TIMEEVENT DESCRIPTIONLOCATION

UNIVERSE
1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

  
990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.

MORE INFO
[1]
  
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3) All matter is made of particles of light.10 Light particles are the base
unit of all matter from the tiniest particles to the largest galaxies.11 In
this sense light particles are the most basic atoms.12

The basic order of matter from smaller to larger is light particles, electrons
and positrons, muons, protons and antiprotons, atoms, molecules, living
objects, planets, stars, globular clusters, galaxies, and then galactic
clusters.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted
Huntington.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
10. ^ Ted Huntington.
11. ^ Ted Huntington.
12. ^ Ted Huntington.
13. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.5

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of
galaxies.6

This accumulation of light particles into atoms may be the result of particle
collision, gravitation, or a combination of both.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington
  
940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.6

Most galaxies are too far away for even one particle of light they emit to be
going in the exact direction of our tiny location, and all the light particles
they emit are captured by atoms in between there and here.7

As telescopes grow larger, the number of galaxies and the distance we can see
will increase.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington
4. ^ Ted Huntington
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted
Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles,
(1980). (estimate of how many galaxies)
  
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4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which exist as
gas clouds (like the Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula). These gas clouds,
called nebulae continue to accumulate trapped light particles. At points of
high density planets and stars form and the cloud is eventually dense enough to
become a galaxy of stars. The stars emit light particles back out to the rest
of the universe, where the light again becomes trapped and forms new clouds.
Around each star are many planets and pieces of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant emitting of light particles (decay). Like
bacteria, these living objects grow in number, with the most successful
organisms occupying and moving around many stars. These advanced organisms then
move the groups of stars they control, as a globular cluster, away from the
plane of the spiral galaxy. As time continues, all of the stars of a galaxy are
occupied by living objects who have organized their stars into globular
clusters. These globular clusters together form an elliptical galaxy, and then
finally a globular galaxy. The globular galaxy may then exist for a long time
living off the matter in stars, in addition to matter from external sources.


So free light particles are trapped into volumes of space that grow in density
first forming atoms, then gas clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, an
elliptical galaxy, and finally a globular galaxy.5

Globular galaxies at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale,
just as light particles at our scale may be globular galaxies at a much smaller
scale. This system may go on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
930,000,000,000 YBN
8) An expanding universe seems unlikely to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken observation, for one reason because spectrum
size changes the position of spectral lines (as clearly shown in the 1936
Humason photo)5 , and because the distance of a light source changes the
position, but not the frequency of spectral lines6 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Humason, M. L., "The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic
Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal, vol. 83, p.10, Jan
1936. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1936ApJ....83...10H/0000010.000.
html

2. ^ Ted Huntington, "Spectral line position depends on distance of light
source - Bragg Equation Effect",
04/03/2012. http://tedhuntington.com/paper_Bragg.htm
3. ^ Humason, M. L., "The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic
Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal, vol. 83, p.10, Jan
1936. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1936ApJ....83...10H/0000010.000.
html

4. ^ Ted Huntington, "Spectral line position depends on distance of light
source - Bragg Equation Effect",
04/03/2012. http://tedhuntington.com/paper_Bragg.htm
5. ^ Humason, M. L., "The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic
Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal, vol. 83, p.10, Jan
1936. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1936ApJ....83...10H/0000010.000.
html

6. ^ Ted Huntington, "Spectral line position depends on distance of light
source - Bragg Equation Effect",
04/03/2012. http://tedhuntington.com/paper_Bragg.htm
  

LIFE
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13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to form.5

Galaxies may form from accumulation of light particles and from the collision
of two or more galaxies.

If a galaxy is viewed as an exponential accumulation of light particles
starting from a single light particle up until 500 billion stars, only in the
last 16% of that time would a galaxy have enough matter for even a single
star.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.8

Stars may form from the accumulation of matter or from collisions of two or
more large bodies. As time goes by, less collisions occur around a star,
because most smaller objects are absorbed by the star and planets.9

Stars and planets may have centers of densely packed unmoving light particles.
The less dense and colder area near the surface of planets and stars may allow
atoms and molecules to form and stay together. Many light particles must move
through the internal maze of matter inside planets and stars to eventually
reach the surface and escape into empty space.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted
Huntington.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
10. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
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6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship,
perhaps 5 billion years after the first stars formed.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars forms in the Milky Way
Galaxy.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
5,500,000,000 YBN
6
16) The star the Earth orbits forms.5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington
4. ^ Ted Huntington
5. ^ Ted Huntington
6. ^ Ted Huntington, guess

MORE INFO
[1] http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/208/mar1/nucleo.html (with image of
onion skin layers)
[2] another person declares star inside to be similar to planets:
iron, oxygen, nickel, etc. do not support standard solar
model. star_inside_iron.pdf
  
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9
17) Planets form around our star from many collisions. Like the star, they are
red hot with liquid rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the
surface of the planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.6

As the number of collisions decreases, and smaller objects are absorbed by the
star and planets, the average temperature of the star system is lowered. As the
temperature of the planets and moons decreases, their surfaces solidify, and
water and other molecules condense at the surface.7

Perhaps most outer planets are larger, because their orbit covers a larger
space which includes more matter.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted
Huntington.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.4

The moon of Earth may form as a planet that is captured by the Earth, or a
planet that collides with the Earth and then reforms from the remaining matter
of the collision, or forms in orbit of the Earth at the same time the Earth
forms.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
6 7
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
2. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
3. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
4. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
5. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
7
50) The start of the "Precambrian" and the Hadean {HA DEen5 } Eon.6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 03 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
2. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
3. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
03 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
4. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
5. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 03 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
6. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
7. ^ "Divisions of Geologic Time", 2010,
USGS http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
4,571,000,000 YBN
7 8
31) The oldest meteorite yet found on Earth: 4.57 billion years old.5 6
FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2

2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/783048.stm
3. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2

4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/783048.stm
5. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2

6. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/783048.stm
7. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2
(4.7 +- .2 billion years)
8. ^ sci has 4.7 +- .2 by where did 4.571
come from?
  
4,530,000,000 YBN
33) The oldest Moon rock returned from the Moon (4.53 billions old).3
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/nojs/wl.br.1.html
2. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/nojs/wl.br.1.html
3. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/nojs/wl.br.1.html
  
4,404,000,000 YBN
34) The oldest "terrestrial" zircon; evidence that the crust and liquid water
are on the surface of Earth. A terrestrial zircon is not from a meteorite.3

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/links/010111/010111-1.html
2. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/links/010111/010111-1.html
3. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/links/010111/010111-1.html
  
4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth, like amino acids, phosphates, and sugars,
the components of living objects.10

These molecules are made in the oceans, fresh water, and atmosphere of Earth
(and other planets) by lightning, light particles with high frequency from the
Sun, and from ocean floor volcanoes.11

The initial building blocks of living objects are easily formed, but assembling
them into longer-chain molecules, or polymers, is more difficult. Amino acids
link up to form polymers called proteins, simple fatty acids plus alcohols link
up to form lipids (oils and fats), simple sugars like glucose and sucrose link
together to form complex carbohydrates and starches, and finally, the
nucleotide bases (plus phosphates and sugars) link up to form nucleic acids,
the genetic code of organisms, known as RNA and DNA.12

Perhaps all proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and DNA are strictly the products
of living objects, while RNA can assemble without the help of any living
objects.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p150.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Donald Prothero,
"Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p150.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
10. ^ Ted
Huntington.
11. ^ Ted Huntington.
12. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p150.
13. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amimo acids into proteins using other RNA molecules ("messenger" or mRNA
molecules), as a template.

This protein assembly system is the main system responsible for all the
proteins on Earth.6

Part of each tRNA molecule bonds with a specific amino acid, while another part
has a 3 nucleotide sequence that bonds with an opposite matching 3 nucleotide
sequence on an mRNA molecule.7

Perhaps this system, where tRNA molecules build proteins directly from free
floating RNA strands, evolves before the first ribosome and the first cell.8

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted
Huntington.
  
