibly from Babylonian sources). The Chaldeans also knew
that 251 synodic months = 269 anomalistic months. Hipparchus extended this
period by a factor of 17, because after that interval the Moon also would have
a similar latitude, and it is close to an integer number of years (345).
Therefore, eclipses would reappear under almost identical circumstances. The
period is 126007 days 1 hour (rounded). Hipparchus could confirm his
computations by comparing eclipses from his own time (presumably 27 January 141
BCE and 26 November 139 BCE according to {Toomer 1980}), with eclipses from
Babylonian records 345 years earlier (Almagest IV.2; {Jones 2001}).

Before Hipparchus, Meton, Euctemon, and their pupils at Athens had made a
solstice observation (i.e., timed the moment of the summer solstice) on June
27, 432 BC (proleptic Julian calendar). Aristarchus of Samos is said to have
done so in 280 BC, and Hipparchus also had an observation by Archimedes.
Hipparchus himself observed the summer solstice in 135 BC, but he found
observations of the moment of equinox more accurate, and he made many during
his lifetime. Ptolemy gives an extensive discussion of Hipparchus' work on the
length of the year in the Almagest III.1, and quotes many observations that
Hipparchus made or used, spanning 162 BCE to 128 BCE. At the end of his career,
Hipparchus wrote a book called Peri eniausíou megéthous ("On the Length of
the Year") about his results.

Before Hipparchus the Chaldean astronomers knew that the lengths of the seasons
are not equal. Hipparchus made equinox and solstice observations, and according
to Ptolemy (Almagest III.4) determined that spring (from spring equinox to
summer solstice) lasted 94 + 1/2 days, and summer (from summer solstice to
autumn equinox) 92 + 1/2 days. This is an unexpected result given a premise of
the Sun moving around the Earth in a circle at uniform speed. Hipparchus'
solution was to place the Earth not at the center of the Sun's motion, but at
some distance from the center. This model described the apparent motion of the
Sun fairly well (of course today we know that the planets like the Earth move
in ellipses around the Sun, but this was not discovered until Johannes Kepler
published his first two laws of planetary motion in 1609). It's not clear if
Hipparchos or Ptolemy found these values.
Hipparchus also undertook to find the
distances and sizes of the Sun and the Moon. He published his results in a work
of two books called Peri megethoon kai 'apostèmátoon ("On Sizes and
Distances") by Pappus in his commentary on the Almagest V.11; Theon of Smyrna
(2nd century) mentions the work with the addition "of the Sun and Moon".

Hipparchus measured the apparent diameters of the Sun and Moon with his
diopter. Like others before and after him, he found that the Moon's size varies
as it moves on its (eccentric) orbit, but he found no perceptible variation in
the apparent diameter of the Sun. He found that at the mean distance of the
Moon, the Sun and Moon had the same apparent diameter

Like others before and after him, he also noticed that the Moon has a
noticeable parallax, i.e., that it appears displaced from its calculated
position (compared to the Sun or stars), and the difference is greater when
closer to the horizon. He knew that this is because the Moon circles the center
of the Earth, but the observer is at the surface - Moon, Earth and observer
form a triangle with a sharp angle that changes all the time. From the size of
this parallax, the distance of the Moon as measured in Earth radii can be
determined. For the Sun however, there was no observable parallax (we now know
that it is about 8.8", more than ten times smaller than the resolution of the
unaided eye).

In the first book, Hipparchus assumes that the parallax of the Sun is 0, as if
it is at infinite distance. He then analyzed a solar eclipse, presumably that
of 14 March 190 BC. Alexandria and Nicaea are on the same meridian. Alexandria
is at about 31° North, and the region of the Hellespont at about 41° North;
authors like Strabo and Ptolemy had fairly decent values for these geographical
positions, and presumably Hipparchus knew them too. So Hipparchus could draw a
triangle formed by the two places and the Moon, and from simple geometry was
able to establish a distance of the Moon, expressed in Earth radii. Because the
eclipse occurred in the morning, the Moon was not in the meridian, and as a
consequence the distance found by Hipparchus was a lower limit. In any case,
according to Pappus, Hipparchus found that the least distance is 71 (from this
eclipse), and the greatest 81 Earth radii.

In the second book, Hipparchus starts from the opposite extreme assumption: he
assigns a (minimum) distance to the Sun of 470 Earth radii. This would
correspond to a parallax of 7', which is apparently the greatest parallax that
Hipparchus thought would not be noticed (for comparison: the typical resolution
of the human eye is about 2'. In this case, the shadow of the Earth is a cone
rather than a cylinder as under the first assumption. Hipparchus observed (at
lunar eclipses) that at the mean distance of the Moon, the diameter of the
shadow cone (of the earth) is 2+½ lunar diameters. That apparent diameter is,
as he had observed, 360/650 degrees (of the sky). With these values and simple
geometry, Hipparchus could determine the mean distance; because it was computed
for a minimum distance of the Sun, it is the maximum average distance possible
for the Moon. With his value for the eccentricity of the orbit, he could
compute the least and greatest distances of the Moon too. According to Pappus,
he found a least distance of 62, a mean of 67+1/3, and consequently a greatest
distance of 72+2/3 Earth radii. With this method, as the parallax of the Sun
decreases (i.e., its distance increases), the minimum limit for the mean
distance is 59 Earth radii - exactly the mean distance that Ptolemy will later

Hipparchus therefore had the problematic result that his minimum distance (from
book 1) was greater than his maximum mean distance (from book 2). He was
intellectually honest about this discrepancy, and probably realized that
especially the first method is very sensitive to the accuracy of the
observations and parameters (in fact, modern calculations show that the size of
the solar eclipse at Alexandria must have been closer to 9/10 than to the
reported 4/5).

Ptolemy later measured the lunar parallax directly (Almagest V.13) (presumable
against the position of a star?), and used the second method of Hipparchus'
with lunar eclipses to compute the distance of the Sun (Almagest V.15). He will
criticize Hipparchus for making contradictory assumptions, and obtaining
conflicting results (Almagest V.11): but apparently he will fail to understand
Hipparchus' strategy to establish limits consistent with the observations,
rather than a single value for the distance. Hipparchos' results are the best
until his time: the actual mean distance of the Moon is 60.3 Earth radii,
within his limits from book 2.

Pliny (Naturalis Historia II.X) tells us that Hipparchus demonstrated that
lunar eclipses can occur five months apart, and solar eclipses seven months
(instead of the usual six months); and the Sun can be hidden twice in thirty
days, but as seen by different nations. Ptolemy discussed this a century later
at length in Almagest VI.6. The geometry, and the limits of the positions of
Sun and Moon when a solar or lunar eclipse is possible, are explained in
Almagest VI.5. Hipparchus apparently made similar calculations. The result that
two solar eclipses can occur one month apart is important, because this can not
be based on observations: one is visible on the northern and the other on the
southern hemisphere - as Pliny indicates -, and the latter was inaccessible to
the Greek.

Prediction of a solar eclipse, i.e., exactly when and where it will be visible,
requires a solid lunar theory and proper treatment of the lunar parallax.
Hipparchus must have been the first to be able to do this. A rigorous treatment
requires spherical trigonometry, but Hipparchus may have made do with planar
approximations. He may have discussed these things in Peri tes kata platos
meniaias tes selenes kineseoos ("On the monthly motion of the Moon in
latitude"), a work mentioned in the Suda.

Hipparchus is credited with the invention or improvement of several
astronomical instruments, which were used for a long time for naked-eye
observations. According to Synesius of Ptolemais (4th century) he made the
first astrolabion: this may have been an armillary sphere (which Ptolemy
however says he constructed, in Almagest V.1); or the predecessor of the planar
instrument called astrolabe (also mentioned by Theon of Alexandria). With an
astrolabe Hipparchus was the first to be able to measure the geographical
latitude and time by observing stars. Previously this was done at daytime by
measuring the shadow cast by a gnomon, or with the portable instrument known as

Ptolemy mentions (Almagest V.14) that he used a similar instrument as
Hipparchus, called dioptra, to measure the apparent diameter of the Sun and
Moon. Pappus of Alexandria described it (in his commentary on the Almagest of
that chapter), as did Proclus (Hypotyposis IV). It was a 4-foot rod with a
scale, a sighting hole at one end, and a wedge that could be moved along the
rod to exactly obscure the disk of Sun or Moon.

Hipparchus also observed solar equinoxes, which may be done with an equatorial
ring: its shadow falls on itself when the Sun is on the equator (i.e., in one
of the equinoctial points on the ecliptic), but the shadow falls above or below
the opposite side of the ring when the Sun is south or north of the equator.
Ptolemy quotes (in Almagest III.1 (H195)) a description by Hipparchus of an
equatorial ring in Alexandria; a little further he describes two such
instruments present in Alexandria in his own time.

Contributions to geography: Hipparchus applied his knowledge of spherical
angles to the problem of denoting locations on the Earth's surface. Before him
a grid system had been used by Dicaearchus of Messana, but Hipparchus was the
first to apply mathematical rigor to the determination of the latitude and
longitude of places on the Earth. Hipparchus wrote a critique in three books on
the work of the geographer Eratosthenes of Cyrene (3rd century BC), called
Pròs tèn 'Eratosthénous geografían ("Against the Geography of
Eratosthenes"). It is known to us from Strabo of Amaseia, who in his turn
criticised Hipparchus in his own Geografia. Hipparchus apparently made many
detailed corrections to the locations and distances mentioned by Eratosthenes.
It seems he did not introduce many improvements in methods, but he did propose
a means to determine the geographical longitudes of different cities at lunar
eclipses (Strabo Geografia 7). A lunar eclipse is visible simultaneously on
half of the Earth, and the difference in longitude between places can be
computed from the difference in local time when the eclipse is observed. His
approach would give accurate results if it were correctly carried out but the
limitations of timekeeping accuracy in his era made this method impractical.

Previously, Eudoxus of Cnidus in the 4th century B.C. had described the stars
and constellations in two books called Phaenomena and Entropon. Aratus wrote a
poem called Phaenomena or Arateia based on Eudoxus' work. Hipparchus wrote a
commentary on the Arateia - his only preserved work - which contains many
stellar positions and times for rising, culmination, and setting of the
constellations, and these are likely to have been based on his own

Hipparchus made his measurements with an equatorial armillary sphere, and
obtained the positions of maybe about 850 stars. It is disputed which
coordinate system he used. Ptolemy's catalogue in the Almagest, which is
derived from Hipparchus' catalogue, is given in ecliptic coordinates.

Hipparchus' original catalogue has not been preserved today. However, an
analysis of an ancient statue of Atlas (the so-called Farnese Atlas) published
in 2005 shows stars at positions that appear to have been determined using
Hipparchus' data..

As with most of his work, Hipparchus star catalogue has been adopted and
expanded by Ptolemy. It has been strongly disputed how much of the star
catalogue in the Almagest is due to Hipparchus, and how much is original work
by Ptolemy. Statistical analysis (e.g. by Bradly Schaeffer, and others) shows
that the classical star catalogue has a complex origin. Ptolemy has even been
accused of fraud for stating that he re-measured all stars: many of his
positions are wrong and it appears that in most cases he used Hipparchus' data
and precessed them to his own epoch three centuries later, but using an
erroneous (too small) precession constant.

In any case the work started by Hipparchus has had a lasting heritage, and has
been worked on much later by Al Sufi (964), and by Ulugh Beg as late as 1437.
It was superseded only by more accurate observations after invention of the

Hipparchus (is the first?) ranks stars in six magnitude classes according to
their brightness: he assignes the value of one to the twenty brightest stars,
to weaker ones a value of two, and so forth to the stars with a class of six,
which can be barely seen with the naked eye. A similar system is still used
today (perhaps a system based on number of photons received/second will be

Hipparchus is perhaps most famous for having discovered the precession of the
equinoxes. His two books on precession, On the Displacement of the Solsticial
and Equinoctial Points and On the Length of the Year, are both mentioned in the
Almagest of Claudius Ptolemy. According to Ptolemy, Hipparchus measured the
longitude of Spica and other bright stars. Comparing his measurements with data
from his predecessors, Timocharis and Aristillus, he realized that Spica had
moved 2° relative to the autumnal equinox. He also compared the lengths of the
tropical year (the time it takes the Sun to return to an equinox) and the
sidereal year (the time it takes the Sun to return to a fixed star), and found
a slight discrepancy. Hipparchus concluded that the equinoxes were moving
("precessing") through the zodiac, and that the rate of precession was not less
than 1° in a century.

Ptolemy followed up on Hipparchus' work in the 2nd century AD. He confirmed
that precession affected the entire sphere of fixed stars (Hipparchus had
speculated that only the stars near the zodiac were affected), and concluded
that 1° in 100 years was the correct rate of precession. The modern value is
1° in 72 years.

As far as is known, Hipparchus never wrote about astrology, i.e. the
application of astronomy to the (fraudulent albeit nonviolent and legal)
practice of divination.
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1039) Seleukos lives in Babylonia and is probably called "Chaldean" or
"Babylonian", but was probably part Greek, and lives during the same time as
Strabo will explain that Seleukos understood the yearly changes of
the tides from season to season, revealing the fact that tides show a maximum
change in height with each consecutive high tide (diurnal inequality) during
the solstice, and minimum change of height difference of consecutive high tides
during the equinox. This phenomenon is explained by the fact that the earth is
tilted to the sun, during the solstice, but is not tilted to the sun during the
equinox {add image}, although this could be explained with a tilted sun in an
earth-centered theory. This phenomenon will not be understood again until G. H.
Darwin in 1898.

Plutarch writes: Was {Timaeus} giving the earth motion ..., and should the
earth ... be understood to have been designed not as confined and fixed but as
turning and revolving about, in the way expounded later by Aristarchos and
Seleukos, the former assuming this as a hypothesis and the latter proclaiming

Aetius will write, "Seleucus the mathematician (also one of those who think the
earth moves) says that the moon's revolution counteracts the whirlpool motion
of the earth".
Seleucia (on the Tigris River), Babylon  
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1337) Shishi, in Chinese means "Stone House", which refers to how the school
was originally built.
Chengdu, China  
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1070) The invention of paper. The earliest paper artifact (although without
writing) is made of hemp fibers and comes from a tomb in China.

Before this bamboo and silk are written on in China.

The method of making paper by pouring wood pulp mixed in water into a flat mold
and drying the sediment will take over 1000 years to be understood in Europe,
although it will reach India in the 600s CE.

Paper is considered one of the most important inventions in history, since it
enables China to develop its civilization much faster than with earlier writing
materials (primarily bamboo), and it does the same with Europe when it is
introduced in the 12th century or the 13th century.
Xian, China  
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1042) Poseidonios is a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer,
geographer, historian, and teacher. He is acclaimed as the greatest polymath of
his age. None of his vast body of work can be read in its entirety today as it
exists only in fragments.

Like Pytheas, Poseidonios thinks that the moon causes the tides, and goes west
to the Atlantic ocean to study tides. Poseidonios uses Canopus in place of the
sun in order to calculate the size of the earth, but his measurement is too
small (as described by Strabo the only source for this data). Ptolemy will
accept this lower number, instead of accurate calculation made by Eratosthenes,
and this will be the accepted value of the Earth's circumference for the next
1,500 years, and may influence Christopher Columbus that the earth can be
circumnavigated. Poseidonius supports the pseudoscience of astrology.

He attempted to measure the distance and size of the Sun. In about 90 BCE
Posidonius estimated the astronomical unit to be a0/rE = 9893, which was still
too small by half. In measuring the size of the Sun, however, he reached a
figure larger and more accurate than those proposed by other Greek astronomers
and Aristarchus of Samos.

Posidonius also calculated the size and distance of the Moon.

Posidonius constructed an orrery, possibly similar to the Antikythera
mechanism. Posidonius's orrery, according to Cicero, exhibited the diurnal
motions of the sun, moon, and the five known planets.
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Central Asia  
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[100 BC]
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[80 BC]
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[76 BC]
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1116) Negative numbers.
The first use of negative numbers is in the Chinese mathematics
book "The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art" (Jiuˇ zhāng suàn shù).
Negative numbers are in red and positive numbers in black.
The Nine Chapters is
a Chinese counterpart to Euclid’s Elements, which dominates Western
mathematics in the same way the Nine Chapters is the basis of ancient Chinese
mathematics for nearly two millennia. Euclid’s text is uses an axiomatic
method while The Nine Chapters, is a much more down-to-Earth handbook for the
solution of practical problems.
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1045) Lucretius (BCE c95-c55) describes light and heat as being made of tiny
atoms that move very fast.

Lucretius {LYUKREsEuS}, Titus Lucretius Carus, Roman poet and philosopher,
writes "De Natura Rerum" (On the Nature of things) which describes a mechanical
Epikourean view of universe in a (longer than average) poem. Influenced by
Democritus, Lucretius supports the idea that all things are made of atoms
including souls and even Gods. Like Epikouros, Lucretius thinks that the Gods
are not concerned with the lives of humans, and death is not to be feared. In
addition Lucretius thinks that there is no after life, only peaceful
nothingness. Lucretius is the first to divide human history in to the stone
age, bronze age, and iron age. Lucretius is the boldest person of this time to
speak out against religion, superstition and mysticism.

In "De rerum natura" Lucretius writes (translated from Latin): "...the velocity
with which these images travel is enormous: light things made of fine atoms
often travel very swiftly, as sunlight; it is natural then that these images
should do the same; of which too there is a constant succession one following
on the other like light or heat from the sun. ...".
Rome, Italy  
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956) A fire set by soldiers for Julius Caesar may have burned only some
storehouses of books, or may have partially or completely burned the Royal
Library too, but in any event, the Royal Mouseion (which possibly housed the
Royal Library) and Sarapeion survived undamaged.
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[45 BC]
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[45 BC]
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[45 BC]
Rome, Italy  
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[41 BC]
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[40 BC]
1058) Earliest waterwheel and elevator (vertical lift).

In the first century BC Roman engineer Vitruvius writes "De architectura",
known today as "The Ten Books of Architecture", a treatise in Latin on
architecture, dedicated to the emperor Augustus. It is the only surviving major
book on architecture from classical antiquity.

In a section of "De architectura" that describes machines rarely used,
Vitruvius describes the undershot water wheel. Vitruvius also describes the
first geared vertical wheel for which there is good evidence. This mill is also
of major significance because it is the first application of gearing which uses
something besides muscle power. This mill has an undershot wheel which, unlike
the breast or overshot wheels, does not make use of the weight of falling
water. An "overshot" waterwheel uses water from above to move the wheel by
filling buckets on the wheel, while an "undershot" waterwheel uses the force of
the water passing below to spin a paddle wheel. A "breast" waterwheel uses the
wheel horizontally.

Vitruvius {ViTrUVEuS} describes lifting platforms that use pulleys and capstans
(apparatus used for hoisting weights, consisting of a vertical spool-shaped
cylinder that is rotated manually or by machine and around which a cable is
wound), or windlasses (hauling or lifting machines consisting of a horizontal
cylinder turned by a crank or a motor so that a line attached to the load is
wound around the cylinder), operated by human, animal, or water power.
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1059) Strabo was born in a wealthy family from Amaseia, which is in modern
Amasya, Turkey, within Pontus; which had recently become part of the Roman
Empire. He studies under various geographers and philosophers; first in Nysa,
later in Rome. He is philosophically a Stoic and politically a proponent of
Roman imperialism. Later he will make extensive travels to Egypt and Ethiopia,
among others. It is not known when his Geography is written, though comments
within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor
Tiberius. Some place its first drafts at around 7 CE, others around 18 CE.
Mention is given to the death in 23 CE of Juba, king of Maurousia.

Strabo's History is nearly completely lost. Although Strabo quotes it himself,
and other classical authors mention that it existed, the only surviving
document is a fragment of papyrus now in possession of the University of Milan
(renumbered {Papyrus} 46).

Impressed by the size of the unmapped parts of earth, Strabo suggests that
there are other continents.
Strabo wrongly accepts Homer's geographic descriptions over the
more accurate data of Herodotus.
Strabo writes about the Mouseion in Alexandria in
addition to the original papyri of Aristotle's writing.
Strabo's conversion from a
sphere to plane in inaccurate.

Strabo's "Geography" is an important source for information about the Mouseion
of Alexandria. In book 17, Strabo writes: "The Museum is also a part of the
royal palaces; it has a public walk, an Exedra {a semi-circular room} with
seats, and a large house, in which is the common mess-hall of the men of
learning who share the Museum. This group of men not only hold property in
common, but also have a priest in charge of the Museum, who formerly was
appointed by the kings, but is now appointed by Caesar."
Amasya, Pontus {on the coast of Turkey}  
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Actium, Greece  
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[30 BC]
3060) The chief teacher of Varro is L. Aelius Stilo, the first systematic
student, critic and teacher of Latin (language) and literature, and of the
antiquities of Rome and Italy. Varro also studies at Athens, especially under
the philosopher Antiochus of Ascalon, whose aim it is to lead back the Academic
school from the scepticism of Arcesilaus and Carneades to the tenets of the
early Platonists, as he understands them.

In 59 Varro wrote a political pamphlet entitled "Trikaranos" ("The
Three-Headed") on the coalition of Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Crassus.

Varro serves under Pompey in the civil war. When he returns to Rome after the
Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BCE, Caesar, the victor, pardons Varro and
commissions Varro to establish a public library of Greek and Latin literature.
Varro then dedicates the second part of his "Antiquitates rerum humanarum et
divinarum" ("Antiquities of Human and Divine Things") to Julius Caesar. After
Julius Caesar is murdered in 44 BCE, under the second triumvirate, Mark Antony
puts Varro's name on the list of those considered to be enemies of the state.
Although his books are burned, his villa plundered, and his library destroyed,
Varro escapes death through the intervention of Octavian (later Augustus).
Thereafter, Varro spends his remaining years in seclusion, reading and

Varro's distinct literary works are numbered at 74 and the number of separate
"books" at about 620.

Varro writes on a wide variety of subjects, including law, astronomy,
geography, education, and literary history, as well as satires, poems,
orations, and letters. The only complete work to survive is the "Res rustica"
("Farm Topics"), which contains instruction for plant and animal farming.

Varro dedicates his "De lingua Latina" ("On the Latin Language") to Cicero.
This work contains 25 books, of which only parts of books v to x are known, in
addition to other fragments.

Of Varro's "Saturae Menippeae", 90 of the 150 books and nearly 600 fragments
still exist. These satires are humorous medleys in mixed prose and verse in the
manner of the 200s BCE cynic philosopher Menippus of Gadara. According to
biography, these writings try to make serious logical discussion palatable to
the uneducated reader by blending it with humorous treatment of contemporary
society. Two themes run through the satires. One is the absurdity of much of
Greek philosophy; the other, the contemporary preoccupation with material
luxury, in contrast to the old days, when the Romans were thrifty and

Varro wrote "Portraits" which contains brief biographical essays on some 700
famous Greeks and Romans, with likenesses of each.

Of the 25 books of De lingua Latina, books 5-10 survive, although even they are
incomplete. After an introduction (book 1), the work is divided into etymology
(history of language) (2-7), inflection (8-13), and syntax (14-25).

Cicero's praises Varro writing "When we were foreigners and wanderers -
strangers, as it were, in our own land - your books led us home and made it
possible for us at length to learn who we were as Romans and where we lived.".

Varro creates a chronology, although the chronology of Livy is viewed as more
accurate. The Romans call their years after the two supreme magistrates, the
consuls. With a list of magistrates, all past events can be dated.
Rome, Italy  
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Rome, Italy  
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[27 BC]
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[19 BC]
Pont Du Gard, France  
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Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Gansu province, China  
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[1960/0 AD]
(University of California Medical Center) Los Angeles, California, USA  
2,000 YBN
[0 AD]
6298) Artificial muscle wing flapping plane.
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[9 AD]
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[20 AD]
912) This Celsus is different from the Celsus of the 2nd Century CE who will
write "The True Word", a book critical of Christianity.

His only extant work, the De Medicina, is the only surviving section of a much
larger encyclopedia, and is a primary source on diet, pharmacy and surgery and
related fields. The lost portions of his encyclopedia likely included volumes
on agriculture, law, rhetoric, and military arts. Celsus' De Medicina is one of
the best sources on Alexandrian medical knowledge.

In "Of Medicine", Celsus describes the preparation of numerous ancient
medicinal remedies including the preparation of opioids. In addition, he
describes many 1st century Roman surgical procedures which include treatment
for bladder stones, tonsillectormy, and the setting of fractures.

Celsus is the first to discuss heart attacks. Celsus writes on dentistry and
describes the use of a dental mirror. He describes a "cataract", a condition
where the lens of the eye grows opaque, in addition to a procedure for removing
the clouding. Asimov claims that Celsus is the first to write about insanity
(although I think there must be somebody before this), which is an abstract
label and is the source of many human rights abuse and much pseudoscience.
s probably copied much of his writings from the writings of Hippocrates.

Celsus expresses his (in my view, mistaken) belief in the ethicalness of
experimentation on humans, writing in "De Medicina": "It is not cruel to
inflict on a few criminals sufferings which may benefit multitudes of innocent
people through all centuries."

Celsus' work was rediscovered by Pope Nicholas V and published in 1478. His
work became famous for its elegant Latin style.
Gallia Narbonensis, southern France  
1,980 YBN
[20 AD]
1390) Some people question the actual existence of a person named Jesus,
explaining the similarities with stories of past martyrs born on December 25
and executed such as Mithra.
The earliest images of Jesus show Jesus without a
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[35 AD]
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[41 AD]
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[43 AD]
Tingentera, Southern Spain  
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[50 AD]
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[50 AD]
1078) Steam engine.
Heron of Alexandria (Greek: Ήρων ο Αλεξανδρεύς) (CE
c10-c70), a Greek engineer in Alexandria, makes the first recorded steam

Heron invents an aeopile, which is a hollow metal sphere that rotates from the
power of steam jets that escape through open tubes on each side of the sphere.

The potential of the steam engine will not be understood until the late 1600s.

Heron describes the lever, pulley, wheel, inclined plane, screw, and wedge.
Understands and uses syphons, syringes and gears. Hero uses gears to change the
wheel rotations of a chariot to the rotations of a pointer that indicate the
number of wheel rotations, which is the first odometer (meter that indicates
distance traveled). Hero writes a book on air, which shows that air is a
substance and will not enter a container already filled with air, unless air is
allowed to escape and be replaced. Hero also reasons that because air can be
compressed, air must be made of particles separated by space.
Alexandria, Egypt  
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[50 AD]
Alexandria, Egypt  
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[52 AD]
Novum Comun, Italy  
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[62 AD]
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[62 AD]
1080) Hero of Alexandria writes about a lunar eclipse (the shadow of the earth
on the moon) this year.

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1081) A year after Vespasian is made emperor, Vespasian makes Pliny the Elder,
who is a friend of Vespasian's, procurator in Gallia Narbonensis (the Roman
representative of part of Gaul).

1,927 YBN
[73 AD]
1082) Pliny is made procurator of Hispania Tarraconensis (Governor of a part of
Spain). During his stay in Spain he became familiar with the agriculture and
the mines of the country, in addition to visiting Africa (vii.37)

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1083) Encyclopedia. Pliny the Elder's "Historia naturalis" ("Natural

Pliny the Elder, ("Gaius Plinius Cecilius Secundus") (PlinE) (CE 23-79)
completes his major work titled "Natural History" in 37 volumes.

"Natural History" is made from copying text of 500 other earlier people and
contains astronomy, geology and zoology. Pliny shows wisdom in rejecting the
idea of immortality.
In addition to "Natural History", Pliny writes a "History
of his Times" in thirty-one books, which has yet to be found.

Historia naturalis serves as a major source for other encyclopaedias for at
least the next 1,500 years. Even today it is still an important record for
details of Roman sculpture and painting.
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[79 AD]
1084) Pliny the Elder is killed at age 56, by poisonous gas when he goes ashore
to investigate the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

near Mount Vesuvius, Italy  
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[80 AD]
1077) These descriptions are accurate and free from superstition.
Tingentera, Southern Spain  
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[81 AD]
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[83 AD]
766) Magnetic compass.

The first reference to a magnetic compass is from 83 CE, and describes a
"south-controlling spoon" which is thrown on the ground and comes to rest
pointing to the south.

Another early reference to a specific magnetic direction finder device is
recorded in a Song Dynasty book dated to 1040-44. There is a description of an
iron "south-pointing fish" floating in a bowl of water, aligning itself to the
south. The device is recommended as a means of orientation "in the obscurity of
the night".

The Chinese developed both the floating needle and pivoting needle compass. In
1187, English writer Alexander Neckam (1157-1217) describes a "pointer carried
on board {a ship} which enables a course to be followed even when the Polar
star is hidden by clouds.". The "gyrocompass" is invented in 1905 in the United
States by Elmer Ambrose Sperry (1860-1930). The gyrocompass uses the angular
momentum of a gyroscope with the force produced by the Earth's rotation to
maintain a north-south orientation of the spin axis, therefore providing a
stable directional reference.
China (more specific)  
1,903 YBN
[97 AD]
1085) A valuable edition of the De aquis (text and translation) has been
published by C. Herschel (Boston, Mass., 1899). It contains numerous
illustrations; maps of the routes of the ancient aqueducts and the city of Rome
in the time of Frontinus; a photographic reproduction of the only manuscript
(the Monscassinensis); several explanatory chapters, and a concise
bibliography, in which special reference is made to P. de Tissot, Etude sur Ia
condition des agrimensores (1879). There is a complete edition of the works by
A. Dederich (1855), and an English translation of the Strategemata by R. Scott
(1816); more recent editions include that of both the Aqueducts and the
Strategemata in the Loeb Classical Library (1925).
Rome, Italy  
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[100 AD]
(now Aidin, Turkey) (verify)  
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[100 AD]
(Villa of Cicero) Pompeii, Italy  
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[105 AD]
1086) Tsai Lun (TSI lUN) (c.50 CE Kueiyang, Kweichow - c.118 CE) is thought by
many to have invented paper from matter like tree bark, hemp, silk and fishing
net, but artifacts of paper have been found that date to before Lun by more
than 100 years.

Tsai Lun is a eunuch person, usually a male that is castrated (testicles are
removed) viewed as a safer (less aggressive) servant for royal people.
Kueiyang, Kweichow?, China  
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[01/01/120 AD]
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[122 AD]
1103) Hadrian's Wall is constructed in Britain. Hadrian's Wall (Latin: Vallum
Hadriani) is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Emperor Hadrian
(CE 76-138) across the width of Great Britain to prevent military raids by the
tribes of Scotland to the north, to improve economic stability and provide
peaceful conditions in the Roman province of Britannia to the south, to define
the frontier of the Empire physically, and to separate the unruly Selgovae
tribe in the north from the Brigantes in the south and discourage them from

The wall is sometimes thought to serve as a border between Scotland and
England, however for most of its length the wall follows a line well south of
the modern border, and neither the Scoti tribe nor the English lived in Britain
at the time of the wall's construction.

1,870 YBN
[130 AD]
970) Earth-centered universe of Ptolomy.

Ptolomy's "Almagest" describes an Earth-centered universe.

Claudius Ptolemaeus (Klaudios Ptolemaios) (Greek: Κλαύδιος
Πτολεμαῖος) (CE c100-c170) writes a 13-volume "The Great Treatise",
later named "Almagest", systematizes Alexandrian knowledge of astronomy and
catalogs a thousand stars. Ptolemy creates a mathematical system of epicycles
to explain the apparent motions of the stars and planets based on the incorrect
earth-centered theory. This view dominates Europe until the 1500s.
(some traditions place at) Alexandria  
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[149 AD]
1088) Galen was born in Pergamum (modern-day Bergama, Turkey), the son of
Nicon, a wealthy architect. His interests were diverse - agriculture,
architecture, astronomy, astrology, philosophy - until he finally focuses on

By the age of twenty he had become a therapeutes ("attendant" or "associate")
of the god Asclepius in the local temple for four years. It is after his
father's death in 148 or 149, that he goes abroad to study in Smyrna, Corinth
and Alexandria.
Pergamum, Turkey  
1,850 YBN
[12/27/150 AD]
1109) Hegesippus (c.110 - c.180), is a Christian chronicler of the early Church
who writes against heresies.

His works are lost, save some passages quoted by Eusebius, who tells us that he
wrote Hypomnemata (Memoirs) in five books, in the simplest style concerning the
tradition of the Apostolic preaching. Hegesippus was also known to Jerome. His
work was written to refute the new heresies of the Gnostics and of Marcion. He
appealed principally to tradition as embodied in the teaching which had been
handed down through the succession of bishops, thus providing much information
about the earliest bishops that otherwise would have been lost.

Eusebius says that Hegesippus was a convert from Judaism, for he quoted from
the Hebrew, was acquainted with the Gospel of the Hebrews and with a Syriac
Gospel, and he also cited unwritten traditions of the Jews. He seems to have
lived in some part of the East, possibly Palestine, in the time of Pope
Anicetus (155-166 A.D.) he travelled to Corinth and Rome, collecting on the
spot the teachings of the various churches which he visited, and ascertaining
their uniformity with Rome, according to this excerpt:
"And the Church of the
Corinthians remained in the true word until Primus was bishop in Corinth; I
made their acquaintance in my journey to Rome, and remained with the
Corinthians many days, in which we were refreshed with the true word. And when
I was in Rome, I made a succession up to Anicetus, whose deacon was Eleuterus.
And in each succession and in each city all is according to the ordinances of
the law and the Prophets and the Lord" (quoted in Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. IV,

With great ingenuity J.B. Lightfoot, in Clement of Rome (London, 1890), has
found traces of this list of popes in Epiphanius of Cyprus, Haer., xxvii, 6,
which extends from St Peter to Anicetus in the poem of Pseudo-Tertullian
against Marcion.

Eusebius quotes from Hegesippus a long and perhaps legendary account of the
death of James the Just, "the brother of the Lord", also the story of the
election of his successor Simeon, and the summoning of the descendants of Jude
to Rome by Domitian. A list of heresies against which Hegesippus wrote is also
cited. Dr. Lawlor has argued (Hermathena, XI, 26, 1900, p. 10) that all these
passages cited by Eusebius were connected in the original, and were in the
fifth book of Hegesippus. He has also argued (Journal of Theological Studies,
April, 1907, VIII, 436) the likelihood that Eusebius got from Hegesippus the
statement that John was exiled to Patmos by Domitian. Hegesippus mentioned the
letter of Clement to the Corinthians, apparently in connection with the
persecution of Domitian. It is very likely that the dating of heretics
according to papal reigns in Irenaeus and Epiphanius -- e.g., that Marcion of
Sinope's disciple Cerdon and Valentinus came to Rome under Anicetus -- was
derived from Hegesippus, and the same may be true of the assertion that Hermas,
author of The Shepherd of Hermas, was the brother of Pope Pius (as the Liberian
Catalogue, the poem against Marcion, and the Muratorian fragment all state).

The Church History of Hegesippus appears in an inventory of books in the Abbey
of Corbie; the inventory is of uncertain date, often called 12th century. Zahn
has shown that the work of Hegesippus was still extant in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries in three Eastern libraries. (Zeitschrift für
Kirchengeschichte, II (1877-8), 288, and in Theologisches Litteraturblatt
(1893), 495)

The Catholic Encyclopedia writes: "We must lament the loss of other portions of
the Memoirs which were known to exist in the seventeenth century."{1 Cath.
Encyc. 1908 edition}

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Alexandria, Egypt  
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Pergamum, Turkey  
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[162 AD]
971) Galen is the first person to use a pulse in solving a problem.
Galen also argues
that the mind is in the brain, not in the heart as Aristotle claimed.
Galen does not
recognize blood circulation and wrongly thinks that venous and arterial systems
are separate. Galen recpgnizes that blood must get from one half of the heart
to the other half, and theorizes that there are tiny holes too small to see in
the thick muscular wall separating the two halves. This view will not change
until, 1500 years later, with William Harvey's work in the 17th century. Since
most of his knowledge of anatomy is based on dissection of pigs, dogs, and
Barbary apes, he also presumes wrongly that "rete mirabile", a blood vessel
plexus of ungulates (hooved animal and whales), also existed in the human body.
He also resists the idea of tourniquets to stop bleeding and tragically
vigorously spreads the inaccurate opinion of blood letting as a treatment.

Galen's authority will dominate health science all the way to the 16th century.
With the rise of Christianity, people will not experiment and studies of
physiology and anatomy will stop. Blood letting becomes a standard medical
procedure. Vesalius (1514-1564), more than 1300 years later, will present the
first serious challenge to the dominance of Galen's views.

Galen is attracted to Alexandria because of the reputation of the health
profession there. Galen will be the last great physician of this time. Galen
writes numerous works. Interestingly, those who practice healing through
science and the temple priests who practice the pseudoscience of religious
healing both coexist together in the Serapeum.
Galen will be court physician under
emperor Marcus Aurelius for some time.

According to Isaac Asimov, Galen's best work is in anatomy. Dissection of
humans is viewed as bad in Rome and Galen could only dissect other species,
including dogs, goats, pigs, and monkeys. Galen is describes anatomy in
meticulous detail. Galen writes that muscles work in groups. Galen cuts the
spinal cord of many species at various levels and writes on the resulting
paralysis (loss of movement of the body part). Galen uses the three fluid
theory of Erasistratus.

Galen regards wounds as "windows into the body". Galen performed many audacious
operations that were not again used for almost two millennia, including brain
and eye surgery. To perform cataract surgery, Galen would insert a long
needle-like instrument into the eye behind the lens. He would then pull it back
slightly and remove the cataract. The slightest slip could cause permanent
blindness. Galen had set the standard for modern medicine in many different

In Rome, Galen writes extensively, lectures and publicly demonstrates his
knowledge of anatomy. Galen gains a reputation as an experienced physician and
his practice had a widespread clientèle. One of them is the consul Flavius
Boethius who introduces him to the Imperial court where Galen becomes a court
physician to Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Later he will also treat Lucius Verus,
Commodus and Septimius Severus. Reputedly, he speaks mostly Greek, which in the
field of medicine is a more highly respected language than Latin at the time.

Galen spends the rest of his life in the Imperial court, writing and
experimenting. He performs vivisections of numerous animals to study the
function of the kidneys and the spinal cord.

Galen transmitted Hippocratic medicine all the way to the Renaissance. His "On
the Elements According to Hippocrates" describes the philosopher's inaccurate
system of four bodily humours, blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm, which
were mystically identified with the four classical elements, and in turn with
the seasons. He created his own theories from those principles, and much of
Galen's work can be seen as building on the Hippocratic theories of the body,
rather than being new. Galen mainly ignores the Latin writings of Celsus, but
accepts the ancient works of Asclepiades.

Amongst Galen's own major works is a seventeen-volume "On the Usefulness of the
Parts of the Human Body". Like Pliny, Galen wrongly thinks that everything in
the universe is made by a God for some purpose. He also writes about philosophy
and philology (the study of words and language), as well as extensively writing
on anatomy. His collected works total twenty-two volumes, and he writes a line
a day for most of his life.

Galen's own theories, in accord with Plato's, emphasizes purposeful creation by
a single Creator ( "Nature", in Greek "phusis") - a major reason why later
Christian and Muslim scholars will be able to accept his views and will
preserve his writings. His fundamental principle of life was pneuma (air, or
breath) that later writers will connect with the erronius ancient idea of a
"soul". These writings on philosophy are a product of Galen's well rounded
education, and throughout his life Galen is keen to emphasise the philosophical
element to medicine. Galen maintained the inaccurate opinions that "Pneuma
physicon" (animal spirit) in the brain is responsible for movement, perception,
and senses, that "Pneuma zoticon" (vital spirit) in the heart controls blood
and body temperature, and that "Natural spirit" in the liver handled nutrition
and metabolism. However, he correctly rejects the Pneumatic theory that air
passes through the veins rather than blood.

Galen expands his knowledge partly by experimenting with live animals (in a way
that is clearly painful to the animal and which I vote against, although
science was advanced by such experimentation). One of his methods is to
publicly dissect a living pig, cutting its nerve bundles one at a time.
Eventually he cuts a laryngeal nerve (now also known as Galen's Nerve) and the
pig stops squealing. He also ties the ureters of living animals, swelling the
kidneys, therefore showing that urine comes from the kidneys, and severes
spinal cords to demonstrate paralysis. In addition to working with pigs, Galen
also experiments with barbary apes and goats, but emphasizes that he practises
on pigs due to the fact that, in some respects, they are anatomically similar
to humans. Public dissections are also a highly valuable way of disputing and
disproving the biological theories of others, and are one of the main methods
of academic medical learning in Rome. It is quite common for large numbers of
medical students to attend these public gatherings, which will sometimes turn
into debates where learning is increased.

Galen's books will be the standard book of healing through science until
It is very possible that Galen excelled in part from use of the Pergamum public
library, a library second only to that of Alexandria.{check in Galen writings}
through his works, will transmit the Greek knowledge of healing into the
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1089) Galen (Greek: Γαληνός) (c.130 CE
Pergamum {now Bergama, Turkey} - c.200 CE probably Sicily), moves to Rome.

Pergamum, Turkey  
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1030) According to Origen, Celsus was the author of an anti-Christian work
titled The True Word. This work is lost, but we have Origen's account of it in
his writings.

Celsus, as a Platonist philosopher, argues for monotheism against what he sees
as the Christians' dualism (of Deity and Devil) writing "If one accepts that
all of nature, and everything in the universe, operates according to the will
of God, and that nothing works contrary to his purposes, then one must also
accept that the angels and daimones, hereos - all things in the universe - are
subject to the will of the one God who rules over all." According to Elaine
Pagels, many Pagans in this time tend toward monotheism, however believe in a
unity of all the gods and daimones in one divine source. Celsus writes that the
Christians deviate from monotheism in their "blasphemous" belief in the devil.
Of all the "impious errors" the Christians make, Christians show their greatest
ignorance in "making up a being opposed to God, and calling him 'devil,' or, in
the Hebrew language, 'Satan."' According to Celsus, all such ideas are nothing
but human inventions, and that "it is blasphemy...to say that the greatest
God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do good." Celsus
expresses anger that the Christians who claim to worship one God, "impiously
divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if there were
opposing factions within the divine, including on e that is hostile to God!"
Celsus accuses Christians of "inventing a rebellion" in heaven to justify
rebellion here on earth. The concept of a devil or "Satan" originated in the
500s BCE in Hebrew writings. The earliest known reference to a Satan appears
in the Hebrew Bible in the book of Numbers and in Job as one of God's obedient
servants, a messenger, or angel that obstructs human activity.

Celsus writes his only work of record "True Discourse" (or, "True Reason")
against Christianity in approximately 178 CE. Celsus divides the work into two
sections, the first in which objections are explained from a fictional Jewish
person and the other in which Celsus speaks as the Pagan philosopher that he
is. Celsus ridicules Christians because they advocate blind faith instead of
reason. Around 60 years after it is first published, the book written by Celsus
will inspire a rebuttle written by Origen titled "Contra Celsum", which is the
only source for Celsus' book, who will be later condemned along with other
critics of Christianity such as Porphyry.
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1073) Earliest "press-on" printing. Chinese people put ink to Buddhist text
inscribed on marble pillars and apply damp paper to the inscriptions to make a
copy of the text onto the paper. Also around this time, religious seals are
used to transfer pictures and texts of prayers to paper using ink. Ink of a
good consistency for printing is developed in the 300s or 400s, and around the
500s use of a wood block for printing will appear. Movable type will not be
invented until around the years 1041-48.
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1093) The Coptic language is invented. Coptic is the Egyptian language, written
with in alphabet almost identical to the Greek alphabet, and will be a valuable
resource in translating the Egyptian language for later scholars because
Egyptian written with hieroglyphs, hieratic and demotic symbols contain no
vowels, but in Coptic vowels are included. Coptic will be the last script used
for the Egyptian language.

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1091) 1/6x+1/12x+1/7x+5+x/2+4=x
.8926x+9=x x=84
So he grows a beard at 21, gets married at 33, has a son at 38 who
lives for 42 years, and dies 4 years before Diofantos dies at age 84.
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1031) (reduce and check is exact from wiki)

Porphyry (c.232-c. 304 AD) was a Neoplatonist philosopher. He was born Malchus
("king") in Tyre, but his teacher in Athens, Cassius Longinus, gave him the
name Porphyrius (clad in purple), a punning allusion to the color of the
imperial robes. Under Longinus he studied grammar and rhetoric. In 262 he went
to Rome, attracted by the reputation of Plotinus, and for six years devoted
himself to the study of Neoplatonism. Having injured his health by overwork, he
went to live in Sicily for five years. On his return to Rome, he lectured on
philosophy and completed an edition of the writings of Plotinus (who had died
in the meantime) to gether with a biogrpahy of his teacher. Iamblichus is
mentioned in ancient Neoplatonic writings as his pupis, but this most likely
means only that he was the dominant figure in the next generation of
philosophers. The two men differed publicly on the issue of theurgy. In his
later years, he married Marcella, a widow with seven children and an
enthusiastic student of philosophy. Little more is known of his life, and the
date of his death is uncertain.

Porphyry is best known for his contributions to philosophy. Apart from writing
the Aids to the Study of the Intelligibles, a basic summary of Neoplatonism, he
is especially appreciated for his Introduction to Categories (Introductio in
Praedicamenta), a commentary on Aristotle's Categories. The Introduction
describes how qualities attributed to things may be classified, breaking down
the philosophical concept of substance as a relationship genus/species.

As Porphyry's most influential contribution to philosophy, the Introduction to
Categories incorporated Aristotle's logic into Neoplatonism, in particular the
doctrine of the categories interpreted in terms of entities (in later
philosophy, "universal"). Boethius' Isagoge, a Latin translation of the
Introduction, became a standard medieval textbook in the schools and
universities which set the stage for medieval philosophical-theological
developments of logic and the problem of universals. In medieval textbooks, the
all-important Arbor porphyriana ("Porphyrian Tree") illustrates his logical
classification of substance. To this day, taxonomists benefit from Porphyry's
Tree in classifying everything from plants to animals to insects to whales.

Porphyry is also known as a violent opponent of Christianity and defender of
Paganism; of his Adversus Christianos (Against the Christians) in 15 books,
only fragments remain. He famously said, "The Gods have proclaimed Christ to
have been most pious, but the Christians are a confused and vicious sect."
Counter-treatises were written by Eusebius of Caesarea, Apollinarius (or
Apollinaris) of Laodicea, Methodius of Olympus, and Macarius of Magnesia, but
all these are lost. Porphyry's identification of the Book of Daniel as the work
of a writer in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, is given by Jerome. There is no
proof of the assertion of Socrates, the ecclesiastical historian, and
Augustine, that Porphyry was once a Christian.

Porphyry was also opposed to the theurgy of his disciple Iamblichus. Much of
Iamblichus' mysteries is dedicated to the defense of mystic theurgic divine
possession against the critiques of Porphyry.

Porphyry was, like Pythagoras, known as an advocate of vegetarianism on
spiritual or ethical grounds. These two philosophers are perhaps the most
famous vegetarians of classical antiquity. He wrote the De Abstinentia (On
Abstinence) and also a De Non Necandis ad Epulandum Animantibus (roughly On the
Impropriety of Killing Living Beings for Food) in support of abstinence from
animal flesh, and is cited with approval in vegetarian literature up to the
present day.

Porphyry also wrote widely on astrology, religion, philosophy, and musical
theory; and produced a biography of his teacher, Plotinus. Another book of his
on the life of Pythagoras, named Vita Pythagorae or Life of Pythagoras, is not
to be confused with the book of the same name by Iamblichus.

In "On Abstinence from Animal Food", Porfurios advocates rights for the other
species, saying "he who forbids men to feed on animals, and thinks it is
unjust, will also say that it is not just to kill them, and deprive them of
life". In this work, Porfurios also argues against sacrificing animals,
writing: "Pythagoreans themselves did not spare animals when they sacrificed to
the gods. ... I intend to oppose these opinions, and those of the multitude".
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985) After the occupation of Alexandria by Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, Emperor
Aurelian attacks in the royal quarter result in so much destruction that
members of the Mouseion either flee the country or take refuge in the
Ammianus Marcellinus records: "But Alexandria itself was extended, not
gradually, like other cities, but at its very beginning, to great dimensions,
and for a long time was exhausted with internal disputes, until finally, after
many years, when Aurelian was emperor, the civic quarrels escalated into deadly
strife. Its walls were torn down and it lost the greater part of the area which
was called the Brucheion, and which had long been the dwelling place of its
most distinguished men."
Possibly scrolls are transfered to the Serapeum, Kaisareion
or Claudianum annexes.
Epiphanius will write about the Brucheion a few years after
Ammianus, that where the library had once been, "there is now a desert"
(Patrologia Graeca, 43, 252)
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Panopolis {now Akhmim}, Egypt  
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1108) Eusebius of Caesarea (c.275 - May 30, 339) (often called Eusebius
Pamphili, "Eusebius {the friend} of Pamphilus") was a bishop of Caesarea in
Palestine and is often referred to as the father of church history because of
his work in recording the history of the early Christian church. An earlier
history by Hegesippus that he referred to has not survived.

The two greatest historical works of Eusebius are his Chronicle and his Church
History. The former (Greek, Pantodape historia, "Universal History") is divided
into two parts. The first part (Greek, Chronographia, "Annals") purports to
give an epitome of universal history from the sources, arranged according to
nations. The second part (Greek, Chronikoi kanones, "Chronological Canons")
attempts to furnish a synchronism of the historical material in parallel
columns, the equivalent of a parallel timeline.

In his Church History or Ecclesiastical History (Historia Ecclesiastica),
Eusebius attempted according to his own declaration (I.i.1) to present the
history of the Church from the apostles to his own time, with special regard to
the following points:
(1) the successions of bishops in the principal sees;
(2) the
history of Christian teachers;
(3) the history of heresies;
(4) the history of the Jews;
the relations to the heathen;
(6) the martyrdoms.
He grouped his material according to the
reigns of the emperors, presenting it as he found it in his sources. The
contents are as follows:
* Book i: detailed introduction on Jesus Christ
* Book ii: The
history of the apostolic time to the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus
* Book
iii: The following time to Trajan
* Books iv and v: the second century
* Book vi: The
time from Septimius Severus to Decius
* Book vii: extends to the outbreak of the
persecution under Diocletian
* Book viii: more of this persecution
* Book ix: history to
Constantine's victory over Maxentius in the West and over Maximinus in the
* Book x: The reëstablishment of the churches and the rebellion and
conquest of Licinius.

Eusebius wrote other minor historical works, a "Life of Constantine" (Vita
Constantini) which is a eulogy.

To the class of apologetic and dogmatic works belong:
(1) the Apology for Origen,
the first five books of which, according to the definite statement of Photius,
were written by Pamphilus in prison, with the assistance of Eusebius. Eusebius
added the sixth book after the death of Pamphilus. We possess only a Latin
translation of the first book, made by Rufinus;
(2) a treatise against Hierocles (a
Roman governor and Neoplatonic philosopher), in which Eusebius combated the
former's glorification of Apollonius of Tyana in a work entitled "A
Truth-loving Discourse" (Greek, Philalethes logos);
(3) Praeparatio evangelica
('Preparation for the Gospel'), commonly known by its Latin title, which
attempts to prove the excellence of Christianity over every pagan religion and
philosophy. The Praeparatio consists of fifteen books which have been
completely preserved. Eusebius considered it an introduction to Christianity
for pagans. But its value for many later readers is more because Eusebius
studded this work with so many fascinating and lively fragments from historians
and philosophers which are nowhere else preserved. Here alone is preserved a
summary of the writings of the Phoenician priest Sanchuniathon of which the
accuracy has been shown by the mythological accounts found on the Ugaritic
tables, here alone is the account from Diodorus Siculus's sixth book of
Euhemerus' wondrous voyage to the island of Panchaea where Euhemerus purports
to have found his true history of the gods, and here almost alone is preserved
writings of the neo-Platonist philosopher Atticus along with so much else.
Demonstratio evangelica ('Proof of the Gospel') is closely connected to the
Praeparatio and comprised originally twenty books of which ten have been
completely preserved as well as a fragment of the fifteenth. Here Eusebius
treats of the person of Jesus Christ. The work was probably finished before
(5) another work which originated in the time of the persecution, entitled
"Prophetic Extracts" (Eklogai prophetikai). It discusses in four books the
Messianic texts of Scripture. The work is merely the surviving portion (books
6-9) of the General elementary introduction to the Christian faith, now lost.
the treatise "On Divine Manifestation" (Peri theophaneias), dating from a much
later time. It treats of the incarnation of the Divine Logos, and its contents
are in many cases identical with the Demonstratio evangelica. Only fragments
are preserved;
(7) the polemical treatise "Against Marcellus," dating from about 337;

(8) a supplement to the last-named work, entitled "On the Theology of the
Church," in which he defended the Nicene doctrine of the Logos against the
party of Athanasius.
A number of writings, belonging in this category, have been entirely

A more comprehensive work of an exegetical nature, preserved only in fragments,
is entitled "On the Differences of the Gospels" and was written for the purpose
of harmonizing the contradictions in the reports of the different Evangelists.

Eusebius follows closely in the footsteps of Origen. No point of this doctrine
is original with Eusebius, all is traceable to his teacher Origen.

Eusebius echos the racist anti-Jewish views associated with the early Christian
people. Eusebius mystically blames the calamities which befell the Jewish
nation on the Jewish people's role in the death of Jesus:
"that from that time
seditions and wars and mischievous plots followed each other in quick
succession, and never ceased in the city and in all Judea until finally the
siege of Vespasian overwhelmed them. Thus the divine vengeance overtook the
Jews for the crimes which they dared to commit against Christ." (Hist. Eccles.
II.6: The Misfortunes which overwhelmed the Jews after their Presumption
against Christ)
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1094) In geometry, there are several theorems that are known by the generic
name Pappus's Theorem, attributing them to Pappus of Alexandria. They include:
Pappus's centroid theorem,
* the Pappus chain,
* Pappus's harmonic theorem, and
Pappus's hexagon theorem

In his "Synogogue", Pappus gives no indication of the date of the authors whose
treatises he makes use of, or of the time at which he himself writes. If we had
no other information than can be derived from his work, we should only know
that he was later than Claudius Ptolemy (c90-c168) whom he often quotes. Suidas
states that he was of the same age as Theon of Alexandria, (father of Hypatia)
who will write commentaries on Ptolemy's great work, the "Syntaxis
mathematica", and will flourish in the reign of Theodosius I (A.D. 372-395).
Suidas says also that Pappus wrote a commentary upon the same work of Ptolemy.
But it seems unbelievable that two contemporaries should have at the same time
and in the same style composed commentaries upon one and the same work, and yet
neither should have been mentioned by the other, whether as friend or opponent.
It is more probable that Pappus's commentary was written long before Theon's,
and is largely included into the work by Theon, and that Suidas, through
failure to disconnect the two commentaries, assigned a like date to both. There
is a chronological table by Theon of Alexandria which, when being copied (in a
10th-century manuscript), has had inserted next to the name of Diocletian (who
ruled 284 CE-305 CE) "at that time wrote Pappus". Similar insertions give the
dates for Ptolemy, Hipparchus and other mathematical astronomers. Rome shows
that it can be deduced from Pappus's commentary on the Almagest that Pappos
observes the eclipse of the sun in Alexandria which takes place on 18 October
320. This fixes clearly the date of 320 for Pappus's commentary on Ptolemy's

Pappos is born and appears to have lived in Alexandria all his life. He
dedicates works to Hermodorus, Pandrosion and Megethion but other than knowing
that Hermodorus is Pappus's son, nothing is known about these other men. Pappus
refers to a friend who is also a philosopher, named Hierius, who encourages
Pappus to study certain mathematical problems. A reference to Pappos in
Proclus's writings says that he headed a school in Alexandria.
Alexandria, Egypt  
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Alexandria, Egypt  
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5863) (Saint) Ambrose (CE 339-397), Bishop of Milan, attempts to codify the
growing repertory of chants. This body of Milanese church music, therefore,
comes to be called "Ambrosian chant".

Ambrose also composes hymns, notably "Aeterne rerum Conditor" ("Framer of the
earth and sky") and "Deus Creator omnium" ("Maker of all things, God most
As an example of the early anti-Jewish views of the followers of Jesus (who
ironically was Jewish if he existed at all), in 388 Ambrose criticizes the
emperor Theodosius for having punished a bishop who had burnt a Jewish
Milan, Italy  
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874) The illogical and racist anti-Jewish anger felt by many early Christian
fathers is shown clearly in the writing of "Saint" John Chrysostom (Greek
Ιωάννης ο
Χρυσόστομος) (347-407),
bishop of Constantinople, who writes "The Jews sacrifice their children to

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1000) By now a circle of friends and students around Hypatia is firmly

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1003) Library in Alexandria (The Serapeion) destroyed.

The library in the Temple to Serapis (the Serapeion) in Alexandria is violently
destroyed by Christian people and the temple is converted to a Christian

Historian Socrates Scholasticus writes 'At the request of Theophilus, Bishop of
Alexandria, the Emperor issued an order at this time for the demolition of the
heathen temples in that city...' and that 'Theophilus threw down the temple of
Serapis ...The temples were overthrown, and the bronze statues melted down to
make domestic vessels.'. Historian Eunapius (Ευνάπιος) (CE 346-c414)
wrote that 'they wrought havoc with the Serapeum and made war on its
statues....The foundations alone were not removed owing to the difficulty in
moving such huge blocks of stone.' Historian Theodoret, writes, 'The
sanctuaries of the idols were uprooted from their foundations.' Historian
Sozomen (c400-c450) describes the Christians as having uninterruptedly occupied
the Serapeum from its capture by Theophilus to his own time. Historian Rufinus
(who dies in 410 CE) writes that the exterior range of buildings round the edge
of the plateau are practically uninjured, though void of its former pagan
occupiers, but that the great temple of Serapis and the colonnades around it
are levelled to the ground.". Much of the Serapeum lasts as late as the 12th
Alexandria, Egypt  
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island of Philae, near Aswan  
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Vishnupadagiri, India  
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Bakhshali, Pakistan  
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998) Last known contemporarily written reference to the Mouseion in Alexandria.
Synesios (Synesius) (c370-413 CE), who studies under Hypatia, describes the
pictures of philosophers in the Mouseion. There is no later reference to the
Mouseion's existence in the fifth century.

This is in Chapter 6 of "A Eulogy of Baldness", Synesios writes: "You may look
at the pictures in the Museum, I mean those of Diogenes and Socrates, and
whomever you please of those who in their age were wise, and your survey would
be an inspection of bald heads." This is evidence that the Mouseion survived
intact after the destruction of the Sarapeion in 391. Since Synesios is thought
to have died around 414, and there are no other references after Synesios, it
is possible that the Mouseion was destroyed a short time before or after the
murder of Hypatia.
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1009) Hypatia (Greek: Υπατία and Ὑπατίας) (c360 - 415), a popular
female philosopher, mathematician and astronomer in Alexandria is murdered by
Christian people.
Many people cite this as the end of ancient science. Clearly, the
seed of science survived, as science grows now, in the time we live in.

Socrates of Scholasticus, a Christian historian alive at the time of the murder
of Hypatia writes (translated from Greek):
"Of Hypatia the Female Philosopher.
There was a woman at
Alexandria named Hypatia, daughter of the philosopher Theon, who made such
attainments in literature and science, as to far surpass all the philosophers
of her own time. Having succeeded to the school of Plato and Plotinus, she
explained the principles of philosophy to her auditors, many of whom came from
a distance to receive her instructions. On account of the self-possession and
ease of manner, which she had acquired in consequence of the cultivation of her
mind, she not unfrequently appeared in public in presence of the magistrates.
Neither did she feel ashamed in coming to an assembly of men. For all men on
account of her extraordinary dignity and virtue admired her the more. Yet even
she fell a victim to the political jealousy which at that time prevailed. For
as she had frequent interviews with Orestes (the Roman Prefect or Governor of
Egypt at the time ), it was slanderously reported among the Christian populace,
that it was she who prevented Orestes from being reconciled to the Bishop. Some
of them therefore, hurried away by a fierce and bigoted zeal, whose ringleader
was a reader named Peter, waylaid her returning home, and dragging her from her
carriage, they took her to the church called Caesareum, where they completely
stripped her, and then murdered her with tiles {the words are
οστράκοις ανείλον, oyster shells, but this word was applied to
brick ceiling tiles}. After tearing her body in pieces, they took her mangled
limbs to a place called Cinaron, and there burnt them. This affair brought
disgrace not only upon Cyril, but also upon the whole Alexandrian church. And
surely nothing can be farther from the spirit of Christianity than the
allowance of massacres, fights, and transactions of that sort. This happened in
the month of March during Lent, in the fourth year of Cyril's episcopate, under
the tenth consulate of Honorius, and the sixth of Theodosius."
(steps of a church called The Caesarium ) Alexandria, Egypt  
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1011) Museum in Alexandria closed.

Paulus Orosius describes the temples in Alexandria as having empty bookshelves,
the contents emptied "by men of our time". Adding this together with the Suda
reference to Theon being a member, and the last reference to the Mouseion from
Synesios in 409 with no mention of any destruction before his death in 414, and
no mention of any public library in Alexandria by people writing in the 5th and
6th century, it appears probable that the Mouseion (including any remaining
library) may have been completely and permanently destroyed by 415 or 416.
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1139) The Council of Ephesus sentences Porfurios' (and other) books against
Christianity to be burned (but does not mention the emperor Julian's
anti-christian writings).

This is the first of 3 major book burnings that will remove any and all
writings that criticize the Christian religion. The result will be very
effective, leaving the only surviving works so far found to be rebuttles of
these works by Christian writers.
Ephesus, (Asia Minor, modern:) Turkey  
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1043) Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450), Eastern Roman Emperor
(408-450) orders all non-Christian books burned. In fighting the ancient
Hellenic tradition, or "Paganism" as it would be later called, the Christian
people destroy much of the science learned and recorded in books stored in
temples to the traditional Greek Gods.

No remains have ever been found from the books critical of the Christian
religion written by Kelsos, Porfurios and others, although some of these
writings are preserved in rebuttles by Christian writers that have survived.
With this law, the anti-Christian writings of Porfurios will be condemned but
those of Julian are ignored.
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[450 AD]
1096) Proclus is born 410 or 411 CE (his birth year is deduced from a horoscope
cast by a disciple, Marinus, and hence is to a degree uncertain) in
Constantinople to a family of high social status in Lycia- his father Particius
is a high legal official, very important in the Byzantine Empire's court
system- and raised in Xanthus, he studies rhetoric, philosophy and mathematics
in Alexandria, Egypt, with the intent of pursuing a judicial position like his
father. Proklos comes back to Constantinople part-way through his studies when
his rector, his principal instructor (one Leonas) has business there, and is a
successful praticing lawyer for a period.

Actually experiencing the practice of law makes Proclus realize that he truly
prefers philosophy, so he returns to Alexandria, and begins studying the works
of Aristotle under Olympiodorus the Elder (he also began studying mathematics
during this period as well with a teacher named Heron {not Hero of
Alexandria}). Eventually, this gifted student became dissatisfied with the
level of philosophical instruction available in Alexandria, and went to Athens,
the preeminent philosophical center of the day, in 431 to study at the
Neoplatonic successor of the famous Academy founded 800 years before by Plato
(in 387 BCE); there he is taught by Plutarch of Athens and Syrianus; he
succeeds Plutarch as head of the Academy, and is in turn succeeded on his death
by Syrianus. He dies around aged 73, and is buried near Mount Lycabettus in a

He lives in Athens as an unmarried vegetarian bachelor, prosperous and generous
to his friends, until the end of his life, except for a voluntary one year
exile, which is designed to lessen the pressure put on him by his
political-philosophical activity, little appreciated by the Christian rulers;
he spends the exile travelling and being initiated into various mystery cults
as befitted his universalist approach to religion, trying to become "a priest
of the entire universe."

In addition to his commentaries, Proclus writes two major systematic works.
"The Elements of Theology" is a singular work in the history of ancient
philosophy. It consists of 211 propositions, each followed by a proof,
beginning from the existence of the One (the first principle of all things) and
ending with the descent of individual souls into the material world. The
Platonic Theology is a systematisation of material from Platonic dialogues,
showing from them the characteristics of the divine orders, the part of the
universe which is closest to the One.
Three small works have also survived, only in
Latin translation: "Ten doubts concerning providence"; "On providence and
fate"; and "On the existence of evils".

He also wrote a number of minor works.

Just as a brief summary of Proklos' views, and Neoplatonism, which is very
abstract and have no relation to actual science but simply for context:
There are three
basic concepts in Neoplatonism:
1) "The One" (to Hen) is the first principle in Neoplatonism.
It is the principle which produces all Being. This idea of "The One" is
compared by many to be similar to the idea of a God, and may be related to the
popularity of the monotheism of Christianity.
2) "Intellect" (Nous), is the principle which
is produced below the level of the One.
3) "Soul" (Psuche) is produced by Intellect,
and so is the third principle in the Neoplatonic system. It is a mind, like
Intellect, but it does not grasp all of its own content as once.

By far the greatest transmission of Procline ideas will be through the
Pseudo-Dionysius. This 5th century Christian Greek author wrote under the
pseudonym Dionysius the Areopagite, the figure converted (from Paganism) by St.
Paul in Athens. Because of this fiction, his writings were taken to have almost
apostolic authority. He is an original thinker, and Christian rather than
Pagan, but in his writings can be found a great number of Procline metaphysical
principles. Another important source for Procline influence on the Middle Ages
is Boethius' Consolation of Philosophy, which has a number of Proclus
principles and motifs.
Athens, Greece  
1,524 YBN
[09/04/476 AD]
Rome, Italy  
1,520 YBN
[480 AD]
1113) Isidore of Alexandria is a Greek philosopher and one of the last of the
Neoplatonists. He lives in Athens and Alexandria toward the end of the 5th
century CE. Isidore becomes head of the school in Athens in succession to
Marinus, who followed Proclus. Isidore is known mainly for teaching Damaskios
the last head of the Academy.
Athens, Greece  
1,511 YBN
[489 AD]
Gundishapur, Khuzestan (southwest of Iran, not far from the Karun river.)  
1,501 YBN
[499 AD]
1309) Aryabhata (Devanāgarī: आर्यभट) (CE 476-550), Indian
astronomer and mathematician, writes in his "Aryabhatiya" (c499), that the
apparent westward motion of the stars is due to the spherical Earth’s
rotation about its axis. Aryabhata also correctly explains the luminosity of
the Moon and planets to reflected sunlight.

In the 600s the astronomer Brahmagupta will severely criticize the view of
Aryabhata I that the Earth is a spinning sphere, a view that will widely
disseminated by Brahmagupta’s contemporary and rival Bhaskara I.
Kusumapura (modern Patna), India  
1,500 YBN
[500 AD]
1,500 YBN
[500 AD]
1,500 YBN
[500 AD]
1,480 YBN
[01/01/520 AD]
1099) Boethius' birth date is unknown, generally placed around 480 CE, the same
year of birth as St. Benedict. Boethius was born to a patrician family which
had been Christian for about a century. His father's line included two popes
and both parents count Roman emperors among their ancestors.

Boethius was born in Rome to an ancient and important family which included the
emperor Olybrius and many consuls. His father Fl. Manlius Boethius held that
position in 487 after Odoacer deposed the last Western Roman Emperor. Boethius
holds the same position in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths.

It is unknown where Boethius received his formidable education in Greek.
Boethius may have studied in Athens, and perhaps Alexandria. Since a Boethius
is recorded as proctor of the school in Alexandria circa AD 470, perhaps the
younger Boethius received some grounding in the classics from his father or a
close relative. In any case, his accomplishment in Greek, though traditional
for his class, was remarkable given the reduced knowledge which accompanies the
end of the empire in this time.
As a result of his increasingly rare education and
experience, Boethius enters the service of Theodoric the Great, who commissions
the young Boethius to perform many roles.
1,472 YBN
[528 AD]
1,471 YBN
[529 AD]
1014) Roman Emperor Justinian (CE 483-565) closes the schools of Alexandria and
Athens (including Plato's Academy).

The head of the Academy, Damascus and 6 other philosophers seek asylum in

Justinian also decrees that all anti-Christian books are to be burned in this
year {exact date}. None of the 'True Doctrine" of Kelsos in the second century,
the 15 books of Porfurios' "Against the Christians" in the third century, and
Julian's "Against the Galileans" of the fourth century have ever been found,
however some of their writing remains in rebuttles by Christian writers, for
example Origen's "Against Kelsos" quotes Kelsos, Macarius Magnes may possibly
preserve some of Porfurios' writing for which even 3 major Christian rebuttles
have never been found, and Kurillos (Cyril) of Alexandria's "Pro Christiana
Religione" reveals some of Julian's writings.
Athens, Greece (and Alexandria,Egypt)  
1,471 YBN
[529 AD]
1378) As often happens with early Christian institutions, the monastery iwas
constructed on top of an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the
hill, enclosed by a fortifying wall above the small town of Cassino, still
largely pagan at the time and recently devastated by the Goths. Benedict's
first act is to smash the sculpture of Apollo and destroy the altar. Benedict
rededicats the site to John the Baptist.
Monte Cassino, Italy  
1,471 YBN
[529 AD]
1,470 YBN
[530 AD]
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,467 YBN
[533 AD]
1,463 YBN
[12/27/537 AD]
1106) Nothing remains of the first church that was built on the same site
during the 300s. Following the destruction of the first church, a second was
built by Constantius, the son of Constantine the Great, but was burned down
during the Nika riots of 532, before being rebuilt by Justinian.

Hagia Sophia is one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine
architecture. Of great artistic value is its decorated interior with mosaics
and marble pillars and coverings. The temple itself is so richly and
artistically decorated that Justinian proclaimed "Solomon, I have surpassed
thee!" (Νενίκηκά σε
Σολομών). Justinian himself oversees the
completion of the greatest cathedral ever built up to that time, and it will
remain the largest cathedral for 1,000 years until the completion of the
cathedral in Seville.

The name comes from the Greek name Αγία
Σοφία, a contraction of Ναός
της Αγίας του
Θεού Σοφίας (Church of the
Holy Wisdom of God).

The Eastern Orthodox church will be converted to a mosque in 1453, and then
converted into a museum in 1935, the Ayasofya Museum, in Istanbul, Turkey.
1,460 YBN
[540 AD]
1107) The writings of Procopius are the primary source of information for the
rule of the emperor Justinian. Procopius was the author of a history in eight
books of the wars fought by Justinian I, a panegyric (a formal public speech
delivered in high praise of a person or thing) on Justinian's public works
throughout the empire, and a book known as the Secret History (Greek: Anekdota)
that claims to report the scandals that Procopius could not include in his
published history.

The first seven books of his History of Justinian's Wars, which were published
as a unit, seem to have been largely completed by 545.

The Secret History will be discovered centuries later in the Vatican Library
and published in 1623, but its existence is already known from the Suda, which
refers to it as the Anekdota ("the unpublished composition"). The Secret
History covers the same years as the seven books of the History of Justinian's
Wars and appears to have been written after they were published. Current
consensus generally dates it to 550, or maybe as late as 562.

The De Aedificiis tells us nothing further about Belisarius but it takes a
sharply different attitude towards Justinian. He is presented as an idealised
Christian emperor who built churches for the glory of God and defenses for the
safety of his subjects and who showed particular concern for the water supply.
Theodora, who was dead when this panegyric was written, is mentioned only
briefly but Procopius' praise of her beauty is fulsome. The panegyric is likely
written at Justinian's request, however, and so it is doubtful if its
sentiments are sincere.

Procopius belongs to the school of late antique secular historians who continue
the traditions of the Second Sophistic; they write in Attic Greek, their models
are Herodotus and especially Thucydides, and their subject matter is secular
history. They avoid vocabulary unknown to Attic Greek and insert an explanation
when they have to use contemporary words. Thus Procopius explains to his
readers that ekklesia, meaning a Christian church, is the equivalent of a
temple or shrine and that monks are "the most temperate of Christians...whom
men are accustomed to call monks." (Wars 2.9.14; 1.7.22) In classical Athens,
monks were unknown and an ekklesia was the assembly of Athenian citizens which
passed the laws.

The secular historians dismiss the history of the Christian church, which they
leave to ecclesiastical history-a genre that was founded by Eusebius of
Caesarea. However, Averil Cameron has argued convincingly that Procopius' works
reflect the tensions between the classical and Christian models of history in
6th century Byzantium. Procopius indicates (Secret History 26.18) that he plans
to write an ecclesiastical history himself and, if he had, he would probably
have followed the rules of that genre. But, as far as we know, the
ecclesiastical history remained unwritten.
1,458 YBN
[542 AD]
Lyon, France  
1,411 YBN
[589 AD]
1,400 YBN
[600 AD]
1110) Viking ships use a keel and a mast for a sail.
In this sense a keel refers to a
fin that projects from the bottom of a ship that helps to keep the ship
balanced (Confusingly the word "keel" may also refer to a structural beam that
serves as the foundation of a ship).

1,400 YBN
[600 AD]
1111) Earliest known windmill. This windmill uses a vertical shaft and
horizontal sails to grind grain.
Persia (Iran)  
1,400 YBN
[600 AD]
5864) Charlemagne, king of the Franks (CE 768–814), will impose Gregorian
chant on his kingdom, where another liturgical tradition—the Gallican
chant—is in common use. During the 700s and 800s, a process of assimilation
takes place between Gallican and Gregorian chants; and the chant in this
evolved form is the what has reached us in present times.
Rome, Italy  
1,396 YBN
[604 AD]
1,387 YBN
[613 AD]
Mecca, Arabia (modern Saudi Arabia)  
1,367 YBN
[633 AD]
1114) Isidore was born in Cartagena, Spain, to Severianus and Theodora, part of
an influential family who were instrumental in the political-religious
maneuvering that converted the Visigothic kings from Arianism to Catholicism.
Isidore receives his elementary education in the Cathedral school of Seville.
In this institution, which was the first of its kind in Spain, the trivium (a
theory of education which teaches the three subjects grammar, logic, and
rhetoric) and quadrivium (a secondary more advanced education of the four
subjects: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy) were taught by a body of
learned men, among whom was the archbishop, Leander. Isidore applies himself
with such diligence that he learns Latin, Greek and Hebrew in a short time.
Shockingly the quadrivium is considered preparatory work for the serious study
of philosophy and theology, which are highly abstract and largely fraudulent in
my opinion.

Whether Isidore ever embraced monastic life or not is not known, but though he
may never have been affiliated with any of the religious orders, he esteems
them highly, on his elevation to the episcopate (to bishop) he immediately
constitutes himself protector of the monks and in 619 he pronounces anathema
(denouncement and excommunication) against any ecclesiastic who should in any
way disturb the monasteries.

On the death of Leander, Isidore succeeded to the See (the jurisdiction of a
bishop) of Seville.

His long incumbency in this office is spent in a period of disintegration and
transition. The ancient institutions and classic learning of the Roman Empire
are fast disappearing. In Spain a new civilization is beginning to evolve
itself from the blending racial elements that made up its population. For
almost two centuries the Goths had been in full control of Spain, and their
uneducated manners and contempt of learning threaten greatly to put back the
progress of civilization in Spain.

Isidore supports the intolerant single-minded view of Christianity and works to
end Arianism, the new heresy of Acephales, and all other interpretations of

Isidore presides over the Second Council of Seville, begun 13 November 619, in
the reign of Sisebut. The bishops of Gaul and Narbonne attend, as well as the
Spanish prelates. In the Council's Acts the nature of Christ is fully set
forth, countering Arian conceptions.

At the Fourth National Council of Toledo, begun 5 December 633, all the bishops
of Spain are in attendance. St. Isidore, though far advanced in years, presides
over its deliberations, and is the originator of most of its enactments. The
position and deference granted to the king is remarkable. The church is free
and independent, yet bound in solemn allegiance to the acknowledged king:
nothing is said of allegiance to the bishop of Rome.
Seville, Spain  
1,360 YBN
[640 AD]
1,360 YBN
[640 AD]
1120) Theophanes records that Greek fire was invented around 670 in
Constantinople by Kallinikos (Callinicus), an architect from Heliopolis in
Syria (now Baalbek, Lebanon). This is the first reported use of a flame
throwing weapon.
1,358 YBN
[642 AD]
1,358 YBN
[642 AD]
1,340 YBN
[660 AD]
1380) The hospital still resides on the Île de la Cité, its original
location, and is now recognized for extensive support for charities and for the
exceptional quality of doctors and surgeons who have been residents at the
Paris, France  
1,320 YBN
[680 AD]
1,315 YBN
[685 AD]
1,287 YBN
[713 AD]
1123) Bede's writings are classed as scientific, historical and theological,
reflecting the range of his writings from music and metrics to Scripture
commentaries. Bede quotes Pliny the Elder, Virgil, Lucretius, Ovid, Horace and
other classical writers, but with some disapproval. He knows some Greek, but no
Hebrew. Bede writes in Latin.

The most important and best known of his works is the Historia ecclesiastica
gentis Anglorum, giving in five books and 400 pages the history of England,
ecclesiastical and political, from the time of Caesar to the date of its
completion (731). The first twenty-one chapters, treating of the period before
the mission of Augustine of Canterbury, are compiled from earlier writers such
as Orosius, Gildas, Prosper of Aquitaine, the letters of Pope Gregory I and
others, with the insertion of legends and traditions.

After 596, documentary sources, which Bede took pains to obtain throughout
England and from Rome, are used, as well as oral testimony, which he employed
with critical consideration of its value. He cites his references and is very
concerned about the sources of all his sources, which creates an important
historical chain.

The Historia, like other historical writing from this period cannot be expected
to have the same degree of objectivity as modern historical writings. It was
indeed a form of literature, a mixture of fact, legend and literature. For
example, Bede took liberties by making up fictional quotations from people who
were not his contemporaries.

In Historia Ecclesiastica (I.2), he creates a method of referring to years
prior to the Christian era (anno Domini), which the monk Dionysius Exiguus
created in 525. He uses "ante incarnationis dominicae tempus" (before the time
of the incarnation of the Lord). This and similar Latin terms are roughly
equivalent to the English before Christ.

The noted historian of science, George Sarton, called the eighth century "The
Age of Bede;" clearly Bede must be considered as an important scientific
figure, even though his actual scientific contributions are minimal. He writes
several major works: a work "On the Nature of Things", modeled in part after
the work of the same title by Isidore of Seville; a work "On Time", providing
an introduction to the principles of computing the correct time for Easter; and
a longer work on the same subject; "On the Reckoning of Time", which will
become the cornerstone of clerical scientific education during the so-called
Carolingian renaissance of the ninth century. He also writes several shorter
letters and essays discussing specific aspects of computus and a treatise on
grammar and on figures of speech for his pupils.