4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA. This protein is called an RNA polymerase
{PoL-u-mu-rAS5 }.

For the first time, a nucleic acid functions both as a template for building
proteins (with the help of tRNA molecules) and also as a template for building
other nucleic acid molecules.6

An RNA polymerase must be one of the first useful proteins to be assembled by
the early (presumably) precellular protein production system. Eventually an RNA
strand that codes for the RNA polymerase and the tRNA needed to make the
polymerase may be copied many times.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26
Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 26 Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Schuppli, Daniel et al. “Altered 3′-terminal RNA Structure in
Phage Qβ Adapted to Host Factor-less Escherichia Coli.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 94.19 (1997): 10239 –10242.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/19/10239.abstract
  
4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. The first Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing a platform for more
efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all the instructions
needed to make more polymerase, tRNA, and ribosomes. Alternatively the first
ribosome may not evolve until after the first cell.

All cells contain ribosomes.4 Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry
out protein synthesis, through a process called translation. These molecular
machines are responsible for accurately translating the linear genetic code on
the messenger RNA (mRNA), into a linear sequence of amino acids to produce a
protein.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ribosome." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 28 Nov.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/ribosome
2. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
3. ^ "ribosome." Genetics.
The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ribosome
4. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
5. ^ "ribosome." Genetics. The
Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ribosome
  
4,365,000,000 YBN
166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that
allows the assembly of DNA from RNA; a ribonucleotide reductase.5

This protein changes ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides, which can then
be assembled into the first DNA molecules on Earth.6

DNA has the advantage of being more stable than RNA and can hold together in
longer strands.7 Longer strands allow for a more complex organism.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March 1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase:
regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
2. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March
1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase: regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends
Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23. DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
3. ^
Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March 1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase:
regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen
JB (March 1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase: regulation, regulation,
regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Lurquin, P.F. The Origins
of Life and the Universe. COLUMBIA University Press, 2003, p.
132. http://books.google.com/books?id=2-qdwqOd1BsC&pg=PA132
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules, a DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS6 }.7
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 04
Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
2. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26
Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
3. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003.
Answers.com 04 Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
4. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random
House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
5. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc,
2003. Answers.com 04 Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
6. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged.
Random House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
7. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 04 Aug.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
  
4,360,000,000 YBN
6409) Transcription evolves. A protein (an RNA polymerase) assembles RNA from
DNA.

  
4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth evolves. This is the first prokaryotic cell and
first bacterium. DNA is surrounded by a membrane of proteins made by ribosomes;
the first cytoplasm.15

This cell may form in either fresh or salt water, near the sunlit water surface
or near underwater volcanoes on the ocean floor.16

The DNA of this cell is a template containing the code for a copying molecule
(DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS17 }), and the necessary mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
molecules needed to build the cytoplasm. For the first time, ribosomes and DNA
build cell structure. DNA protected by cytoplasm is more likely to survive and
be copied.18

This is the start of binary cell division. DNA polymerase duplicates DNA within
the cell and then the cell divides into two parts.19 A system of division may
evolve in which the original and the newly synthesized copy of DNA are each
attached to the cytoplasm, so that as the cell grows, the two copies of DNA can
be separated, and the growing mass can eventually divide into two cells.20

This is also the start of passive transport. Amino acids, nucleotides, water,
and other molecules enter and exit the cytoplasm only because of a difference
in concentration from inside and outside the cell. This represents the
beginnings of the first digestive system.

This cell structure forms the basis of all future cells of every living object
on Earth. These first cells are probably anaerobic (or anoxygenic- do not
require free oxygen) and are heterotrophic, meaning that they do not make their
own food (amino acids, nucleotides, phosphates, and sugars) but instead depend
on obtaining these molecules from external sources.21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p145-154.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p145-154.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
10. ^ Prothero,
"Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p145-154.
11. ^ "Polymerase."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
12. ^ Ted Huntington.
13. ^ Ted Huntington.
14. ^ Ted Huntington.
15. ^ Ted Huntington.
16. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p145-154.
17. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
18. ^ Ted Huntington.
19. ^ Ted Huntington.
20. ^ Ted Huntington.
21. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,350,000,000 YBN
11
183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, and waxes8 )9 by
making proteins that can assemble lipids.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ find biomarker evidence
2. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
10. ^ Ted Huntington.
11. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,345,000,000 YBN
27) A phospholipid bilayer evolves around the cell, providing added protection
from the external environment.4 All extant cells have this phospholipid
bilayer.5

When phospholipids are added to water, they self-assemble into double-layered
aggregates, or bilayers, with the phosphate part of the molecule on the outside
and the fatty acid tail part on the inside.6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson
Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Alternative eText Formats Series, p76-77.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^
Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p76-77.
6. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology.
Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Alternative eText Formats Series, p76-77.
7. ^ Sadava,
D. et al. Life: The Science of Biology. W. H. Freeman, 2009,
p107. http://books.google.com/books?id=ANT8VB14oBUC&pg=PA107
  
4,340,000,000 YBN
26) Possibly DNA that is connected in a circle allows the DNA polymerase to
make continuous copies of the cell, which may increase the speed of cell
growth, duplication, and division.1

As far as is known bacteria do not die of old age, but if a mutation stops them
from dividing, then they die. Bacteria can also die from physical destruction
in addition to lack of food and water.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Hardy, S. Human Microbiology. Taylor & Francis, 2002. Lifelines
Series.
  
4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons evolve. An operon is a sequence of DNA which a protein binds with
in order to block RNA polymerase from building an mRNA molecule, from part of
the sequence, which would be translated into a protein. Operons allow a
bacterium to produce certain proteins only when necessary. Bacteria before now
can only build a constant stream of all proteins encoded in their DNA.7 8 9

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

2. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
3. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

4. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
5. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

6. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
7. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

8. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
9. ^ "operon." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/operon
  
4,340,000,000 YBN
6340) Facilitated diffusion evolves. Proteins in the cell membrane allow only
certain molecules to enter the cell.3

"Facilitated diffusion" is passive transport aided by proteins.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Daniel V. Lim, "Microbiology", 2002,
p101. http://books.google.com/books?id=CKEgLmqfbRQC&pg=PA101
2. ^ Daniel V. Lim, "Microbiology", 2002,
p101. http://books.google.com/books?id=CKEgLmqfbRQC&pg=PA101
3. ^ Daniel V. Lim, "Microbiology", 2002,
p101. http://books.google.com/books?id=CKEgLmqfbRQC&pg=PA101
4. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P134-135.
  
4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can now
make ATP (adenosine {oDeNoSEN8 } triphosphate) by converting glucose into
pyruvate {PIrUVAT9 }. This is the beginning of cellular respiration, how cells
convert food into ATP and waste products.10

ATP is the molecule that drives most cellular work.11

That glycolysis is the most widespread metabolic pathway, that it occurs in the
cytoplasm, not in an organelle, and that it is the first stage in fermentation
all imply an ancient origin.12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
4. ^ "adenosine." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/adenosine
5. ^ "pyruvate." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/pyruvate
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162.
7. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
8. ^
"adenosine." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/adenosine
9. ^ "pyruvate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pyruvate
10. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
11. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
12. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p179.
  
4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves in the cell cytoplasm. Cells can make lactic acid.4

Th
ese cells, which are anaerobic, can now convert pyruvate, the final product of
glycolysis, into lactate (an ionized form of lactic acid), and in the process
refuel glycolysis and the production of ATP molecules.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

2. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

3. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

4. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

5. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008,
p162-184.
6. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

  
4,325,000,000 YBN
213) A second kind of fermentation evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells (all
anaerobic) can now convert pyruvate (the final product of glycolysis) into
ethanol.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
4. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162-184.
  
4,315,000,000 YBN
196) Active transport evolves. Proteins and ATP are used to transport molecules
into and out of the cytoplasm.7 8 9

Active transport enables a cell to maintain internal concentrations of small
molecules that differ from the cell's surroundings.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/cmeu.html
2. ^ "active transport." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
10 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
3. ^ "active transport." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science
. Oxford University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 10 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
4. ^ http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/cmeu.html
5. ^ "active transport." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
6. ^ "active transport." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 10 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
7. ^ http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/cmeu.html
8. ^ "active transport." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
9. ^ "active transport." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 10 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
10. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P135.
  
4,200,000,000 YBN
5 6
292) The prokaryote flagellum evolves.4

Prokaryotic cells now have more mobility, and can make more choices about their
location.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
2. ^
conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ conjugation in
protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
4. ^ conjugation in protists,
flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree
of Life", 2009, p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000
YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Pallen MJ, Matzke NJ (October 2006). "From The Origin of Species to
the origin of bacterial flagella". Nature Reviews. Microbiology 4 (10):
784–90. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1493. PMID
16953248. http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v4/n10/full/nrmicro1493.html
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] Tree of life, http://tolweb.org/tree/
[4] David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia,
"Symbiosis Between methanogenic Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin
of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530.
eukorig6_jmol.pdf
[5] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
[6] "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>
  
4,193,000,000 YBN
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
77) The Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve according to genetic
comparison.13 The Phylum Nanoarcheota.14 15

Eubacteria and Archaea are the two major lines of Prokaryotes.16 17 18 19 20 21
22

Archaea have a variety of shapes, including spherical, rodlike, and spiral
forms.23

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p102. http://timetree.org/pdf/Battistuzzi2009Chap06.pdf
5. ^ Huber, H., Hohn, M.J., Rachel, R., Fuchs, T., Wimmer, V.C., and Stetter,
K.O. "A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic
symbiont." Nature (2002)
417:63-67. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v417/n6884/full/417063a.html
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
7. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). 2142-1873my
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 2300my
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4 eu)
10. ^ Osawa, S., Honjo, "Archaebacteria
vs Metabacteria : Phylogenetic tree of organisms indicated by comparison of 5S
ribosomal RNA sequences.", (Tokyo: Springer, Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of
Life", pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {4000my}
12. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
3970my
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
14. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p102. http://timetree.org/pdf/Battistuzzi2009Chap06.pdf
15. ^ Huber, H., Hohn, M.J., Rachel, R., Fuchs, T., Wimmer, V.C., and Stetter,
K.O. "A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic
symbiont." Nature (2002)
417:63-67. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v417/n6884/full/417063a.html
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
17. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). 2142-1873my
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 2300my
19. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4 eu)
20. ^ Osawa, S., Honjo, "Archaebacteria
vs Metabacteria : Phylogenetic tree of organisms indicated by comparison of 5S
ribosomal RNA sequences.", (Tokyo: Springer, Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of
Life", pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my
21. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {4000my}
22. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
3970my
23. ^ "archaebacterium." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 21 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/archaebacteria
24. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
25. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/pdf/Hedges2009Chap05.pdf
26. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
27. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). 2142-1873my (2142-1873my)
28. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 2300my (2300my)
29. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4 eu) (4100my)
30. ^
Osawa, S., Honjo, "Archaebacteria vs Metabacteria : Phylogenetic tree of
organisms indicated by comparison of 5S ribosomal RNA sequences.", (Tokyo:
Springer, Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of Life", pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my
(1800my)
31. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). 4000my (4000my)
32. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
3970my (3970my)
  
4,189,000,000 YBN
11 12
193) The Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (the ancestor of Aquifex and
Thermotoga).7 8

Aquifex and Thermotoga are the only two major genera {JeN-R-u9 } of eubacteria
that are hyperthermophiles. They grow best in a environment that is around 80
degrees Celsius (176 degrees Fahrenheit).10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
6. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
7. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
8. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
9. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.
05 Aug. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
10. ^ Munn, C.B. Marine Microbiology: Ecology and Applications.
Taylor & Francis Group, 2004. Advanced Text,
p78. http://books.google.com/books?id=1_S4cJYT3DUC&pg=PA78
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
  
4,187,000,000 YBN
12 13
180) The Archaea Phylum: Crenarchaeota evolves (the ancestor of Sulfolobus).7 8


The Crenarchaea include many organisms that are extremely thermophilic
{tR-mu-FiL-iK9 } (heat-loving) and cryophilic {KrI-e-FiL-iK10 }
(cold-loving).11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
9. ^ "thermophilic." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02 Jun. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/thermophilic>.
10. ^ "cryophilic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cryophilic
11. ^ "Crenarchaeota". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crenarchaeota
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
13. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
  
4,187,000,000 YBN
24 25
181) The Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu14 } evolves (the
ancestor of methanogens and halobacteria {HaL-O-BaK-TER-E-u15 }).16 17

The earliest cell response to light.18

The Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu19 } are composed of two classes: methanogens,
which produce methane and are often found in intestines and sewage, and the
halobacteria, which survive in high concentrations of salt.20

Some halobacteria use sensory rhodopsin {rO-DoP-SiN21 } (a pigment sensitive to
red light22 ) for phototaxis (positive or negative movement along a light
gradient or vector).23

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
5. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
9. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

10. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
13. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

14. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
15. ^ "halobacteria." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02
Jun. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/halobacteria>.
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
17. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
18. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

19. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
20. ^ Margulis, L., and M.J. Chapman. Kingdoms and Domains: An
Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth. Elsevier Science, 2009,
p60-62. http://books.google.com/books?id=9IWaqAOGyt4C&pg=PA60
21. ^ "rhodopsin." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02 Jun. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/rhodopsin>.
22. ^ "rhodopsin." The American Heritage� Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 May. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/rhodopsin-1
23. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

24. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
25. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44

MORE INFO
[1] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November 2002),
doi:10.1038/nrg929 http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html#to
p

  
4,112,000,000 YBN
11
58) The first autotrophic cells; cells that can produce some of their own
food.5

Autotrophs produce their own sugars, lipids, and amino acids.6

There are only two kinds of autotrophs: chemoautotrophs and photoautotrophs.7

Chemoautotrophs use chemical nutrients to synthesize carbohydrates, while
photoautotrophs use light to synthesize carbohydrates.8 9

This is a chemoautotrophic cell: genes and metabolic sequences suggest that
chemoautotrophs evolve before photoautotrophs.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ "autotroph." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 06
Jan. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/autotroph
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
6. ^ "autotroph." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2012. Answers.com 06 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/autotroph
7. ^ "autotroph."Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/autotroph
8. ^ "autotroph." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2012. Answers.com 06 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/autotroph
9. ^ "chemosynthesis." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chemosynthesis
10. ^ Levin, S.A. et al. The Princeton Guide to Ecology. Princeton University
Press, 2009, p361. http://books.google.com/books?id=4MS-vfT89QMC&pg=PA361
11. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
  
4,100,000,000 YBN
18
49) Photosynthesis evolves.12

Anaerobic bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and an
electron donor13 (also called a reductant) like Hydrogen sulfide into glucose,
water, and sulfur.14 This process of moving carbon from carbon dioxide gas to
the hydrocarbon molecule glucose is called carbon fixation.15

This is the ancestor of Photosystem I.16

This system of photosynthesis does not liberate oxygen.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ "reductant."Answers.com
14 Jul. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/reductant
3. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to
Astronomy", 1982, p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
4. ^ "carbon fixation>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1).
Random House, Inc. "carbon fixation." The American Heritage® Science
Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. 14 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carbon fixation>.
5. ^ Lockau, Wolfgang, Wolfgang
Nitschke (1993). "Photosystem I and its Bacterial Counterparts". Physiologia
Plantarum 88 (2): 372–381.
DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05512.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1399-3054
.1993.tb05512.x