"The Reckoning of Time" includes an introduction to the traditional ancient and
medieval view of the cosmos, including an explanation of how the spherical
earth influences the changing length of daylight, of how the seasonal motion of
the Sun and Moon influences the changing appearance of the New Moon at evening
twilight, and a quantitative relation between the changes of the Tides at a
given place and the daily motion of the moon. (Wallis 2004, pp. 82-85,
307-312). Since the focus of his book is calculation, Bede gives instructions
for computing the date of Easter and the related time of the Easter Full Moon,
for calculating the motion of the Sun and Moon through the zodiac, and for many
other calculations related to the calendar.

For calendric purposes, Bede makes a new calculation of the age of the world
since the Creation and begins the practice of dividing the Christian era into
BC and AD. Due to his innovations in computing the age of the world, he is
accused of heresy at the table of Bishop Wilfred, his chronology being contrary
to accepted calculations. Once informed of the accusations of these "lewd
rustics," Bede refutes them in his Letter to Plegwin (Wallis 2004, pp. xxx,
Jarrow, Durham  
1,277 YBN
[723 AD]
?, China  
1,249 YBN
[751 AD]
1253) Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Arabic: جابر بن حيان) (CE
c721-c815), with Latinised name Geber, is the first of the important Arab
alchemists and introduces the experimental method into alchemy. Jabir is
credited with being the first to prepare and identify sulfuric and other

Jabir gives accurate descriptions of valuable chemical experiments. Jabir
describes ammonium chloride, shows how to prepare white lead, prepares weak
nitric acid, and distills vinegar to get strong acetic acid. Jabir also works
with dyes and metals, and experiments with methods for refining metals. Jabir
writes numerous works on alchemy, although many people will later use his name.
Kufa, (now Iraq)  
1,240 YBN
[760 AD]
1,230 YBN
[770 AD]
1060) Earliest wood block Printed book. Diamond Sūtra.
1,230 YBN
[770 AD]
1074) Wood-cut Printing.

Possibly around the 500s CE, carved wood block appears as a substitute to
pressing paper onto marble pillars and seals covered with ink. First, all of
the text is written in ink on a sheet of fine paper, then the written side of
the sheet is applied to the smooth surface of a block of wood, coated with a
rice paste that retains the ink of the text. Next, an engraver cuts away the
uninked areas so that the text stands out in relief and in reverse. To make a
print, the wood block is then inked with a paintbrush, a sheet of paper spread
on it, and the back of the sheet rubbed with a brush. Only one side of the
sheet can be printed. The oldest known printed works are made by this
technique. In Japan about 764–770, Buddhist incantations ordered by Empress
Shōtoku are printed using this technique, and in China in 868, the first known
book, the Diamond Sūtra is printed using wood blocks.
1,219 YBN
[781 AD]
1254) Lower case letters.

Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus (Alcuin) (oLKWiN) (c.732-May 19, 804) a scholar,
ecclesiastic, poet and teacher from York, England, accepts an invitation from
Charlesmagne to be head of education for Charlemagne's kingdom which is most of
Western Europe. In the Palace School of Charlemagne, Alcuin will revolutionize
the educational standards of the Palace School, introducing Charlemagne to the
liberal arts and creates an atmosphere of scholarship and learning. In Aachen,
Alcuin designs a method of writing "Carolingian minuscule" to fit as much text
on the expensive parchment. This symbol set is the ancestor of lower-case
letters. All writing before this is done in capital (or majuscule) letters.

In my opinion, while possibly saving space on paper, lower case has complicated
language, and the most simple and logical representation of sound with symbols
is a single "one-letter-for-one-sound" phonetic alphabet that can be used for
all human languages.
Aachen, in north-west Germany, or York, England  
1,211 YBN
[01/01/789 AD]
1256) Aachen, in north-west Germany  
1,204 YBN
[01/01/796 AD]
1255) Alcuin establishes a school in Tours where scribes are trained to
carefully copy manuscripts. The new Carolingian miniscule alphabet letters
created by Alcuin will spread from text copied here and ultimately develop into
the miniscule (or lower case) letters used today.
Tours, France   
1,200 YBN
[800 AD]
1126) The first paddle-boat is invented in China.

1,200 YBN
[800 AD]
1128) Paper making reaches Bagdad, 700 years after being invented in China.

1,200 YBN
[800 AD]
6221) Earliest bow for stringed instrument. Plucking of stringed instruments
goes back at least 5000 years, but using a bow to play a stringed instrument is
a more recent invention, dating to around the 800s CE.
River Oxus (modern) Turkmenistan (Central Asia)  
1,185 YBN
[815 AD]
1021) "Bayt al-Hikma" (House of Wisdom).

Caliph al-Mamun founds the "Bayt al-Hikma" (House of Wisdom) in Baghdad, Iraq.
(Some people argue that al-Mamun's father al-Rashid founded the Bayt al-Hikma).
A library and observatory are joined to this house. In the House of Wisdom,
many works will be translated from Greek, Persian and Indian into Arabic. Many
original works will be created here too. The House of Wisdom recruits and
supports the most talented scholars.
1,180 YBN
[820 AD]
1127) "Oseberg ship", a viking ship dates to here. This ship is a clinker-built
ship made of oak.

Tønsberg, Vestfold county, Norway  
1,175 YBN
[825 AD]
1257) Hindu-Arabic numerals (1 through 9), and decimal point notation.

Al-Khwārizmī (Arabic: محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي‎)
(oLKWoriZmE), as a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, writes a book on
elementary algebra, "al-Kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr
waʾl-muqābala" ("The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and
Balancing"). When this book is translated into Latin in the 1100s, the word for
transposition "al-jabr" will come to represent the science started by Diofantos
(Latin: Diophantus), "Algebra". Algebra is the branch of mathematics that
involves solving equations by using methods such as transposition and
(House of Wisdom) Bagdad, Iraq  
1,171 YBN
[829 AD]
Sinjar in Mesopotamia, west of Mosul  
1,167 YBN
[833 AD]
1298) Al-Khwārizmī writes a third major work, his Kitāb ṣūrat al-arḍ
("The Image of the Earth"; translated as "Geography"), which presents the
coordinates of localities in the known world based, ultimately, on those in the
Geography of Ptolemy (fl. CE 127–145) but with improved values for the length
of the Mediterranean Sea and the location of cities in Asia and Africa.
Al-Khwārizmī also assists in the construction of a world map for al-Maʾmūn
and participates in a project to determine the circumference of the Earth by
measuring the length of a degree of a meridian through the plain of Sinjār in

Al-Khwarizmi overestimates the circumference of earth as (40,000 miles, actual
is 25,000 miles).(units)

Al-Khwārizmī also compiles a set of astronomical tables (Zīj), based on a
variety of Hindu and Greek sources. This work includes a table of sines,
evidently for a circle of radius 150 units.
Bagdad, Iraq  
1,159 YBN
[841 AD]
1304) Al-Kindi grew up in Kufa where his father was governor, and Kufa had
become a center of the sciences. Al-Kindi becomes especially interested in the
philosophical sciences after going to Baghdad. By this time a major movement of
translation (from Greek) into Arabic had begun (in Baghdad).

al-Kindi's full name is:
Abu Yusuf Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi
Many Arabic names follow a
similarf pattern. "Abu Yusuf", abu is "father of" and Yusef is Joseph, so
al-Kindi had a child named Yusef. Ya'qub is the person's first name, in this
case "Jacob". "ibn Ishaq", "ibn" is "son of", "Ishaq" is "Isaac", so al-Kindi's
father's name is Ishaq. Finally, the last name is where they are from or a
profession associated with their family, "al-Kindi" is from the tribe of
Baghdad, Iraq  
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1144) Gunpowder.

The earliest Chinese records of gunpowder indicate that it was a byproduct of
Taoist alchemical efforts to develop an elixir of immortality. A book dating
from c. 850 CE called "Classified Essentials of the Mysterious Tao of the True
Origin of Things" warns of one elixir:
"Some have heated together sulfur, realgar
and saltpeter with honey; smoke and flames result, so that their hands and
faces have been burnt, and even the whole house where they were working burned

The earliest gunpowder, black powder is a mixture of saltpeter (potassium
nitrate), sulfur, and charcoal.
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1332) Hunayn ibn Ishaq is appointed by Caliph al-Mutawakkil to the post of
chief physician to the court, a position that ibn Ishaq will hold for the rest
of his life. Hunayn travels to Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to get ancient Greek
manuscripts. From his translators' school in Baghdad, Ibn Ishaq and his
students will transmit Arabic and (more frequently) Syriac versions of
classical Greek texts throughout the Arabic population.

Ibn Ishaq means "son of Isaac".
Baghdad, Iraq  
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1333) As a young man, Al-Mutawakkil held no political or military positions of
importance but took a keen interest in religious debates that had far-reaching
political importance.
Samarra (near Baghdad), Iraq  
1,141 YBN
[859 AD]
1336) University and mosque of Al Qaraouine in Fès, Morocco. The oldest
University on Earth, however only Muslims are admitted into the mosque.
Fes, Morocco  
1,124 YBN
[876 AD]
1115) The number zero.

The Babylonians appear to have developed a placeholder symbol that functioned
as a zero by the 3rd century BC, but its precise meaning and use is still

There is no doubt that the symbol for the number zero is invented in India, but
exactly how and for what purpose is unclear.

The oldest symbol "0" in India that can be assigned a definite date, is
inscribed on a temple in Gwalior.
Gwalior, India  
1,124 YBN
[876 AD]
1300) Thabit is a scion of a prominent family settled in Harran (now in
Turkey), a city noted as the seat of a Hellenized Semitic astronomical cult,
the Sabians, of which Thabit was a member. By calling themselves Sabians, after
a group mentioned in the Qur'an, the cult members established themselves as
"People of the Book" and therefore were freed from the requirement of
conversion to Islam.

The Sabians of Harran, are a sect of Hermetists, often confused with the
Mandaeans. As star-worshippers, Sabians show a great interest in astronomy,
astrology, magic, and mathematics. This religious cult is centered around the
symbolism of the planets, and is very interested in the Pythagorean
mathematical and mystical tradition. This sect lives will near the main center
of the Caliphate until 1258, when the Mongols will destroy their last shrine.
During Muslim rule, they are a protected minority, and around the time of
al-Mutawakkil's reign their town will become a center for philosophical,
esoteric, and medical learning. They are joined by the descendants of pagan
Greek scholars who, having been persecuted in Europe, settled in lands that
became part of the Abbasid caliphate. In this time the Muslims are greatly
interested in Greek culture and science, collecting and translating many
ancient Greek works in the fields of philosophy and mathematics. Although they
later became Arabic speakers, in pre-Islamic times, it was common for Sabians
to speak Greek.

Some sources describe Thabit as a money changer in Harran, the sources give two
different accounts of his life.

Thabit and his pupils live in the midst of the most intellectually vibrant, and
probably the largest, city of this time, Baghdad. Ibn Qurra occupies himself
with mathematics, astronomy, astrology, magic, mechanics, medicine, and
philosophy. His native language is Syriac, which is the eastern dialect of
Aramaic (a semitic language) from Edessa, and Thabit knows Greek well.

Only a few of Thabit's works are preserved in their original form.

Through the influence of the mathematician Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Shakir (father
of the three famous Banu Musa mathematician brothers), late in his life Thabit
ibn Qurrah will become court astronomer for the 'Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tadid
(reigns 892-902) and become the Caliph's personal friend.

Several of Thabit ibn Qurrah's works will be translated into Latin and Hebrew
and will prove to be influential in the Latin West. A son, Sinan ibn Thabit,
will become a renowned physician and director of a hospital in Baghdad, and a
grandson, Ibrahim ibn Sinan, will win fame as an important mathematician.
Bagdad, Iraq  
1,122 YBN
[878 AD]
1301) Alfred creates a legal Code, reconciling the long established laws of the
Christian kingdoms of Kent, Mercia and Wessex. These formed Alfred"s "Deemings"
or Book of "Dooms" (Book of Laws). The Doom Book, Code of Alfred or Legal Code
of Aelfred the Great, was the code of laws (dooms, laws, or judgments) compiled
by Alfred the Great from three prior Saxon codes, to which he prefixed the Ten
Commandments of Moses, and incorporated rules of life from the Mosaic Code and
the Christian code of ethics. The title "Doom book" (originally dom-boc or
dom-boke) comes from dōm (pronounced "doom") which is the Anglo-Saxon word
meaning "judgment", or "law".

Apart from the lost Handboc or Encheiridion, which seems to have been only a
commonplace book kept by the king, the earliest work to be translated is the
"Dialogues" of Gregory, a book that is very popular in the Middle Ages. In this
case the translation is made by Alfred's great friend Werferth, Bishop of
Worcester, the king providing a foreword. The next work to be undertaken is
Gregory's "Pastoral Care", especially for the benefit of the parish clergy. In
this translation Alfred keeps very close to his original; but the introduction
Alfred writes for this book is one of the most interesting documents of the
reign, or indeed of English history. The next two works translated are
historical, the "Universal History" of Orosius and Bede's "Ecclesiastical
History of the English People". Probably Orosius was first. In the Orosius
translation, by omissions and additions, Alfred so changes the original as to
produce an almost new work; however in the Bede translation the author's text
closely follows the original with no additions being made, though most of the
documents and some other less interesting matters are omitted.

One of the most interesting translations by Alfred is his translation of "The
Consolation of Philosophy" of Boethius, the most popular philosophical handbook
of the Middle Ages. Here again Alfred deals very freely with his original copy.
Many of the additions to the text can be traced to the glosses and commentaries
Alfred uses and not to Alfred himself. In the Boethius translation is an often
quoted sentence: "My will was to live worthily as long as I lived, and after my
life to leave to them that should come after, my memory in good works." This
book has only survived in two manuscripts. In one of these the writing is
prose, in the other a combination of prose and alliterating verse. The latter
manuscript was severely damaged in the 18th and 19th centuries, and the
authorship of the verse has been much disputed; but likely it also is by
Alfred. In fact, he writes in the prelude that he first created a prose work
and then used it as the basis for his poem, the Lays of Boethius, his crowning
literary achievement. Alfred spends a great deal of time working on these
books, and explains that he gradually wrote through the many stressful times of
his reign to refresh his mind.

The last of Alfred's works is one to which he gave the name "Blostman", i.e.,
"Blooms" or "Anthology". The first half is based mainly on the Soliloquies of
St Augustine of Hippo, the remainder is drawn from various sources, and
contains much that is Alfred's own and highly characteristic of him. The last
words of it may be quoted; they form a fitting epitaph for the noblest of
English kings. "Therefore he seems to me a very foolish man, and truly
wretched, who will not increase his understanding while he is in the world, and
ever wish and long to reach that endless life where all shall be made clear."
Wessex (871-899), a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England.  
1,112 YBN
[888 AD]
1305) Arab astronomer, Al-Battani refines existing values for the length of the
year and of the seasons, for the annual precession of the equinoxes, and for
the inclination of the ecliptic. The inclination of the ecliptic is the angle
made between the plane the earth rotates the sun in (the celestial equator) and
the plane the Earth rotates itself in. The ecliptic is a circle in the
celestial sphere that is the apparent path of the Sun among the constellations
in the course of a year. The ecliptic intersects the plane of the celestial
equator at the vernal and autumnal equinoxes.

This improved value for the length of the year will be used 700 years later in
the Gregorian reform of the Julian Calendar.
ar-Raqqa, Syria  
1,110 YBN
[890 AD]
1129) The Gokstad ship is a late 9th century clinker-built Viking ship found in
a ship burial beneath a burial mound at Gokstad farm in Sandar, Sandefjord,
Vestfold, Norway. Dendrochronolgical (tree ring) dating suggests that the ship
was built of timber that was felled around 890 CE.

Sandar, Sandefjord, Vestfold, Norway  
1,110 YBN
[890 AD]
Wessex (871-899), a Saxon kingdom in southwestern England.  
1,100 YBN
[900 AD]
1379) Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum, or the "Salerno Book of Health" from this
school will be first printed in 1484.
This school shows that the people of Italy are
very early in the development of universities, education and women's rights.
Salerno, Italy  
1,100 YBN
[900 AD]
5865) Polyphonic works are called "Organum" (plural: Organa). The earliest
written form of polyphonic music is found in the treatise "Musica enchiriadis"
(c. 900; "Musical Handbook"), in which organum consists of two melodic lines
moving simultaneously note against note. The planchant melody is called the
"vox principalis" (principal voice), and the additional voice is called the
"vox organalis" (the organal, or added, voice). In the simplest parallel
organum, a single organal voice runs a fourth or fifth below the principal
voice. Other examples include four voices, with the principal voice doubled an
octave down and the organal voice doubled an octave up. In some instances, the
two voices start in unison, then move to wider intervals.

At this early stage, there are no rhythmic signs beyond the words of the chant
in the "Musica Enchiriadis", but the pitches are indicated precisely through
the daseian signs in the margin at left. Adapted from grammatical accent marks
in ancient Greek, each of these corresponds to a specific pitch.
northern part of the West Frankish empire|Possibly written in what is now
Eastern France  
1,096 YBN
[904 AD]
1,095 YBN
[905 AD]
1303) Plaster used to hold broken bones in place. Al-Razi {oL-rAZE} rejects
Islam and other religions.

Al-Razi {oL-rAZE} (full name Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakarīya al-Rāzi Latin:
Rhazes), a Persian physician and chemist, is the first to prepare "plaster of
paris" and describes how it can be used to hold broken bones in place, to
identify and distinguish between smallpox and measles, is the first of record
to divide all substances into animal, vegetable and mineral, accepts the atom
theory, dismisses miracles and mysticism, thinks religion harmful and the cause
of hatred and wars.

Al-Razi openly criticizes religions including the new rising religion of Islam
describing the Koran as (translated) "...a work which recounts ancient myths,
and which at the same time is full of contradictions and does not contain any
useful information or explanation.".
Rayy (near Tehran, Iran)   
1,090 YBN
[910 AD]
1407) Al-Farabi studies music theory and composes music. Some of al-Farabi's
compositions have survived in the rites of the Sufi brotherhoods, in particular
those in Anatolia.
Al-Farabi is a practicing Sufi.

Al-Farabi had great influence on science and philosophy for several centuries,
and was widely regarded to be second only to Aristotle in knowledge (alluded to
by his title of "the Second Teacher"). His work, aimed at synthesis of
philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for Ibn Sina's work.

The major part of al-Farabi's writings are directed to the problem of the
correct ordering of the state. Al-Farabi's views are similar to Plato's
"Republic" in the elitist undemocratic belief that, just as God rules the
universe, so should the philosopher, as the most perfect kind of man, rule the
state; al-Farabi therefore relates the political upheavals of his time to the
separation of the philosopher from government.
Baghdad, Iraq  
1,080 YBN
[920 AD]
6183) Norwegian explorers reach North America.

In 1961 (verify) Helge Ingstad, finds in Northern Newfoundland a site that
establishes the presence of European settlers in North America prior to
Columbus. For seven successive summers expeditions excavate this site under the
leadership of Anne Stine Ingstad, a trained archaeologist. They excavate seven
house sites, a smithy, and four "boat sheds," as well as some open-air hearths
and a charcoal kiln.
All of the walls were built of turf, now largely decomposed, and
all of the rooms were equipped with simple hearths. The artifacts collected
number in the
hundreds, but most of them are
small iron objects (rivets and nails), slag and
bog-ore, stone implements,
charcoal, and brittle-burned stones; there are two
unquestionably Norse
pieces of handicraft, a soapstone spindle whorl, and a
ring-headed pin
of bronze (thought to be a belt pin). Bones were found of a pig, a
whale, and a seal.
L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland  
1,064 YBN
[936 AD]
1408) Al-Mas'udi is known as the "Herodotus of the Arabs".
Baghdad, Iraq  
1,040 YBN
[960 AD]
6186) Earliest evidence of rockets. These are gun-powder rockets probably in
hollow bamboo tubes.

Fire-arrow technology is described in the "Complete Compendium of Military
Classics" (960 CE), which provides evidence that Emperor Tseng Kung-Liang had a
group of rocketeers equipped to make and fire powder rockets in combat.

Certainly by the year 1045 CE, the use of gunpowder and rockets forms an
integral aspect of Chinese military tactics.
1,036 YBN
[964 AD]
Isfahan (Eşfahān), Persia (modern Iran)  
1,030 YBN
[970 AD]
1338) The mosque is built in two years from 969 CE, the year in which its
foundation is laid. Studies will begin in Al-Azhar in Ramadan by October 975
CE, when Chief Justice Abul Hasan Ali ibn Al-No'man starts teaching the book
"Al-Ikhtisar", on the Shiite Jurisprudence.
Al-Azhar University is the leading institution for
Sunni learning in the Islamic world.
Cairo, Egypt  
1,025 YBN
[975 AD]
?, India (presumably)  
1,024 YBN
[976 AD]
1,021 YBN
[979 AD]
Cordova, Spain  
1,019 YBN
[981 AD]
1385) The Al-Adudi hospital is named after Emir 'Adud al-Daula. The hospital
will be destroyed in 1258 by the Mongol invasion.
Baghdad, Iraq  
1,018 YBN
[982 AD]
1130) Norse people from Iceland reach Greenland, which they find uninhabited.
They establish three settlements near the very southwestern tip of the island,
where they will live for about 450 years.

1,015 YBN
[985 AD]
1306) In 999 Gerbert will become the first French Pope as Sylvester II.
In a
letter of 984, Gerbert asks Lupitus of Barcelona for a translation of an Arabic
astronomical treatise.
Gerbert may have been the author of a description of the astrolabe
that will be edited by Hermannus Contractus around 50 years later.
Auvergne, France  
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1022) The "Suda", one of the first encyclopedias is compiled, credited to a
person named Suidas.

Suda, or Suidas, breaks with tradition by adopting alphabetical order for its

There is evidence that the Suda is compiled in the latter part of the 900s.
Passages referring to Michael Psellus (end of 11th century) are considered
later interpolations. The lexicon is arranged alphabetically with some slight
deviations; letters and combinations of letters having the same sound being
placed together. The Suda is both a dictionary and encyclopedia.

The Suda includes numerous quotations from ancient writers; the scholiasts
(commentary on the margin of a manuscript) on Aristophanes, Homer, Sophocles
and Thucydides are also used often. The biographical notices, the author
explains, are condensed from the "Onomatologion" or "Pinax" of Hesychius of
Miletus; other sources were the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the
chronicle of Georgius Monachus, the biographies of Diogenes Laertius and the
works of Athenaeus and Philostratus.

Most of the Suda was lost during the crusader sacking of Constantinople and the
Ottoman pillage of the city in 1453.
The lexicon is arranged, not quite
alphabetically, but according to a system (formerly common in many lagnauges)
called antistoichia; namely the letters follow phonetically, in order of sound
(in the pronunciation of Suida's time, which is the same as modern Greek, and
serves as a key to the authentic pronunciation of each letter, letter group and
Most of the Alexandrian librarians are listed with more details in the Suda.
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1054) Paper money.

The first use of paper money occurred in China more than 1,000 years ago.

Initially paper money represents promises to pay specified amounts of metal
coin money (gold and silver) for which carrying in large quantities is
inconvenient and a risk for loss or theft. These promises are initially issued
by individuals or companies as banknotes or as the transferable book entries
that come to be called deposits. Although deposits and banknotes begin as
claims to gold or silver on deposit at a bank or with a merchant, this later
changes. Knowing that everyone will not claim their balance at once, bankers
and merchants start to issue more claims to the gold and silver than the amount
they actually hold. In periods of distress, however, when borrowers did not
repay their loans or in case of overissue, the banks could fail. So gradually,
governments assume a supervisory role. Later paper money—promises to pay in
gold or silver are replaced by Governments with "fiat" paper money— notes
that are legal tender but are not promises to pay something else like gold or
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1131) Watermills are widely used in Europe at this time.

1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1132) Motte-and-bailey castles are constructed. Many were built in Britain and
France in the 11th and 12th centuries, especially in England following the
Norman Conquest of 1066.

The motte is a raised earth mound, like a small hill, usually assembled and
topped with a wooden or stone structure known as a keep. The earth for the
mound would be taken from a ditch, dug around the motte or around the whole
castle. The outer surface of the mound could be covered with clay or
strengthened with wooden supports.

The bailey is an enclosed courtyard, typically surrounded by a wooden fence and
overlooked by the motte. A castle could have more than one bailey, sometimes an
inner and an outer.

990 YBN
[1010 AD]
1311) Ibn Sina is an infant prodigy that can recite the Quran and many Persian
poems at age 10.
Ibn Sina wrongly believes that transmutation (changing of atoms
from one kind to the other) to be impossible (although only achieved in the
1900s in particle physics by Rutherford, Fermi and others).

Ibn Sina turnes his attention to health at age 16, and achieves full status as
a physician at age 18, Ibn Sina writes that "Medicine is no hard and thorny
science, like mathematics and metaphysics, so I soon made great progress; I
became an excellent doctor and began to treat patients, using approved
remedies." The youthful physician's popularity spreads quickly, and he treats
many patients without asking for payment.

In Hamadan, Ibn Sina is even raised to the office of vizier (a high ranking
advisor to an Arab monarch such as a Caliph, Amir, Malik (king) or Sultan) in

Ibn Sin'a book حكمت مشرقيه
(hikmat-al-mashriqqiyya, in Latin "Philosophia Orientalis"), which Roger Bacon
will mention, is now lost. According to Averroes this book is pantheistic in

Ibn Sina is, like all his countrymen, ample in the enumeration of symptoms, and
is said to be inferior to Ali in practical medicine and surgery. Ibn Sina
introduces into medical theory the four causes of the Peripatetic system. The
Canon will still be used as a textbook in the universities of Leuven and
Montpellier up to around the year 1650.

In the museum at Bukhara, there are displays showing many of Ibn Sina's
writings, surgical instruments from the period and paintings of patients
undergoing treatment. Ibn Sina was interested in the effect of the mind on the
body, and writes a great deal on psychology, likely influencing Ibn Tufayl and
Ibn Bajjah.

Some of Ibn Sina's books are dictated from horseback while accompanying a ruler
to some battle.

Ibn Sina writes extensively on the subjects of philosophy, logic, ethics,
metaphysics and other disciplines. Most of his works were written in Arabic,
and some are written in the Persian language. Of linguistic significance even
to this day are a few books that Ibn Sina writes in nearly pure Persian
language (particularly the Danishnamah-yi 'Ala', Philosophy for Ala'
ad-Dawla'). Avicenna's commentaries on Aristotle often correct the philosopher,
encouraging a lively debate in the spirit of ijtihad, (a technical term of
Islamic law that describes the process of making a legal decision by
independent interpretation of the legal sources, the Qur'an and the Sunnah).
Hamadan, Iran  
975 YBN
[1025 AD]
5868) The system of Arezzo consists in the construction by thirds of a system
of four lines, or staff, and the use of letters as clefs. The red F-line and
the yellow C-line were already in use, but Guido adds a black line between the
F and the C and another black line above the C. The neumes (notational signs
used in the Middle Ages that represented specific kinds of melodic motion and
manners of performance) can now be placed on the lines and spaces between and a
definite pitch relationship established. With this system it is no longer
necessary to learn melodies by memory, and Guido declares that his system
reduces the 10 years normally required to become an ecclesiastical singer to
one year.

A well-developed "solmization" (a system of designating musical notes by
syllable names) exists in the music of India, using the syllables ṣa, ṛi,
ga, ma, pa, dha, ni; and similar systems occur in, for example, Chinese,
Southeast Asian, and ancient Greek music. The system that predominates in
European music is introduced by the Italian monk, Guido of Arezzo, who derives
it from the Latin hymn, "Ut queant laxis".

During the half century after Guido’s death (CE 1050-1100), developments
occur more rapidly as the plainsong chant becomes the lower rather than the
upper voice. Then the organal part, vox organalis is freed. The peak of this
freedom is reached in the organums of the monastery of Saint-Martial in
Limoges, France, where the plainsong part is reduced to the role of sustaining
each tone while the organal part performs in free melismata (groups of notes
sung to a single syllable), either improvised or composed. This new style is
called organum purum.
(Cathedral school) Arezzo, Italy  
970 YBN
[1030 AD]
1409) Al-Biruni (full name: Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni) (CE
973-c1051), a Persian scholar, writes about the movement of the Earth relative
to the Sun, and that all astronomical appearances can be explained if the Earth
rotates each day, and notes "the attraction of all things towards the centre of
the earth".
Ghazna, Afghanistan  
962 YBN
[1038 AD]
1308) Pin-hole camera (or camera obscura). Ibn al-Haytham {iBN oL HIteM} (Full
Name: Abu 'Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham) (Arabic and Persian: ابو علی،
حسن بن حسن بن هيثم) (Latinized: Alhazen (oLHoZeN)) (CE
c965-1039), builds the first recorded pin-hole camera (camera obscura).

Ibn al-Haytham's optical work "Ṣūrat al-kusūf" ("On the Shape of the
Eclipse") includes a discussion of the camera obscura).

Al-Haytham is the first of record to understand that light comes from the Sun
and reflects off objects into the eyes contradicting the theory of Euclid and
Ptolemy that rays of light emit from the eye.

Al-Haytham constructs parabolic mirrors (now used in telescopes to better focus
light than a spherical mirror).

Al-Haytham studies the focusing of light.

Like Ptolemy, al-Haytham thinks that the atmosphere has a finite height, and
estimates this height as 10 miles. (actual units)

Al-Haytham's "Optics" will have a major influence not only on 13th-century
thinkers such as Roger Bacon but also on later scientists such as the
astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), who after 600 years will be the first
to improve on the science of optics..
Cairo, Egypt  
959 YBN
[1041 AD]
1124) The first known movable-type system for printing using ceramic materials
was created in China around 1040 AD by Pi Sheng (990–1051). As described by a
contemporary account of Shen Kua (1031–1095):

"During the reign of Chhing-li {1041-48} Pi Sheng, a man of unofficial
position, made moveable type. His method was as follows: he took sticky clay
and cut in it characters as thin as the edge of a coin. Each character formed,
as it were, a single type. He baked them in the fire to make them hard. He had
previously prepared an iron plate and he had covered his plate with a mixture
of pine resin, wax, and paper ashes. When he wished to print, he took an iron
frame and set it on the iron plate. In this he placed the types, set close
together. When the frame was full, the whole made one solid block of type. He
then placed it near the fire to warm it. When the paste {at the back} was
slightly melted, he took a smooth board and pressed it over the surface, so
that the block of type became as even as a whetstone.
If one were to print only two or
three copies, this method would be neither simple not easy. But for printing
hundreds or thousands of copies, it was marvelously quick. As a rule he kept
two formes going. While the impression was being made from the one forme, the
type was being put in place on the other. When the printing of the one forme
was finished, the other was then ready. In this way the two formed alternated
and the printing was done with great rapidity.
For each character there were several
types, and for certain common characters there were twenty or more types each,
in order to be prepared for the repetition of characters on the same page. When
the characters were not in use, he had them arranged with paper labels, one
label for words of each rhyme-group, and kept them in wooden cases. If any rare
characters appeared that had not been prepared in advance, it was cut as needed
and baked with a fire of straw. In a moment it was finished.
The reason why he did not
use wood is because the tissue of wood is sometimes coarse and sometimes fine,
and wood also absorbs moisture, so that the forme when set up would be uneven.
Also the wood would have stuck in the paste and could not readily have been
pulled out. So it was better to use burnt earthenware. When the printing was
finished, the forme was again brought near the fire to allow the paste to melt,
and then cleansed with the hand, so that the types fell off of themselves and
were not in the least soiled.
When Pi Sheng died, his font of type passed into the
possession of my nephews, and up to this time it has been kept as a precious

In about 1313 a magistrate named Wang Chen will have a craftsman carve more
than 60,000 characters on movable wooden blocks so that a treatise on the
history of technology can be published. Chen is also credited with the
invention of horizontal compartmented cases that revolve around a vertical axis
to allow easier handling of the type. But Wang Chen’s innovation, like that
of Pi Sheng, is not followed up in China. However, in Korea, typography is
extensively developed under the stimulus of King Htai Tjong, who, in 1403,
orders the first set of 100,000 pieces of type to be cast in bronze. Nine other
fonts followed from then to 1516; two of them were made in 1420 and 1434,
before Europe discovers typography.

Johannes Gutenberg is generally credited in 1435 with the earliest printing
press in Europe.

One explanation for the fact that printing develops in Europe in the 1400s
instead of in the Far East, even though the principle of printing was known in
the Orient long before is that European writing is based on an alphabet made of
a limited number of symbols. This simplifies the problems involved in
developing techniques for the use of movable type. However, Chinese
handwriting, has some 80,000 symbols, which is not as well fitted to

The development of printing gives impetus to the growth and accumulation of
knowledge, for example from Diderot’s encyclopaedia to the many publications
currently printed throughout the Earth.
959 YBN
[1041 AD]
1136) Krak des Chevaliers ("fortress of the knights") is built.

east of Tripoli in the Homs Gap  
936 YBN
[1064 AD]
1313) Khayyam means "tentmaker".
Khayyam is funded by the Vizier of the Seljuk Sultan Alp
Arsian and then his successor Malik Shah.
Persia, Iran (presumably)  
934 YBN
[1066 AD]
1326) Having first seen it as a young boy in 989, Eilmer of Malmesbury
declares: "You've come, have you?...You've c-ome, you source of tears to many
mothers, you evil. I hate you! It is long since I saw you; but as I see you now
you are much more terrible, for I see you brandishing the downfall of my
country. I hate you!".
England and New Mexico  
932 YBN
[1068 AD]
?, India (presumably)  
930 YBN
[1070 AD]
927 YBN
[1073 AD]
923 YBN
[1077 AD]
921 YBN
[03/15/1079 AD]
1317) Sultan Jalal al-Din Malekshah Saljuqi (1072-92) puts Omar Kyayyam's
corrected calendar into effect.

919 YBN
[1081 AD]
1312) Al-Zarqali (Latin: Arzachel) (Spanish and Italian: Azarquiel), (In Arabic
أبو أسحاق ابراهيم بن يحيى الزرقالي ),(full name:
Abū Isḥāqibrāhīm Ibn Yaḥyā Al-Naqqāsh) (CE ?-1100), describes the
orbit of Mercury as being oval instead of circular.

In Al-Zarqali's text "Tratado de la lamina de los siete planetas" ("Treatise on
the sheets of the seven planets") contains one of the most debated passages in
medieval astronomy. In the graphic representation included in the Castilian
translation ordered by Alfonso X (The Wise) the orbit of Mercury is not
circular. On this basis it has been alleged that al–ZarqāĪi anticipated
Kepler in stating that orbits–the orbit of Mercury in this case–are
elliptical. Although the Arabic text merely states that an orbit is baydi

Al-Zarqali also invents the apparatus called the azafea (Arabic: al-safiha),
which is widely used by navigators until the 1500s.

Al-Zarqali is also credited with the explicit proof of the motion of the
aphelion (of the earth or apogee of the sun) with respect to the fixed stars.
in an observatory in Toledo, Al-Zarqali edits the famous "Tables of Toledo"
(Toledan Zij) {Zij?}, a compilation of astronomical data which are among the
most accurate of the Islamic period. These tables are composed with the help of
several other Muslim and Jewish scientists and will be widely used by both
Latin and Muslim astronomers in later centuries.
Toledo (in Castile, now) Spain  
914 YBN
[1086 AD]
912 YBN
[1088 AD]
912 YBN
[1088 AD]
1339) The University of Bologna (Italian: Alma Mater Studiorum Università di
Bologna, UNIBO) is founded, and is one of the oldest and most famous
universities in Europe.
Bologna, Italy  
905 YBN
[1095 AD]
901 YBN
[1099 AD]
1382) This order has survived through the centuries as the St. John's Ambulance
900 YBN
[1100 AD]
900 YBN
[1100 AD]
1142) Post mill windmills are built in Europe. Post mills are the earliest type
of windmill and have the fan connected to a single post which can be turned in
the direction of the wind.

900 YBN
[1100 AD]
1521) The "Charter of Liberties" is issued upon the ascension of King Henry I
to the throne in 1100. It binds the king to certain laws regarding the
treatment of church officials and nobles. The document addressea certain abuses
of royal power by his predecessor, his brother William Rufus, specifically the
over-taxation of the barons.
Henry Beauclerc (meaning: Good Scholar) is the youngest
and considered to be the ablest of William I the Conqueror's sons.
London, England  
900 YBN
[1100 AD]
?, China (presumably)  
900 YBN
[1100 AD]
Provence, France (Southern France)  
894 YBN
[1106 AD]
1411) in 1085, al-Ghazali was invited to go to the court of Nizam al-Mulk, the
powerful vizier of the Seljuq sultans. The vizier was so impressed by
al-Ghazali's scholarship that in 1091 he appointed him chief professor in the
Nizamiyah college in Baghdad. While lecturing to more than 300 students,
al-Ghazali was also mastering and criticizing the Neoplatonist philosophies of
al-Farabi and Avicenna (Ibn Sina). He passed through a spiritual crisis that
rendered him physically incapable of lecturing for a time. In November 1095 he
abandoned his career and left Baghdad on the pretext of going on pilgrimage to
Mecca. Making arrangements for his family, he disposed of his wealth and
adopted the life of a poor Sufi, or mystic. After some time in Damascus and
Jerusalem, with a visit to Mecca in November 1096, al-Ghazali settled in Tus,
where Sufi disciples joined him in a virtually monastic communal life. In 1106
he was persuaded to return to teaching at the Nizamiyah college at Nishapur.
Nishapur, Iran  
880 YBN
[1120 AD]
1141) First papermill (factory dedicating to making paper) in Europe.

in Spain, at Xavia (modern Valencia), Europe  
880 YBN
[1120 AD]
1318) Abelard wanders from school to school at Paris, Melun, Corbeil, and
elsewhere. In 1113 or 1114 he goes north to Laon to study theology under Anselm
of Laon, the leading biblical scholar of the day. He quickly developed a strong
contempt for Anselm's teaching, which he finds vacuous, and returns to Paris.
teaches openly (publicly?) in Paris but is also given as a private pupil, the
young Héloïse, niece of one of the clergy of the cathedral of Paris, Canon
Fulbert. Abelard and Héloïse fall in love and have a son whom they called
Astrolabe. They then marry secretly. To escape her uncle's wrath Héloïse
withdraws into the convent of Argenteuil outside Paris. Heloise's uncle
Fulbert, the powerful canon of Notre Dame, finds out about their relationship
and hires people to castrate Abelard in 1121 (at the age of 42). I have found
no record of any identity or arrest of anybody for this vicious first degree
assault and battery. In shame Ableard embraces the monastic life, becoming a
monk at the royal abbey of Saint-Denis near Paris and makes the unwilling
Héloïse become a nun at Argenteuil.

Abelard will write "Dialogue of a Philosopher with a Jew and a Christian".
In the early
1130s Pierre and Héloïse will compose a collection of their own love letters
and religious correspondence.
Later in life Pierre Abelard will write an autobiography
"Historia Calamitatum" in Latin. This book is in the form of a letter, and is
clearly influenced by Augustine of Hippo's "Confessions". The "Historia" is
exceptionally readable, and presents a remarkably honest self-portrait of a man
who could be arrogant and often felt persecuted. It provides a clear and
fascinating picture of intellectual life in Paris before the formalization of
the University, of the intellectual excitement of the period, of monastic life,
and of his affair with Heloise, one of history's most famous love stories.
(the royal abbey of Saint-Denis near) Paris, France  
874 YBN
[1126 AD]
Artois, France  
870 YBN
[1130 AD]
870 YBN
[1130 AD]
1322) Adelard is the tutor of future King Henry II. During a period of seven
years Adelard travels through Greece, Asia Minor, and North Africa. Adelard
learns arabic.
Bath, England  
868 YBN
[1132 AD]
1146) First cannon and gun.