6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^ "reductant."Answers.com 14 Jul. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/reductant
8. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy", 1982,
p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
9. ^ "carbon fixation>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
"carbon fixation." The American Heritage® Science Dictionary. Houghton
Mifflin Company. 14 Jul. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carbon
fixation>.
10. ^ Lockau, Wolfgang, Wolfgang Nitschke (1993). "Photosystem I and its
Bacterial Counterparts". Physiologia Plantarum 88 (2): 372–381.
DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05512.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1399-3054
.1993.tb05512.x

11. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g6n805154602432w/?MUD=MP {Olson_
2006.pdf}
12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
13. ^ "reductant."Answers.com
14 Jul. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/reductant
14. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to
Astronomy", 1982, p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
15. ^ "carbon fixation>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1).
Random House, Inc. "carbon fixation." The American Heritage® Science
Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. 14 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carbon fixation>.
16. ^ Lockau, Wolfgang, Wolfgang
Nitschke (1993). "Photosystem I and its Bacterial Counterparts". Physiologia
Plantarum 88 (2): 372–381.
DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05512.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1399-3054
.1993.tb05512.x

17. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g6n805154602432w/?MUD=MP {Olson_
2006.pdf}
18. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g6n805154602432w/?MUD=MP {Olson_
2006.pdf}

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology", 2009, 190-198
  
4,000,000,000 YBN
18
43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II evolves. Cells with this system emit free
Oxygen.12

Anaerobic13 14 bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and
water into glucose, releasing oxygen gas in the process.15 16

This is the
main system responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of Earth.17

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
2. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
3. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
4. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
5. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
6. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy", 1982,
p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
7. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
8. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
9. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
10. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy",
1982, p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
11. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
12. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
13. ^ Seckbach, J. Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments. Springer
London, Limited, 2007. Cellular Origin and Life in Extreme Habitats,
p5-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=pHevPVcOVVYC&pg=PA5
14. ^ Carr, N.G., and B.A. Whitton. The Biology of Cyanobacteria. University of
California Press, 1982. Botanical Monographs, V. 19,
p221. http://books.google.com/books?id=zbX39nuSOMUC&pg=PA221
15. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
16. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy",
1982, p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
17. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
18. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID 16453059.

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology", 2009, 190-198
  
4,000,000,000 YBN
10
51) The end of the Hadean {HADEiN7 } and start of the Archean {oRKEiN8 } Eon.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
2. ^ "Archean." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/archaean
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
30 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
5. ^ "Archean." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/archaean
6. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
7. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
30 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
8. ^ "Archean." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/archaean
9. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
10. ^ "Divisions of Geologic Time", 2010,
USGS http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
3,950,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments. Cells stay fastened together after cell division.7


Multicellularity appears to have evolved independently multiple times in the
history of life on Earth.8 9

With multicellularity comes the evolution of differentiation, cells with
different functions.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

2. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

3. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

4. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

5. ^ Inaki Ruiz-Trillo, Gertraud Burger, Peter W.H. Holland, Nicole King, B.
Franz Lang, Andrew J. Roger, Michael W. Gray, The origins of multicellularity:
a multi-taxon genome initiative, Trends in Genetics, Volume 23, Issue 3, March
2007, Pages 113-118, ISSN 0168-9525, DOI:
10.1016/j.tig.2007.01.005. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
168952507000236)

6. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. “The Multiple Origins of Complex Multicellularity.”
Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 39.1 (2011):
217-239. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.1002
09

7. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

8. ^ Inaki Ruiz-Trillo, Gertraud Burger, Peter W.H. Holland, Nicole King, B.
Franz Lang, Andrew J. Roger, Michael W. Gray, The origins of multicellularity:
a multi-taxon genome initiative, Trends in Genetics, Volume 23, Issue 3, March
2007, Pages 113-118, ISSN 0168-9525, DOI:
10.1016/j.tig.2007.01.005. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
168952507000236)

9. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. “The Multiple Origins of Complex Multicellularity.”
Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 39.1 (2011):
217-239. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.1002
09

10. ^ Nicholas H. Barton, "Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225
11. ^ Ted Huntington.
12. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr.
Biol. 1, 27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

13. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Grosberg R. K., Strathmann R. R. 2007 The evolution of
multicellularity: a minor major transition? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 38,
621–654. (doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735
[2] Rokas A. 2008 The origins of multicellularity and the early history of the
genetic toolkit for animal development. Ann. Rev. Genet. 42, 235–251.
(doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.42.110807.091513) http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Inb
oundService.do?UT=000261767000011&IsProductCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord&product=WOS&
SID=1EHDdbNiNf4NO8nC299&smartRedirect=yes&SrcApp=CR&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.we
bofknowledge.com%3FDestApp%3DCEL%26DestParams%3D%253Faction%253Dretrieve%2526mod
e%253DFullRecord%2526product%253DCEL%2526UT%253D000261767000011%2526customersID%
253DHighwire%26e%3DQZIAIzGgKoYbxc_i_WNamlaqQ0.s968BNEwQvqhM9p.770dFYju0AbJCFAAcj
orA%26SrcApp%3DHighwire%26SrcAuth%3DHighwire&action=retrieve&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=Hi
ghwire&customersID=Highwire&Func=Frame

  
3,950,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.4

One early cell differentiation is that only the cell at the tip of the filament
can divide while the older cells below the tip do not divide.5

Multicellular organisms can die from aging, a series of cell differentiations
that ultimately result in the inability for the multicellular body to continue
functioning and to decay.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
3. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
4. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
5. ^ Alexandre Meinesz, "How life began: evolution's three geneses", 2008,
p155. http://books.google.com/books?id=AL0fo20Tk3sC&pg=PA155
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
8. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238
9. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N. SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès: Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract


MORE INFO
[1] Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

  
3,950,000,000 YBN
10 11 12
322) Nitrogen fixation evolves. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia
from Nitrogen gas in the air.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
3. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
4. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
5. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
6. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
7. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
8. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
9. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
10. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
11. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238
12. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N. SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès: Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract

West Africa9   
3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration evolves. The first aerobic (or "oxygenic")
cell. These cells use oxygen to convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and
ATP.5

Aerobic cellular respiration evolves as an alternative to fermentation by using
oxygen to break down the product of glycolysis, pyruvate, into carbon dioxide
and water, producing up to 38 ATP molecules in the process.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
4. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162-184.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008,
p162-184.
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
  
3,850,000,000 YBN
24
36) The oldest physical evidence for life: the ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12
in grains of ancient apetite {aPeTIT16 } (which are calcium phosphate
minerals).17 18 19

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12 isotope and so the ratio of carbon-12 to
carbon-13 is different from a nonliving source (such as calcium carbonate or
limestone).20 21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
2. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

3. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
4. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

5. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
6. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

7. ^ "apatite." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
8. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
9. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

10. ^ "apatite." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
11. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
12. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

13. ^ "apatite." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
14. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al.
"Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million Years Ago." Nature 384.6604
(1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
15. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

16. ^ "apatite." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
17. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
18. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

19. ^ "apatite." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
20. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al.
"Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million Years Ago." Nature 384.6604
(1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
21. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

22. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
23. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

24. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Banded iron formation." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 11 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/banded-iron-formation
[2] Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
AND http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
Akilia Island, Western Greenland22 23   
3,850,000,000 YBN
23
45) The oldest sediment, the Banded Iron Formation begins.17
Banded Iron
Formation is sedimentary rock that spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years ago,
made of iron-rich silicates (like silicon dioxide SiO2) with alternating layers
of black colored ferrous (reduced) iron and red colored ferric (oxidized)
iron.18 19 These alternating layers represent a seasonal cycle where the
quantity of free oxygen in the ocean rises and falls, possibly linked to
photosynthetic organisms.20 21

The atmosphere of Earth still has only small amounts of oxygen at this time.