In Buddhist caves of Western China, a temple in Ta-tsu in Szechuan Province
shows the earliest depiction of a gun. One relief depicts a small demon with
two horns showing flames and a ball being shot from a handheld cannon. A second
relief shows a devil holding a grenade.
Ta-tsu, Szechuan Province, China  
865 YBN
[1135 AD]
(Mont-Sainte-Geneviève outside) Paris, France  
864 YBN
[1136 AD]
1143) The Basilica of Saint Denis. This is considered to be the first major
structure built in the gothic style.
Construction of the church began in 1136
by the Abbot Suger (1081-1155), but the major construction will not be complete
until the end of the 13th century.
All but three of the monarchs of France from the 10th
century until 1789 have their remains here.

Paris France  
860 YBN
[1140 AD]
Sens, France  
856 YBN
[1144 AD]
1148) A boy is found dead in England and all Jewish people are blamed. In many
cities, Jewish humans are sentenced to death for child sacrificing.

850 YBN
[1150 AD]
1152) Cog-built ships are built in Europe. Cog-built vessels (Cogs). They are
characterized by flush-laid flat bottom at midships but gradually shifted to
overlapped strakes near the posts. They have full lapstrake planking covering
the sides.

850 YBN
[1150 AD]
5866) A more elaborate form of organum (polyphonic or "many-voiced" style)
evolves at the abbeys of Santiago de Compostela, Spain (c. 1137), and
Saint-Martial of Limoges, France (c. 1150), in which a highly florid melody
(duplum) is added above the plainchant "tenor".
Santiago de Compostela, Spain and Saint-Martial of Limoges, France  
850 YBN
[1150 AD]
(convent) Rupertsberg, Germany  
850 YBN
[1150 AD]
846 YBN
[1154 AD]
Toledo, Spain  
834 YBN
[1166 AD]
1330) After the death of the philosopher Ibn Tufayl, Averro's succeeded him as
personal physician to the caliphs Abu Ya'qub Yusuf in 1182 and his son Abu
Yusuf Ya'qub in 1184.
Cordova, Spain  
833 YBN
[1167 AD]
Oxford, England (now: United Kingdom)  
830 YBN
[1170 AD]
1319) University of Paris.

The University of Paris is founded around this time growing out of the
cathedral schools of Notre-Dame.

The university was originally divided into four faculties: three
“superior,” theology, canon law, and medicine; and one “inferior,”
arts. In the faculty of arts, the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic)
and the quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music) were taught
together with general scientific, literary, and general culture. Each faculty
was headed by a dean, and the dean of the faculty of arts had by the 14th
century become the head of the collective university under the title of rector.
Many colleges were built to accommodate the students. The most celebrated was
the Sorbonne, founded by the theologian Robert de Sorbon about 1257.
Paris, France  
830 YBN
[1170 AD]
(Notre Dame Cathedral) Paris, France  
825 YBN
[1175 AD]
1149) Arabic copy of Ptolomy "Almagest" is translated to Latin.

825 YBN
[1175 AD]
Modena and Reggio Emilia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy  
824 YBN
[1176 AD]
1334) Maimonides' earliest work, composed in Arabic at the age of 16, is the
"Millot ha-Higgayon" ("Treatise on Logical Terminology"), a study of various
technical terms that were employed in logic and metaphysics. Another early
work, also in Arabic, is the "Essay on the Calendar" (Hebrew title: "Ma'amar

Maimon's Greek name is Moses Maimonides, which literally means, "Moses, son of

When the Almohads (Arabic: al-Muwahhidun, "the Unitarians"), who are a
fanatically Islamic people, capture Córdoba in 1148, Jewish people are forced
to submnit to Islam or leave the city. The Maimon family dresses in Islamic
clothes but secretly practices Judaism in their house.

In Fez, Morroco Moses studies at the University of Al Karaouine. During this
time Maimonides' writes his first major work, begun at the age of 23 and
completed at age 33, his commentary on the Mishna, "Kitab al-Siraj", written in
Arabic. The Mishna is a summary of decisions in Jewish law that dates from
earliest times to the 3rd century (CE). While living in Fez, in 1165, Rabbi
Judah ibn Shoshan, with whom Moses had studied, was arrested as a Jewish person
practicing Judism, was found guilty and then executed. After this the Maimon
family moves to Palestine briefly and then to Egypt.

In Egypt, unlike other nations under Islam, Jewish people are free to practice
Judaism openly, but any Jewish human who had once accepted Islam might be put
to death if they go back to Judaism. Moses himself is at one time accused of
being a reconverted Muslim, but is able to prove that he had never actually
accepted Islam.

In Egypt, Maimonides is influenced by Arabic writers such as Ibn Rushd and

After his commentary on the Mishna, Maimon spends ten years writing "Mishne
Torah" ("The Torah Reviewed"), the code of Jewish law written in a clear Hebrew
style. This code offers a brilliant systematization of all Jewish law and
doctrine. Maimon also writes two minor works on Jewish law: the "Sefer
ha-mitzwot" (Book of Precepts), a digest of law for average people, written in
Arabic; and the "Hilkhot ha-Yerushalmi" ("Laws of Jerusalem"), a digest of the
laws in the Palestinian Talmud, written in Hebrew.

After practicing as a physician, Miamon's popularity grows. Maimon is the
physician to Saladin (who opposes Richard the Lion-Heart in the 3rd crusade).
Maimon rejects Richard the Lion-Heart's invitation to live in England choosing
Egypt (which Asimov described as the more civilized at this time).

In 1233, Rabbi Solomon, a religious zelot of Montpellier, in southern France,
gets church authorities to burn "The Guide for the Perplexed" as a dangerously
heretical book. Maimonides will come to be recognized as a (wise) Jewish

Maimonides' philosophic work, when translated into Latin, will influence
medieval Scholastic writers, and even later people, such as Benedict de Spinoza
and G.W. Leibniz. Maimonides' health writings are part of the hisory of health
820 YBN
[1180 AD]
1150) Stern-mounted rudder used in europe. The oldest known depiction of a
stern-mounted rudder can be found on church carvings that date to around 1180.
As the size of ships and the height of the freeboards increased (a vessel's
side between waterline and gunwale), quarter-rudders became less satisfactory
and were replaced in Europe by the more sturdy stern-mounted rudders with
pintle (pin or bolt) and gudgeon (circular metal fitting attached to a rudder
so that the rudder can rotate) attachment from the 12th century.

820 YBN
[1180 AD]
1335) In 1213 Neckam will become the Abbot of Circencester.
820 YBN
[1180 AD]
(Notre Dame Cathedral) Paris, France  
816 YBN
[11/??/1184 AD]
1153) Start of the Inquisition.

The Inquisition starts when Pope Lucius III holds a synod at Verona, Italy,
creating the shockingly brutal law that burning is to be the official
punishment for heresy.

Pope Lucius II starts the medieval Inquisition to repress and punish people for
heresy (heretics).
At the Synod of Verona in 1184, Pope Lucius III, in agreement with the
Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, initiates the "Inquisition", by
declaring the excommunication of heretics and their protectors. This requires
bishops to make a judicial inquiry or inquisition, for heresy in their
dioceses. After ecclesiastical trial, heretics who refuse to recant are to be
transferred to civil authorities for punishment—usually death by burning.

The Inquisition will brutally try to enforce belief in religion and slow
progress in science for centuries, murdering many thousands of people, in
particular science and truth loving people, before ending.

The Inquisition lasts until the 1800s.
Verona, Italy  
805 YBN
[1195 AD]
Lucena, Spain  
798 YBN
[1202 AD]
1393) Little is known about the life of Fibonacci. Leonardo's father,
Guglielmo, a Pisan merchant, was appointed consul over the community of Pisan
merchants in the North African port of Bugia (now Bejaïa, Algeria) and
Leonardo was sent to study calculation with an Arab master. Leonardo later went
to Egypt, Syria, Greece, Sicily, and Provence, where he studied different
numerical systems and methods of calculation.

The first seven chapters of "Liber Abaci" explain the principle of place value,
how the position of a figure determines whether it is a unit, 10, 100, etc.,
and demonstrating the use of the numerals in arithmetical operations. The
techniques are then applied to practical problems such as profit margin,
barter, money changing, conversion of weights and measures, partnerships, and
interest. Most of the work is devoted to speculative mathematics-proportion
(represented by such popular medieval techniques as the Rule of Three and the
Rule of Five, which are rule-of-thumb methods of finding proportions), the Rule
of False Position (a method by which a problem is worked out by a false
assumption, then corrected by proportion), extraction of roots, and the
properties of numbers, concluding with some geometry and algebra.

French-born mathematician Albert Girard will represent this series with a
formula in 1634: un + 2 = un + 1 + un, in which u represents the term and the
subscript its rank in the sequence.
The mathematician Robert Simson at the University of
Glasgow in 1753 will note that the as the numbers increase, the ratio between
succeeding numbers approaches the number a, the golden ratio, 1.6180. The
golden ratio is defined as the ratio that results when a line is divided so
that the whole line has the same ratio to the larger segment as the larger
segment has to the smaller segment. Expressed algebraically, normalising the
larger part to unit length, it is the positive solution of the equation:

x 1
- = ---
1 x-1

or equivalently x2-x-1=0,

1 + √5
which is equal to φ = ------ =

In the 1800s scientists will find Fibonacci-type sequences in nature; for
example, in the spirals of sunflower heads, in pine cones, in the regular
descent (genealogy) of the male bee, in the related logarithmic (equiangular)
spiral in snail shells, in the arrangement of leaf buds on a stem, and in
animal horns.

Asimov describes Fibonacci as the first great Western mathematician after the
end of Greek science.
Fibonacci will be presented to Holy Roman Emperor Federick II in
1225, because Fibonacci is recognized for learning.
For several years Leonardo
corresponded with Frederick II and his scholars, exchanging problems with them.
Pisa, Italy (guess based on:)  
791 YBN
[1209 AD]
1342) Cambridge and Oxford will have a long history of competition with each
Cambridge, England  
788 YBN
[1212 AD]
Valladolid province of the autonomous region of Castile-Leon,in northern
785 YBN
[06/15/1215 AD]
1520) The anti-Jewish religious and racist prejudice of Christian people in
this time is evident in clause 11, "And if anyone dies indebted to the Jews,
his wife shall have her dower and pay nothing of that debt..."

In addition, the reality of slavory is evident in clause 27, "If any free man
dies without leaving a will, his chattels shall be distributed by his nearest
kinsfolk and friends under the supervision of the church...".

However, some rights are gained by women, for example clause 8, "No widow shall
be forced to marry so long as she wishes to live without a husband..."
Runnymede, England  
785 YBN
[1215 AD]
782 YBN
[1218 AD]
Salamanca, west of Madrid, Spain  
780 YBN
[1220 AD]
Montpellier in the Languedoc-Roussillon région of the south of France.  
780 YBN
[1220 AD]
Pisa, Italy (guess)  
780 YBN
[1220 AD]
3134) The minute larval insects fasten in myriads on the young shoots, and,
inserting their long proboscides into the bark, draw their nutriment from the
sap of the plant. The insects begin at once to exude the resinous secretion
over their entire bodies; this forms in effect a cocoon. A continuous hard
resinous layer regularly honeycombed with small cavities is deposited over and
around the twig. From this living tomb the female insects, which form the great
bulk of the group, never escape. After their impregnation, which takes place on
the liberation of the males, about three months from their first appearance,
the females develop into a singular amorphous organism consisting in its main
features of a large smooth shining crimson-colored sac - the ovary - with a
beak stuck into the bark, and a few papillary (pipillae are small nipplelike
projections) processes projected above the resinous surface. The red fluid in
the ovary is the substance which forms the lac dye of commerce. To obtain the
largest amount of both resin and dye-stuff it is necessary to gather the twigs
with their living inhabitants in or near June and November. Lac encrusting the
twigs as gathered is known in commerce as "stick lac"; the resin crushed to
small fragments and washed in hot water to free it from coloring matter is
"seed lac"; and this, when melted, strained through thick canvas, and spread
out into thin layers, is known as "shellac", and is the form in which the resin
is usually brought to European markets. Shellac varies in color from a dark
amber to an almost pure black.
778 YBN
[1222 AD]
Padua, Italy  
776 YBN
[06/05/1224 AD]
Naples, Italy  
775 YBN
[1225 AD]
1395) "Liber quadratorum" is devoted entirely to Diophantine equations of the
second degree (equations that contain squares). The "Liber quadratorum" is
considered Leonardo's masterpiece. "Liber quadratorum" is a systematically
arranged collection of theorems, many invented by Fibonacci, who used his own
proofs to work out general solutions.
Although the "Liber abaci" will be more
influential and of wider scope, "Liber quadratorum" alone ranks Leonardo as the
major contributor to number theory between Diophantus and the 1600s French
mathematician Pierre de Fermat.
Pisa, Italy (guess)  
773 YBN
[1227 AD]
1400) Scot is a believer in and writes works on astrology.
772 YBN
[1228 AD]
1392) Theory that all matter is made of light published by Robert Grosseteste
(GrOSTeST), (CE c1175-1253)

In "De Luce", Grossteste writes "Lux est ergo prima forma corporalis.", "Light
is therefore the first corporeal (material) form".

Grossetest brings in scholars from the Byzantine Empire to translate works from
the original Greek.

Interested in optics, Grosseteste performs experiments with mirrors and lenses
using al-Haytham's (Alhazen's) writings as a guide.

In "De Iride" ("On the rainbow") Grosseteste writes:
"This part of optics, when well
understood, shows us how we may make things a very long distance off appear as
if placed very close, and large near things appear very small, and how we may
make small things placed at a distance appear any size we want, so that it may
be possible for us to read the smallest letters at incredible distances, or to
count sand, or seed, or any sort or minute objects."

Gresseteste's work in optics will be continued by his student Roger Bacon.

In "De Luce" Grosseteste reveals his awareness of atomic theory writing:
"It is
my opinion that this was the meaning of the theory of those philosophers who
held that everything is composed of atoms, and said that bodies are composed of
surfaces, and surfaces of lines, and lines of points."

Grossetest introduces Aristotle to Europe.
Lincoln, England (where de luce is written)  
771 YBN
[1229 AD]
Toulouse, France  
770 YBN
[1230 AD]
1158) Pope Gregory IX authorizes the killing of witches.

Rome, Italy  
767 YBN
[1233 AD]
1396) Albertus was the eldest son of a wealthy German lord. After his early
schooling, he went to the University of Padua, where he studied the liberal
arts. He joined the Dominican order at Padua in 1223. He continued his studies
at Padua and Bologna and in Germany and then taught theology at several
convents throughout Germany, lastly at Cologne.

Because of his learning, Albertus is suspected of wizardry.
Albertus is called "the
Bishop with the Boots" and the "Ape of Aristotle".
Albertus is the bishop of Regensburg
from 1260-1262.

In the summer of 1248, Albertus will be sent to Cologne to organize the first
Dominican studium generale ("general house of studies") in Germany. Albertus
will preside over this house until 1254 and devote himself to a full schedule
of studying, teaching, and writing. During this period Albertus' main disciple
will be Thomas Aquinas, who will return to Paris in 1252. The two men maintain
a close relationship even though doctrinal differences exist.

In 1277 he traveled to Paris to uphold the recently condemned good name and
writings of Thomas Aquinas, who had died a few years before, and to defend
certain Aristotelian doctrines that both he and Thomas held to be true.

Albertus, like most humans in this time have many flaws including, most likely
believing in a diety, believing most of the lies of the Christian religion,
believing astrology, and that stones have occult properties (in "De
Paris, France  
766 YBN
[1234 AD]
766 YBN
[1234 AD]
1399) Although of German descent, Frederick prefers to live in Sicily.
At age fourteen
Frederick marries a twenty-five-year-old widow named Constance, the daughter of
the king of Aragon. Both seem to have been happy with the arrangement, and
Constance bears Frederick a son, Henry.
Instead of killing the Saracens of Sicily,
Frederick allows them to settle on the mainland and build mosques. Frederick
also enlists them in his Christian army and even into his personal bodyguards.
As Muslim soldiers, they have the advantage of immunity from papal
excommunication. For these reasons, among others, Frederick II will be listed
as a representative member of the sixth region of Dante's Inferno, The Heretics
who are burned in tombs.
Frederick writes poetry and is a patron of the Sicilian
School of poetry. Frederick's royal court in Palermo, from around 1220 to his
death, sees the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language,
Sicilian. The school and its poetry will be well known to Dante and his peers
and will have a significant influence on the literary form of what was
eventually to become the modern Italian language.
Pope Gregory IX, excommunicates
Frederick II for failing to carry out a crusade to Jerusalem. Frederick
obtained Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth from the Sultan al-Kamil of Egypt
nonviolently through negociation.
760 YBN
[1240 AD]
Siena, Tuscany, Italy  
758 YBN
[1242 AD]
Oxford, England  
757 YBN
[1243 AD]
1156) Jewish humans are burned at the stake by Christian humans for "host
nailing", that is the Jewish humans are accused of hammering nails through the
"host" or wafer given to Christian people to eat during a Christian service as
a symbol of Jesus.

752 YBN
[1248 AD]
748 YBN
[05/15/1252 AD]
1157) Pope Innocent IV authorizes torture. "Ad exstirpanda" is the the opening
line designating a papal bull (a public letter in legal form) issued on May 15,
1252, by Pope Innocent IV, which will be confirmed by Pope Alexander IV in
1259, and by Pope Clement IV in 1265. This papl bull explicitly authorizes the
use of torture for eliciting confessions from heretics during the Inquisition
and explicitly condones the practice of executing relapsed heretics by burning
them alive. The bull gives to the State a portion of the property to be
confiscated from convicted heretics. The State in return assumes the burden of
carrying out the penalty.

Rome, Italy  
748 YBN
[1252 AD]
1416) The Tables of Toledo are the most accurate compilation of
astronomical/astrological data (ephemeris) ever seen in Europe at this time.
The Tables were partly the work of Al-Zarqali, known to the West as Arzachel, a
mathematician and astronomer/astrologer who flourished in Cordoba in the 1000s.
Gerard of Cremona (1114â€"1187) edited the Tables of Toledo for Latin

The tables will not be widely known until a Latin version is prepared in Paris
in the 1320s. Copies will rapidly spread throughout Europe, and for more than
two centuries the Alfonsine Tables will be the best astronomical tables
available. First printed in 1483, the Alfonsine Tables will be an important
source of information for the young Nicolaus Copernicus before his own work
superseded them in the 1550s.

Alfonso X commissioned or co-authored numerous works during his reign. These
works included Cantigas d'escarnio e maldicer, General Estoria and the Libro de
los juegos ("Book of Games").
Castile, Spain  
745 YBN
[1255 AD]
1159) In England, 18 Jewish people are tortured and hanged for sacrificing

741 YBN
[1259 AD]
in Maragheh (now in Azerbaijan)  
739 YBN
[1261 AD]
?, China (presumably)  
737 YBN
[1263 AD]
1417) Alderotti is physician to Pope Honorius IV.
Alderotti studies in Bologna
(which, according to Asimov has one of the best health schools (medical school)
in western Europe) and in lectures there in 1260.
Dante mentions him in The
Divine Comedy as a Hippocratist, or follower of Hippocrates.
Bologna, Italy  
735 YBN
[01/20/1265 AD]
1525) Simon de Montfort and most of his followers will be killed a few months
later on Aug. 4, 1265, by Edward I, Kind Henry III's son and future king of
Rome, Italy  
735 YBN
[1265 AD]
1418) Aquinas was sent to the University of Naples, recently founded by the
emperor, where he first encountered the scientific and philosophical works that
were being translated from Greek and Arabic. In this setting Thomas decided to
join the Friars Preachers, or Dominicans, a new religious order founded 30
years earlier, which departed from the traditional paternalistic form of
government for monks to the more democratic form of the mendicant friars
(religious orders whose poverty made it necessary for them to beg alms) and
from the monastic life of prayer and manual labour to a more active life of
preaching and teaching.

In 1245 Aquinas studied at the University of Paris, the most prestigious and
turbulent university of the time. Aquinas went to Paris to the convent of
Saint-Jacques, the great university centre of the Dominicans, and there studied
under Albertus Magnus, a tremendous scholar with a wide range of intellectual

The logic of Aquinas's position regarding faith and reason requires that the
fundamental consistency of nature be recognized. In the universe or nature
there are laws that describe its operation. Recognizing this fact permits the
construction of a science according to a logos (“rational
structure”). Opponents under the influence of Augustine's doctrines assert
the necessity and power of grace for a nature polluted by sin. This new view
therefore upsets them. This idea that the universe is controlled by laws of
nature leaves the question of where a diety might be located and involved. For
many modern people a diety is everywhere influencing everything either obeying
or disobeying the laws of nature, for others a diety is only responsible for
the creation of the universe, for some there are many dieties, and of course
some people reject the theory that any gods exist.

In January 1274 Thomas Aquinas is be personally summoned by Gregory X to the
second Council of Lyons, which is an attempt to repair the schism between the
Latin and Greek churches. On his way Aquinas is stricken by illness; he stops
at the Cistercian abbey of Fossanova, where he died on March 7. In 1277 the
masters of Paris, the highest theological jurisdiction in the church, condemn a
series of 219 propositions; 12 of these propositions are theses of Aquinas.
This is the most serious condemnation possible in the Middle Ages and its
repercussions are felt in the development of science for several centuries.
Aquinas will be canonized a saint in 1323.

Aquinas' philosophical treatistes are:
"De ente et essentia" (before 1256; On Being
and Essence, 1949); "Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem" (1256; An
Apology for the Religious Orders, 1902); "De regno" (De regimine principum) "ad
regem Cypri" (1266; On Kingship, 1949); "De perfectione vitae spiritualis"
(1269â€"70); "De unitate intellectus contra Averroistas" (1270; The Unicity
of the Intellect, 1946); "De aeternitate mundi contra murmurantes"
(1270â€"72); "De substantiis separatis, seu de angelorum natura" (undated;
Treatise on Separate Substances, 1959).
Paris, France  
733 YBN
[1267 AD]
1401) Bacon was born into a wealthy family. His parents are employed by King
Henry III. Bacon was well-versed in the classics and enjoyed the advantages of
an early training in geometry, arithmetic, music, and astronomy.
Bacon studied and later
became a Master at Oxford, lecturing on Aristotle.
Sometime between 1237 and 1245, Bacon
starts to lecture at the University of Paris, the center of intellectual life
in Europe at this time.
Bacon obtains a Master of arts degree, at the university of
Paris by 1241 and resigns in 1247 to devote himself to research. This new
interest in science and experiment is probably caused by his return to Oxford
and the influence there of the great scholar Robert Grosseteste, a leader in
introducing Greek learning to the West, and Grosseteste's student Adam de
Marisco, and Thomas Wallensis, the bishop of St. David's.

Around 1256 Bacon becomes a Friar in the Franciscan Order. As a Franciscan
Friar, Bacon no longer holds a teaching post and after 1260, his activities are
further restricted by a Franciscan statute forbidding Friars from publishing
books or pamphlets without specific approval.
Bacon circumvents this restriction through
his acquaintance with Cardinal Guy le Gros de Foulques, who becomes Pope
Clement IV in 1265. The new Pope issues a mandate ordering Bacon to write him
concerning the place of philosophy within theology. As a result Bacon sends the
Pope his "Opus maius", which presents Bacon's views on how the philosophy of
Aristotle and the new science can be incorporated into a new Theology. Besides
the "Opus maius" Bacon also sends his "Opus minus", "De multiplicatione
specierum", and, perhaps, other works on alchemy and astrology.
Oxford, England  
732 YBN
[1268 AD]
731 YBN
[08/08/1269 AD]
1420) Peregrinus is a friend of Roger Bacon.
Peregrinus is an engineer in army of
Louis IX.
Peregrinus thinks that the compass needle points to the celestial sphere,
the outermost spheres in Ptolemy's erroneous system.
People initially did not connect
magnetism and electricity, giving each word a different suffix instead of the
same: "magnetity" or "electrism".

Peter's magnetic experiments and instruments in his letter apparently date to a
time period twenty years earlier, judging by references in several works of

The name Peregrinus ("pilgrim") suggests that Peregrinus may have also been a

Peregrinus' disciple, Roger Bacon, pays the highest tribute to Peregrinus as an
experimenter and technician in his "Opus tertium" and other works (in which
Peter is called "Petrus de Maharncuria Picardus"). According to Bacon,
Peregrinus is a recluse who devotes himself to the study of nature, is able to
work metals, invents armour and provides assistance more valuable to Louis IX
of France than the king's entire army.

"De magnete" will became a very popular work from the Middle Ages onwards. In
1326, Thomas Bradwardine will quote it in his "Tractatus de proportionibus".
Scholars at Oxford University will make frequent use of it. The first edition
of the letter will be issued at Augsburg, in 1558, by Achilles Gasser.

William Gilbert will acknowledge his debt to Peter of Maricourt and
incorporates this 1200s scientist's experiments on magnetism into his own
treatise, called "De magnete".

Here we see the major centers for the earliest European scientific progress are
Italy, France and England as the transition from the Arab nations leading in
science happens.
Lucera, Italy  
730 YBN
[12/??/1270 AD]
1405) This Condemnation represents a clear and official censorship of free
speech, and free thought in addition to the censorship of scientific and other
Paris, France  
725 YBN
[1275 AD]
1419) Villanova can speak Arabic and Greek.
Villanova is given a castle and a
professorship at the University of Montpellier in France as a result of
treating royal people.
Villanova is probably of Catalan origin, and studied chemistry,
medicine, physics, and also Arabic philosophy. After having lived at the court
of Aragon, he goes to Paris, where he gains a considerable reputation; but
angers the ecclesiastics and is forced to move, which he does to Sicily. About
1313 he was summoned to Avignon by Pope Clement V, who was ill, but Villanova
dies on the voyage.
Paris, France  
723 YBN
[1277 AD]
1398) Albertus Magnus (Albert the great) (1193-1280) In 1277 he travels to
Paris to uphold the recently condemned good name and writings of Thomas
Aquinas, who had died a few years before, and to defend certain Aristotelian
doctrines that both he and Thomas held to be true.

Paris, France  
723 YBN
[1277 AD]
Oxford, England  
723 YBN
[1277 AD]
Paris, France  
720 YBN
[1280 AD]
Cologne, Germany  
720 YBN
[1280 AD]
Florence, Italy  
719 YBN
[1281 AD]
Maragha, Iran  
716 YBN
[1284 AD]
5884) The most famous of the secular plays "Jau de Robin et de Marion" is
written around this time by Adam de le Halle (CE c1250-c1306), the last and
greatest of the trouveres, a poet, musician and innovator of the earliest
French secular theatre. "Jeu de Robin et de Marion" ("A game of Robin and of
Marion") is a dramatization of the pastoral theme of a knight’s wooing of a
pretty shepherdess, with dances and peasants’ dialogue.

Picardy, France  
715 YBN
[1285 AD]
1160) In Munich, 180 Jewish people are burned {to death} after being accused of
bleeding a Christian child to death.

710 YBN
[1290 AD]
Coimbra, Portugal  
703 YBN
[1297 AD]
1422) D'Abano studied a long time at Paris, where he was promoted to the
degrees of Doctor in philosophy and physics. D'Abano's fees as a physician are
reported to be very high.

D'Abano meets Marco Polo.
D'Abano believes in astrology and is suspected of magical
practices, in particular by competing physicians.
After his death, D'Abano is found guilty
and his body is ordered to be exhumed and burned, but a friend secretly removes
it, and the Inquisition has to content itself with the public proclamation of
its sentence and the burning of Abano in effigy as a bundle of straw
representing his person publicly burnt at Padua.

There is a long history of the shockingly brutal execution by fire. There are
reports of Roman authorities murdering Christian martyrs by burning, and the
Roman Emperor Justinian orders death by fire as a punishment for heresy against
Christianity. The burning the D'Abano in effigy is an early report of the
increased efforts to stop the advance of freethinking being nutured in the
Universities in Europe from the reading of ancient Greek and Arabic texts.
Padua, Italy  
702 YBN
[05/15/1298 AD]
1161) In Nuremberg 628 Jewish humans are killed (including scholar Mordecai ben
Hillel) because of a rumor of host nailing.

702 YBN
[1298 AD]
1162) The Tower Mill windmill is invented in Europe. A Tower Mill is a type of
windmill which consists of a brick or stone tower, on top of which sits a roof
or cap which can be turned to bring the sails into the wind.

702 YBN
[1298 AD]
1421) Although he knew little or no Chinese, he did speak some of the many
languages then used in East Asia- most probably Turkish (in its Coman dialect)
as spoken among the Mongols, Arabized Persian, Uighur (Uygur), and perhaps
Mongol. He was noticed very favourably by Kublai, who took great delight in
hearing of strange countries and repeatedly sent him on fact-finding missions
to distant parts of the empire.

According to Marco's travel account, the Polos ask several times for permission
to return to Europe but the Khan will not agree to their departure. Sometime
around 1292, a Mongol princess is to be sent to Persia to become the consort of
Arghun Khan, and the Polos offer to accompany her. Marco writes that Kublai had
been unwilling to let them go but finally granted permission. They are eager to
leave, in part, because Kublai is nearly 80, and his death (and the consequent
change in regime) might be dangerous for a small group of isolated foreigners.
The Polos also wanted to see their native Venice and their families again.

The princess, with some 600 courtiers and sailors, and the Polos board 14
ships, which leave the port of Quanzhou and sail southward. On the island of
Sumatra ("Lesser Giaua") Polo is impressed by the fact that the North Star
appears to have dipped below the horizon. The fleet follows the west coast of
India and finally anchored at Hormuz. The expedition then proceeds to Khorasan,
handing over the princess not to Arghun, who had died, but to his son Mahmud

The Polos then depart for Europe and eventually returned to Venice. Soon after
his return to Venice, Polo is taken prisoner by the Genoese, rivals of the
Venetians at sea, during a battle in the Mediterranean. He was then imprisoned
in Genoa. In prison, Marco Polo dictates his adventures to a prisoner from
Pisa, Rustichello, who writes the story in Franco-Italian, a composite tongue
fashionable during the 1200 and 1300s. The original title of the book is
"Divisament dou monde" ("Description of the World"). Polo is soon freed and
returns to Venice.

"Il milione" is an instant success, "In a few months it spread throughout
Italy," Giovanni Battista Ramusio, the 16th-century Italian geographer will
write. There are around 140 different manuscript versions of the text, in three
manuscript groups, in a dozen different languages and dialects.
Genoa, Italy  
700 YBN
[1300 AD]
1121) Earliest mechanical clock.

Time keeping began around 3500 BC with the invention of the gnomon and sundial,
and the hourglass.

The first mechanical clocks in Europe work based on a simple principle. A
weight is suspended from a cord wrapped many times around a driving shaft. As
the weight descends the shaft turns and the movement is transmitted to the
hands, or in many cases just a single hour hand. To regulate the movement so
that the hands rotate at a fixed rate, using an escapement which consists of a
pair of oscillating vanes mounted on a vertical spindle carrying a protruding
pallet that engages with the teeth of a crown wheel. Some regulation of the
rate of oscillation of the vanes is possible through a series of sliding
weights on each arm. One of the oldest surviving examples of this kind of clock
is that from Salisbury Cathedral, which dates to 1386, but does not have its
original escapement. These are weigh-driven clocks. Spring driven clocks do not
appear until the middle of the 1400s.In the 1600s Christiaan Huygens will
invent the pendulum escapement (1657) for weight-driven clocks and the balance
spring (1675) for spring-driven clocks. Only then will putting a minute hand on
a clock be useful.

The first publicly known battery electric clock is invented in 1840. This clock
is driven by a spring and pendulum and uses an electrical impulse to operate a
number of dials. Not until 1906 is the first self-contained battery-driven
clock invented and made public.
700 YBN
[1300 AD]
Florence, Italy  
697 YBN
[1303 AD]
Coimbra, Portugal  
692 YBN
[09/08/1308 AD]
Perugia, Italy  
690 YBN
[10/24/1310 AD]
London, England  
690 YBN
[10/24/1310 AD]
London, England  
690 YBN
[10/24/1310 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
690 YBN
[1310 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
690 YBN
[1310 AD]
1424) False Geber probably lives in Spain. (Arab person?).

False-Jabir wrongly assumes that all metals are composed of sulfur and mercury
and gives detailed descriptions of metallic properties in those terms.
False-Jabir also explains the use of an elixir in transmuting base metals into
690 YBN
[1310 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
688 YBN
[1312 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
688 YBN
[1312 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
684 YBN
[1316 AD]
1428) De' Luzzi registered at the College of Medicine of the University of
Bologna in 1290 and also is known to have studied in the College of Philosophy.

De' Luzzi lectures while actively practicing health and surgery.

De' Luzzi studies at the health (medical) school in Bologna under Alderotti,
graduates in 1290 and starts teaching there in 1306.

The first such recorded anatomical exploration occurred for legal reasons at
Bologna in 1302, but it is generally believed that academic dissections had
been performed previously. In any event, Mondino reports that in January 1315
he conducted such a procedure on the body of a woman, giving him the
opportunity to examine and study human uterine anatomy.

Asimov writes that the 1300s are a turning point between a focus on religion
and the afterlife to an interest in humans and the earth, which is called
"humanism" and is the beginning of the Renaissance.
Bologna, Italy  
683 YBN
[1317 AD]
1427) Ockham is opposed to Thomas Acquinas' view that logic and religion can
coexist, arguing that religion is a matter of faith.
Ockham studies at Oxford and
lectures there from 1315-1319.
Ockham was young when he entered the Franciscan order.
At the
University of Oxford Ockham apparently between 1317 and 1319 lectures on the
Sentences of Peter Lombard, a 1100s theologian whose work was the official
textbook of theology in the universities until the 1500s. Ockham's lectures are
also set down in written commentaries, of which the commentary on Book I of the
Sentences (a commentary known as "Ordinatio") was actually written by Ockham
Ockham's opinions aroused strong opposition from members of the theological
faculty of Oxford and Ockham left the university without obtaining his master's
degree in theology. Ockham therefore remains, academically speaking, an
undergraduate, known as an "inceptor" ("beginner") in Oxonian language or, to
use a Parisian equivalent, a "baccalaureus formatus".
In 1327 The Franciscan
General Michael of Cesena is summoned to Avignon to answer charges of heresy,
and asks Ockham to review arguments surrounding Apostolic poverty. The
Franciscan order believed that Jesus and his apostles owned no personal
property, and survived by begging and accepting the gifts of others. This
clashes directly with the beliefs of Pope John XXII.
On May 26, 1328, the Franciscan
General Michael of Cesena flees from Avignon accompanied by Bonagratia and
William Ockham. The three Franciscans stay in Pisa under the protection of
Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian, who had been excommunicated in 1324 and
proclaimed by John XXII to have forfeited all rights to the empire. Because of
this Ockham is excommunicated.

In Munich in 1330 and thereafter Ockham writes fervently against the papacy in
defense of the strict Franciscan notion of poverty.
Oxford, England  
680 YBN
[1320 AD]
(Royal Court) Paris, France (verify)  
675 YBN
[1325 AD]
(Abbey of) Robertsbridge, Sussex, UK  
673 YBN
[1327 AD]
1164) Wallingford studies at Oxford University for 6 years and becomes a monk
at St Albans Abbey in Hertfordshire before 9 years further study at Oxford. In
1326, he becomes the abbot of St Albans.
Wallingford's design of an astronomical clock
is described in "Tractatus Horologii Astronomici", in 1327. The clock will be
completed in 1356 about 20 years after his death by William of Walsham, but
will be apparently destroyed during Henry VIII's reformation and dissolution of
St Albans Abbey in 1539.
Richard also designs and constructs a calculation device
known as an equatorium, which he calls an Albion. This can be used for
astronomical calculations such as lunar, solar and planetary longitudes and can
predict eclipses. This is described in "Tractatus Albionis". He publishes other
works on trigonometry, celestial coordinates, astrology and various religious

He suffers from what is then thought to be leprosy (though it may be syphilis,
scrofula or tuberculosis) apparently contracted when he goes to have his
position confirmed by the Pope at Avignon. He dies at St Albans.
Hertfordshire, England  
673 YBN
[1327 AD]
Timbuktu, Mali, West Africa  
665 YBN
[1335 AD]
1354) Nobel Prize winner Santiago Ramón y Cajal, often considered to be the
Father of Neurosciences, will be taught at the University of Zaragosa.
Zaragosa, Spain  
665 YBN
[1335 AD]
1425) After studies in philosophy at the University of Paris under William of
Ockham, Buridan is appointed professor of philosophy there. Buridan serves as
university rector in 1328 and in 1340, the year in which he condemns Ockham's
views, an act that is sometimes called the first seed of theological
skepticism. Buridan's own works will be condemned and placed on the Index of
Forbidden Books from 1474 to 1481 by partisans of Ockham.

In addition to commentaries on Aristotle's "Organon", "Physics", "De anima",
"Metaphysics", and "Economics", Buridan's works include "Summula de dialecta"
(1487) and "Consequentie" (1493).

Buridan remains a secular cleric, rather than joining a religious order.
Paris, France  
664 YBN
[1336 AD]
Camerino, Italy  
657 YBN
[09/03/1343 AD]
1356) Galileo Galilei, will be born and study in Pisa, becoming professor of
Mathematics at the Pisan Studium in 1589.
Pisa, Italy  
652 YBN
[04/07/1348 AD]
Prague, Czech Republic (EU)  
652 YBN
[1348 AD]
1169) Christian people, unaware of the true cause of the bubonic plague, accuse
Jewish people of poisoning the wells, and thousands of innocent Jewish people
are killed. For example, in Speyer, Germany Jewish bodies are piled into huge
wine casks and sent floating down the Rhine. In Basal, Switzerland, 600 Jewish
people are burned for well poisoning.

Bubonic plague is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis.

Speyer, Germany and Basal, Switzerland  
650 YBN
[1350 AD]
1165) Giovanni Dondi dell'Orologio builds an astronomical clock in Padua.
clock is a seven-sided construction showing the positions of the known planets
as well. Both these clocks, and others like them, are probably less accurate
than their designers wanted: the gear ratios may be exquisitely calculated, but
the realities of friction and limitations of manufacture would prevent them
from being accurate and reliable.

Padua, Italy  
650 YBN
[1350 AD]
650 YBN
[1350 AD]
648 YBN
[1352 AD]
645 YBN
[1355 AD]
Paris, France   
640 YBN
[1360 AD]
1977) The fact that Oresme attends the royally sponsored and subsidized College
of Navarre, an institution for students too poor to pay their expenses while
studying at the University of Paris, makes it probable that Oresme comes from a
peasant family.

Oresme studies arts in Paris (before 1342), together with Jean Buridan (the
so-called founder of the French school of natural philosophy), Albert of Saxony
and perhaps Marsilius of Inghen, and there receives the Magister Artium. A
recently discovered papal letter of provision granting Oresme an expectation of
a benefice establishes that he was already a regent master in arts by 1342.
This early dating of Oresme's arts degree places him at Paris during the crisis
over William of Ockham's natural philosophy.

Oresme is a determined opponent of astrology, which he criticizes on religious
and scientific grounds.
Paris, France (presumably)  
639 YBN
[1361 AD]
Pavia, Itlay  
636 YBN
[1364 AD]
1359) Nicolaus Copernicus will attend this university.
636 YBN
[1364 AD]
5885) Guillaume de Machaut (CE c1300-1377), one of the leading French composers
of the Ars Nova musical style of the 1300s, composes "La Messe De Notre Dame",
one of the earliest masses, and best known composition of the age.

(Gothic cathedral) Rheims, France  
635 YBN
[03/12/1365 AD]
Vienna, Austria  
633 YBN
[03/12/1367 AD]
Pécs, Hungary  
630 YBN
[1370 AD]
Paris, France (presumably)  
623 YBN
[1377 AD]
1213) The Bethlem Royal Hospital of London, which was built in 1247 originally
as a priory (or monastary) for those in the "order of the Star of Bethlehem",
starts imprisoning people thought to be mentally ill this year in 1377, and is
the earth's first psychiatric hospital. The word "bedlam" meaning a scene of
uproar or confusion, will derive from Bethlem.
In some way this begins the separation of
the legal and the psychiatric prison systems. This duality will result in those
jailed in psychiatric hospitals being subjected to physical restraint, torture,
violent and nonviolent people being mixed together indiscriminately,
unprotected by the writ of habeus corpus, the right to trial, to finite
sentence and other legal guarantees granted to people jailed in the legal
prison system. The origin of this dual system is from the belief in unusual
(even many times lawful) behavior requiring treatment, belief in many of the
abstract erroneous theories of psychology, in addition to the power of
tradition behind the belief in the punishment those with unorthodox views or
behavior (even as is many times the case, when those unorthodox views, for
example belief in the heliocentric system or atheism, are the more accurate and
healthy although unpopular). In addition, psychiatric hospitals will come to
serve as a primative (albeit brutal and unconsensual) social program, where a
bed and food are provided for people without a room of their own (so called
"homeless people").

This hospital-prison will become infamous for it's brutal treatment of those
imprisoned there. In the 1700s people will pay a penny to see the inmates and
are permitted to bring long sticks to poke the inmates with.

Prisoners are "treated" with bleedings, and nausia inducing substances (like
mercury) because the pain replaces the focus of the "insane" thoughts. Mustard
powders are put on the shaved head of prisoners causing blisters to cause pain
and discomfort, and also fear in the prisoners.

London, England  
623 YBN
[1377 AD]
Paris, France (presumably)  
621 YBN
[1379 AD]
1414) Khaldun writes an autobiography.
the castle Qal'at ibn Salamah, near what is now the town of Frenda,
614 YBN
[1386 AD]
Heidelberg, Germany  
609 YBN
[03/04/1391 AD]
Ferrara, Italy  
603 YBN
[1397 AD]
Padua, Italy  
602 YBN
[03/04/1398 AD]
(Myeongnyun-dong, Jongno-gu in central) Seoul and Suwon, South Korea  
600 YBN
[1400 AD]
600 YBN
[1400 AD]
1170) Although the carrack represents the state of the art in later medieval
shipbuilding, there were purposes for which it is not appropriate. Initially
carracks are used for exploration by the Portuguese venturing out along the
west African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean. But large, full-rigged ships
can not always be sailed with the precision necessary for inshore surveying in
unknown waters. The explorers soon come to prefer smaller carracks of around
100 tons, or the light three-masted Mediterranean lateen-rigged vessels known
as caravels.

Because of its smaller size the caravel is able to explore up river in shallow
coastal waters. With the lateen sails (triangular sails) affixed it is able to
go speedily over shallow water and take deep wind, while with the square
Atlantic-type sails attached, the caravel is very fast. Its economy, speed,
agility, and power makes the caravel esteemed as the best sailing vessel of
this time. It generally carried two or three masts with lateen sails, while
later types will have four masts.

Christopher Columbus will set out on his famous expedition in 1492 with the
Santa Maria, a small carrack which will serve as the mother ship, and the Pinta
and the Niña which are caravels.
Speyer, Germany and Basal, Switzerland  
600 YBN
[1400 AD]
(St. Jerome) England (verify)  
600 YBN
[1400 AD]
5891) Johannes Ciconia (CE c1370-1412) composes music.

Padua, Italy (guess)  
590 YBN
[1410 AD]
St. Andrews, Scotland  
583 YBN
[1417 AD]
1172) A single manuscript with a poem, "De Rerum Natura" (On the Nature of
Things), by Lucretius (c94 BCE- c49 BCE) is found. This is the only surviving
copy so far from from Lucretius' writings.

580 YBN
[1420 AD]
1429) Henry is the younger son of King John I of Portugal, and great grandson
of Edward III of England.
Henry's designed a strategy where Christian Europe would
outflank Islam by establishing contact with Africa south of the Sahara and with
Asia. This strategy will not be brought to fulfillment until after his death.

In 1420, at the age of 26, Henry is made grand master of the Order of Christ,
the supreme order sponsored by the pope, which had replaced the crusading order
of the Templars in Portugal. While this did not oblige him to take religious
vows, it did oblige him to dedicate himself to a chaste and ascetic life. Henry
did not always refrain from worldly pleasures; as a young man he had fathered a
daughter without marriage (so-called illegitimate). The funds made available
through the order largely finance Henry's enterprise of discovery, which also
seeks to convert Pagans to Christianity, and for this reason all of Henry's
ships have a red cross on their sails.

From Italy Henry's older brother Prince Pedro brings home to Portugal, in 1428,
a copy of Marco Polo's travels that he had translated for Prince Henry's

The voyages were made in very small ships, mostly the caravel, a light and
maneuverable vessel that used the lateen sail of the Arabs. Most of the voyages
sent out by Henry consisted of one or two ships that navigated by following the
coast, stopping at night to tie up along some shore.
One of his immediate aims was to
find an African gold supply to strengthen the Portuguese economy and to make
the voyages pay for themselves.
Nuno Tristão and Antão Gonçalves reach Cape
Blanco in 1441. The Portuguese sight the Bay of Arguin in 1443 and build an
important fort there around the year 1448. Dinis Dias soon comes across the
Senegal River and rounds the peninsula of Cap-Vert in 1444. By this stage the
explorers have passed the southern boundary of the desert, and from then on
Henry had one of his wishes fulfilled: the Portuguese had circumvented the
Muslim land-based trade routes across the western Sahara Desert, and slaves and
gold begin arriving in Portugal. By 1452, the influx of gold permits the
minting of Portugal's first gold cruzado coins. A cruzado is equal to 400 reis
at the time. From 1444 to 1446, as many as forty vessels sail from Lagos on
Henry's behalf, and the first private mercantile expeditions begin.

This return of slaves and gold silences the growing criticism that Henry was
wasting money on a profitless enterprise. Afonso V, the King of Protugal, gives
Henry the sole right to send ships to visit and trade with the Guinea coast of

Henry's investment in exploration was so large that, despite his great
revenues, Henry will die heavily in debt.
Henry remains single to the end of his

The surname Navigator will be applied to the Prince by the English, though
seldom by Portuguese writers. Henry himself never embarks on voyages of
discovery, but funded navigators, and for this Henry is regarded as the
initiator of the great age of discovery and the European thrust towards world
domination. Henry the Navigator is one of the first few humans to have the
actual day of their birth and death recorded and therefore remembered.
Lagos, Portugal  
580 YBN
[1420 AD]
1430) Ulugh Beg is the grandson of the Mongol warrier Tamerlane, the last of
the barbarian conquerers, succeeds to throne (of?) in 1447
Beg is the only important
scientist of the Mongol people.
Beg is killed by his son in 1449, and Ulugh's
observatory will be destroyed by 1500, its remains will be found in 1908.
The name
"Ulugh Beg" is a nick-name loosely translated as "Great Ruler".
Samarkand, Uzbekistan  
580 YBN
[1420 AD]
5888) John Dunstable (CE 1385-1453) composes music that represents the
transition between late medieval and early Renaissance music. Dunstable’s
influence on European music is seen in his flowing, gently asymmetrical rhythms
and, above all, in his harmonies. Dunstable represents a culmination of the
English tradition of full, sonorous harmonies based on the third and sixth that
persists through the 1300s alongside the more stark and dissonant style of
music on the European continent.

England (and possibly France)  
576 YBN
[1424 AD]
Samarkand, Uzbekistan  
575 YBN
[1425 AD]
Leuven, Belgium  
574 YBN
[1426 AD]
1173) A copy of the medical part of the 8 books of an encyclopedia describing
past Greek learning written in Latin by Celsus (25 BCE - 50 CE) is found.

570 YBN
[1430 AD]
5889) Guillaume Dufay (CE c1400—1474) French composer, creates church and
secular music at this time.

(Cambrai cathedral) Cambrai, France (guess)  
570 YBN
[1430 AD]
5890) Gilles Binchois (CE c1400—1460) French composer, creates church and
secular music at this time.

(Chapel of Philip III the Good) Burgundy, France (guess)  
565 YBN
[1435 AD]
1435) Gutenberg will die in debt and unmarried.
When younger Guttenberg had acquired skill
in metalwork.
Exiled from Mainz in the course of a bitter struggle between the guilds of
that city and the patricians, Gutenberg moves to Strassburg (now Strasbourg,
France) probably between 1428 and 1430. Records put his presence there from
1434 to 1444. Gutenberg is involved in such crafts as gem cutting, and also
teaches crafts to a number of pupils.

In March 1434, a letter by him indicates that Guttenberg was living in
Strasbourg, where he had some relatives on his mother's side. He also appears
to have been a goldsmith member enrolled in the Strasbourg militia. In 1437,
there is evidence that he was instructing a wealthy tradesman on polishing
gems, but where he had acquired this knowledge is unknown. In 1436/37
Gutenberg's name also comes up in court in connection with a broken promise of
marriage to a woman from Strasbourg, Ennelin. Whether the marriage actually
took place is not recorded.

In 1438 a five-year contract is drawn up between Gutenberg and three other men:
Hans Riffe, Andreas Dritzehn, and Andreas Heilmann. When Andreas Dritzehn dies
at Christmas 1438, his heirs, trying to circumvent the terms of the contract,
began a lawsuit against Gutenberg in which they demanded to be made partners.
They lose the suit, but the trial reveals that Gutenberg is working on a new
invention. Witnesses testify that a carpenter named Conrad Saspach had advanced
sums to Andreas Dritzehn for the building of a wooden press, and Hans Dünne, a
goldsmith, declared that he had sold to Gutenberg, as early as 1436, 100
guilders' worth of printing materials. Gutenberg, apparently well along the way
to completing his invention, wants to keep secret the nature of the

In October 1448 Gutenberg is back in Mainz to borrow more money, which he
receives from a relative. By 1450 Gutenberg's printing experiments must have
reached a considerable degree of refinement, because Gutenberg is able to
persuade Johann Fust, a wealthy financier, to lend him 800 guilders, a very
large amount for which the tools and equipment for printing are to act as
securities. Two years later Fust makes another investment of 800 guilders for a
partnership in the enterprise. Fust and Gutenberg have a disagreement, Fust,
apparently, wants a safe and quick return on his investment, while Gutenberg
wants perfection instead of a quick return.

On November 6. 1455, the Helmaspergersches Notariatsinstrument (the
Helmasperger notarial instrument) records that Fust won a suit against
Guttenberg. This record is now in the library of the University of Göttingen.
Gutenberg was ordered to pay Fust the total sum of the two loans and compound
interest (probably totaling 2,020 guilders). The traditional belief is that
this settlement ruined Gutenberg, but more recent examination suggests that the
decision favored Gutenberg, allowing him to operate a printing shop through the
1450s and maybe into the 1460s.

The record of trial refers to the printing of books (werck der bucher), that
probably refer to the Forty-two-Line Bible That Gutenberg had probably
already printed by then. The sale of the Forty-two-Line Bible alone is
estimated to have produced many times over the sum owed Fust by Gutenberg, and
there is no other explanation as to why the books are not counted among
Gutenberg's property at the trial, except that Gutenberg sold the books.

After winning his suit, Fust gains control of the type (each page is kept
together with the blocks?) for the Bible and for Gutenberg's second
masterpiece, a Psalter (Psalms), and at least some of Gutenberg's other
printing equipment. Fust continues to print, using Gutenberg's materials, with
the assistance of Peter Schöffer, Fust's son-in-law, who had been Gutenberg's
most skilled employee and a witness against Gutenberg in the 1455 trial. The
first printed book in Europe to bear the name of its printer is a very nicely
designed "Psalter" completed in Mainz on August 14, 1457, which lists Johann
Fust and Peter Schöffer.

In January 1465 the archbishop of Mainz will pension Gutenberg, giving
Gutenberg an annual measure of grain, wine, and clothing and exempting
Gutenberg from certain taxes, so in his last years, Gutenberg was probably not
Strassburg (now Strasbourg, France)  
565 YBN
[1435 AD]
1440) Alberti is a musician and organist, writes trajedies in Latin, and is a
Alberti designs some notable churches in Mantua and Romini.
Alberti is educated in law
at the University of Bologna.

Alberti writes in both Latin and the vernacular.
In Florence Alberti is friends with the
sculptor Donatello, cosmographer Paolo Toscanelli and the architect

Some time between 1435 and 1444. Alberti writes "Libri della famiglia" ("Book
on the Family")-which discusses education, marriage, household management, and
money-in the Tuscan dialect. The work is not printed until 1843. Like Erasmus
decades later, Alberti stresses the need for a reform in education. He notes
that "the care of very young children is women's work, for nurses or the
mother," and that at the earliest possible age children should be taught the
alphabet. With great hopes, he gave the work to his family to read, but in his
autobiography Alberti confesses that "he could hardly avoid feeling rage, when
he saw some of his relatives openly ridiculing the work."

Alberti writes a short autobiography around 1438 in Latin and in the third
person, (many but not all scholars consider this work to be an autobiography)
in which he makes unlikely claims such as being capable of "standing with his
feet together, and springing over a man's head." The autobiography survives
thanks to a 1700s transcription by Antonio Muratori. Alberti also claims that
he "excelled in all bodily exercises; could, with feet tied, leap over a
standing man; could in the great cathedral, throw a coin far up to ring against
the vault; amused himself by taming wild horses and climbing mountains." This
may be explained in part because many in the Renaissance promote themselves in
various ways.

Alberti writes "Momus", between 1443 and 1450, which is a misogynist
(anti-women) comedy about the Olympian gods. Jupiter has been identified in
some sources as Pope Eugenius IV and Pope Nicholas V. Alberti borrows many of
its characters from Lucian, one of his favorite Greek writers. The name of its
hero, Momus, refers to the Greek word for blame or criticism. After being
expelled from heaven, Momus, the god of mockery, is eventually castrated.
Jupiter and the other gods come down to earth also, but they return to heaven
after Jupiter breaks his nose in a great storm.

Towards the end of his life, Alberti writes "De iciarchia" ("On the Man of
Excellence and Ruler of His Family") which represents in full flower the
public-spirited Humanism"
Florence, Italy  
563 YBN
[1437 AD]
Samarkand, Uzbekistan  
560 YBN
[02/12/1440 AD]
1437) Nicholas of Cusa (Nicholas Krebs) (CE 1401-1464) describes space as
infinite in size and that other stars may be inhabited.

The relevant translated text from "De Docta Ignorantia" Book 2 is:
"And so, {the
universe is} unbounded; for it is not the case that anything actually greater
than it, in relation to which it would be bounded, is positable."

Cusa suggests that stars may be distant Suns when he states that the Earth
would look like a star from a distance. Cusa writes: "Hence, if someone were
outside the region of fire, then through the medium of the fire our earth,
which is on the circumference of {this} region, would appear to be a bright
star-just as to us, who are on the circumference of the region of the sun, the
sun appears to be very bright."

On life of other stars:
"Therefore, the inhabitants of other stars-of whatever sort
these inhabitants might be-bear no comparative relationship to the inhabitants
of the Earth."

On the motion of the earth Cusa writes:
"It has already become evident to us
that the earth is indeed moved, even though we do not perceive this to be the
case. For we apprehend motion only through a certain comparison with something
fixed. For example, if someone did not know that a body of water was flowing
and did not see the shore while he was on a ship in the middle of the water,
how would he recognize that the ship was being moved?...".

On the Sun being larger than the Earth:
"And although the Earth is smaller than the
Sun-as we know from the Earth's shadow and from eclipses-we do not know to what
extent the region of the Sun is larger or smaller than the region of the

Cusa also compares planets to stars (a good case can be made that planets are
very dim stars), and that the planets move writting:
"Therefore, consider carefully the
fact that just as in the eighth sphere the stars are {moved} around conjectural
poles, so the earth, the moon, and the planets-as stars-are moved at a distance
and with a difference around a pole {which} we conjecture to be where the
center is believed to be. Hence, although the earth-as star-is nearer to the
central pole, nevertheless it is moved and, in its motion, does not describe a
minimum circle, as was indicated."

Instead of Cusa getting in trouble, he is appointed cardinal in 1448, Giordano
Bruno will be murdered for sharing many of these same views in only 152 years.

Cusa builds spectacles (glasses) with concave lenses where earlier glasses used
the easier to make convex lenses that served only the far-sighted (those who
cannot see close objects), these glasses serve the near-sighted (who cannot see
far objects).

Cusa advocates the counting of pulse as a diagnostic aid in healing.
Cusa, Germany  
557 YBN
[1443 AD]
1438) Bessarion writes a treatise directed against George of Trebizond, a
vigorous Aristotelian who had written a polemic against Plato, which was
entitled "In Calumniatorem Platonis" ("Against the Slanderer of Plato").
Bessarion, though a Platonist, is not so thoroughgoing in his admiration of
Plato as Gemistus Pletho is, and strives instead to reconcile the two
Pope Eugenius IV makes Bessarion a cardinal in 1439.
Rome, Italy  
550 YBN
[1450 AD]
550 YBN
[1450 AD]
southern Germany, or northern Italy  
548 YBN
[1452 AD]
Florence, Italy  
547 YBN
[05/29/1453 AD]
546 YBN
[1454 AD]
1436) The Guttenberg Bible is sometimes referred to as the Mazarin Bible
because the first copy described by bibliographers was located in the Paris
library of Cardinal Mazarin.
Mainz, Germany  
540 YBN
[1460 AD]
Basel, Switzerland  
538 YBN
[1462 AD]
1443) Königsberg means "King's Mountain," which is what the Latinized version
of his name, Joannes de Regio monte or Regiomontanus, also means.

In 1475 Regiomontanus is summoned to Rome by Pope Sixtus IV to help reform the
Julian calendar, but Regiomontanus dies in Rome of the plague before completing
the project, and it will wait another century to be corrected.
Regiomontanus is admitted
to the University of Leipzig at age 11, has a Bachelor's Degree at 1452, but
university regulations force him to wait until he turns 21 to receive his
master's degree. Regiomontanus is teaching in 1457.
Regiomontanus lectures on Virgil
and Cicero.
Regiomontanus eventually collaborates with his teacher, the
mathematician-astronomer Georg von Peuerbach, on various astronomical and
astrological projects, including observations of eclipses and comets, the
manufacture of astronomical instruments, and the casting of horoscopes for the
court of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III.
Regiomontanus is conservative in
outlook and writes at length arguing how earth cannot move, citing how birds
would be blown away, clouds left behind, building would tumble.
Regiomontanus strongly
believes in astrology, and publishes a book in astrology.
Rome, Italy  
530 YBN
[1470 AD]
(thought to be:) southern Germany (verify)  
528 YBN
[1472 AD]
1442) Peurbach studies art at the University of Vienna, moves to Italy, which
Asimov describes as an intellectual center at this time and there studies under
Nicholas of Cusa before becoming professor of mathematics and astronomy at the
University of Vienna in 1453.

Peurbach is appointed astrologer to King Ladislas V of Hungary and later to
Emperor Frederick III.
Vienna, Austria  
528 YBN
[1472 AD]
Nuremberg, (Franconia, now) Germany  
528 YBN
[1472 AD]
1461) Leonardo's parents were unmarried at the time of his birth.
Leonardo grows up on
his father's family's estate, where he was treated as a "legitimate" son and
receives the usual elementary education of that day: reading, writing, and
arithmetic. Leonardo does not seriously study Latin, the key language of
traditional learning, until much later, when he acquires a working knowledge of
it on his own. He also does not apply himself to higher mathematics-advanced
geometry and arithmetic-until he is 30 years old, when he begins to study it
with diligent tenacity.
Leonardo's artistic inclinations must have appeared early. When
Leonardo is about 15, his father, apprentices Leonardo to artist Andrea del
Verrocchio. In Verrocchio's renowned workshop Leonardo receives a multifaceted
training that includes painting, sculpture and technical-mechanical arts.
Leonardo also works in the next-door workshop of artist Antonio Pollaiuolo. In
1472 Leonardo is accepted into the painters' guild of Florence, but he remains
in his teacher's workshop for five more years, after which time he works
independently in Florence until 1481. Many of the surviving pen and pencil
drawings from this period, including many technical sketches (for example of
pumps, military weapons, etc) are evidence of Leonardo's interest in and
knowledge of technical matters very early in his career.
In 1482 Leonardo moved to
Milan to work in the service of Duke Ludovico Sforza rejecting two projects
offered to him in Florence.
Leonardo spends 17 years in Milan, until Ludovico's fall
from power in 1499. Leonardo is listed in the register of the royal household
as "pictor et ingeniarius ducalis" ("painter and engineer of the duke").
Da Vinci is
highly esteemed and is constantly kept busy as a painter and sculptor and as a
designer of court festivals. Da Vince is also frequently consulted as a
technical adviser in the fields of architecture, fortifications, and military
matters, and he serves as a hydraulic and mechanical engineer.

Leonardo keeps a series of journals in which he writes almost daily, as well as
separate notes and sheets of observations, comments and plans which were left
to various pupils and were later bound. Many of the journals have survived to
illustrate Leonardo's studies, discoveries and inventions. Da Vinci write
backwards in mirror-script in voluminous notebooks, which can be easily read
with a mirror as his contemporaries testify. Leonardo is left handed so writing
backwards is more easily done. Leonardo's notebooks add up to thousands of
closely written pages abundantly illustrated with sketches-the most voluminous
literary legacy any painter has ever left behind.

Da Vinci paints famous realistic-appearing paintings such as "Mona Lisa", and
"The Last Supper".
Da Vinci knows neither Greek or Latin.
The funders of Da Vinci include
Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI, Louis XII of France, Giulio de Medici,
brother of Pope Leo X, and Francis I of France.
Florence, Italy  
527 YBN
[1473 AD]
1462) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519) draws a study of a Tuscan
landscape. This is Da Vinci's earliest dated drawing. The drawing is of the
valley of the Arno River, where Da Vinci lives.

Florence, Italy  
527 YBN
[1473 AD]
5894) Johannes Tinctoris (CE 1436–1511), publishes "Terminorum musicae
diffinitorium" ("Dictionary of Musical Terms, Naples, 1473), which is the
earliest printed dictionary of musical terms.

Naples, Italy (presumably)  
526 YBN
[1474 AD]
1433) Toscanelli observes comets and painstakingly calculates their orbits.
Among these will be Halley's comet in 1456.
Toscanelli is the son of the physician
Dominic Toscanelli. Educated in mathematics at the University of Padua,
Toscanelli leaves in 1424 with the title of a doctor of medicine.
Toscanelli is a friend
of Nicholaus of Cusa.
Florence, Italy  
526 YBN
[1474 AD]
Florence, Italy  
525 YBN
[1475 AD]
1174) Jewish humans in parts of Europe have to wear pointed hats as an
identifying badge. The humans in the Catholic church force all Jewish humans to
wear these pointed hats, as shown in an image carved into wood (a German
woodcut) {get image}. These Jewish people were burned, charged with sacrificing
Christian children.

523 YBN
[1477 AD]
1368) Carl Linnaeus, and Anders Celsius will be professors at Uppsala.
Uppsala, Sweden  
522 YBN
[1478 AD]
1175) Pope Sixtus IV (Pope 1471 to 1484) authorizes Ferdinandand Isabella to
revive the Inquisition to hunt "secret Jews" and Muslim people (at least 2000
humans are eventually killed by the Inquisition).

Sixtus IV issues a bull this year that established an Inquisitor in Seville,
under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon, who threatened to withhold
military support from his kingdom of Sicily if he did not.(verify)

He founds the Sistine Chapel where the team of artists he brings together
introduce the Early Renaissance to Rome with the first masterpiece of the
city's new artistic age (Michelangelo's frescoes will be added in a later

521 YBN
[1479 AD]
1369) Almost all educational institutes in Denmark are free for citizens to
Major contributors to science that will graduate from the University of
Coperhagen include: Tycho Brahe, Ole Rømer, Hans Christian Ørsted, and Niels
Bohr among others.
Copenhagen, Denmark  
520 YBN
[1480 AD]
Florence, Italy  
520 YBN
[1480 AD]
5892) Josquin des Prez (CE c1450-1521) composes music. Des Prez makes use of
the technique of "pervading imitation", in which a series of musical ideas are
stated imitatively in all voices throughout an entire work, or section of a
work. The first music printer, Ottaviano Petrucci, devoted an entire volume to
Josquin's works, an honor given to no other composer. According to the Oxford
Grove Music Encyclopedia Josquin is the greatest composer of the high

(cathedral of) Milan, Italy (presumably)  
520 YBN
[1480 AD]
5893) Jean de Ockeghem (CE c1410-1497) composes sacred and secular music, and
is one of the great masters of the Franco-Flemish style that dominates European
music of the Renaissance. Ockeghem makes use of the musical "canon" and
"counterpoint" techniques. Canon is in the strict sense, technique in which
polyphony is derived from a single line that is imitated at fixed or (less
often) variable intervals of pitch and time, for example in the song "Three
Blind Mice" and "Frère Jacques". Starting with the 1500s, the term "canon" is
used for the work itself. Counterpoint in music is defined as melodic material
that is added above or below an existing melody, and the technique of combining
two or more melodic lines in such a way that they establish a harmonic
relationship while retaining their linear individuality and also the use of
contrasting elements in a work of art.

(chapel of Charles VII) Blois, France (guess)  
516 YBN
[05/01/1484 AD]
1449) Columbus is the eldest son of Domenico Colombo, a Genoese wool worker and
merchant, and Susanna Fontanarossa, his wife. His career as a seaman begins
effectively in the Portuguese merchant marine. After surviving a shipwreck off
Cape St. Vincent at the southwestern point of Portugal in 1476, he bases
himself in Lisbon, together with his brother Bartholomew. Both are employed as
chart makers, but Columbus is principally a seagoing entrepreneur. In 1477 he
sails to Iceland and Ireland with the merchant marine, and in 1478 he buys
sugar in Madeira as an agent for the Genoese firm of Centurioni. In 1479 he
meets and married Felipa Perestrello e Moniz, a member of an impoverished noble
Portuguese family. Their son, Diego, is born in 1480. Between 1482 and 1485
Columbus trades along the Guinea and Gold coasts of tropical West Africa and
made at least one voyage to the Portuguese fortress of São Jorge da Mina
there, gaining knowledge of Portuguese navigation and the Atlantic wind systems
along the way. Felipa dies in 1485, and Columbus takes as his mistress Beatriz
Enríquez de Harana of Córdoba, by whom he has his second son, Ferdinand.
Columbus always
writes in Spanish, or Spanish-influenced Latin.
515 YBN
[1485 AD]
Milan, Italy  
515 YBN
[1485 AD]
1471) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), draws the "Virtuvian Man".

Milan, Italy  
513 YBN
[1487 AD]
Milan, Italy  
513 YBN
[1487 AD]
Milan, Italy  
513 YBN
[1487 AD]
Milan, Italy  
512 YBN
[1488 AD]
Milan, Italy  
510 YBN
[1490 AD]
5895) Bartolomeo Tromboncino (CE c1470-c1535) and Marchetto Cara (C1470-1525)
compose music in the style called "frottola". For most of the 1400s, French
chanson dominates the music performed in Italy until around 1480 when native
composers set their texts into their own language again, in a style known as
"frottola". Frottola poetry tends to be more lighthearted than the courtly love
of chanson texts. Musically, frottola avoids imitation and counterpoint in
contrast to contemporary chansons. Frottole are characterized by chordal
textures and lively, dance-like rhythms. Frottole can be performed entirely by
instruments, or by any combination of voices and instruments. Frottole are
arranged for solo voice and lute, or for keyboard alone and are in popular
demand at the time.

Mantua, Italy  
510 YBN
[1490 AD]
5901) Arnolt Schlick (CE c1460-c1521), German organist and composer, composes
instrumental music for lute. Schlick's "Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten"
(1511) is the first German treatise on organ building and organ playing. Some
of Schlick's organ pieces are published in his "Tabulaturen etlicher lobgesang"
(1512), the first printed German organ tablatures.
509 YBN
[1491 AD]
1176) In Spain Jewish humans tortured by the Holy Inquisition were made to
"confess" to killing a child in a town called "La Guardia".

509 YBN
[1491 AD]
1484) In 1486, planning to defend 900 theses he had drawn from diverse Greek,
Hebrew, Arabic, and Latin writers, Pico invites scholars from all of Europe to
Rome for a public disputation. For the occasion he composes his celebrated
"Oration on the Dignity of Man" (1486). A papal commission, however, denounces
13 of the theses as heretical, and the assembly is prohibited by Pope Innocent
VIII. Despite his ensuing "Apologia" for the theses, Pico thinks it prudent to
flee to France but is arrested there. After a brief imprisonment he settles in
Florence, where he became associated with the Platonic Academy, under the
protection of the Florentine prince Lorenzo de' Medici. Except for short trips
to Ferrara, Pico spends the rest of his life there. Pico is absolved from the
charge of heresy by Pope Alexander VI in 1492.

"Disputations..." will not be published until after Mirandola's death.
(written:) Fiesole, Italy;(published:) Bologna, Italy  
508 YBN
[01/??/1492 AD]
1451) The emperor of Cathay, whom Europeans referred to as the Great Khan of
the Golden Horde-was himself held to be interested in Christianity, and
Columbus carefully carries a letter of friendship addressed to him by the
Spanish monarchs.

In the letter that prefaces his journal of the first voyage, Columbus explains
his excitement about his journey, and reveals a racist and vicious religious
fervor (in a war against the "infidels", basically all those not in the cult of
Jesus) typical of people in this time:
"...and Your Highnesses, as Catholic
Christians…took thought to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the said parts of
India, to see those princes and peoples and lands…and the manner which should
be used to bring about their conversion to our holy faith, and ordained that I
should not go by land to the eastward, by which way it was the custom to go,
but by way of the west, by which down to this day we do not know certainly that
anyone has passed; therefore, having driven out all the Jews from your realms
and lordships in the same month of January, Your Highnesses commanded me that,
with a sufficient fleet, I should go to the said parts of India, and for this
accorded me great rewards and ennobled me so that from that time henceforth I
might style myself "Don" and be high admiral of the Ocean Sea and viceroy and
perpetual Governor of the islands and continent which I should discover…and
that my eldest son should succeed to the same position, and so on from
generation to generation forever."
508 YBN
[08/03/1492 AD]
Palos, Spain  
508 YBN
[09/13/1492 AD]
Atlantic Ocean  
508 YBN
[10/12/1492 AD]
1450) Humans from Europe reach the Americas by crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

Christopher Columbus (CE 1451-1506) lands on a small island (probably San
Salvador) in America.

In America Columbus explores, finds a new race of people, new plants, and many
other new phenomena.

Vikings such as Leif Eriksson had visited North America five centuries

In the next 10 years Columbus will makes 3 journeys to the "Indies".

Because of this mistaken belief that Columbus had reached India, the Carribean
will be called the West Indies even up to the present time. That Native
American people are sometimes still referred to as "Indians" shows that this
mistaken view of America being India is still uncorrected.

Beyond planting the royal banner, Columbus spends little time on San Salvador,
being anxious to press on to what he thinks will be Cipango (Japan).
(probably) San Salvador  
508 YBN
[10/28/1492 AD]
508 YBN
[12/05/1492 AD]
508 YBN
[1492 AD]
1177) Jewish people are expelled from Spain for "racial purification".

507 YBN
[01/16/1493 AD]
507 YBN
[02/26/1493 AD]
507 YBN
[02/26/1493 AD]
507 YBN
[03/15/1493 AD]
1459) On his fourth and final voyage to America, Columbus, stranded with his
crew on the island of Jamaica, correctly predicts an eclipse of the Moon from
his astronomical tables, which frightens and tricks the local peoples into
providing food for them.
Palos, Spain  
506 YBN
[06/07/1494 AD]
Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain)  
506 YBN
[1494 AD]
1445) Pacioli becomes a Franciscan Friar around 1470.
Pacioli teaches math at
universities at Perugia, Naples and Rome.
Pacioli meets Leonardo da Vinci at the
court of the Duke of Milan, Ludovico Sforza. In exchange for lessons in math,
Leonardo illustrates one of Pacioli's books.
Venice, Italy  
505 YBN
[1495 AD]
1470) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), paints "the Last Supper".

Milan, Italy  
504 YBN
[1496 AD]
Bologna, Italy  
504 YBN
[1496 AD]
1448) Two versions of the original manuscript have survived, one in the
Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, the other in the Bibliothèque Publique et
Universitaire in Geneva.
Milan, Italy  
500 YBN
[1500 AD]
1480) Albrecht Dürer, age 28, paints his self portrait. This strikingly
realistic painting is an early representation of the realism that will evolve
in Renaissance era paintings.

Nuremberg, Germany  
498 YBN
[1502 AD]
497 YBN
[1503 AD]
1469) Leonardo da Vinci (VENcE) (CE 1452-1519), paints the Mona Lisa.

Milan, Italy  
496 YBN
[1504 AD]
1474) Vespucci meets Columbus towards the end of Columbus' life and the two are
friendly to each other.
Perhaps had Columbus recognized that he had landed on a new
continent America would be called "Columbia", or "North and South Christica".
493 YBN
[1507 AD]
Milan, Italy  
493 YBN
[1507 AD]
1476) The wall map will be lost for a long time, but a copy is found in a
castle at Wolfegg in southern Germany by Joseph Fischer in 1901. This is the
only known copy of the map.

Some hold that the "Cosmographiae" was written by Matthias Ringmann instead, or
that it was a joint effort.
Saint-Dié, Lorraine, France  
491 YBN
[1509 AD]
491 YBN
[1509 AD]
5903) Hans Sachs (CE 1494-1576), German poet and Meistersinger, composes music
and plays around this time. Wagner makes Sachs a leading character in his opera
"Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg" (1868) uses Sachs.

490 YBN
[1510 AD]
Milan, Italy  
489 YBN
[1511 AD]
1513) In 1516 Erasmus will have "Novum instrumentum" printed in Basel, which is
a heavily annotated edition of the New Testament placing texts in Greek and
revised Latin side by side. Erasmus is therefore, the first editor of the New
Erasmus dedicates "In Praise of Folly" to his friend, Thomas More, author of
the famous and controversial book "Utopia".
This work will influence the French satirist
Erasmus studies at the University of Paris and teaches for some time at
Cambridge University.
written: London, Netherlands  
488 YBN
[1512 AD]
1481) Copernicus studies math and painting at Cracow (Asimov writes that Cracow
is the intellectual center of Poland at this time and will be for many years
Copernicus studies health (medicine) and canon law in Italy for 10 years.
reading Regiomontanus Copernicus becomes interested in Astronomy.
In 1497 Copernicus'
uncle is ordained Bishop of Warmia, and Copernicus is named a canon at Frombork
In 1505 Copernicus returns to Poland where he serves as canon under his uncle
at the cathedral at Frombork (Frauenberg, in German), but never becomes a
priest and never marries.
Copernicus serves as his uncle's doctor.
Frombork, Poland  
487 YBN
[09/25/1513 AD]
1485) In 1500, Balboa, sails to South America.
Balboa settles in Hispaniola in 1502,
where he resides for several years as a planter and pig farmer. In 1509,
wanting to escape his creditors in Santo Domingo, Balboa sets sail as a

In December 1511 King Ferdinand II sends orders that name Balboa interim
governor and captain general of Darién.

The Spaniards are told by Native Americans that to the south lay a sea and a
province infinitely rich in gold, a reference to the Pacific and perhaps to the
Inca Empire. The Native people tell the Spainards that the conquest of that
land would require 1,000 men. Balboa quickly sends messengers to Spain to
request reinforcements. The news creates much excitement in Spain, and a large
expedition is promptly organized. But Balboa is not given command because
charges brought against Balboa by his enemies had turned King Ferdinand II
against him, and, as commander of the armada and governor of Darién, the King
sends out the elderly, powerful nobleman Pedro Arias Dávila (usually called
Pedrarias). The expedition, numbering 2,000 persons, leaves Spain in April

In his own explorations Balboa manages to collect a great deal of gold, much of
it from the ornaments worn by the native women, and the rest obtained by

At the end of 1512 and the first months of 1513, Balboa arrives in a region
dominated by the cacique Careta, whom he easily defeats and then befriends.
Careta is baptized and becomes one of Balboa's chief allies; Careta ensures the
survival of the settlers by promising to supply the Spaniards with food. Balboa
then proceeds on his journey, arriving in the lands of Careta's neighbour and
rival, cacique Ponca, who flees to the mountains with his people, leaving his
village open to the plundering of the Spaniards and Careta's men. Days later,
the expedition arrives in the lands of cacique Comagre, fertile but reportedly
dangerous terrain. However, Balboa is received peacefully and even invited to a
feast in his honor; Comagre, like Careta, is then baptized.

It is in Comagre's lands that Balboa first hears of "the other sea". It starts
with a squabble among the Spaniards, unsatisfied by the meagre amounts of gold
they are being allotted. Comagre's eldest son, Panquiaco, angered by the
Spaniards' avarice, knocks over the scales used to measure gold and exclaims:
"If you are so hungry for gold that you leave your lands to cause strife in
those of others, I shall show you a province where you can quell this hunger".
Panquiaco tells them about a kingdom to the south, where people are so rich
that they eat and drink from plates and goblets made of gold, but that the
conquerors will need at least a thousand men to defeat the tribes living inland
and those on the coast of "the other sea". How the native speaking people and
Spanish speaking people communicate is a very interesting puzzle, since neither
had any experience at all with the others language. Individual people must have
had to spend months translating and learning nouns and verbs before any
detailed talk can happen.

The announcement of balboa finding the "South Sea," restores Balboa to royal
favor and Balboa is named "adelantado" (governor) of the Mar del Sur and of the
provinces of Panamá and Coiba.

Pedrarias, the head of the Spanish expedition summons Balboa home on the
pretext that Pedrarias wishes to discuss matters of common concern. Upon
returning Balboa is seized and charged with rebellion, high treason, and
mistreatment of Indians, among other misdeeds. After a farcical trial presided
over by Gaspar de Espinosa, Pedrarias' chief justice, Balboa is found guilty,
condemned to death, and beheaded with four alleged accomplices in January 1519.
a peak in Darién, Panama  
486 YBN
[1514 AD]
1178) Anthony Fitzherbert (1470 - 1538), an English judge, writes the first
systematic attempt to provide a summary of English law, known as La Graunde
Abridgement in 1514, and among others "The Boke of Husbandire", a book on

485 YBN
[1515 AD]
1486) Schöner is ordained a Roman Catholic priest, but later abandons
priesthood and becomes a Lutheran.
Schöner is a professor of mathematics at the
University of Nuremberg.
In 1540, Rheticus will dedicate the first report "Narratio prima"
(an introduction to Copernicus' "De Revolutionibus") to Schöner.
Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany  
485 YBN
[1515 AD]
484 YBN
[1516 AD]
1515) Thomas More may get the idea for "Utopia" when he and Erasmus jointly
translate some of Lucian's works from Greek into Latin. Among these dialogues,
is the story of Menippus, the Greek playwright, descending into the underworld
and describing what he finds there. The other significant influence is Plato's
"Republic", which is a far more politically motivated work about imaginary
lands and is referred to several times in "Utopia".