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
2. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
3. ^ Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New
Views on an Old Planet 2nd ed.
1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Konhauser,
Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the Precambrian Banded Iron
Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
6. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^
Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New Views on an
Old Planet 2nd ed. 1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Konhauser, Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the
Precambrian Banded Iron Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
11. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
12. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
13. ^
Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New Views on an
Old Planet 2nd ed. 1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ Konhauser, Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the
Precambrian Banded Iron Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
16. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
18. ^
Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New Views on an
Old Planet 2nd ed. 1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
19. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
20. ^ Konhauser, Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the
Precambrian Banded Iron Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
21. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
22. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
23. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102, {3850 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Roger Lewin, "Thread of Life", (New York: Smithsonian Books, 1982).
p102
[2]
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

[3] "Banded iron formation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banded_iron_formation
Akilia Island, Western Greenland22   
3,500,000,000 YBN
13 14
39) The oldest fossil evidence of life: stromatolites. Stromatolites made by
photosynthetic bacteria are found in both Western Australia, and South Africa.9
10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
2. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
3. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
4. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
5. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
6. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
7. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
8. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
9. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
10. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
11. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
12. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
13. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
14. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa11 12   
3,500,000,000 YBN
28 29 30 31
287) The oldest fossils of an organism, and the oldest prokaryote and bacteria
fossils. The organism is similar to cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u19 }, and
is found in the 3,500 million year old chert (sedimentary rock made of silica20
) in Australia21 22 and South Africa.23

2.8 billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.24 25

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
2. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
3. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
4. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
7. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
8. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
9. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
12. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
13. ^ "chert." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chert
14. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
15. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
16. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
17. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
18. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
19. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
20. ^ "chert." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chert
21. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
22. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
23. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
24. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
25. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
26. ^ Schopf, J.
William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest Fossils." Nature
416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
27. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
28. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
29. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
30. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
31. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

MORE INFO
[1] BIO415 (Author? University?) Multicelluarity.pdf (t3:
multicellularity of cyanobacteria)
[2] t3:
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol3018.htm multicellularity.
"Some cyanobacteria species exist in a truly, though primitive, multicellular
form in which cellular differentiation occurs."
Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia26 and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa27   
3,400,000,000 YBN
8
190) The earliest fossils of coccoid {KoKOED5 } (spherical) bacteria.6
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ "coccoid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coccoid
2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ "coccoid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coccoid
4. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

5. ^ "coccoid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coccoid
6. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

7. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

8. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)


MORE INFO
[1] maybe evidence: Nagy, B. and Nagy, L.A., 1969. Early Precambrian
microstructures: possibly the oldest fossils on Earth?. Nature 223, pp.
1226-1229.?
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa7   
3,260,000,000 YBN
7
71) The earliest fossil evidence of prokaryote reproduction by budding.4

Like binary division, budding is a form of asexual reproduction. However, with
budding a new individual develops from a certain point of the parent organism.
The new individual may separate to exist independently, or the buds may remain
attached, forming colonies.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

4. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

5. ^ "budding." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 04 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/83411/budding>.
6. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

7. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

Swartkoppie, South Africa6   
3,235,000,000 YBN
3
68) The earliest Archaea fossils.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Rasmussen, Birger. "Filamentous Microfossils in a 3,235-million-year-old
Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposit." Nature 405.6787 (2000):
676–679. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v405/n6787/abs/405676a0.html
2. ^ Rasmussen, Birger. "Filamentous Microfossils in a 3,235-million-year-old
Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposit." Nature 405.6787 (2000):
676–679. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v405/n6787/abs/405676a0.html
3. ^ Rasmussen, Birger. "Filamentous Microfossils in a 3,235-million-year-old
Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposit." Nature 405.6787 (2000):
676–679. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v405/n6787/abs/405676a0.html
(Sulphur Springs Deposit) Pilbara Craton of Australia2   
3,200,000,000 YBN
22 23 24 25 26
66) The earliest acritarch fossils (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity13 14 ). These acritarchs are also the earliest possible eukaryote
fossils.15 16

Acritarchs appear to be phytoplankton {FITO-PlaNK-TeN17 } (freely floating
microscopic algae18 19 ) that grow thick coverings during a resting stage in
their life cycle. Some resemble the resting stage of modern marine algae known
as dinoflagellates.20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
2. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution of Dinoflagellates", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p194.
3. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
4. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
5. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
6. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution
of Dinoflagellates", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
7. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
8. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
9. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
10. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution
of Dinoflagellates", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
11. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
12. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
13. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
14. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution
of Dinoflagellates", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
15. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
16. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
17. ^ "phytoplankton." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 03 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phytoplankton
18. ^ "phytoplankton." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 12 May. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phytoplankton
19. ^ "phytoplankton." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 12 May. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phytoplankton
20. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p257.
21. ^ Javaux,
Emmanuelle J., Craig P. Marshall, and Andrey Bekker. “Organic-walled
microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits.”
Nature 463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
22. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P. Marshall, and Andrey Bekker.
“Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature 463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
{3.2 bybn}
23. ^ A. H. Knoll, E. J. Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic
Organisms in Proterozoic Oceans", Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470, Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological,
Molecular and Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29,
2006), pp. 1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209698 {1.8 bybn}
24. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/dinoflagfr.html {1.8 bybn}
25. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html {1900-1600 mybn}
26. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p257. {1.6 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Knoll, Andrew H., Walter, Malcolm,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life
and Evolution of Biospheres, 2003-02-01, Springer Netherlands, Vol33, Iss1,
p75-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023992712071
[2] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean
Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
[3] Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A Molecular Time-Scale for Eukaryote
Evolution Recalibrated with the Continuous Microfossil Record", Proceedings:
Biological Sciences , Vol. 273, No. 1596 (Aug. 7, 2006), pp.
1867-1872 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25223537
[4] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Andrew H. Knoll, and Malcolm R. Walter.
“Morphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems.”
Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html
(Moodies Group) South Africa21   
2,923,000,000 YBN
23
178) The Eubacteria Phylum Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ14 ) evolves (Gram positive
bacteria: the cause of botulism, tetanus, and anthrax).15 16 17

Firmicutes is a phylum of nonphotosynthetic18 , mainly gram-positive bacteria.
Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes are the two main groups of bacteria found in the
intestine.19

Firmicutes includes rods and cocci {KoKSE20 } forms, and some form
endospores.21

An endospore is a tough reduced dry form of a bacterium, triggered by a lack of
nutrients, that protects the bacterium, and allows it to be revived after long
periods of time.22

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges,
"A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds.
Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the
Environment, Washington DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteria?topic=49480
6. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
10. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
13. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
14. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
16. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
17. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
18. ^ "bacteria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 08 Sep.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/48203/bacteria/39371/Classificat
ion-by-morphology-biochemistry-and-other-features
>.
19. ^ "Firmicutes" at Dorland's Medical
Dictionary http://web.archive.org/web/20090616022448/http://www.mercksource.com
/pp/us/cns/cns_hl_dorlands_split.jsp?pg=/ppdocs/us/common/dorlands/dorland/three
/000040400.htm

20. ^ "coccus." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coccus
21. ^ "bacteria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 08 Sep.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/48203/bacteria/39371/Classificat
ion-by-morphology-biochemistry-and-other-features
>.
22. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney
Draggan and C.J. Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment,
Washington DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteria?topic=49480
23. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptidoglycan
[2] firmicutes only bacteria to make endospores
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes
[4] http://www.earthlife.net/prokaryotes/firmicutes.html
  
2,800,000,000 YBN
24
76) The Eubacteria Phylum Proteobacteria evolves (includes Rickettsia {the
ancestor of all mitochondria}, gonorrhea, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli
{esRriKEo KOlI16 } or E coli {E KOlI17 }).18 19 20 21 22

The proteobacteria are the largest group of bacteria by far in terms of number
of described species.23