More will be beheaded in 1535 for refusing to accept King Henry VIII as head of
the Church of England.
London, England  
483 YBN
[10/20/1517 AD]
483 YBN
[10/31/1517 AD]
Wittenberg, Germany  
481 YBN
[08/10/1519 AD]
Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain  
481 YBN
[09/20/1519 AD]
1491) Ferdinand Magellan (moJeLoN) (c1480-1521), Portuguese explorer, sets sail
to circumnavigate the earth.
Magellan leaves for America with 5 ships in order to find
a way to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. This is the voyage to circumnavigate
the earth that Columbus had intended.
Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain  
480 YBN
[04/08/1520 AD]
Puerto San Julian, Argentina  
480 YBN
[10/21/1520 AD]
1496) Asimov claims that the Pacific Ocean is not actually more passive than
the Atlantic Ocean.
Straight of Magellan  
480 YBN
[12/13/1520 AD]
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  
480 YBN
[1520 AD]
Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany  
479 YBN
[03/06/1521 AD]
1497) After entering the Pacific Ocean, the ships sail near the Chilean coast
until Decemeber 18 when Magellan takes a course northwestward. Not until
January 24, 1521, is land sighted, probably Pukapuka in the Tuamotu
479 YBN
[03/16/1521 AD]
1499) At Massava Magellan secures the first alliance in the Pacific for Spain.

Antonio Pigafetta, a wealthy tourist who paid to be on the Magellan voyage,
provides the only extant eyewitness account of the events culminating in
Magellan's death, as follows:
"When morning came, forty-nine of us leaped into the water
up to our thighs, and walked through water for more than two cross-bow flights
before we could reach the shore. The boats could not approach nearer because of
certain rocks in the water. The other eleven men remained behind to guard the
boats. When we reached land, {the natives} had formed in three divisions to the
number of more than one thousand five hundred people. When they saw us, they
charged down upon us with exceeding loud cries... The musketeers and
crossbow-men shot from a distance for about a half-hour, but uselessly...
Recognising the captain, so many turned upon him that they knocked his helmet
off his head twice... A native hurled a bamboo spear into the captain's face,
but the latter immediately killed him with his lance, which he left in the
native's body. Then, trying to lay hand on sword, he could draw it out but
halfway, because he had been wounded in the arm with a bamboo spear. When the
natives saw that, they all hurled themselves upon him. One of them wounded him
on the left leg with a large cutlass, which resembles a scimitar, only being
larger. That caused the captain to fall face downward, when immediately they
rushed upon him with iron and bamboo spears and with their cutlasses, until
they killed our mirror, our light, our comfort, and our true guide. When they
wounded him, he turned back many times to see whether we were all in the boats.
Thereupon, beholding him dead, we, wounded, retreated, as best we could, to the
boats, which were already pulling off."
479 YBN
[11/06/1521 AD]
1500) The remaining two ships of Magellan's now under the leadership of Cano,
reach the Maluku Islands (the Spice Islands) with 115 men left. They manage to
trade with the Sultan of Tidore, a rival of the Sultan of Ternate, who is the
ally of the Portuguese.

The two remaining ships, laden with valuable spices, attempt to return to Spain
by sailing west. As they leave the Moluccas, however, Trinidad is found to be
taking on water. The crew tries to discover and repair the leak, but fails.
They conclude that Trinidad will need to spend considerable time being
overhauled. The small Victoria was not large enough to accommodate all the
surviving crew. As a result, Victoria with some of the crew sails west through
the Indian Ocean for Spain. Several weeks later, Trinidad left the Moluccas to
attempt to return to Spain via the Pacific route. This attempt fails; the ship
is captured by the Portuguese, and is eventually wrecked in a storm while at
anchor under Portuguese control.

Four crewmen of the original fifty-five on the Trinidad will finally returned
to Spain in 1525. Fifty-one of them had died in war or from disease.

478 YBN
[05/06/1522 AD]
1501) By May 6, 1522, the Victoria, commanded by Juan Sebastián Elcano, rounds
the Cape of Good Hope, with only rice for rations. Twenty crewmen die of
starvation before Elcano reaches the Cape Verde Islands, a Portuguese holding,
where he abandons 13 more crewmembers on July 9 in fear of losing his cargo of
26 tons of spices (cloves and cinnamon).

Cape of Good Hope  
478 YBN
[09/08/1522 AD]
1475) Magellen's crew is the first to circumnavigate the earth..

Juan Sebastian del Cano (KonO) (c1460-1525), Spanish Navigator, returns in a
single remaining ship originally lead by Magellan to Seville, Spain with a crew
that is the first to circumnavigate the earth.

This voyage lasts 3 years and cost 4 ships, but the spices and other
merchendice brought back more than compensate for the loss. This voyage proves
that Eratosthenes estimate of the size of the Earth is correct, and that of
Poseidoinius and Ptolemy wrong, and that a single ocean covers the earth.
Seville, Spain  
477 YBN
[1523 AD]
Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany(presumably)  
477 YBN
[1523 AD]
5914) Marco Antonio Cavazzoni (c1490-c1570), Italian composer, publishes
"Recerchari, motetti, canzoni, Libro I" (Venice, 1523), the first set of
independently composed keyboard music ever published. Much of these
compositions are astonishingly mature for the time, featuring parallel 5ths and
octaves and harsh dissonance, demonstrating a clear independence from vocal
(Saint Mark's Cathedral) Venice, Italy  
476 YBN
[1524 AD]
Mexico City, Mexico  
476 YBN
[1524 AD]
1510) Peter Apian is latinized from Peter Bienewitz or Bennewitz
(pā'tər bē'nəvĭts, bĕn'əvĭts).
Apian is a professor of mathematics
at the University of Ingolstadt.

In 1527, Peter Apian is called to the University of Ingolstadt as a
mathematician and printer. His print shop starts small. Among the first books
he prints are the writings of Johann Eck, Martin Luther's antagonist. Later,
Apian's print shop will become well-known for its high-quality editions of
geographic and cartographic works.
Landshut, Bavaria, Germany  
475 YBN
[07/??/1525 AD]
2776) William Tyndale (TinDeL) (CE c1494-1536) translates and prints the New
Testament and Pentateuch into English.

After church authorities in England prevent Tyndale from translating the Bible
there, Tyndale goes to Germany in 1524, receiving financial support from
wealthy London merchants. Tyndale's New Testament translation is completed in
July 1525 and printed at Cologne. Interrupted by an injunction, Tyndale has the
edition completed at Worms. By April 1526 an octavo edition is being sold in
London. When copies enter England, they are denounced by the bishops and
suppressed (1526); Cardinal Wolsey orders Tyndale seized at Worms. In November
all available copies are burned at St. Paul's Cross. (To me this shows clearly
an interest in keeping the public uninformed and uneducated, that information
about the actual substance of the religion is to be kept only for an elite few.
In addition, possibly to obscure and keep abstract the facts surrounding the
religion, since people cannot criticize what they know nothing of. A similar
occurrence has happened in science with the truth about Michael Pupin, the
theory of time dilation, and much of the history of science. Apparently, the
less the public knows, the less they can criticize and uncover dishonesty and

In 1535 while revising his translations, Tyndale is seized in Antwerp and
confined in Vilvoorde Castle, near Brussels. Tyndale's trial ends in
condemnation for heresy, and Tyndale is strangled at the stake before his body
is burned.

Tyndale's Bible is the first English translation to draw directly from Hebrew
and Greek texts, and the first to take advantage of the new medium of print,
which allows for its wide distribution.
Tyndale is educated at the University of Oxford and
becomes an instructor at the University of Cambridge.
In 1521, while at Cambridge, Tyndale
is friends with a group of humanist scholars meeting at the White Horse Inn.
becomes convinced that the Bible alone should determine the practices and
doctrines of the church and that every believer should be able to read the
Bible in their own language.

In 1528 Tyndale publishes the "The Obedience of a Christian Man" (1528), which
replaces papal authority by royal authority and is heartily approved by King
Henry VIII and "The Parable of the Wicked Mammon" (1528) dealing with Luther's
teaching concerning justification by faith. Both these works are denounced by
Sir Thomas More. The Practice of Prelates (1530), condemning the divorce of
Henry VIII (with Catherine of Aragon), draws the wrath of the king.
Cologne, Germany  
475 YBN
[1525 AD]
1477) Durer's father is a goldsmith
Durer is court painter to emperor Maximillian I and
successor Charles V.
It is clear from his writings that Dürer is highly
sympathetic to Martin Luther, and he may be influential in the City Council
declaring for Luther in 1525. However, Durer dies before religious divisions
had hardened into different churches, and may well have regarded himself as a
reform-minded Catholic to the end.
The most striking painting illustrating Dürer's
growth toward the Renaissance spirit is a self-portrait, painted in 1498
(Prado, Madrid).
Dürer achieves an international reputation as an artist by 1515, when
he exchanges works with the illustrious High Renaissance painter Raphael.
Druerer's work
on fortification is published in 1527, and his work on human proportion is
brought out in four volumes shortly after his death at the age of fifty-six, in
Nürnberg, Germany  
474 YBN
[1526 AD]
Basil, Switzerland  
470 YBN
[1530 AD]
1503) As a young man, Hohenheim attends the Bergschule, founded by the wealthy
Fugger family of merchant bankers of Augsburg, where his father teaches
chemical theory and practice. Young people are trained at the Bergschule as
overseers and analysts for mining operations in gold, tin, and mercury, as well
as iron, alum, and copper-sulfate ores.
The young Paracelsus learns about minerals
from miners talking about metals that "grow" in the earth.
Hohenheim enters at
University of Basil in 1510, later moving to the University of Vienna.

Paracelsus is said to have graduated from the University of Vienna with the
baccalaureate in medicine in 1510, when he was 17.
At Ferrara Hohenheim is free to
express his rejection of the prevailing view that the stars and planets control
all the parts of the human body. Hohenheim is thought to have begun using the
name "para-Celsus" (above or beyond Celsus) around this time, regarding himself
as even greater than Celsus, the renowned 1st-century Roman physician known for
his tract on health and medicine.
Paracelsus travels widely seeking out alchemists and
physicians to learn from.
Paracelsus is appointed town physician and lecturer in
medicine at the University of Basel. Students from all parts of Europe begin to
flock into the city. Paracelsus pins a program of his upcoming lectures to the
notice board of the university on June 5, 1527, inviting not only students but
Three weeks later, on June 24, 1527, surrounded by a crowd of cheering
students, Paracelsus burns the books of Ibn Sina (Avicenna), the Arab "Prince
of Physicians," and those of the Greek physician Galen, in front of the
university. Luther, just six and a half years before at the Elster Gate of
Wittenberg on Dec. 10, 1520, had burned a papal bull that threatened
excommunication. Paracelsus seemingly remains a Catholic to his death, although
it has been said that his books were placed on the Index Expurgatorius.
Paracelsus denounces
the theory of humors.

Like Luther, Paracelsus lectures and writes in German rather than Latin.
lecture hall is always crowded to overflowing. He stresses the healing power of
nature and rages against those methods of treating wounds, such as padding with
moss or dried dung, that prevent natural draining. The wounds must drain, he
insists, saying "If you prevent infection, Nature will heal the wound all by
herself." Paracelsus attacks many other medical frauds of his time including
worthless pills, salves, infusions, balsams, electuaries, fumigants, and
In the spring of 1528, in fear Paracelsus flees Basel in the middle of the
Shortly before the flight from Basel, Paracelsus completes the most important
of his earlier works, "Nine Books of Archidoxus", a reference manual on secret
remedies. Between 1530 and 1534 Paracelsus writes his bestknown works, the
"Paragranum" and the "Paramirum", both dealing with cosmology. Paracelsus
returns to medical writing with the "Books of the Greater Surgery" in editions
of 1536 and 1537; this is Paracelsus' only work that is a publishing success.
The "Astronomia magna", done between 1537 and 1539, is said to show his most
mature thinking about nature and humans.

Paracelsus uses mercury and antimony even after practice had shown them to be
Paracelsus believes in the 4 element theory of the Greek people and the 3
principles of the Arab people (mercury, sulfur and salt). During all his
travels, Paracelsus spreads the anti-Aristotelian position that the four
elements (earth, air, fire, and water) are composed of primary principles: a
fireproducing principle (sulfur), a principle of liquidity (mercury), and a
principle of solidity (salt).
Paracelsus rejects the magic theories of Agrippa and
Flamel. Paracelsus does not think of himself as a magician and scorns those who
do, though he is a practicing astrologer, as were are, if not all of the
university-trained physicians working at this time in Europe. So Paracelsus
wrongly believes in astrology and the influence of the stars on disease.

Kind of a funny story is that Paracelsus is said to have cured many people in
the plague-stricken town of Stertzing in the summer of 1534 by administering
orally a pill made of bread containing a minute amount of the patient's excreta
he had removed on a needle point. Probably not an effective cure, and very
dangerous because of bacterial (in particular E Coli) infection.
Basel?, Switzerland?  
470 YBN
[1530 AD]
3058) At the University of Padua Fracastoro is a colleague of the astronomer
As a physician, Fracastoro maintains a private practice in Verona.
Verona, Italy (and possibly mountain villa at Incaffi)  
470 YBN
[1530 AD]
5900) Luis de Milán (CE c1500-c1561), Spanish musician, composes instrumental
music for lute.

(a Ducal court) Valencia, Spain  
469 YBN
[1531 AD]
1546) Servetus defends the botanical view of his friend Fuchs.
Servetus believes and
lectures on astrology.
This is during the Protestant reformation, and Servetus has the
view of a Unitarian (the belief that Jesus was not God, that God is only one
thing not a trinity which includes Jesus and the so-called Holy Spirit).
studies medicine in Paris and meets John Calvin, one of the early and most
powerful Protestants there.
Toulouse, France (presumably)  
467 YBN
[1533 AD]
Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany(presumably)  
467 YBN
[1533 AD]
Friesland (present day Netherlands)  
466 YBN
[1534 AD]
1514) Although this break of allegiance to traditional Christianity is a
progressive step towards atheism, Henry the VIII is a brutal person who orders
the execution of many nonviolent people such as those who refuse to take an
oath of loyalty such as humanist author of the book "Utopia", Thomas More.
Henry VIII has his own his second wife, Anne Boleyn (c1501/1507-1536) executed.
London (presumably), England  
464 YBN
[1536 AD]
1504) This book restores, and even extends, the excellent reputation Paracelsus
had earned at Basel in his prime. Paracelsus becomes wealthy and is sought
after by royalty.
Basel?, Switzerland?  
463 YBN
[1537 AD]
1536) Fontana (Tartaglia) came from poverty and was largely self educated.
Fontana was
nicknamed "Tartaglia", which means "studderer", because during the French sack
of Brescia in 1512, Fontana's face was slashed by a French soldier, leaving him
with a speech defect. Tartgalia chose to adopt the name.
Fontana teaches mathematics
in various universities in northern Italy, and settles in Venice in 1534 to
teach mathematics.
Venice, Italy (presumably)  
462 YBN
[10/28/1538 AD]
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic  
462 YBN
[1538 AD]
Padua, Italy{4 ans} (presumably)  
462 YBN
[1538 AD]
Verona, Italy (and possibly mountain villa at Incaffi)  
460 YBN
[1540 AD]
Frauenburg (Frombork, Poland)  
460 YBN
[1540 AD]
Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany  
459 YBN
[1541 AD]
Zurich, Swizerland (presumably)  
458 YBN
[1542 AD]
1511) The word "pathology", is somewhat abstract, one dictionary defines
pathology as "the science or the study of the origin, nature, and course of
diseases" which might just as easily be covered by the science of "health".
"Pathology" relates to the path or course a disease routinely takes. The word
"physiology", also somewhat abstract, is defined by one dictionary as "the
branch of biology dealing with the functions and activities of living organisms
and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes". Physiology
deals with the actual physical processes of any part of a living body.
Fernel rejects
astrology as being relevant to healing (medicine). How the word "medicine"
became associated with "healing" I do not know, however, in my opinion, the
word "health" more accurately covers what a physician does. Perhaps a
distinction between the fraudulent religious "healers" and formally educated
"healers" needed to be clearly expressed.

Frenel graduates from the University of Paris 1519, gets a medical degree in
1530, and in 1534 is a professor of "medicine" at University of Paris.
Frenel is the
physician to Henry II of France.
458 YBN
[1542 AD]
1540) A genus of flower is named after Fuchs, and the name Fuchs is also the
origin or the word for the color "Fuscia" (a bluish red).
Fuchs receives a medical
(physician) degree at the University of Ingolstadt in 1524.
In 1535 Fuchs is
professor of medicine (health) at the University of Tübingen.
Fuchs is an active
supporter of Vesalius.
Basel, Switzerland  
457 YBN
[1543 AD]
457 YBN
[1543 AD]
1482) The Sun centered theory is revived. Copernicus' (1473-1543) book
supporting a sun centered theory is published.

A few hundred copies of Nicolaus Copernicus' (1473-1543) book, "De
revolutionibus orbium coelestium libri vi" ("Six Books Concerning the
Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs"), are printed (200 copies still exist). The
original hand written draft exists and shows that Copernicus crossed out an
original reference to Aristarchos.

Rheticus gives the manuscript to Andreas Osiander (1498–1552), a theologian
and strong follower of Luther, who ads an unsigned “letter to the reader”
directly after the title page, which states that the hypotheses contained
within made no pretense to truth and that, in any case, astronomy is incapable
of finding the causes of heavenly phenomena. In addition, the title of the work
is changed from the manuscript’s "On the Revolutions of the Orbs of the
World" to "Six Books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs", a change
that appears to lessen the book's claim to describe the real universe. These
changes by Osiander are not known until Kepler reveals this in his "Astronomia
Nova" (New Astronomy) in 1609.
(presumably) written in (Frauenburg, East Prussia now:)Frombork, Poland;
(printed in)Nuremberg, Germany  
457 YBN
[1543 AD]
1553) Vesalius' father is the court pharmacist to Emperor Charles V.
Vesalius is
from long line of physicians and pharmacists in Wesel, and this is where the
name Vesalius comes from.
Vesalius studies in Louvain (now Belgium) (1529-1533), and
medical (health) school of the University of Paris (1533-1536) both
conservative centers supporting Galen, and so even as late as 1538 Vesalius
publishes material largely based on Galen. At the University of Paris, Vesalius
learned to dissect animals, has the opportunity to dissect human cadavers, and
devotes much of his time to a study of human bones, at that time easily
available in the Paris cemeteries.

In 1536 Vesalius returns to his native Brabant to spend another year at the
University of Louvain, where the influence of Arab medicine (health science) is
still dominant. At Louvain, Vesalius writes his graduate dissertation on the
900s Arab physician al-Razi (Rhazes).

In 1537, Vesalius then goes to the University of Padua, a progressive
university with a strong tradition of anatomical dissection. On receiving the
M.D. degree the same year, he is appointed a lecturer in surgery with the
responsibility of giving anatomical demonstrations. Since Vesalius dissects
many cadavers, and insisted on doing them himself, instead of relying on
untrained assistants.
Vesalius teaches anatomy at various universities in Italy.
After publishing
this book, Vesalius quits research and becomes the court physician to Charles
V, and his son the Spanish king Phillip II.
When Henry II is fatally wounded at a
tournament (jousting?) in 1559 Vesalius attends to him taking precedence over
Asimov claims that Vesalius is accused of heresy, body snatching, and
dissection, and is apparently charged but his royal connections help him, and
his sentence is a trip to the Holy land, but other sources say that Vesalius
made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
On the way back the ship he is on is battered by storms,
but does reach Zante where Vesalius dies.
Basel, Switzerland  
456 YBN
[01/24/1544 AD]
Louvain, Belgium  
456 YBN
[1544 AD]
1179) The writings of Archimedes are translated in to Latin.

455 YBN
[1545 AD]
1537) Cardano's father was a friend of Leonardo da Vinci.
Cardano becomes professor of
medicine at the University of Pavia in 1546.
Cardano believes in astrology.
Cardano is jailed
for some time for casting the horoscope of Jesus.
In 1539 Tartaglia showed Cardano a
method of solving cubic equations six years after Cardano promised to keep the
solution a secret.
?, Italy (presumably)  
455 YBN
[1545 AD]
1543) Pare writes his findings in French instead of Latin because he had no
formal education, and is looked down upon by the arrogant educated
establishment for this.
In 1565 Pare proves that the Bezoar Stone does not cure all
At this time and for 200 more years surgery is viewed as menial labor and done
by barbers, {shockingly and illogically} people who cut hair also perform
In 1536, Pare attains the rank of master barber-surgeon.
Pare works as a barber-surgeon in the
French army.
Pare is the surgeon to a series of four kings, Henry II and his 3 sons.
Paris, France  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
written: Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany| published: Basel, Switzerland  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
written: Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany | published: Basel, Switzerland   
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
Verona, Italy  
451 YBN
[1549 AD]
450 YBN
[1550 AD]
1184) The process begins with wrought iron and charcoal. It uses one or more
long stone pots inside a furnace. Iron bars and charcoal are packed in
alternating layers, with a top layer of charcoal and then refractory matter to
make the pot or 'coffin' air tight. Some manufacturers used a mix of powdered
charcoal, soot and mineral salts, called cement powder, which gave the process
its name. The pots are then heated from below for a week or more. Bars are
regularly examined and when the correct condition is reached the heat is
withdrawn and the pots are left until cool, usually around fourteen days. The
iron gains a little over 1% in mass from the carbon in the charcoal, and
becomes hetrogenous bars of blister steel. The bars are then shortened, bound,
heated and hammered, pressed or rolled to become shear steel.
Bohamia, Czech Republic  
450 YBN
[1550 AD]
Gotland, Sweden  
450 YBN
[1550 AD]
1506) From 1514 to 1518 Bauer studies classics, philosophy, and philology at
the University of Leipzig, which had recently been exposed to the humanist
revival. Following the custom of the times, he Latinizes his name to Georgius
Agricola (Bauer meaning "farmer"). After teaching Latin and Greek from 1518 to
1522 in a school in Zwickau, Agricola returns to Leipzig to begin the study of
medicine but finds the university in disarray because of theological quarrels.
A lifelong Catholic, he leaves in 1523 for more comfortable surroundings in
Italy. He studies medicine, natural science, and philosophy in Bologna and
Padua, finishing with clinical studies in Venice.
For two years Agricola works at the
Aldine Press in Venice, principally in preparing an edition of Galen's works on
medicine (which will be published in 1525).
From 1527 to 1533 Agricola is town
physician in Joachimsthal, a mining town in the richest metal-mining district
of Europe. Partly in the hope of finding new drugs among the ores and minerals
Agricola visits mines and smelting plants, talking to the better-educated
miners, and reading Classical authors on mining. These years provide the
material for most of his books, beginning with "Bermannus; sive, de re
metallica" (1530), a treatise on the Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) mining

In 1533 Agricola is appointed the town physician of Chemnitz where he remains
for the rest of his life.
Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany  
449 YBN
[1551 AD]
1549) Reinhold studies and teaches mathematics at the University of Wittenberg
449 YBN
[1551 AD]
1560) Belon gets a medical (physician/health) degree from the University of
Paris. King Frances I is one of the patrons of Belon. Belon is killed by
robbers in Paris while picking herbs.
449 YBN
[1551 AD]
5910) Philippe de Monte (CE 1521-1603) composes music in the form of madrigals,
chansons, masses and motets. The madrigal of this time, the name borrowed from
the 1300s form, has no resemblance in poetic or musical structure to the 1300
madrigal. Compared to the frottola, the earliest Renaissance madrigals, dating
from about 1530, are characterized by quiet and restrained expression, usually
written for three or four voices, mostly homophonic (melody supported by
chords) with occasional bits of imitation.

(Pinelli family) Naples, Italy  
448 YBN
[1552 AD]
1545) Eustacio is professor of medicine (health science) in the Collogio della
Sapienza in Rome (later the University of Rome) until his death.
The fact that his
book became a bestseller more than a century after his death shows the extent
of the religious restrictions on anatomists all through the Renaissance.
Rome, Italy  
447 YBN
[10/27/1553 AD]
1548) According to the Encyclopedia Brittanica, the execution of Michael
Servetus will produce a Protestant controversy on imposing the death penalty
for heresy, draws severe criticism upon John Calvin, and influences Laelius
Socinus, a founder of modern unitarian views.
Geneva, Switzerland  
447 YBN
[1553 AD]
1541) Frisius has a medical (health/physician/doctor) degree from Louvain.
Friesland (present day Netherlands)  
447 YBN
[1553 AD]
Toulouse, France (presumably)  
447 YBN
[1553 AD]
5911) Thomas Tallis (CE c1505-1585), English composer, composes music.

(Note how similar the Latin word "Gaude" (rejoice) is to the word "God"
Determine when the transition from "Deus" to "God" happened in England and

(Chapel Royal) London, England  
445 YBN
[1555 AD]
Zurich, Swizerland (presumably)  
445 YBN
[1555 AD]
Zurich, Swizerland (presumably)  
445 YBN
[1555 AD]
445 YBN
[1555 AD]
Siena?, Italy  
442 YBN
[1558 AD]
Zurich, Swizerland (presumably)  
441 YBN
[1559 AD]
1544) Colombo gets his medical (physician) degree in 1541 from the University
of Padua.
Columbo replaces Vesalius as anatomy professor.
Columbo goes to Rome to ask
Michelangelo to illustrate a book of anatomy that will surpass Vesalius, but
Michelangelo is in his 70s and refuses the job.
Columbo is the papal surgeon in Rome
until his death.
Columbo is a critic of the new anatomy of Vesalius.
"De re anatomica" is
Colombo's only formal written work.
Rome, Italy (presumably)  
440 YBN
[1560 AD]
440 YBN
[1560 AD]
1563) Della Porta publishes a work on magic, and wrongly believes that magic is
a real phenomenon.
440 YBN
[1560 AD]
5906) Orlande de Lassus (CE c1530-1594) Franco-Flemish composer, composes music
around this time.

(court chapel of Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria) Munich, Bavaria (now
439 YBN
[1561 AD]
1562) Fallopius served as canon of the cathedral of Modena and then turned to
the study of medicine (health science) at the University of Ferrara, where he
becomes a teacher of anatomy. Fallopius then holds positions at the University
of Pisa (1548-51) and at Padua (1551-62).
Fallopius dies of tuberculosis before
age 40.
Venice, Italy  
439 YBN
[1561 AD]
5904) Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (CE 1525/1526-1594) composes music in
the Renaissance era. His most famous mass, "Missa Papae Marcelli" ("Mass of
Pope Marcellus") is composed around this time (c1561).

(It's interesting to know that this is the music that surrounded the time and
life of Galileo, Descartes and other people making significant contributions to

(Saint Maria Maggiore Church) Rome, Italy  
437 YBN
[1563 AD]
5928) Vincenzo Galilei (CE c1520-1591), father of Galileo Galilei (CE
1564-1642), composes music for Lute around this time.

Padua, Italy (verify)  
433 YBN
[1567 AD]
431 YBN
[1569 AD]
1550) The word Mercator translates to "merchant".
Mercator's actual name is Gerhard Kremer,
but he Latinizes his name as is 1500s fad.
Mercator gets a Masters degree from the
University of Louvain in 1532 (at age 20).
Mercator makes instruments for Emperor
Charles V.
In 1544 Mercator is arrested and imprisoned on a charge of heresy. His
inclination to Protestantism, and frequent absences from Louvain to gather
information for his maps, had aroused suspicions. Mercator is one of 43
citizens charged. But the university authorities stand behind Mercator, and he
is released after seven months and resumes his former way of life. Mercator
obtains a privilege to print and publish books continues his scientific
Mercator studies under Gemma Frisius (the person that recognized that an
accurate time piece is needed to know longitude).

By age 24, Mercator is a skillful engraver, calligrapher, scientific-instrument
maker. In 1535-36 Mercator works with Gaspar à Myrica, (an engraver and
goldsmith) and Frisius in constructing a terrestrial globe and in 1537 a
celestial globe.
In 1552 Mercator moves permanently to Duisburg in the Duchy of Cleve
and becomes well-known. Mercator assists the duke in establishing a grammar
school by helping to design its curriculum. After establishing a cartographic
workshop and employing engravers, Mercator returns to his main interest.
Duchy of Cleves, Germany (presumably)  
431 YBN
[1569 AD]
Duchy of Cleves, Germany (presumably)  
431 YBN
[1569 AD]
1992) Mathematics historian David Smith describes this wok as the most
teachable and systematic treatment of algebra that appears in Italy up to this
Bologna, Italy  
430 YBN
[1570 AD]
1186) A theodolite is an instrument for measuring both horizontal and vertical
angles, as used in triangulation networks. It is a key tool in surveying and
engineering work, but theodolites have been adapted for other specialized
purposes in fields like meteorology and rocket launch technology.
430 YBN
[1570 AD]
428 YBN
[11/11/1572 AD]
1573) The name "Tycho" is the Latin version of the Danish "Tyge".
Brahe's wealthy and
childless uncle abducted Tycho at a very early age and raised him at his castle
in Tostrup, Scania, also financing Tycho's education.
Brahe enters the University of
Copenhagen at age 13 and studies law and philosophy.
When Brahe observes the predicted
eclipse of the sun on August 21, 1560, he changes his mind from politics to
astronomy and mathematics.
Brahe believes astrology and casts horoscopes, Asimov comments
that astrology is far more lucrative than astronomy in this time.
In 1565 at age 19,
Brahe gets in a dual over a point of mathematics and his nose is cut off, so
Tycho wears a false nose of metal for the rest of his life.
In August 1563,
when Brahe makes his first recorded observation, a conjunction, or overlapping,
of Jupiter and Saturn, he finds that the existing almanacs and ephemerides,
which record stellar and planetary positions, are very inaccurate. The
Copernican tables are several days off in predicting this event. At that point
in his youth, Tycho decides to devote his life to the accumulation of accurate
observations of stars (the so-called heavens), and buys instruments in order to
make his own tables in order to correct the existing tables.
The is a rumor of Brahe
making astronomical observations in court dress.
In 1573, Brahe marries a peasant girl
whom he loves and spends his life with.
In 1588 Frederick II dies, and his successor
Christian IV ends funding for Tycho.
In 1597 Tycho accepts the invitation of Emperor
Rudolf II and goes to Germany.

In his new headquarters in Prague, Brahe finds Johann Kepler as an assistant.
corresponds with Galileo.
On his death bed, perhaps from a ruptured bladder, Tycho moans
"Oh, that it may not appear I have lived in vain".
Tycho gives Kepler his observation
data and Kepler prepares the tables of planetary motions. Sagan explains that
Tycho delays giving Kepler all of his data. Maybe there is some relation
between Tycho's realization that the comet had an non-circular orbit and Kepler
recognizing the true orbit (at least in two dimensions) of a ellipse for
Brahe is the last naked eye astronomer.
Scania, Denmark (now Sweden)  
427 YBN
[1573 AD]
1574) Tycho establishes a printing shop to produce and bind his manuscripts,
imports Augsburg craftsmen to construct the finest astronomical instruments,
gets Italian and Dutch artists and architects to design and decorate his
observatory, and invents a pressure system to provide the then uncommon
convenience of lavatory facilities.
But Frederick II will die in 1588, and
under his son, Christian IV, most of Tycho's income will be stopped, partly
because of the increasing needs of the state for money.
Herrevad Abbey, an abbey near Ljungbyhed, Scania, Denmark (now Sweden)  
427 YBN
[1573 AD]
1575) Brahe's "Astronomiae instauratae mechanica" published in 1598 contains
his autobiography and a description of his instruments.

Tycho will leave Denmark in 1587 and move to Prague, carrying along the records
of his observations and most of his instruments. In 1600 Johannes Kepler will
join him as his assistant. After Tycho's death in 1601, Kepler will prepare
Tycho's astronomical studies for publication in "Astronomiae instauratae
progymnasmata" (1602-1603). Kepler is then free to use the valuable data to
create his own system, (where the planets have elliptical orbits) which will
lay the foundations for Newton's gravitational astronomy.
Island of Hven (now Ven, Sweden)  
426 YBN
[1574 AD]
5908) John Bull (CE c1562-1628), English composer, and one of the leading
keyboard virtuosos of this time composes music. Bull graduates from Cambridge
(1589) and Oxford (1592).

(Is it correct to say that the harpsichord finds popularity in England before
Germany and Italy?)

(John Bull is an example of a somewhat radical change to a much more technical
and faster playing style that Vivaldi will also display. This style is
extremely different from the Gregorian chants and may represent a radical
change in technology and education - in particular the possible birth of neuron

(Chapel Royal) London, England  
421 YBN
[1579 AD]
1567) Vieta, is very good at deciphering codes. A Huguenot sympathizer, Vieta
deciphers a complex cipher of more than 500 characters used by King Philip II
of Spain in his war to defend Roman Catholicism from the Huguenots. When
Philip, assuming that the cipher could not be broken, discovered that the
French were aware of his military plans, he complained to the pope that black
magic was being employed against his country.

Vieta occupies a high administrative office under Henry IV.
Vieta is the father of
modern algebra.
Vieta prefers the word "analysis" to "algebra".
?, France  
420 YBN
[1580 AD]
419 YBN
[1581 AD]
London, England  
419 YBN
[1581 AD]
1597) Galileo is the oldest son of Vincenzo Galilei, a musician who made
important contributions to the theory and practice of music and who may perform
some experiments with Galileo in 1588-89 on the relationship between pitch and
the tension of strings.
A Tuscan tradition is that the oldest son gets a variation of
the family last name for first name, and this is why Galileo received his first

Galileo studies to be a physician at the University of Pisa, but after reading
Archimedes, whom Galileo greatly admires, Galileo talks his reluctant father
from allowing Galileo to go into mathematics and science.
In 1585 Galileo leaves the
university without obtaining a degree, and for several years he gives private
lessons in the mathematical subjects in Florence and Siena.
Ironically, Galileo
recognizes that inaccurate time keeping is a major problem, and Huygens will
later use the principle of the pendulum found by Galileo to regulate a clock
solving the problem of accurate time keeping that Galileo has.
(square-cube law I am
doubting and am going to ignore for now)
Galileo's work makes him unpopular in Pisa
and he moves to Padua (in Venetian territory, which according to Asimov is a
region of considerable intellectual freedom at this time), his new job pays 3
times his previous salary, although Asimov paints Galileo as always in debt
from living gaily and generously, always in trouble, and unpopular with
influential people.
Galileo does not wear academic robes, although this costs him
several fines.
Galileo is a popular lecturer and students flock to hear him, coming in
numbers as high as 2000 (although this may be from an exaggerated report).
studies of the sun damage his eyes, and he goes blind in his old age.
After the
telescope, both Venice and Florence offer him lucrative positions. To the
annoyance of the Venetians Galileo choses to move to Florence.
1611 Galileo visits Rome
where he is greeted with honor and delight.
Galileo is refused burial in consecrated
(blessed by religious human?/church property?) ground.
Galileo's "Dialogue" is not
removed from the the Roman Catholic Index of prohibited books until 1825.
In 1965
Pope Paul VI will speak highly of Galileo.
Galileo will not be officially forgiven until
the 1960s...um...a little late.

Galileo (wrote) "By denying scientific principles, one may maintain any
Pisa, Italy  
418 YBN
[1582 AD]
1180) Richard Butt Hakluyt (c.1552 - November 23, 1616), a writer in England,
writes a book "Voyages..." that describes America.

418 YBN
[1582 AD]
1566) In 1565, Clavius lectures at the Collegio Romano in Rome and stays there
for the rest of his life.
Clavius is the last diehard opponent of the sun-centered
theory revived by Copernicus.
Many Protestant nations and people object to the calendar
Rome, Italy  
417 YBN
[1583 AD]
1569) Scaliger studies at Bordeaux, and in 1559 moves to Paris to study Greek
and Latin and then begins to teach himself Hebrew, Arabic, Syrian, Persian, and
the principal modern languages.
In 1562 Scaliger converts to Protestantism.
Scaliger leaves France for
Geneva in 1572 just before St Bartholomew's Day massacre of Protestant people.
In 1593
Scaliger teaches at Univeristy of Leiden (a Protestant university).
?, France  
416 YBN
[1584 AD]
1576) Giordano Bruno (CE 1548-1600), Italian philosopher, writes 6 Italian
Dialogs in which he explains his belief in the infinity of space, that the
Earth goes around the sun (heliocentric theory), and the atom theory.
Oxford, England  
415 YBN
[1585 AD]
1581) Somewhere people actually took note that Stevinus was from so-called
illegitimate birth, from parents who were not married.
Stevinus marries at 64 and has 4
Stevin is also known as Stevinus, the Latinized form of his name.
Stevin helps
to popularize the practice of writing scientific works in modern languages (in
his case Dutch) rather than Latin, which for so long had been the traditional
European language of learning.
Netherlands (presumably)  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
1415) Al-Amili becomes a famous religious scholar as the "shaikh al-islam", the
chief relgious authority in the country of Isfahan, the Safavid capital.
Al-Amili's tomb, like that of Nasir al-Din is visited by people who flock
regularly to the Shiite shrine cities, such as Meshed and Kazimain.
Isfahan, Iran  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
(possibly Antwerp or Nassau), Netherlands  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
Netherlands (presumably)  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
Florence or Sienna, Italy  
412 YBN
[1588 AD]
1579) This text is set against contemporary mathematicians and philosophers. At
Helmstedt, Germany, in January 1589 Bruno will be he was excommunicated by the
local Lutheran Church.
?, Germany  
411 YBN
[1589 AD]
1182) Two hundred years will pass before the water closet is popularized.
Somerset, England  
411 YBN
[1589 AD]
London, England  
411 YBN
[1589 AD]
5913) Dancing becomes popular during the Renaissance. One of the most
comprehensive and popular dance manuals of the Renaissance is Thoinot Arbeau's
"Orchesographie" (1589). In this work Arbeau explains the social necessity of
dance to his student Capriol (translated from French):
"Capriol: I much enjoyed fencing
and tennis, and this placed me upon friendly terms with ypoung men. But,
without knowledge of dancing, I could not please the damsels, upon whom, it
seems to me, the entire reputation of an eligible young man depends.
Arbeau: You are
quite right, as naturally the male and female seek one another, and nothing
does more to stimulate a man to acts of courtesy, honor, and generosity than
love. And if you desire to marry you must realize that a mistress is won by the
good temper and grace displayed while dancing, because ladies do not like to be
present at fencing or tennis, lest a splintered sword or a blow from a tennis
ball cause them injury...".

410 YBN
[1590 AD]
Frankfurt am Main, Germany  
409 YBN
[1591 AD]
1568) Vieta, is very good at deciphering codes. A Huguenot sympathizer, Vieta
deciphers a complex cipher of more than 500 characters used by King Philip II
of Spain in his war to defend Roman Catholicism from the Huguenots. When
Philip, assuming that the cipher could not be broken, discovered that the
French were aware of his military plans, he complained to the pope that black
magic was being employed against his country.