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
4. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Tree of life, http://tolweb.org/tree/
8. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria
as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
9. ^ "Escherichia coli." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 30 Dec. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
10. ^ "E.
coli." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/escherichia-coli
11. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
14. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
15. ^
http://taxonomicon.taxonomy.nl/TaxonTree.aspx?id=71320
16. ^ "Escherichia coli." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 30 Dec.
2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
17. ^ "E. coli." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/escherichia-coli
18. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
20. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
21. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
22. ^
http://taxonomicon.taxonomy.nl/TaxonTree.aspx?id=71320
23. ^ Sadava, D. et al. Life: The Science of Biology. W. H. Freeman, 2009,
p550-551.
24. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] multicellularity.
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol3018.htm multicellularity.
Multicellularity.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacteria
[2] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
[3] "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>
[4] conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa
and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989)
[5] prokaryote pili and
archaea flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
[6] Stackebrandt et al. Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the
phylogenetic taxon that includes the "purple bacteria and their relatives".
Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38,
321–325. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/38/3/321.full.pdf
  
2,800,000,000 YBN
38
177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo KOlI29 }
bacteria. Conjugation is the exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor {male}
bacterium through a pilus to a recipient {female} bacterium.30 31 32 33 34 35
This may be the process that evolves into eukaryote sexual reproduction.36

In addition to pili and conjugation, proteins that can cut DNA and other
proteins that can connect two strands of DNA evolve.37

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
2. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
6. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
7. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM,
"Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946)
doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
8. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
12. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
13. ^ "Escherichia coli."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 30 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
14. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E.
L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19
October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
15. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
16. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
19. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
20. ^ prokaryote pili and archaea
flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
21. ^ "Escherichia coli." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 30 Dec.
2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
22. ^ JOSHUA
LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158,
558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
23. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
24. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
25. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
26. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
27. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
28. ^ prokaryote pili and archaea
flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
29. ^ "Escherichia coli." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 30 Dec.
2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
30. ^ JOSHUA
LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158,
558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
31. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
32. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
33. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
34. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
35. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
36. ^ Ted Huntington.
37. ^ prokaryote pili and
archaea flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
38. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}
  
2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.7

These cells depend on the DNA duplicating and protein producing systems of
other cells to reproduce themselves. The first viruses may be made from
bacteria, or may be bacteria initially.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
2. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
3. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
4. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
5. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
6. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
7. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
8. ^
http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
  
2,784,000,000 YBN
11
176) The Eubacteria Phylum, Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS7 } evolves (also
known as Planctobacteria).8

Planctomycetes are a widely distributed group of eubacteria that reproduce by
budding, have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan like most bacteria,
and some have a membrane-bound nucleoid, similar to the eukaryotic nucleus.9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
9. ^ Gerday, C., N. Glansdorff, and
American Society for Microbiology. Physiology and Biochemistry of
Extremophiles. ASM Press, 2007. American Society Mic Series,
p410. http://books.google.com/books?id=T0_9nNv3kZoC&pg=PA410
10. ^ Fuerst, John A. “The Planctomycetes: Emerging Models for Microbial
Ecology, Evolution and Cell Biology.” Microbiology 141.7 (1995): 1493
–1506. Print. http://mic.sgmjournals.org/content/141/7/1493.long
11. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] s10 http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/6/1965
[2] http://genomebiology.com/2002/3/6/research/0031
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planctomycetes
[4] Lee, Kuo-Chang, Rick Webb, and John Fuerst. “The
Cell Cycle of the Planctomycete Gemmata Obscuriglobus with Respect to Cell
Compartmentalization.” BMC Cell Biology 10.1 (2009):
4. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2121/10/4/
  
2,784,000,000 YBN
29
179) The Eubacteria Phylum, Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu20 } evolves (the
source of streptomycin and the cause of tuberculosis and leprosy21 ).22 23 24
25 26

The Actinobacteria are a group of Gram-positive bacteria, that are rod-shaped
or form branching filaments,27 and include many soil bacteria28 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
4. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
5. ^ http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
10. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
11. ^ http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
13. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
14. ^ Schaechter, M. Desk Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Academic Press, 2009.
Academic Press, p1-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=vO0oU4z36DIC&pg=PA1
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
17. ^ "Actinobacteria".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
18. ^
http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
19. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
20. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
21. ^ Schaechter, M. Desk Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Academic Press, 2009.
Academic Press, p1-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=vO0oU4z36DIC&pg=PA1
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
23. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
24. ^ "Actinobacteria".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
25. ^
http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
26. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
27. ^ Lim, D.V. Microbiology.
Kendall/Hunt, 2002,
p391. http://books.google.com/books?id=CKEgLmqfbRQC&pg=PA391
28. ^ Schaechter, M. Desk Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Academic Press, 2009.
Academic Press, p1-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=vO0oU4z36DIC&pg=PA1
29. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] "streptomyces." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/streptomyces
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
11
174) The Eubacteria Phylum, Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ7 ) evolves (the cause of
Syphilis, and Lyme disease).8

Spirochetes {SPIrOKETS9 } are helical heterotrophs that spiral through their
environment by rotating, internal, flagellum-like filaments.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=spirochete&submit=Submit
10. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p569,571.
11. ^ estimated from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] "spirochete." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/spirochete
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
14 15
175) The Eubacteria Phylum Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ10 } evolves.11 12

Bacteroidetes is composed of Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, mostly anaerobic,
nonsporeforming bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment,
including in soil, sea water, and in the guts and on the skin of animals.13

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
4. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
10. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
13. ^ George M.
Garrity, ed. (November 24, 2010) 1984(Williams & Wilkins). ^ (in English). The
Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Tenericutes (Mollicutes), Acidobacteria,
Fibrobacteres, Fusobacteria, Dictyoglomi, Gemmatimonadetes, Lentisphaerae,
Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, and Planctomycetes. Bergey's Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology. 4 (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 908. ISBN 978-0-387-95042-6.
British Library no. GBA561951.
14. ^ estimate from Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidetes
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
11
217) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E7 } evolves.8


Chlamydiae are parasites that can survive only within animal cells. One species
Chlamydia trachomatis (TreKOmuTis9 } is the most common cause of blindness on
Earth, and also causes a common sexually transmitted disease.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
9. ^ "Chlamydia trachomatis." The American
Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.
Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/chlamydia-trachomatis
10. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology.
Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Alternative eText Formats Series, p569.
11. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicrobia
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
12 13
6309) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlorobi {KlOROBE} evolves (green sulphur
bacteria).7 8

Chlorobi are obligately anoxygenic (cannot survive in the presence of oxygen),
photosythesizing bacteria, that fix carbon from carbon dioxide into carbon
compounds for cell growth, by using sulfur compounds, hydrogen, or ferrous iron
as electron donors (oxidizing them).9 10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).. ^
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004)..
^
9. ^ Margulis, L., and M.J. Chapman. Kingdoms and Domains: An Illustrated Guide
to the Phyla of Life on Earth. Elsevier Science,
2009. http://books.google.com/books?id=9IWaqAOGyt4C&pg=PA88
10. ^ Martin G. Klotz, D.A.B.T.E.H. The Microbial Sulfur Cycle. Frontiers
E-books. http://books.google.com/books?id=TINC-SBb3P0C&pg=PA160
11. ^ Bryant, Donald A., and Niels-Ulrik Frigaard. “Prokaryotic
Photosynthesis and Phototrophy Illuminated.” Trends in Microbiology 14.11
(2006):
488–496. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966842X06002265
12. ^ estimate from Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidetes
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
10
6310) The Eubacteria Phylum Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo7 ) evolves.8

Verrucomicrobia are found in soil, fresh and marine waters, and hot springs.
Like Planctomycetes, some members of Verrucomicrobia also have intracellular
membrane enclosed compartments, including a membrane that encloses the DNA.9

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
9. ^ Kuo-Chang Lee, Richard I Webb, Peter H
Janssen, Parveen Sangwan, Tony Romeo, James T Staley and John A Fuerst, "Phylum
Verrucomicrobia representatives share a compartmentalized cell plan with
members of bacterial phylum Planctomycetes", BMC Microbiology, Volume 9, Number
1 (2009), 5, DOI:
10.1186/1471-2180-9-5. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/9/5
10. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicrobia
  
2,730,000,000 YBN
7 8
80) Endo and exocytosis evolve. Cells can now eat other cells.