Vieta occupies a high administrative office under Henry IV.
Vieta is the father of
modern algebra.
Vieta prefers the word "analysis" to "algebra".
?, France  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1587) Alpini gets a Medical (Health) degree from the University of Padua, and
is a professor of Botany there in 1593.
Venice, Italy  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1613) Earliest thermometer.

The invention of the thermometer is generally credited to the Italian
mathematician-physicist Galileo Galilei (1564–1642). Galilei calls this
device a thermoscope.

In Galilei's thermometer, the changing temperature of an inverted glass vessel
produces an expansion or contraction of the air within it, which in turn
changed the level of the liquid with which the vessel's long, open-mouthed neck
is partially filled.

This device is very inaccurate (because of the changing air pressure on earth)
and Amontons 100 years later will improve the design.

This general principle will be perfected in succeeding years by experimenting
with liquids such as mercury and by providing a scale to measure the expansion
and contraction brought about in such liquids by rising and falling
Padua, Italy  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
5917) Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (CE 1562-1621), Netherlands composer.

(Oude Kerk {old church}) Amsterdam, Netherlands  
405 YBN
[1595 AD]
Scotland (presumably)  
404 YBN
[08/??/1596 AD]
1616) Fabricius is a friend of Tycho Brahe, and Kepler.
Fabricius is murdered by one of
his parisheners, who Fabricius had threatened to expose for theft. Another
story relates that after denouncing a local goose thief from the pulpit, the
accused man struck David Fabricius in the head with a shovel and killed him.
Esens, Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast Netherlands) (guess)  
404 YBN
[1596 AD]
1183) John Harrington, the inventor of the first flush toilet, writes a book
called "A New Discourse upon a Stale Subject: The Metamorphosis of Ajax" about
his invention. He publishes the book under the pseudonym of Misacmos. The book
makes political allusions to the Earl of Leicester that anger Queen Elizabeth
I, and he will be again banished from the court. The Queen's mixed feelings for
him may be the only thing that saves Harrington from being tried at Star

Somerset, England  
404 YBN
[1596 AD]
1552) The father of Rheticus was a physician who was beheaded for sorcery when
Rheticus was age 14.
Rheticus studies at Zürich where he meets Paracelsus, and
Gesner is a schoolmate.
Rheticus gets a masters degree and teaches Mathematics at the
University of Wittenberg.
Asimov describes Rheticus as "Copernicus' first disciple".
Kassa, Hungary  
404 YBN
[1596 AD]
1621) After failing to find a unique arrangement of polygons that fits known
astronomical observations (even with extra planets added to the system), Kepler
begins experimenting with 3-dimensional polyhedra. He finds that each of the
five Platonic solids can be uniquely inscribed and circumscribed by spherical
orbs; nesting these solids, each encased in a sphere, within one another would
produce six layers, corresponding to the six known planets-Mercury, Venus,
Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. By ordering the solids correctly-octahedron,
icosahedron, dodecahedron, tetrahedron, cube-Kepler finds that the spheres can
be placed at intervals corresponding (within the accuracy limits of available
astronomical observations) to the relative sizes of each planet"s path,
assuming the planets circle the Sun. Kepler also finds a formula relating the
size of each planet"s orb to the length of its orbital period: from inner to
outer planets, the ratio of increase in orbital period is twice the difference
in orb radius. However, Kepler later rejected this formula, because it is not
precise enough.

As Kepler indicates in the title, he thinks that he has revealed God"s
geometrical plan for the universe. Much of Kepler"s enthusiasm for the
Copernican system stems from his theological convictions about the connection
between the physical and the spiritual; the universe itself is an image of God,
with the Sun corresponding to the Father, the stellar sphere to the Son, and
the intervening space between to the Holy Spirit. His first manuscript of
Mysterium contains an extensive chapter reconciling heliocentrism with biblical
passages that seem to support geocentrism.
Graz, Austria  
403 YBN
[1597 AD]
Padua, Italy  
403 YBN
[1597 AD]
5902) John Dowland (CE c1563-1626), English composer, composes music for voice
and lute. Downland graduated from Oxford (1588). In the best of his 84 ayres
for voice and lute (published mainly in 4 vols., 1597, 1600, 1603, 1612),
Dowland raises the level of English song, matching perfectly in music the mood
and emotion of the verse.

London, England  
403 YBN
[1597 AD]
5907) Giovanni Gabrieli (CE c1553-1612), Italian composer, composes music
around this time and represents the highest point of the High Renaissance
Venetian school. This work "In Ecclesiis" is a good example of the "grand
concerto", a genre that combines vocal soloists with choral and instrumental

(St Mark's Cathedral) Venice, Italy  
400 YBN
[02/17/1600 AD]
1578) Giordano Bruno (CE 1548-1600), Italian philosopher, is burned alive at
the stake after a seven year trial.

Bruno might have lived had he recanted as Galileo will, but Bruno chooses not

On Feb. 8, 1600, when the death sentence is formally read to Bruno, he
addresses his judges, saying: "Perhaps your fear in passing judgment on me is
greater than mine in receiving it." Bruno is brought to the Campo de' Fiori,
his tongue in a gag, and burned alive.

One witness, Friar Celestino reports that Bruno stated that (translated) "That
there are many worlds, and all the stars are worlds, and believing that this is
the only world is supreme ignorance.". The sentence states that Bruno said that
it is "...a great blasphemy to say that bread transubstantiates into flesh".
Eight of Bruno's heresies are identified, although this document has not been
found, but if drawn from the original accusation then they probably included
the claim of belief in multiple worlds.

Bruno refuses to accept the cross held out to him at the last moment.

Some victims, such as a Scottish person, in 1595 are burned in a shirt of pitch
which is put over their naked body so that they will not die as quickly, and so
the burning before death can be as painful as possible.

Imagine what a painful, tortuous, cruel, and terrible death, being burned alive
must be. Only the most criminally, vicious, violent and sadistic human could
support inflicting that on a fellow human or any species, in particular a
nonviolent human, no matter how bad they might be.

This punishment may influence Galileo's actions before the Inquisition.

All of Giordano Bruno's works are placed on the "Index Librorum Prohibitorum"
in 1603.
Rome, Italy  
400 YBN
[1600 AD]
1564) In 1612 Fabricius does exhaustive study of chick(en) embyro.
In 1559, Fabricius
gets a medical (physician) at Padua.
In 1565, Fabricius is a professor at Padua.
Fabricius is
a pupil of Fallopius.
The English anatomist William Harvey is Fabricius' pupil.
Padua, Italy (presumably)  
400 YBN
[1600 AD]
1571) Gilbert gets a medical (health) degree from Cambridge in 1569.
Gilbert is the
president of the college of physicians in London in 1600.
In 1601 Gilbert is
appointed court physician to Queen Elizabeth I at 100 pounds/year.
Gilbert follows the work
of Peter Peregrinus.
London, England (presumably)  
398 YBN
[1602 AD]
1594) Sanctorius, is the Latin name of Santorio.
Sanctorius earns a medical Degree from
the University of Padua in 1582.
Sanctorius is the physician to King Sigismund III of
Poland for 14 years
In 1611 Sanctorius teaches at the University of Padua.
(thought about
80,000 different possible diseases?)
Padua, Italy (presumably)  
398 YBN
[1602 AD]
5915) Giulio Caccini (CE 1545-1618) Italian composer and singer composes

(Medici court) Florence, Italy  
398 YBN
[1602 AD]
(Medici court) Florence, Italy  
397 YBN
[1603 AD]
1193) Sir Henry Platt in England suggested that coal might be charred in a
manner analogous to the way charcoal is produced from wood. This will
eventually lead to the use of coke in a less costly production of steel that
does not depend on wood. Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from
low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal
containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. Bituminous coal is an organic
sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and submetamorphic compression of peat
bog material.
In order to be used for industrial processes, bituminous coal must first be
"coked" to remove volatile components. Coking is achieved by heating the coal
in the absence of oxygen, which drives off volatile hydrocarbons such as
propane, benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons, and some sulfur gases. This
also drives off a considerable amount of the water contained in the bituminous
coal. Coking coal will be blended with uncoked coal for power generation. The
primary use for coking coal will be in the manufacture of steel, where carbon
must be as volatile and ash free as possible.

397 YBN
[1603 AD]
Padua, Italy (presumably)  
397 YBN
[1603 AD]
1636) Bayer is a lawyer by profession.
Bayer unsuccessfully tries to impose names from Old
and New Testament onto constellation names. That is good news, and I think it
indicates that the majority of people in astronomy and science generally form
the opposite end of the spectrum from those who strongly support religion,
which is only logical because most of the stories of religions are obvious lies
and those involved in science tend to be less easily fooled and smarter.
Later Roman
numerals will be added to the system.
Augsburg, Germany  
397 YBN
[1603 AD]
1641) Scheiner teaches Hebrew and mathematics, first at Freiburg, then at
Scheiner publishes his last work "Prodromus", a pamphlet against the
heliocentric theory which was published posthumously in 1651.
Dillingen, Germany  
397 YBN
[1603 AD]
Bologna, Italy  
396 YBN
[01/01/1604 AD]
Prague, (now: Czech Republic) (presumably)  
396 YBN
[10/??/1604 AD]
1623) Kepler used the occasion both to render practical predictions (for
example Kepler predicts the collapse of Islam and the return of Jesus to earth)
and to speculate theoretically about the universe, for example, that the star
was not the result of chance combinations of atoms and that stars are not suns.
Clearly, all major religions will collapse eventually, in my estimation around
2800 CE, however, there may always be small groups of humans that still worship
certain ancient humans as gods. It is interesting that Kepler could not grasp
the truth that stars are other suns as Nicholas Krebs of Cusa had correctly
understood and publicly recorded earlier.
Prague, (now: Czech Republic) (presumably)  
396 YBN
[1604 AD]
396 YBN
[1604 AD]
Prague, (now: Czech Republic) (presumably)  
395 YBN
[1605 AD]
1590) Francis Bacon is not related to Roger Bacon 350 years before.
Bacon studies law
at Cambridge.
In 1584 Bacon enters Parliament.
Bacon is the confidential aide to the earl of Essex.
Essex' abortive attempt of 1601 to seize the Queen and force her dismissal of
his rivals, Bacon, views Essex as a traitor, tries and convicts Essex for
treason, and Essex is executed.
In 1621 Bacon is accused of taking bribes as
judge, and evidence is overwhelming.
Some claim Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays
because Bacon was educated and Shakespeare was not, and Bacon writes in Latin,
(where Shakespeare apparently does not?).
Bacon accepts astrology.
Bacon rejects the sun-centered
Harvey describes Bacon as writing about science "like a lord chancellor".
London, England (presumably)  
395 YBN
[1605 AD]
Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
394 YBN
[1606 AD]
Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
394 YBN
[1606 AD]
1589) Libavius is the Latinized "Libau".
Libavius gets a Medical (Health
Science/Physician) Degree at the University of Jena in 1581.
Libavius is professor of
history and poetry at the University of Jena from 1586 to 1591 and then becomes
town physician and inspector of the Gymnasium at Rothenburg.

Libavius founds a school (the Gymnasium Casimirianum) in Coburg in 1605.
394 YBN
[1606 AD]
393 YBN
[1607 AD]
Mantua, Italy  
392 YBN
[1608 AD]
1618) Telescope and microscope.

Hans Lippershey (LiPRsE) (CE 1570-1619), spectacle maker from the United
Netherlands, is traditionally credited with inventing the telescope (1608).

Lippershey places a double convex lens (the "object glass") at the farther end
of a tube, and a double concave lens (the "eyepiece") at the nearer end.

This is a refracting telescope, which spreads light out using two transparent

Lippershey applies to the States General of the Netherlands for a 30-year
patent for his instrument, which he called a kijker ("looker"), or else an
annual pension, in exchange for which Lippershey offers not to sell telescopes
to foreign kings. Two other claimants to the invention come forward, Jacob
Metius and Sacharias Jansen. The States General rules that no patent should be
granted because so many people know about the device and that it is so easy to
copy. However, the States General grants Lippershey 900 florins for the
instrument but required its modification into a binocular device.

An interesting truth is that a telescope and microscope are the same thing in
that they take light from a small area and spread it out into a larger area.
One difference is that a telescope draws from a larger area. There is not as
much interest in humans taking light from a large space and compacting it
together into a small area.
391 YBN
[08/??/1609 AD]
Venice, Italy  
391 YBN
[12/??/1609 AD]
Venice, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
(University of Pisa) Pisa, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
(University of Padua) Padua, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
?, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1619) German astronomer, Johannes Kepler (CE 1571-1630) shows that planets move
in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse.

After the astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) dies, although there is a
political struggle with Tycho’s heirs, Kepler is ultimately able to work with
Tycho's astronomical data which is accurate to within 2′ of arc. With this
precise data Kepler is able to discover his "first law" (1605), that Mars moves
in an elliptical orbit.

Kepler discovers three major laws of planetary motion: (1) the planets move in
elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus; (2) A line connecting a planet and
the Sun will sweep over equal areas in equal times (the “area law”)- this
means the closer a planet is to the Sun, the faster the planet will move
according to a fixed and calculable rule; and (3) there is an exact
relationship between the squares of the planets’ periodic times and the cubes
of the radii of their orbits (the “harmonic law”).

Kepler does not publish his discoveries until 1609 in the "Astronomia Nova"
(New Astronomy).

In 1618 Kepler's mother, who dabbles in the occult, is arrested as a witch, and
although not tortured, does not survive long after her release, which is
obtained through the long-term efforts of Johan.
Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of
Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center)  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of
Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center)  
390 YBN
[01/??/1610 AD]
1605) Moons of Jupiter seen and their period determined by Galileo Galilei.

Galileo finds that planet Jupiter has four moons, visible only by telescope,
that circle Jupiter with regular motions. Within a few weeks Galileo determines
the periods of each moon. In addition, Galileo is the first to see that planet
Venus has phases like the moon.

Galileo also finds many more stars can be seen with the telescope than with the
naked eye.

Galileo describes these earth-shaking finds in a little book, "Sidereus
Nuncius" ("The Sidereal Messenger").

Kepler will call these moons "satellites" and they are known as the "Galilean
satellites". These moons are Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.

Jupiter and it's moons is an example of small bodies orbiting a large body and
this is evidence in support of the sun-centered theory, and is definite proof
that not all bodies orbit the Earth.

Galileo is first to see that the planets appear as globes, but the stars
appears as points, and concludes that the stars must be very far away, and that
the universe may be infinitely large.
Venice, Italy  
390 YBN
[1610 AD]
1624) In this work Kepler speculates, among other things, that the distances of
the newly discovered Jovian moons might agree with the ratios of the rhombic
dodecahedron, triacontahedron, and cube. (Of course the theory of perfect
solids is wrong.)
Prague, (now: Czech Republic) (presumably)  
390 YBN
[1610 AD]
Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
389 YBN
[06/??/1611 AD]
1617) Dutch astronomer, Johannes Fabricius (FoBrisEuS) (CE 1587-1615), is the
first to show that the Sun has spots and rotates around its own axis.

Johannes (1587-1615) returns from a university in the Netherlands with
telescopes that he and his father David use (in addition to a camera obscura)
to observe the Sun.

Seeing sunspots on the eastern edge of the disk, steadily move to the western
edge, disappear, then reappear at the east again suggests that the Sun rotates
on its axis, which had been postulated before but never backed up with

Fabricius (FoBrisEuS) publishes this discovery in "Narratio de maculis in sole
observatis et apparente earum cum sole conversione" ("Account of Spots Observed
on the Sun and of Their Apparent Rotation with the Sun", 1611).
Esens, Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast Netherlands) (guess)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
??, Germany  
388 YBN
[01/12/1612 AD]
1642) This book is responsible for an unpleasant argument between Scheiner and
Galileo Galilei.
Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany (presumably)  
388 YBN
[1612 AD]
Padua, Italy (presumably)  
388 YBN
[1612 AD]
(Collegio Romano) Rome, Italy  
387 YBN
[1613 AD]
Florence, Italy  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
1584) Scottish mathematician, John Napier (nAPER) invents exponential notation
and logarithms.

Napier describes his invention in his book "Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis
Descriptio" ("Description of the Marvelous Canon of Logarithms").

Napier invents exponential notation (in 1594), finding that all numbers can be
expressed in exponential form. That is, 4 can be written as 22, while 8 can be
written as 23, and 5, 6, and 7 can be written as 2 to some fractional power
between 2 and 3. Napier finds that once numbers can be written in such
exponential form, multiplication can be done by adding exponents, and division
can be done by subtracting exponents. In this way, multiplication and division
are as simple as addition and subtraction.

Napier's tables of logarithms are very popular.
Scotland (presumably)  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
Padua, Italy (presumably)  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
1638) Marius is "Mayer" latinized.
Marius studies astronomy under Tycho Brahe.
Marius studies
medicine in Italy.
Marius publishes one of Galileo's books under a different author's
name. (purpose?)
Marius claims to have seen the Jupiter moons in 1609 before Galileo.
??, Germany  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
(Magdeburg, Kassel, Halle, Dresden) Germany  
385 YBN
[1615 AD]
5909) Orlando Gibbons (CE 1583-1625), English composer, composes music.
(Chapel Royal) London, England  
385 YBN
[1615 AD]
5920) Heinrich Schütz (CE 1585-1672), German composer, composes mostly sacred
vocal music at this time. Schütz is the greatest German composer of the 1600s
and the first recognized internationally. His output is almost exclusively
sacred. Schütz sets mainly biblical texts and composes the first German opera
"Dafne" (1627).

(electoral court) Dresden, Germany  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1608) Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 incorrectly state that
"the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved." Psalm 104:5 says, "the
Lord set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved." Ecclesiastes 1:5
states that "the sun rises and the sun sets, and hurries back to where it

Before this, in 1613 Galileo wrote a letter to his student Benedetto Castelli
(1528-1643) in Pisa about the problem of squaring the Copernican theory with
certain biblical passages. Inaccurate copies of this letter were sent by
Galileo's enemies to the Inquisition in Rome, and Galileo had to retrieve the
letter and send an accurate copy.

Also earlier, several Dominican fathers in Florence lodged complaints against
Galileo in Rome, and Galileo went to Rome to defend the Copernican cause and
his good name. Before leaving, he finished an expanded version of the letter to
Castelli, now addressed to the grand duke's mother and good friend of Galileo,
the dowager Christina. In his Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, Galileo
discussed the problem of interpreting biblical passages with regard to
scientific discoveries but, except for one example, did not actually interpret
the Bible.

The people appointed pope always take an alias, perhaps to cover their tracks
when they routinely dispense injustice and idiocy. but probably more likely to
make them appear to be transformed, not a regular human anymore.
Rome, Italy  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1644) English Physician, William Harvey (CE 1578-1657), understands the
circulatory system; that the heart is a muscle that contracts to push blood
out, that blood can only move in one direction in blood vessels (not back and
forth as Galen had believed), and that blood moves in a circle from the heart
to the arteries, from the arteries to the veins, and through the veins back to
the heart.
Harvey is the first to propose that the heart is a muscle that propels blood
out on a circular course through the body, leaving through arteries and
returning to the heart through veins. From dissection Harvey understands that
the valves separating the two upper chambers (auricles) from the two lower
chambers (ventricles) are one way valves. Blood can move from auricle to
ventricle but not the other way. Fabricius had recognized that there are
one-way values in the veins too, blood in the veins can only travel toward the
heart and not away from it. When Harvey ties an artery, it is the side toward
the heart that bulges with blood. When he ties off a vein, the side away from
the heart bulges. Harvey is the first to recognize that blood moves in one
direction only, not back and forth in the vessels (arteries and veins) as Galen
had believed. Harvey also notes that blood spurts from a cut artery at the same
time as muscular contractions of the heart.

In this year at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, in London, Harvey gives the first
of his Lumleian Lectures before the Royal College of Physicians, the manuscript
notes of which contain the first account of blood circulation.

Some consider Harvey the founder of modern physiology.

The functioning of the heart and the circulation had remained almost at a
standstill ever since the time of the Greco-Roman physician Galen, 1,400 years
earlier. Harvey's courage, penetrating intelligence, and precise methods are to
set the pattern for research in biology and other sciences for succeeding
generations. William Harvey and William Gilbert, the investigator of the magnet
are credited with initiating accurate experimental research in this early
modern period.
William, is the oldest of nine children.
Harvey gets a degree from Cambridge in 1597 at
age 19.
Harvey takes medical (health science) courses at the University of Padua
(simov claims that since Mondino 300 years before, the University of Padua
remained as best medical (physician) school on earth), where Harvey studies
with Fabricius ab Aquapendente and others.
Harvey gets a Medical degree in 1602.
Harvey then
returns to England, marries, and creates a successful practice.
Harvey makes news by
examining and exonerating several suspected witches and by performing a
postmortem examination on Thomas Parr, who is reputed to have lived 152 years.
is a staunch royalist.
Harvey is court physician to James I, and Charles I until Charles
I is beheaded in 1649.
Harvey is the doctor of Francis Bacon.
By 1616, Harvey has dissected
80 different species of animal.
Harvey survives the English Civil War, although
revolutionaries do break into his home and destroy some notes and specimens.
cartes supports Harvey's theory of blood circulation.
In 1653 appears the first
English edition of De motu cordis, and Harvey's genius is fully recognized.
Harvey gives buildings and a library to the Royal College of Physicians. This
library is in use for less than 14 years, being destroyed in the Great Fire of
London in 1666, so that very few of Harvey's books have survived to the present
In 1654, Harvey is elected president of the College of Physicians, but declines
the privilege, preferring to spend his last years in peace.
London, England  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1654) Baffin thinks that no such path exists.
Asimov claims that only for special ice
breaking ships is it possible (to move directly over the top of the earth by
ship). Is there some short path from Europe to India over the north pole? Is
there water under the north pole?
Baffin Bay  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1831) Niccolò Zucchi (CE 1586-1670) builds the earliest known reflecting

This telescope is before the telescopes of James Gregory and Isaac Newton.

A reflecting telescope focuses light reflected off a parabolic shaped (concave)
mirror instead of through a lens. These telescopes remove the problem of
"chromatic aberration", found in the glass lens refracting telescopes.
Chromatic aberration is the way light is separated into it's component colors
when refracted, this causes objects to appear to be blurred and have colored
edges. The reflecting telescope has the two advantages of no light being
absorbed by the glass lens (or reflected back away from the viewer), and
eliminates the chromatic aberration effect.

With this telescope Zucchi discovers the (cloud) belts of the planet Jupiter
(1630) and examines the spots on Mars (1640).
Rome, Italy  
383 YBN
[1617 AD]
1592) Briggs gets a Masters at Cambridge in 1585, and lectures in 1592.
In 1596
Briggs is a professor of geometry at Greshman College in London.
London, England (preumably)  
383 YBN
[1617 AD]
Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
383 YBN
[1617 AD]
Venice, Italy (presumably)  
381 YBN
[1619 AD]
Linz, Austria  
381 YBN
[1619 AD]
Innsbruck, Austria  
381 YBN
[1619 AD]
1656) Cysat is a pupil of Scheiner, enters Jesuit order in 1604 and becomes a
Cysat is professor of mathematics at the Jesiut college of Ingolstadt in
In 1611 Cysat is an early user of the telescope.
Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany  
380 YBN
[08/??/1620 AD]
Linz, Austria  
380 YBN
[1620 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
379 YBN
[1621 AD]
1651) Dutch mathematician, Willebrord von Roijen Snell (CE 1580-1626),
identifies the law of refraction.

Snell proves that the angle of light passing from one material into a material
of different density is not related to the angle of the light with the surface
as Ptolemy thought, but is related to the sine of the angle. This law is called
Snell's law.

Snell's law was first described in a formal manuscript in a 984 CE writing by
Ibn Sahl, who used it to work out the shapes of lenses that focus light with no
geometric aberrations, known as anaclastic lenses.

It was described again by Thomas Harriot in 1602, who did not publish his

Snell produces a new method for calculating π, the first such improvement
since ancient times.

The index of refraction of some substance varies depending on the wavelength of
the light, in other words the amount a beam of light is bent in some substance
varies depending on the wavelength of the light.
In many media, wave velocity
changes with frequency or wavelength of the wave moving through it. This is
called dispersion. The result is that the angles determined by Snell's law also
depend on frequency or wavelength, so that a ray of mixed wavelengths, such as
white light, will spread or disperse. Such dispersion of light in glass or
water underlies the origin of rainbows, and also is the basis of glass prisms
(or else all the beams of white light would pass through the prism
unseparated), since different wavelengths appear as different colors.

In optical instruments, dispersion leads to chromatic aberration, a
color-dependent blurring that sometimes is the resolution-limiting effect. This
was especially true in refracting telescopes, before the invention of
achromatic objective lenses.
Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
379 YBN
[1621 AD]
1662) In 1616 Gassendi gets a docterate in theology.
Gassendi's work will affect Boyle.
vigorously opposes Descartes' view, and Harvey's theory of blood circulation.
Gassendi is
friends with the French playwright Moliére.
In 1645 Gassendi is a professor of
Mathematics at the Collége Royale at Paris.

Even though the Paris parliament declares in 1624 that on penalty of death "no
person should either hold or teach any doctrine opposed to Aristotle," Gassendi
publishes in the same year his "Excertitationes...adversus Aristoteleos"
("Dissertations...against Aristotle"), the first of his many works attacking
both medieval Scholasticism and Aristotelianism. Because Marin Mersenne and the
Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) are Catholic priests they do not suffer
persecution, for their published attacks on Aristotle, but those judged to be
heretics continue to be burned, and laymen lack church protection.

Adopting the hedonistic ethics of Epicurus, which sought to maximize pleasure
and minimize pain, Gassendi reinterpreted the concept of pleasure in a
distinctly Christian way. Gassendi believes that God endowed humans with free
will and an innate desire for pleasure. Therefore by experiencing pleasure they
are participating in God's divine plans for the creation.
Paris, France (presumably)  
378 YBN
[1622 AD]
1639) Oughtred was educated at Eton College and at King's College, Cambridge,
where he received his bachelor's degree (1596) and master's degree (1600).
Albury, Surrey, England (presumably)  
377 YBN
[1623 AD]
Florence, Italy (presumably)  
377 YBN
[1623 AD]
Linz, Austria  
376 YBN
[1624 AD]
London, England   
376 YBN
[1624 AD]
Rome, Italy  
376 YBN
[1624 AD]
Paris, France  
376 YBN
[1624 AD]
6241) Submarine.

Cornelis Drebbel (1572-1633), a Dutch inventor, is usually credited with
building the first submarine. Between 1620 and 1624 he successfully maneuvers
his craft at depths of from 4 to 5 meters beneath the surface during repeated
trials in the Thames River, in England. King James I is said to have gone
aboard the craft for a short ride. Drebbel's submarine resembles that proposed
earlier by William Bourne in 1578, in that its outer hull consists of greased
leather over a wooden frame; oars extend through the sides and, sealed with
tight-fitting leather flaps, providing a means of propulsion both on the
surface and underwater. Drebbel's first craft is followed by two larger ones
built on the same principle.
Thames River, England  
373 YBN
[1627 AD]
Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia  
373 YBN
[1627 AD]
Ulm, Germany  
372 YBN
[1628 AD]
1645) Harvey's book makes him famous throughout Europe, though the overthrow of
so many traditional beliefs attracts virulent attacks and abuse from lesser
minds. Harvey refuses to indulge in controversy and makes no reply until 1649,
when he publishes a small book answering the criticisms of a French anatomist,
Jean Riolan.
London, England printed in: Frankfurt, Germany  
371 YBN
[1629 AD]
1672) Cavalieri joins the Jesuit order in 1615.
In 1629, Cavalieri is appointed
professor of mathematics of the University of Bologna
Cavaliei meets Galileo,
corresponds with and considers himself a disciple of Galileo.
written: Bologna, Italy  
370 YBN
[1630 AD]
1649) Wendelin is also known by the Latin name Vendelinus.
Belgium (presumably)  
370 YBN
[1630 AD]
Rome, Italy  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
Arundel, West Sussex, England (presumably)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
Ornans, France (presumably: birth and death location)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1663) Gassendi is the first person to see the transit of a planet across the
face of the Sun. This transit is predicted by Kepler, and arrives within 5
hours of Kepler's estimated time. One reason for these variable times are the
incalculable affects, such as the movement of liquids such as water, and metals
that planets and stars are composed of, in addition to the many asteroids which
exert small gravitational affects. A perfect system of planetary and star
prediction appears to be impossible, and because the affects of uncountable
atoms and molecules can not be accurately calculated, estimates of position for
all larger composite pieces of matter must be constantly updated.
Paris, France (presumably)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1664) Gassendi is the first person to measure the velocity of sound, and shows
that the velocity of sound is independent of its pitch. Aristotle had claimed
that high notes travel faster than low notes.

Gassendi measures the time difference between spotting the flash of a gun and
hearing it the sound over a long distance on a still day. In the 1650s, Italian
physicists Giovanni Alfonso Borelli and Vincenzo Viviani obtained the much
better value of 350 metres per second using the same technique.10]

Gassendi obtains the too high figure of about 478 meters per second (1,570 feet
per second). (actual units) The current estimate for the speed of sound in for
dry air at 0 degrees C is 331.29 meters per second (1,086 feet per second 742
Paris, France (presumably)  
368 YBN
[1632 AD]
Venice, Italy  
367 YBN
[06/22/1633 AD]
Rome, Italy  
367 YBN
[1633 AD]
1666) French Philosopher and mathematician, René Descartes (CE 1596-1650)
(DAKoRT) describes the law of inertia (a body preserves its motion) and
compares light to a ball.

Descartes book "Le Monde ou Traité de la lumière" ("The World or Treatise on
Light") includes the earliest clear statement of the principle of inertia, that
a body will preserve its state of motion or rest.

Also in this book, Descartes compares reflection of light to reflection of a
ball against the wall of a tennis court, but does not explicitly state that
light is made of particles. Newton will use the example of a tennis ball in
being the first to publish the clearly stated theory of light being made of
globular bodies in 1672.

Descartes supressed both "Traite de l'homme" and "Traite de lumiere" after the
condemnation of Galileo in 1633.
Netherlands (presumably)  
366 YBN
[1634 AD]
Paris, France (presumably)  
366 YBN
[1634 AD]
London, England  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1657) Mersenne is a schoolmate of Descarte, but goes on to enter the church,
joining the Minim Friars in 1611.
Mersenne suggests to Huygens the idea of timing
rolling bodies down a plane by use of a pendulum, which inspires Huygens to
invent the first pendulum clock.
Mersenne's house is an important meeting-place for
philosophers and scientists: the young Pascal met Descartes there in 1647.
Gassendi is one of his close friends. Mersenne is associated with the origins
of mechanistic philosophy.
Paris, France (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1660) Frequencies of sounds measured.

Marin Mersenne (mRSeN) (CE 1588-1648), French Mathematician, publishes the
multipart "Harmonie universelle" (1636-37), which discusses mechanics, as well
as music theory and musical instruments, and includes the first recorded
measurement of frequency of sound (84 cycles per second).

Mersenne writes: "If one compares two or more strings fixed by the two ends,
one can say that the longest one vibrates a longer time than the shortest, and
that the length of time follows that of the strings; and because the longest
make fewer returns {ULSF: oscillations} than the shortest in the same time, it
appears that all the strings which are different only in length each make as
many retyrns as the others, and consequently that the duration of the returns
of the longest makes up for the speed of those of the shortest, which amass in
little time what the longest makes in more. It is very easy to know the number
of beats or oscillations of all the strings of whatever instrument one wishes,
if one has understood what I have said of these tremblings...the string which
is in unison with a four-foot, open organ pipe makes 48 vibrations in ..a
second, which is the duration of a heart beat... Secondly, that the vibrations
of a strings are multiplied in the same proportion as the sounds become higher
in pitch; and consequently when one knows the number of vibrations of a string,
the pitch of which one knows, one knows as well the number of vibrations of all
sorts of strings, the pitches of which one recognizes.".

Usually A above middle C is taken as a reference pitch. The frequency used for
A, since 1939 440 vibrations per second (440 Hertz), has changed many times
over the years. Marsenne describes this A at 480 vibrations per second, but it
has been as low as 415 vibrations per second.
Paris, France (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1669) In 1623 Gellibrand gets his Masters at Oxford.
Gellibrand is a Professor of
astronomy at Gresham College in 1627.
Gellibrand is a friend of Briggs.
In 1631 Gellibrand
gets in trouble for puritan views with Anglican people but is acquitted.
?, England  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
written: Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
London, England  
364 YBN
[1636 AD]
1219) Havard College is now the undergraduate section and oldest school of
Harvard University.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
364 YBN
[1636 AD]
1697) Gascoigne dies in the English Civil War as a royalist for King Charles I.
363 YBN
[1637 AD]
Florence, Italy  
363 YBN
[1637 AD]
1668) René Descartes (CE 1596-1650) (DAKoRT) describes the Cartesian
coordinate system, where points are plotted on at two dimensional graph, in "La
Géométrie" ("Geometry") which is published as an appendix to "Discours de la
méthode" ("Discourse on Method").

The Cartesian coordinate system is the familiar two dimensional graph where
points on a plane can be drawn, x along a horizontal line, and y along a
vertical line, in order to plot curves. Descartes is the first to recognize
that every point in a plane can be represented by two numbers, for example
(-2,3), which can represent two units left and three units up. This makes a new
way to visualize mathematical functions such as y=2x+3. This connects algebra
and geometry.
Netherlands (presumably)  
363 YBN
[1637 AD]
Netherlands (presumably)  
362 YBN
[1638 AD]
Leiden, Netherlands and Florence, Italy  
362 YBN
[1638 AD]
361 YBN
[1639 AD]
Quebec, New France (modern Canada)  
361 YBN
[1639 AD]
Paris, France (presumably)  
361 YBN
[1639 AD]
1708) Jeremiah Horrocks (CE 1618-1641), is the first human to observe the
transit of Venus.

Horrocks suggests that (by recording the time) of the Venus transit from
various observatories around the earth, the parallax of Venus can be measured.
This parallax can then be used to understand the scale of the star system. This
eventually will be done.

Horrocks is first to show that the moon moves around the earth in an ellipse
with the earth at one focus, which Kepler did not understand.

From Kepler's recently published Rudolphine Tables (1627), Horrocks works out
that a transit of Venus is due on November 24th, 1639 at 3 p.m.

Horrocks will record an account of this day in his "Venus in Sole Visa" ("Venus
in the Face of the Sun"), printed posthumously by Hevelius in 1662. The day is
cloudy but at 3.15, "as if by divine interposition" the clouds disperse.
Horrocks notes a spot of unusual size on the solar disc and begins to trace its
path. Horrocks then writes, "she was not visible to me longer than half an
hour, on account of the Sun quickly setting."

Horrocks corrects the Rudolphine tables of Kepler's in regard to the transit of

Horrocks also attempts to determine the solar parallax calculating 15",
compared with a modern value of 8".8. Horrocks estimates the distance of the
Sun from the Earth more correctly than anyone else had done before.

Horrocks is the first astronomer to accept Kepler's elliptical orbits fully.

Horrocks is the first of record to understand that the irregularities in the
orbit of the Moon might be the result of the Sun, and that Jupiter and Saturn
might exert an influence on each other. This is a preview of the theory of
universal gravitation that will be first understood by Newton.
Hoole, Lancashire, England (presumably)  
360 YBN
[1640 AD]
Paris, France (presumably)  
360 YBN
[1640 AD]
1700) In 1627 Wilkens enters Oxford at age 13.
In 1634 Wilkens earns a masters
degree at age 20, and is ordained a priest few years later.
Wilkens marries the sister
of Oliver Cromwell.
Wilkens is the only person to have headed a college at both the
University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge.
Wilkens serves as Bishop of Chester
from 1668 until his death.
360 YBN
[1640 AD]
1718) Pascal is an infant prodigy in math and science.
In 1648 Pascal will adopt
Jansenism (a Roman Catholic sect founded by Cornelius Jansen, emphasizing
original sin, that is that all humans are born sinful, and without divine help
a human can never become good. Jansenism is marked by strong anti-Jesuit
feeling, Jesuits are a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Saint Ignatius
of Loyola, whose members are sometimes refered to as the "soliers of Christ"
and the "foot soldiers of the Pope"), and turns to religious writing, including
"Pensées" ("thoughts") (published posthumously). In "Pensées" Pascal states
his belief in the inadequacy of reason to solve man's difficulties or to
satisfy his hopes and preaches instead the necessity of mystic faith for true
understanding of the universe and its meaning to man. In his last years Pascal
declares reason an insufficient tool to understanding the universe and Asimov
says he had thus retreated beyond Thales.

Pascal writes 18 Lettres provinciales (Provincial Letters)(January 1656-March
1657) against the Jesuits using the pseudonym Louis de Montalte and angers
Louis XIV. The king orders that the book be shredded and burnt in 1660. The
first ten letters constitute a dialog between a naïve enquirer (presented as
the writer of the letters), a friendly Jansenist, and some Jesuit priests. The
letters are popular, and will be placed on the Catholic Church's Index of
Prohibited Books in 1657.

Pascal's sister Gilberte tells of his asceticism, of his dislike of seeing her
caress her children, and of his apparent revulsion from talk of feminine

One of Pascal's famous quotes is Pascal's wager: "Belief is a wise wager.
Granted that faith cannot be proved, what harm will come to you if you gamble
on its truth and it proves false? If you gain, you gain all; if you lose, you
lose nothing. Wager, then, without hesitation, that He exists." In my own view,
it is idiocy and delusion to support the idea of a god, because it is such an
easily concept to disprove, being that humans only recently evolved language,
and created numerous gods...it's like living for the teapot that might be
orbiting Mars...it's idiocy, and all the evidence is against any kind of divine
punishment for not conforming to popular religious myths and claims. This shows
clearly that Pascal, like so many in history, lacked the wisdom and education
to see beyond the claims of religions. The arrogance of those who claim to know
what a god is and wants is almost as bad as the myth of gods itself. I am glad
to be one of the few humans in this time, who will be recognized as not being
duped by religions including the all-popular and powerful Godism.

Pascal suffers increasingly after 1658 from head pains, and dies on in 1662 at
age 39.
18 months before Pascal's death, he devises a system of cheap public
transport for Paris, the so-called ‘carrosses à cinq sols".
Paris, France (presumably)  
359 YBN
[1641 AD]
1698) Sylvius gets his Medical (health science/physician) degree from Basel,
In 1658, Sylvius is a professor of medicine at the University of Leiden.
Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
359 YBN
[1641 AD]
Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
359 YBN
[1641 AD]
6244) Repeating gun.

A repeating rifle is a firearm designed for use with a magazine of cartridges,
each of which is fed into the chamber or breech by lever, bolt action, or some
other method. Before the invention of the cartridge that contains powder, ball,
and primer, a repeater has to have separate magazines for powder and ball.
Alternative arrangements are multiple barrels, multiple breeches, and the
loading of several shots into one barrel and igniting the outermost charge,
which would eject its ball and ignite the next charge. The first effective
breech-loading and repeating flintlock firearms are developed in the early

In this year, 1641, Peter Kalthoff is granted a monopoly on magazine guns in
the Netherlands.

(At some time, the light particle as ammunition, and microscopic remote
controlled gun became the most effective and dominant weapon on Earth,
surpassing the hand-held automatic ballistic gun.)
358 YBN
[1642 AD]
Rouen, France (presumably)  
358 YBN
[1642 AD]
New Zealand  
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
1190) Traditionally George Fox has been credited as the founder or the most
important early figure.
Rome, Italy  
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
Belgium (presumably)  
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
1692) Earliest vacuum.