In endocytosis the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the
cell.5

In Exocytosis substances contained in vesicles are released from the cell.6

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ "endocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis
2. ^ "exocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/exocytosis
3. ^ "endocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis
4. ^ "exocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/exocytosis
5. ^ "endocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis
6. ^ "exocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/exocytosis
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn guess
and }
8. ^ guess based on Cavalier-Smith stating that endocytosis occurs before a
cytoskeleton {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn guess and}
  
2,700,000,000 YBN
30
60) The eukaryotic cell evolves. The first cell with a nucleus. The first
protist. The nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.21

There are some differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
In prokaryotic
cells the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed called
the "nucleoid" while in eukaryotic cells most of the DNA is contained in a
nucleus that is bounded by a double membrane. Eukaryotic cells are generally
much larger than prokaryotic cells. Typical bacteria are between 1-5 um in
diameter, while eukaryotic cells are typically 10-100 um in diameter.22 Unlike
prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton
enables eukaryotic cells to change their shape and to surround and engulf other
cells. Eukaryotic cells also have internal structures that prokaryotic cells
lack such as mitochondria and plastids.23 DNA in prokaryotic cells is usually
in the form of a single circular chromosome, while DNA in the nucleus of
eukaryotes contains linear chromosomes. Some organelles in eukaryotes also
contain DNA; most mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA is also circular reflecting
their prokaryote origin.24

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably haploid (has a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets of DNA).25 26 27 28

All protist, fungi, animal and plant cells descend from this common eukaryotic
cell.29

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
2. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
4. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008,
p516-517.
6. ^ Jill Saffrey, "Biology: uniformity & diversity. Core of life, Book 3,
Volume 2", 2001, p353. http://books.google.com/books?id=43yiLI1DvwAC&pg=PA353
7. ^ Montgomery Slatkin, "Exploring evolutionary biology:
readings from American scientist", 1995,
p161. http://books.google.com/books?ei=AAVdT77TFMiiiQKB8a24Cw
8. ^ Andrew Wallace Hayes, "Principles and methods of toxicology", 2007,
p1181. http://books.google.com/books?id=vgHXTId8rnYC&pg=PA1181
9. ^ N. A. Kolchanov, Hwa A. Lim, "Computer analysis of genetic macromolecules:
structure, function, and evolution", 1994,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=crip5tRcF0YC&pg=PA2
10. ^ "diploid", Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry http://www.answers.com/topic/diploid
11. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
12. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
13. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
14. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
15. ^ Jill Saffrey, "Biology: uniformity &
diversity. Core of life, Book 3, Volume 2", 2001,
p353. http://books.google.com/books?id=43yiLI1DvwAC&pg=PA353
16. ^ Montgomery Slatkin, "Exploring evolutionary biology: readings from
American scientist", 1995,
p161. http://books.google.com/books?ei=AAVdT77TFMiiiQKB8a24Cw
17. ^ Andrew Wallace Hayes, "Principles and methods of toxicology", 2007,
p1181. http://books.google.com/books?id=vgHXTId8rnYC&pg=PA1181
18. ^ N. A. Kolchanov, Hwa A. Lim, "Computer analysis of genetic
macromolecules: structure, function, and evolution", 1994,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=crip5tRcF0YC&pg=PA2
19. ^ "diploid", Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry http://www.answers.com/topic/diploid
20. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
21. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
22. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
23. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
24. ^ Jill Saffrey, "Biology: uniformity &
diversity. Core of life, Book 3, Volume 2", 2001,
p353. http://books.google.com/books?id=43yiLI1DvwAC&pg=PA353
25. ^ Montgomery Slatkin, "Exploring evolutionary biology: readings from
American scientist", 1995,
p161. http://books.google.com/books?ei=AAVdT77TFMiiiQKB8a24Cw
26. ^ Andrew Wallace Hayes, "Principles and methods of toxicology", 2007,
p1181. http://books.google.com/books?id=vgHXTId8rnYC&pg=PA1181
27. ^ N. A. Kolchanov, Hwa A. Lim, "Computer analysis of genetic
macromolecules: structure, function, and evolution", 1994,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=crip5tRcF0YC&pg=PA2
28. ^ "diploid", Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry http://www.answers.com/topic/diploid
29. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
30. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong
Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{split of archae and eukaryote at c4.0 bybn, but eukaryote {with nucleus?} at)
2.7 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p256
[2] Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
[3] Alexey S. Kondrashov, "EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF LIFE CYCLES", Annual Review
of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 28: 391-435 (Volume publication date November
1997)
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.391;
jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

  
2,700,000,000 YBN
62) The earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiR AN13
molecules).14 15 Steranes are formed from sterols {STeRoLZ16 }, molecules made
by mitochondria.17 18

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
4. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
7. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
9. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
10. ^ "sterol." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterol
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
12. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
13. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
16. ^ "sterol." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterol
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
18. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
19. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
20. ^ Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 1033-1036 , 13 August 1999 Archean Molecular Fossils and
the Early Rise of Eukaryotes Jochen J. Brocks, 1,2* Graham A. Logan, 2 Roger
Buick, 1 Roger E. Summons 2
Northwestern Australia19 20   
2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves in a eukaryote cell. The endoplasmic
reticulum (or ER) is a membrane system that extends from the nucleus, important
in the synthesis of proteins and lipids.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
2. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
3. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
4. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
  
2,690,000,000 YBN
17 18
207) The cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN13 } forms in the eukaryote cytoplasm.14
15 16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
2. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
3. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman Inc,
New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
4. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
5. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
6. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
7. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman Inc,
New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
8. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
9. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
10. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
11. ^ Margulis,
L. 1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman
Inc, New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
12. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
13. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
14. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
15. ^ Margulis,
L. 1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman
Inc, New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
16. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
17. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess
and }
18. ^ guess based on ER and golgi made of same material as cytoskeleton,
and after first eukaryote cell {Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess and}
  
2,690,000,000 YBN
11
208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia evolve.

The eukaryote flagellum and cilia are structurally the same5 but are very
different from the prokaryote flagellum. The eukaryote flagellum is composed of
a characteristic "9+2" arrangement of microtubules {mIKrO-TUB-YU-LZ6 }
surrounded by a sheath which is an extension of the plasma membrane.7 Unlike
the prokaryote flagella that rotate, the flagella and cilia of eukaryotic cells
undulate in a wave-like motion to propel the cell.8

Some cilia are nonmotile and serve as signal-receiving "antennae" for the
cell.9

The sperm cells of algae, animals, and some plants have flagella.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
2. ^
"microtubule." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/microtubule>.
3. ^ Dr. P.D. Sharma, "Microbiology & Plant Pathology", 2007,
p86. http://books.google.com/books?id=ByDwOIWXp4MC&pg=PA86
4. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
5. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
6. ^ "microtubule."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/microtubule>.
7. ^ Sharma, P.D. Microbiology. Rastogi Publications, 2007,
p86. http://books.google.com/books?id=7rfpzW7eMW4C&pg=PA86
8. ^ Dr. P.D. Sharma, "Microbiology & Plant Pathology", 2007,
p86. http://books.google.com/books?id=ByDwOIWXp4MC&pg=PA86
9. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
10. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong
Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -10mybn guess}
  
2,680,000,000 YBN
8
65) The circular chromosome in the eukaryote nucleus changes into linear
chromosomes.5

Alternatively, the eukaryotic cell may descend from a prokaryote that already
has linear DNA.6

Some extant prokaryotes have a linear chromosome.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Alexey S.
Kondrashov, "EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF LIFE CYCLES", Annual Review of Ecology
and Systematics Vol. 28: 391-435 (Volume publication date November 1997)
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.391;
jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +20mybn
guess}

MORE INFO
[1] not all prokaryotes have circle of
DNA: http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.
391;jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