Italian physicist, Evangelista Torricelli (TORriceLlE) (CE 1608-1647), is the
first human to create a sustained vacuum.

Galileo observed that a hollow cylinder with a piston in a pool of water does
not pull water up completely in the cylinder as is expected, but can only draw
water up into the cylinder 10m (30 feet) above the water level, further pumping
has no effect, the weight of the air pushes the water no higher. Torricelli
investigates this and tries a heavier fluid, filling a 4 foot glass tube closed
at one end with mercury (a liquid at room temperature with a density 13.5 times
water), and closes the other end with a stopper. Torricelli then turns the tube
over and puts it into a pool of Mercury. When the stopper is removed, the
mercury pours out of the tube, but 30 inches of mercury remain in the tube,
supported by the pressure of the air outside the tube pushing down on the dish
of liquid mercury. The weight of the air is presumed to be the reason the
column of Mercury appears to defy gravity. Above the column of mercury in the
tube is a vacuum of empty space (except for small quantities of Mercury vapor).
This is the first human made vacuum. Torricelli notices that the height of the
Mercury in the glass tube changes slightly from day to day, and he correctly
attributes this to a change in pressure of the atmosphere. (The pressure
exerted by one millimeter of mercury is called a Torricelli in his honor). That
air has a finite weight means that it has a finite height, and that the
atmosphere does not extend indefinitely up. In addition, this hints that the
depths of space must be empty space (a vacuum).

This device is also the first barometer, a measure of pressure exerted by air.
Florence, Italy  
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
6322) Claudio (Giovanni Antonio) Monteverdi (CE 1567-1643), Italian composer,
composes the Opera "Incoronazione di Poppea" ("The Coronation of Poppea").
Venice, Italy  
356 YBN
[1644 AD]
1658) Paris, France (presumably)  
356 YBN
[1644 AD]
1694) A member of a noble family of Gdansk, Hevelius is a city councilor and a
brewer. After studying at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands, Hevelius
returns to Gdansk and builds his observatory atop his house.

Hevelius' surname appears in various spellings, among them Hevel, Hewel,
Hewelcke, and Höwelcke.
356 YBN
[1644 AD]
Netherlands (presumably)  
355 YBN
[1645 AD]
1844) French astronomer, librarian and mathematician, Ismaël Bullialdus (CE
1605-1694) recognizes that the strength that the Sun holds the planets with
decreases by the distance squared.

Bullialdus writes: "As for the power by which the Sun seizes or holds the
planets, and which, being corporeal, functions in the manner of hands, it is
emitted in straight lines throughout the whole extent of the world, and like
the species of the Sun, it turns with the body of the Sun. Now, given that it
is corporeal, it becomes weaker, and attenuates at a greater distance and
interval, and the ratio of its decrease in strength is the same as in the case
of light, namely, the duplicate proportion of the distance, but inversely.
Kepler does not deny this, yet he claims the motive power decreases only in
direct proportion to the distance. Furthermore, Kepler claims this attenuation
in the motive power produces a weakening of the power only in longitude,
because local motion impressed by the Sun on the planets (which motion
similarly animates the corporeal parts of the Sun itself) occurs only in
longitude, not in latitude. In response to this Kepler offsets the inadequacy
of this analogy by increasing the quantity matter in the slower planets."
Paris, France  
354 YBN
[1646 AD]
Rome, Italy (presumably)  
354 YBN
[1646 AD]
Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
353 YBN
[1647 AD]
written: Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
353 YBN
[1647 AD]
352 YBN
[09/19/1648 AD]
Rouen, France (presumably)  
352 YBN
[1648 AD]
1189) Traditionally George Fox has been credited as the founder or the most
important early figure.
352 YBN
[1648 AD]
1648) In 1634 Helmont is called before the Inquisition for claiming saintly
relics exhibit their effects through magnetic influence. Ecclesiastical court
proceedings of one sort or another were pending against Helmont for more than
20 years.
Vilvoorde, Belgium  
352 YBN
[1648 AD]
1686) Glauber sells many products (including sodium sulfate) as "cure-alls".
In 1648 Glauber
moves to Amsterdam and into the house last owned by an alchemist.
Glauber greatly admires
Glauber believes in some of the mystical belief associated with alchemy in
being a firm believer in the so-called "philosophers' stone" and "elixir of
Glauber possibly died as result of working with harmful chemicals.
Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
351 YBN
[05/19/1649 AD]
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1670) Riccioli is an Italian astronomer and Jesuit priest who publicly rejects
the sun-centered theory.
Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1675) Kircher receives a Jesuit education, and is ordained a priest in 1628.
leaves the fighting in Germany (part of the Thirty Years' War) and, after
various academic positions at Avignon, France, settles in 1634 in Rome.
writes against the Copernican model in his "Magnes" (supporting instead the
model of Tycho Brahe), but in his later "Itinerarium extaticum" (1656, revised
1671) Kircher presented several systems, including the Copernican, as
alternative possibilities.

Kircher assembles one of the first natural history collections, that will forms
the nucleus of the museum that bears his name, the "Museo Kircheriano" at Rome.
Rome, Italy (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1683) German physicist, Otto von Guericke (GAriKu) (CE 1602-1686) constructs
the first air pump and uses it to produce a vacuum chamber in which he examines
the role of air in combustion and respiration.

This air pump is like a waterpump but airtight and powered by pumping by hand.
Guericke uses the pump to create evacuated containers and shows that a ringing
bell inside the vessel can not be heard, that candles will not burn, and that
animals cannot live in a vacuum. Lavoisier 100 years later will determine the
components of air on Earth. Guericke shows that the pressure of a vacuum
pulling on a piston cannot by stopped by 50 people pulling on a rope attached
to the piston. In 1654, before Emperor Ferdinand III at Regensburg, Guericke
shows that two teams of horses cannot pull apart to semispheres connected
together with a vacuum inside, and then how adding air into the two semispheres
allows them to fall apart effortlessly.

There are two kinds of air pumps in use, mechanical and mercurial.

Guericke believes that comets are normal members of the solar system and make
periodic returns.
Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
Rouen, France (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1753) In 1653 Malpighi gets his medical degree from the University of Bologna,
and lectures mainly there and other universities in Italy.
In 1667, the Royal Society
asks Malpighi to send his scientific communications.
In 1684 Malpighi's villa is burned (as a
result of opposition to his views), his apparatus and microscopes shattered,
and his papers, books, and manuscripts are destroyed.
In 1691, Malpighi retires to Rome to
be physician to Pope Innocent XII.
Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
2017) Francis Glisson (CE 1597-1677), publishes a report "De rachitide" (1650;
On Rickets), that gives a clear description of the disease Rickets.

Rickets is a vitamin deficiency disease and will require the discovery of
vitamins by Casimir Funk in 1912.

Glisson is a member of the group that, beginning in 1645, meets regularly in
London and out of which the Royal Society will later emerge. From this
"Invisible College" as it was later known, comes one of the earliest examples
of cooperative research.

A committee of nine is created in 1645 to investigate rickets but because
Glisson's contribution far exceeds that of any other contributor, it is agreed
that Glisson should publish the report.

Like his colleague William Harvey, Glisson is a Cambridge-trained physician.

Both are dedicated to scientific experimentation and careful observation and
Glisson is a professor of physics at Cambridge for 40 years, however makes his
professional home in London.

London, England  
349 YBN
[1651 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
349 YBN
[1651 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
349 YBN
[1651 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
349 YBN
[1651 AD]
Bologna, Italy  
348 YBN
[1652 AD]
1775) Rudbeck builds up a botanical garden.
Rudbeck teaches at the medical school of
the University of Uppsala, Sweden.
Rudbeck is chancellor at age 31.
Rudbeck believes
Plato's fictional tale of Atlantis, and writes several volumes trying to prove
that Atlantis is really Scandinavia and that Sweden was the source of human
Uppsala, Sweden  
346 YBN
[1654 AD]
1693) Ferdinand II funds Steno and Galileo.
In 1657 Ferdinand II helps support the
foundation of the Accademia del Cimento.
Tuscany, Italy (presumably)  
346 YBN
[1654 AD]
Paris, France (presumably)  
346 YBN
[1654 AD]
2018) This work is based on Glisson's own dissections contributes to the
understanding of the structure and functioning of the liver.
This work includes the
most advanced physiological description of the digestive system to date.

The prevailing mechanical philosophy promotes a view of matter as completely
passive and inert, and Glisson's theory of "irritability" runs counter to this.
Because the passivity of matter is used to ensure a role for a God, Glisson's
active matter is seen as a support for atheism and for that reason Glisson's
works are attacked by the Cambridge Platonists Henry More (1586-1661) and Ralph
Cudworth (1617-1688). The idea of irritability will be picked up by Albrecht
von Haller in the following century and will find a permanent place in
London, England  
345 YBN
[03/25/1655 AD]
1763) Dutch physicist and astronomer, Christiaan Huygens (HOEGeNZ) (CE
1629-1695) identifies the first known moon of Saturn, Titan.

In this same year Huygens identifies the ring of Saturn.
Huygens had initially
been attracted to Saturn by its apparently anomalous shape, described by
Galileo as "three spheres which almost touch each other, which never change
their relative positions, and are arranged in a row along the zodiac so that
the middle sphere is three times as large as the others." Intrigued by this
peculiar shape, Huygens realized that its resolution would depend on
constructing improved telescopes, less subject to various aberrations and more
capable of producing detailed images.

Huygens announces his finding in a cipher to protect his priority while
verifying his finding further.

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and as large as any moon of Jupiter, and
will be shown to be the only moon in this star system with a dense atmosphere.

With six planets and six moons Huygens erroneously declares that there are no
more planets or moons to be found, and is proven wrong in his lifetime by
Cassini who finds 4 more moons of Saturn.

Huygens understands that Saturn will be in the same orientation as the earth
and so the rings will not be visible every 14 years.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
345 YBN
[1655 AD]
1702) This book promptly brings fame to Wallis, who is then recognized as one
of the leading mathematicians in England.

Wallis deciphers a number of cryptic messages from Royalist partisans that had
fallen into the hands of the Parliamentarians.

In the English civil war, Wallis supports the Parliamentarians against Charles
In 1649, Wallis is appointed to teach at Oxford under the Parliamentary
Wallis is nationalistic and fights against the Gregorian system in England
(which Wallis views as implying subservience to Rome) and delays this decision
by half a century.

In London, in 1647 Wallis' serious interest in mathematics begins when he reads
William Oughtred's "Clavis Mathematicae" ("The Keys to Mathematics").
(University of Oxford) Oxford, England  
345 YBN
[1655 AD]
1762) Huygens' father is an important official in the Dutch government.
Huygens is educated
at the University of Leiden.
Huygens is friends with Descartes.
From an early age, Huygens shows a
marked mechanical bent and a talent for drawing and mathematics. Some of his
early efforts in geometry impress Descartes, who was an occasional visitor to
the Huygens' household.
Huygens's first published work, on the quadrature of
various mathematical curves, appeared in 1651.
In 1663 Huygens is elected a charter
member of the Royal Society.
In 1666 Louis XIV lures Huygens to France in line with his
policy of collecting scholars for the glory of his regime.
Apart from
occasional visits to Holland, Huygens lives in Paris from 1666 to 1681.
In France
Huygens helps found the French Academy of Sciences.
In 1681 Huygens returns to the
Netherlands (Asimov suggests because he is protestant and Louis XIV is moving
in direction of intolerance of protestants).
The death in 1683 of Huygens' patron,
Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who had been Louis XIV's chief adviser, and Louis's
increasingly reactionary policy, which culminates in the revocation (1685) of
the Edict of Nantes, which had granted certain liberties to Protestants, rules
against Huygens ever returning to Paris.
Huygens visits London in 1689, meets Sir
Isaac Newton and lectures on his own theory of gravitation before the Royal
He never marries.
Unlike many men of science in the 1600s, Huygens never occupies
himself to any significant extent with either philosophy or theology, devoting
his efforts entirely to the pursuit of science.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
345 YBN
[1655 AD]
Paris, France (presumably)  
344 YBN
[03/25/1656 AD]
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
344 YBN
[1656 AD]
1716) Athanasius Kircher (KiRKR) (CE 1601-1680) is the first to explicitly
print that stars are other Suns with planets around them, which he prints in
his book "Itinerarium extaticum" (Ecstatic journey).

Huygens refers to this work of Kircher's in his 1698 "Cosmotheoros" when
reaffirming that other stars and more distant Suns with planets but correcting
Kircher by supporting the Copernican Sun-centered model.

Kircher is sometimes called the last Renaissance man, important for the large
quantity of knowledge he disseminates.
(Collegio Romano) Rome, Italy (presumably)  
344 YBN
[1656 AD]
1764) Christaan Huygens (HOEGeNZ) (CE 1629-1695) invents the first pendulum
{PeNJUluM or PeNDUluM} clock.

This first pendulum clock is described and illustrated by Huygens in his book,
'Horologium' in 1658.

Galileo had suggested the use of a pendulum to count the time. Galileo had
drawn a design of a clock which connected a pendulum to gears in his old age,
and Huygens built his pendulum clock over ten years after Galileo's death.
Huygen's design, where the dial and hands of a clock are controlled by a
pendulum, is the first truly practical pendulum clock. Huygens attaches a
pendulum to the gears of a clock. The regular swing of the pendulum allows the
clock to achieve greater accuracy, as the hands are turned by the falling
weight, which releases the same amount of energy with each tick.

Huygens shows that a pendulum does not swing in exactly equal times unless it
swings through an arc that is not quite circular but cycloid. He builds
attachments to the pendulum's fulcrum (pivot point at top) that make it swing
in the proper arc and attaches this to the works of the clock, using falling
weights to transfer just enough energy to the pendulum to keep it from coming
to a halt through friction and air resistance. Huygens presents his clock to
the Dutch governing body. This begins the era of accurate timekeeping. Asimov
indicates that it is unlikely physics could progress without such a device.

Although the pendulum clock is the most accurate such device then available,
its motion is easily disturbed by the movement of the ship at sea.

Although Huygens publishes his idea for a precision pendulum in a small booklet
titled "Horologium" in 1658, he will not produce the full theory of the
pendulum for the scientific world until the 1673 publication, "Horologium
oscillatorium sive de moto pendulorum".
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
343 YBN
[1657 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
343 YBN
[1657 AD]
1717) The academy is discontinued after ten years.

The Accademia del Cimento (Academy of Experiment), an early scientific society,
is founded in Florence.
Florence, Italy  
343 YBN
[1657 AD]
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
343 YBN
[1657 AD]
1794) Hooke is the son of a clergyman.
Hooke is an infant prodigy in mechanics.
Hooke is accepted to
Oxford in 1653 (at age 18).
Hooke is supports himself by waiting on tables.
In 1662, with
the help of Boyle, Hooke secures the job as Curator of Experiments for the
Royal Society, which he holds from (1662-1677) at £30/year plus the privilege
of lodging at Gresham College. Hooke's task is to report on and/or demonstrate
three to four major experiments to the Royal Society each week. This is the
only paid position in the Royal Society.
In 1663, Hooke is elected a member of the Royal
From 1677 to 1683 Hooke is secretary of the Royal Society.

Hooke has priority and proper credit disputes with Huygens and most famously
with Newton.

After the London fires of 1666 Hooke is involved in rebuilding projects and
never revisits the microscope.
Hooke designs many buildings including Montague House, the
Royal College of Physicians, Bedlam and Bethlehem Hospital.
Oxford, England (presumably)  
342 YBN
[1658 AD]
Rome, Italy (presumably)  
342 YBN
[1658 AD]
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
342 YBN
[1658 AD]
1804) Swammerdam is the son of an apothecary (a historical name for a medical
practitioner who formulates and dispenses health materials to physicians,
surgeons and patients, a role now served by a pharmacist).
Swammerdam studies
medicine at Leiden university, where Steno and Graaf are fellow students.
1667 Swammerdam earns his medical degree from Leiden university.
Much to Jan's father's
displeasure, Swammerdam does not practice medicine but continues his
microdissections of insects.
At some point Jan's father stop funding Jan.
In 1673 Swammerdam
meets Flemish mystic Antoinette Bourignon, and later subjects himself to the
tutelage of Bourignon and, for the most part, renounces scientific study.

Swammerdam's work is largely neglected until Hermann Boerhaave revisits and
publishes it 50 years later in 1737 in two volumes called "Biblia naturae"
(Bible of Nature).
Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
1681) Fermat is educated at home, and gets a law degree in 1631 from the
University of Orleans.
Fermat is a councilor for the Toulouse Parliament and devotes his
spare time to mathematics.
Fermat scribbles notes in margins as opposed to publishing or
writing about findings to friends.
Fermat's son publishes his notes five years
after Fermat's death.
Toulouse, France (presumably)  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
1741) Ray is the son of a blacksmith.
Ray receives his early education at the Braintree
grammar school.
In 1644, with the aid of a fund that had been left in trust to support
needy scholars at the University of Cambridge, Ray matriculates at St.
Catherine's Hall College.
In 1651 Ray earns his masters from Cambridge, and stays on as
In 1662 Ray leaves Cambridge refusing to take an oath to the restored king.
In 1671
Ray is elected as a member in the Royal Society.
Cambridge, England (presumably)  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
Bologna, Italy  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
1771) Huygens is not the first to identify the Orion Nebula, as it was already
known earlier (by an Arabic astronomer,) by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc in
1610, and Johann Cysat in 1619.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
5918) Barabara Strozzi (CE 1619-1663), Italian composer and singer, composes
music. Strozzi is one of the most successful women composers of the seventeenth
century, and is the most prolific composer of printed secular vocal music in
Venice around the middle of the century, with seven different publications,
along with one of sacred music, issued between 1644 and 1664.

340 YBN
[11/28/1660 AD]
London, England  
340 YBN
[1660 AD]
Toulouse, France (presumably)  
340 YBN
[1660 AD]
Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
340 YBN
[1660 AD]
1737) Boyle was born in Ireland into one of the wealthiest families in
Boyle is an infant prodigy.
Boyle goes to Eaton at 8 and is speaking Greek and Latin.
At 14,
Boyle lives in Italy studying works of Galileo.
Boyle never marries but like most people
probably did get sex at least once and no doubt masturbated regularly for much
of his life.
In 1654 Boyle is invited to Oxford, and lives at the university from c.
1656 until 1668.
The Dutch-Jewish philosopher Spinoza tries to convince Boyle
that reason is superior to experiment.
In 1660 Boyle helps found the Royal
Society of London whose motto is "Nullius in verba" ("Nothing by mere
Boyle believes in transmutation of gold (through chemistry) and in 1689
convinces the British government to repeal the law forbidding the manufacture
of gold (that sounds like kind of a unusual law and shows the gullibility of
people at this time].
Sadly Boyle's interest in religion grows as he ages. Boyle
learns Hebrew and Aramaic for his biblical studies. In his will he founds the
Boyle Lectures, not on science, but on the defense of Christianity, which
continue to this day.
Oxford, England (presumably)  
340 YBN
[1660 AD]
Oxford, England (presumably)  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1738) Halley is clearly a person who mathematically analyzed orbits translating
earth-based observations into two dimensional curves.
Oxford, England (presumably)  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1754) This is a second piece of evidence in support of the circulation theory
of Harvey who died a few years too soon to know. Rudbeck adding the final piece
to the circulatory system with the lymphatic system.
Malphigi sends these findings in
two letters to Borelli in Pisa who publishes them as "De pulmonibus
observationes anatomicae" ("On the lungs"; Bologna, 1661).
In this work
Malphigi also gives a detailed account of the vesicular structure of the human
Bologna, Italy  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1810) Steno is the son of a goldsmith.
Steno is brought up Lutheran.
In 1664 Steno earns
his medical degree from Leiden University.
Steno is court physician to Grand Duke Ferdinand
II of Tuscany.
In 1667, Steno converts to Catholicism and abandons science for religion,
(like Pascal and Swammerdam).
In 1677 Steno rises to the position of bishop.
Amsterdam, Netherlands   
338 YBN
[1662 AD]
1710) Graunt influences, and is influenced by, his friend, the physician Sir
William Petty (CE 1623-1687), author of "Political Arithmetic" and other works
that analyze available facts in a number of areas, including life expectancy
and earning capacity, emphasizing their economic and fiscal implications.
London, England  
338 YBN
[1662 AD]
1739) Robert Boyle (CE 1627-1691) explains that the pressure and volume of a
gas are inversely related (Boyle's Law).

Robert Boyle (CE 1627-1691) with Robert Hooke find that the pressure and volume
of a gas are inversely related (this is called Boyle's Law).

Boyle finds this when using a 17 foot J-shaped tube to trap air using mercury.
Boyle recognizes that when he adds twice the amount of mercury, he is adding
twice the pressure on the air trapped in the end of the tube. When Boyle does
this the air volume is reduced by a half, and in reverse, if pressure is
lowered by removing half of the mercury, the volume of the air expands by two

This inverse relationship of a gases volume to it's pressure is called Boyle's
law (in France it is credited to Mariotte).
Oxford, England (presumably)  
337 YBN
[1663 AD]
1814) James Gregory (1638-1675) publishes an early design of a reflecting

Niccolò Zucchi (CE 1586-1670) builds the earliest known reflecting telescope
in 1616.
London, England  
337 YBN
[1663 AD]
2247) Otto von Guericke (GAriKu) (CE 1602-1686) builds the first static
electricity generator by rotating a sulfur globe against a cloth.

Guericke makes the first friction electric machine, by mechanizing the act of
rubbing sulfur. Guericke makes a sphere of sulfur that can be rotated on a
crank-turned shaft, that when stroked with the hand as it rotates accumulates a
large amount of static electricity. Guericke produces sizable electric sparks
from his charged globe, which he reports to Leibniz in a letter in 1672.
Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
336 YBN
[07/??/1664 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
336 YBN
[11/23/1664 AD]
1799) Hooke describes a transverse wave theory of light with a transparent
"And first for Light it seems very manifest, that there is no luminous Body but
has the parts of it in motion more or less.

First, That all kind of fiery burning Bodies have their parts in motion, I
think, will be very easily granted me. That the spark struck from a Flint and
Steel is in a rapid agitation, I have elsewhere made probable. And that the
Parts of rotten Wood, rotten Fish and the like, are also in motion, I think,
will as easily be conceded by those, who consider, that those parts never begin
to shine till the Bodies be in a state of putrefaction; and that is now
generally granted by all, to be caused by the motion of the parts of putrifying
bodies. That the Bononian stone shines no longer then it is either warmed by
the Sun-beams, or by the flame of a Fire or of a Candle, is the general report
of those that write of it, and of others that have seen it. And that heat
argues a motion of the internal parts is (as I said before) generally granted.

But there is one Instance more, which was first shewn to the Royal Society by
Mr. Clayton a worthy Member thereof, which does make this Assertion more
evident then all the rest: And that is, That a Diamond being rub'd, struck or
heated in the dark, shines for a pretty while after, so long as that motion,
which is imparted by any of those Agents, remains (in the same manner as a
Glass, rubb'd, struck, or (by a means which I shall elsewhere mention) heated,
yields a sound which lasts as long as the vibrating motion of that sonorous
body) several Experiments made on which Stone, are since published in a
Discourse of Colours, by the truly honourable Mr. Boyle. What may be said of
those Ignes fatui that appear in the night, I cannot so well affirm, having
never had the opportunity to examine them my self, nor to be inform'd by any
others that had observ'd them: And the relations of them in Authors are so
imperfect, that nothing can be built on them. But I hope I shall be able in
another place to make it at least very probable, that there is even in those
also a Motion which causes this effect. That the shining of Sea-water proceeds
from the same cause, may be argued from this, That it shines not till either it
be beaten against a Rock, or be some other wayes broken or agitated by Storms,
or Oars, or other percussing bodies. And that the Animal Energyes or Spirituous
agil parts are very active in Cats eyes when they shine, seems evident enough,
because their eyes never shine but when they look very intensly either to find
their prey, or being hunted in a dark room, when they seek after their
adversary, or to find a way to escape. And the like may be said of the shining
Bellies of Gloworms; since 'tis evident they can at pleasure either increase or
extinguish that Radiation.

It would be somewhat too long a work for this place Zetetically to examine, and
positively to prove, what particular kind of motion it is that must be the
efficient of Light; for though it be a motion, yet 'tis not every motion that
produces it, since we find there are many bodies very violently mov'd, which
yet afford not such an effect; and there are other bodies, which to our other
senses, seem not mov'd so much, which yet shine. Thus Water and quick-silver,
and most other liquors heated, shine not; and several hard bodies, as Iron,
Silver, Brass, Copper, Wood, &c. though very often struck with a hammer, shine
not presently, though they will all of them grow exceeding hot; whereas rotten
Wood, rotten Fish, Sea water, Gloworms, &c. have nothing of tangible heat in
them, and yet (where there is no stronger light to affect the Sensory) they
shine some of them so Vividly, that one may make a shift to read by them.

It would be too long, I say, here to insert the discursive progress by which I
inquir'd after the proprieties of the motion of Light, and therefore I shall
only add the result.

And, First, I found it ought to be exceeding quick, such as those motions of
fermentation and putrefaction, whereby, certainly, the parts are exceeding
nimbly and violently mov'd; and that, because we find those motions are able
more minutely to shatter and divide the body, then the most violent heats
menstruums we yet know. And that fire is nothing else but such a dissolution of
the Burning body, made by the most universal menstruum of all sulphureous
bodies, namely, the Air, we shall in an other place of this Tractate endeavour
to make probable. And that, in all extreamly hot shining bodies, there is a
very quick motion that causes Light, as well as a more robust that causes Heat,
may be argued from the celerity wherewith the bodyes are dissolv'd.

Next, it must be a Vibrative motion. And for this the newly mention'd Diamond
affords us a good argument; since if the motion of the parts did not return,
the Diamond must after many rubbings decay and be wasted: but we have no reason
to suspect the latter, especially if we consider the exceeding difficulty that
is found in cutting or wearing away a Diamond. And a Circular motion of the
parts is much more improbable, since, if that were granted, and they be
suppos'd irregular and Angular parts, I see not how the parts of the Diamond
should hold so firmly together, or remain in the same sensible dimensions,
which yet they do. Next, if they be Globular, and mov'd only with a turbinated
motion, I know not any cause that can impress that motion upon the pellucid
medium, which yet is done. Thirdly, any other irregular motion of the parts one
amongst another, must necessarily make the body of a fluid consistence, from
which it is far enough. It must therefore be a Vibrating motion.

And Thirdly, That it is a very short-vibrating motion, I think the instances
drawn from the shining of Diamonds will also make probable. For a Diamond being
the hardest body we yet know in the World, and consequently the least apt to
yield or bend, must consequently also have its vibrations exceeding short.

And these, I think, are the three principal proprieties of a motion, requisite
to produce the effect call'd Light in the Object.

The next thing we are to consider, is the way or manner of the trajection of
this motion through the interpos'd pellucid body to the eye: And here it will
be easily granted,

First, That it must be a body susceptible and impartible of this motion that
will deserve the name of a Transparent. And next, that the parts of such a body
must be Homogeneous, or of the same kind. Thirdly, that the constitution and
motion of the parts must be such, that the appulse of the luminous body may be
communicated or propagated through it to the greatest imaginable distance in
the least imaginable time, though I see no reason to affirm, that it must be in
an instant: For I know not any one Experiment or observation that does prove
it. And, whereas it may be objected, That we see the Sun risen at the very
instant when it is above the sensible Horizon, and that we see a Star hidden by
the body of the Moon at the same instant, when the Star, the Moon, and our Eye
are all in the same line; and the like Observations, or rather suppositions,
may be urg'd. I have this to answer, That I can as easily deny as they affirm;
for I would fain know by what means any one can be assured any more of the
Affirmative, then I of the Negative. If indeed the propagation were very slow,
'tis possible something might be discovered by Eclypses of the Moon; but though
we should grant the progress of the light from the Earth to the Moon, and from
the Moon back to the Earth again to be full two Minutes in performing, I know
not any possible means to discover it; nay, there may be some instances perhaps
of Horizontal Eclypses that may seem very much to favour this supposition of
the slower progression of Light then most imagine. And the like may be said of
the Eclypses of the Sun, &c. But of this only by the by. Fourthly, That the
motion is propagated every way through an Homogeneous medium by direct or
straight lines extended every way like Rays from the center of a Sphere.
Fifthly, in an Homogeneous medium this motion is propagated every way with
equal velocity, whence necessarily every pulse or vitration of the luminous
body will generate a Sphere, which will continually increase, and grow bigger,
just after the same manner (though indefinitely swifter) as the waves or rings
on the surface of the water do swell into bigger and bigger circles about a
point of it, where, by the sinking of a Stone the motion was begun, whence it
necessarily follows, that all the parts of these Spheres undulated through an
Homogeneous medium cut the Rays at right angles.

But because all transparent mediums are not Homogeneous to one another,
therefore we will next examine how this pulse or motion will be propagated
through differingly transparent mediums. And here, according to the most acute
and excellent Philosopher Des Cartes, I suppose the sign of the angle of
inclination in the first medium to be to the sign of refraction in the second,
As the density of the first, to the density of the second. By density, I mean
not the density in respect of gravity (with which the refractions or
transparency of mediums hold no proportion) but in respect onely to the
trajection of the Rays of light, in which respect they only differ in this;
that the one propagates the pulse more easily and weakly, the other more
slowly, but more strongly. But as for the pulses themselves, they will by the
refraction acquire another propriety, which we shall now endeavour to
(see image) We will suppose therefore in the first Figure ACFD to be a physical
Ray, or ABC and DEF to be two Mathematical Rays, trajected from a very remote
point of a luminous body through an Homogeneous transparent medium LLL, and
DA, EB, FC, to be small portions of the orbicular impulses which must therefore
cut the Rays at right angles; these Rays meeting with the plain surface NO of a
medium that yields an easier transitus to the propagation of light, and falling
obliquely on it, they will in the medium MMM be refracted towards the
perpendicular of the surface. And because this medium is more easily trajected
then the former by a third, therefore the point C of the orbicular pulse FC
will be mov'd to H four spaces in the same time that F the other end of it is
mov'd to G three spaces, therefore the whole refracted pulse GH shall be
oblique to the refracted Rays CHK and GI; and the angle GHC shall be an acute,
and so much the more acute by how much the greater the refraction be, then
which nothing is more evident, for the sign of the inclination is to the sign
of refraction as GF to TC the distance between the point C and the
perpendicular from G on CK, which being as four to three, HC being longer then
GF is longer also then TC, therefore the angle GHC is less than GTC. So that
henceforth the parts of the pulses GH and IK are mov'd ascew, or cut the Rays
at oblique angles.

It is not my business in this place to set down the reasons why this or that
body should impede the Rays more, others less: as why Water should transmit the
Rays more easily, though more weakly than air. Onely thus much in general I
shall hint, that I suppose the medium MMM to have less of the transparent
undulating subtile matter, and that matter to be less implicated by it, whereas
LLL I suppose to contain a greater quantity of the fluid undulating substance,
and this to be more implicated with the particles of that medium.

But to proceed, the same kind of obliquity of the Pulses and Rays will happen
also when the refraction is made out of a more easie into a more difficult
mediū; as by the calculations of GQ & CSR which are refracted from the
perpendicular. In both which calculations 'tis obvious to observe, that always
that part of the Ray towards which the refraction is made has the end of the
orbicular pulse precedent to that of the other side. And always, the oftner the
refraction is made the same way, Or the greater the single refraction is, the
more is this unequal progress. So that having found this odd propriety to be an
inseparable concomitant of a refracted Ray, not streightned by a contrary
refraction, we will next examine the refractions of the Sun-beams, as they are
suffer'd onely to pass through a small passage, obliquely out of a more
difficult, into a more easie medium."
London, England  
336 YBN
[1664 AD]
1714) As a student at Oxford, Thomas Willis joins the Royalist garrison during
the Civil War.
In the Restoration, Willis gains professional preferment,
becoming Professor of Natural Philosophy at Oxford in (1660-1675). Willis is
one of the founding members of the Royal Society and moves to London just after
the Great Fire, establishing a very large practice in St Martin's Lane.
In 1542
Willis earns a masters degree at Oxford at age 21.
Oxford, England (presumably)  
336 YBN
[1664 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
336 YBN
[1664 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1688) Borelli is friends with Malpighi.
Borelli is influenced by the mechanistic view of
Borelli is appointed professor of mathematics at Messina in 1649 and at Pisa in
During his career, Borelli enjoys the protection of Queen Christina of Sweden,
which shelters him from the attacks from the Italian authorities suffered by
Pisa, Italy (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1707) Grimaldi is the son of silk merchant.
Grimaldi enters the Jesuit order at 15.
In 1647,
Grimaldi earns his doctorate degree and becomes professor at University of
Grimaldi is an assistant to Ricchioli.
Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1726) Giovanni Domenico Cassini (Ko SEnE) (CE 1625-1712) measures the period of
a Mars day as 24 hours and 40 minutes.

Cassini identifies a number of double stars including the bright star Castor.
Bologna, Italy  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
Bologna, Italy  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1776) In 1665, Lower gets his bachelor from Oxford.
In 1667, Lower is elected to the
Royal Society.
In London Lower carries out research, some in partnership with Robert
London?, England  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
Paris, France   
334 YBN
[12/22/1666 AD]
Paris, France  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
Pisa, Italy (presumably)  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
1723) Sydenham takes the side of the Parliamentarians. All five Sydenham
brothers (Thomas was the youngest) and their father served as officers in
Cromwell's rebel army. Thomas was wounded, two of his brothers were killed,
their mother was murdered by Royalist troops, and the eldest brother, William,
became a leading figure in Cromwell's protectorate.

Because of the fighting Sydenham does not get his bachelor's degree until 1648
age 24.

Sydenham is friends with Robert Boyle and John Locke.

Sydenham revives the Hippocratic methods of observations and experience.
Sydenham is
recognized as a founder of clinical medicine and epidemiology (study of factors
affecting the health and illness of populations). Sydenham emphasizes detailed
observations of patients and maintains accurate records.
Sydenham is called "the English
Hippocrates" before his death.
London, England (presumably)  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
Bologna, Italy  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
Bologna, Italy  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
1803) Hooke is inspired by his optical theories to develop the idea that
planetary motions can be explained in terms of a single attractive force from
the sun bending the straight-line motion of a planet into an elliptical orbit.
In addition, Hooke theorizes that this force would vary in inverse proportion
to the square of the distance between the sun and the planet.

When Newton proves this relationship (in addition to adding a gravitational
constant and object mass), at the request of Edmund Halley in 1684, Newton will
not correct Halley's assumption that Newton had reached the idea himself. This
proof, of course, is the centerpiece of Newton's "Principia Mathematica", which
Halley will persuade Newton to write. Hooke is outraged when he hears that his
original idea is not acknowledged in the "Principia".
London, England (presumably)  
334 YBN
[1666 AD]
1853) Leibniz is born into a Lutheran family near the end of the Thirty Years'
War, which has laid Germany in ruins.
Leibniz is the son of a professor of philosophy
who dies when Gottfried is 6.
Leibniz is a child prodigy.
Leibniz learns Latin at eight,
Greek at 14 (although I have to wonder how well, it is easy to claim but to be
fluent language takes years of learning all of the idioms for example, in
addition to simply the thousands of nouns and verbs)
Leibniz earns a degree in law
from the University of Leipzig in 1665.
Among the great philosophers of this time,
Leibniz is the only one who has to earn a living. As a result, Leibniz serves
in a variety of positions for people of royalty.
Leibniz proposes that education be made
more practical, and that academies be founded.
Leibniz sees as one of his tasks to bring
about a reconciliation between the religious divisions in the Western half of
the religion based on Jesus.
Leibniz works on hydraulic presses, windmills, lamps,
submarines, clocks, and a wide variety of mechanical devices.
Leibniz devises a means of
perfecting carriages and experiments with phosphorus.
While in the mines of the Harz
Mountains, Leibniz hypothesizes that the Earth was at first molten.
Leibniz is an
Leibniz meets Huygens.
In 1673 Leibniz is elected to the Royal Society.
Leibniz develops a water
pump run by windmills, which serves the mines of the Harz Mountains, where
Leibniz often works as an engineer from 1680 to 1685.
After the king of France,
Louis XIV takes Strasbourg and lays claim to 10 cities in Alsace in 1681,
Leibniz suggests to his prince a method of increasing the production of linen
and a process for the desalinization of water.
Leibniz formed a goal of writing a
history of the Earth, which includes such matters as geological events and
descriptions of fossils, but never writes it. Leibniz searches monuments and
linguistics for the origins and migrations of peoples, in addition to the birth
and progress of the sciences.
In 1691 Leibniz is named librarian at
Wolfenbüttel and propagates his ideas through articles in scientific journals.
All of these writings oppose Cartesianism, which is judged to be damaging to
In 1697, Leibniz publishes "De Rerum Originatione" ("On the Ultimate Origin of
Things") which tries to prove that the ultimate origin of things can be nothing
other than a God.
In 1700 Leibniz and Newton are the first foreign members to be
elected into the Parisian Academy of Sciences.
Leibniz is an advisor to Louis XIV and
Peter the Great, Czar of Russia, who Leibniz meets for the first time in
October 1711.
Leibniz turns down an offer to take charge of the Vatican Library.
Leibniz never
marries (yes, but no doubt...ok you understand)
Leibniz is a universal letter
writer with more than 600 correspondents to both educated men and women.
Leibniz's secretary attends his funeral.
Leipzig, Germany (presumably)  
333 YBN
[06/15/1667 AD]
1815) Denis (also Denys) is the personal physician to King Louis XIV.
?, France  
333 YBN
[1667 AD]
Florence, Italy (presumably)  
333 YBN
[1667 AD]
Padua?, Italy  
333 YBN
[1667 AD]
5922) Dieterich Buxtehude (CE c1637-1707), Danish (or German) composer composes
music around this time. Most of Buxtehude's instrumental music is for the
organ: about half consists of freely composed music. Buxtehude represents the
climax of the 1600s north German school, and he significantly influences Johann
Sebastian Bach.

(Marienkirche {Saint Mary's church}) Lübeck, Germany  
332 YBN
[11/26/1668 AD]
London, England (presumably)  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1727) Gian Cassini (Ko SEnE) (CE 1625-1712) establishes Jupiter's period of
rotation as nine hours fifty-six minutes, by observing the movement of spots of
Jupiter's clouds.

Cassini is the first to observe the shadows of Jupiter's moons as they pass
between Jupiter and the Sun.

Cassini issues a table of the motions of Jupiter's moons, which will later
serve the Danish astronomer Ole Rømer (Roemer) in his measuring the velocity
of light and proving that this velocity is finite in 1675.
(Observatory at) Panzano (near Bologna), Italy  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1736) Redi is known as a poet mainly for his Bacco in Toscana (1685; "Bacchus
in Tuscany").
In 1647, Redi receives his medical degree from the University of Pisa.
He taught
in the Studio at Florence in 1666.
Redi is employed as personal physician to
Ferdinand II and Cosimo III, both grand dukes of Tuscany.
Florence, Italy (presumably)  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
Padua?, Italy  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1818) De Graaf earns his undergraduate degree from the University of Leiden
where he is a student of Sylvius.
In 1665 De Graaf earns a medical degree from
University of Angers, France.
De Graaf is the first to appreciate the work of
Leeuwenhoek, and introduces Leeuwenhoek's work to the Royal Society.
De Graaf dies in
1673, at age 32.
Delft, Netherlands (presumably)  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]