[2] Jumas-Bilak E, Maugard C, Michaux-Charachon S, Allardet-Servent A, Perrin
A, et al. 1995. Study of the organization of the genomes of Escherichia coli,
Brucella melitensis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens by insertion of a unique
restriction site. Microbiology 141:2425-32 (Medline)
[3] Lezhava A, Kameoka D, Sugino H,
Goshi K, Shinkawa H, et al. 1997. Chromosomal deletions in Streptomyces griseus
that remove the afsA locus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253:478-83
[4] Marconi RT, Casjens S,
Munderloh UG, Samuels DS. 1996. Analysis of linear plasmid dimers in Borrelia
burgdorferi sensu lato isolates: implications concerning the potential
mechanisms of linear plasmid replication. J. Bact. 178:3357-61
  
2,680,000,000 YBN
216) Histones evolve. Histones are proteins found in all eukaryotic cell nuclei
that package and order a single continuous DNA molecule into structural units
called nucleosomes {nUKlEuSOMZ3 }.4 The nucleosomes are coiled into a 30
nanometer fiber called a chromatin, and then looped again around a chromosome
scaffold into a larger 300 nanometer fiber which forms one of the two
chromatids in a chromosome.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "nucleosome." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/nucleosome Read more:
http://www.answers.com/main/cite_this_answer.jsp#ixzz2Ga2DeYfP
2. ^ Nelson, D.L., and M.M. Cox. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. W. H.
Freeman, 2008. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry,
p963. http://books.google.com/books?id=5Ek9J4p3NfkC
3. ^ "nucleosome." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/nucleosome Read more:
http://www.answers.com/main/cite_this_answer.jsp#ixzz2Ga2DeYfP
4. ^ Nelson, D.L., and M.M. Cox. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. W. H.
Freeman, 2008. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry,
p963. http://books.google.com/books?id=5Ek9J4p3NfkC
5. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series.
  
2,680,000,000 YBN
5
291) The eukaryote cell evolves two intermediate stages between cell division
and DNA synthesis.3

In prokaryotes, DNA synthesis can take place uninterrupted between cell
divisions, but eukaryotes duplicate their DNA exactly once during a discrete
period between cell divisions.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: p45
2. ^ "cell." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/101396/cell>.
3. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: p45
4. ^ "cell." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/101396/cell>.
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -20mybn
guess}

MORE INFO
[1] Cooper GM (2000). "Chapter 14: The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle". The cell:
a molecular approach (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C: ASM Press. ISBN
0-87893-106-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9876/
[2] Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, p228-245
  
2,670,000,000 YBN
199) The Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves. The Golgi apparatus packages
proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations.4

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.
2. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.
3. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.
4. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.

MORE INFO
[1] "Endosome." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endosome
  
2,670,000,000 YBN
5
290) The nucleolus evolves. The nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus that makes
ribosomal RNA.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
3. ^ Michael
Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold,
1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
5. ^ Ted Huntington
guess

MORE INFO
[1] Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry Oxford University Press. Oxford
Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology © 1997, 2000, 2006 All rights
reserved. http://www.answers.com/topic/nucleolus#ixzz2VAspF99U
  
2,660,000,000 YBN
16
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.11 12

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the nucleus divides resulting in two new nuclei,
each of which contains an identical copy of the parental chromosomes. Mitosis
is usually immediately followed by cytokinesis, the division of the
cytoplasm.13 14

Mitosis is thought to have evolved from prokaryote binary fission and possible
intermediate stages can be seen in some protists.15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis, evolution of mitosis.
2. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
3. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis, evolution of
mitosis.
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
5. ^ "mitosis." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mitosis
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, p230-233.
7. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis,
evolution of mitosis.
8. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
9. ^ "mitosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mitosis
10. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, p230-233.
11. ^ Michael
Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold,
1989).: types of mitosis, evolution of mitosis.
12. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
13. ^ "mitosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 12 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mitosis
14. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th Edition,
2008, p230-233.
15. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, p237.
16. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi
Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -40mybn
guess}
  
2,640,000,000 YBN
48
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. This is the first diploid cell and the first
zygote.29 30

Because of sex, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more genetic
variety. Having two chromosome sets also provides a backup copy of important
genes.31 32

Eukaryotic sexual reproduction, which is initially the fusion of two cells and
their nuclei, may first occur in a single cell protist that usually reproduces
asexually by mitosis.33 Two haploid eukaryote cells (gametes, cells with one
set of chromosomes each) merge and then their nuclei merge to form the first
diploid cell, a cell with two sets of chromosomes, the first zygote.34
"Syngamy" {SiNG-Gu-mE35 } refers to gamete fusion and "karyogamy"
{KaR-E-oG-e-mE36 } to nucleus fusion. In most cases syngamy is immediately
followed by karyogamy.37

This fusion of two haploid cells results in the first diploid single-celled
organism, which may then immediately divide back to two haploid cells.

Conjugation, the second major kind of sexual phenomenon, which occurs in the
ciliates, involves the fusion of gametic nuclei instead of independent gamete
cells.38

Initially sex may be the fusion of two indistinguishable cells (isogamy) with
gender (anisogamy) only evolving later.39 Although possibly eukaryote cell
fusion and gender is directly descended from prokaryote conjugation.40

All sexual species alternate between haploid and diploid. There are three main
different types of sexual life cycles; haplontic, haplodiplontic, and
diplontic.41 42
This begins the haplontic life cycle: in the entire life cycle
the only diploid cell is the zygote and mitosis only occurs in the haploid
phase43 .44 45

Most fungi and some protists including some algae are "haplontic"; they have a
multicellular haploid stage and no multicellular diploid stage. Plants and some
algae are "haplodiplontic"; they make both a multicellular haploid and
multicellular diploid organism. Animals are "diplontic"; they make a diploid
multicellular organism and no multicellular haploid organism.46 47

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
4. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution",
(London: Nelson, 1964).
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
7. ^ Karen Arms,
Pamela S. Camp, "Biology", Third Edition, 1987,
p398. http://books.google.com/books?ei=fjtmT96tDqPQiAKP2qyiDw&id=ga_uAAAAMAAJ
8. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
9. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
11. ^ Glenn E. Croston, "Kaplan AP biology",
2000, p98. http://books.google.com/books?id=PWsKAQAAMAAJ
12. ^ Janette B. Benson, Marshall M. Haith, "Diseases and Disorders in
Infancy and Early Childhood", 2009, p203.
13. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology",
Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
14. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
15. ^
Rowoand, M.D. Bath Advanced Science - Biology. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Limited,
1992. Bath Science 16-19 Series,
p503. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9cEEouPBogC&pg=PA503
16. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
17. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
18. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
19. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
20. ^ Glenn E. Croston,
"Kaplan AP biology", 2000, p98. http://books.google.com/books?id=PWsKAQAAMAAJ
21. ^ Janette B. Benson, Marshall M. Haith,
"Diseases and Disorders in Infancy and Early Childhood", 2009, p203.
22. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
23. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
24. ^ Rowoand, M.D. Bath Advanced Science - Biology. Thomas
Nelson & Sons, Limited, 1992. Bath Science 16-19 Series,
p503. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9cEEouPBogC&pg=PA503
25. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
26. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
27. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestors Tail", 2004, p626.
28. ^ Ted Huntington.
29. ^ Sir Gavin De
Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
30. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
31. ^ Glenn E. Croston, "Kaplan AP biology",
2000, p98. http://books.google.com/books?id=PWsKAQAAMAAJ
32. ^ Janette B. Benson, Marshall M. Haith, "Diseases and Disorders in
Infancy and Early Childhood", 2009, p203.
33. ^ Charles W. Fox, Daphne J. Fairbair,
"Evolutionary ecology: concepts and case studies", 2001,
p155. http://books.google.com/books?id=_dCrIwP85vkC&pg=PA155
34. ^ Janet Louise Leonard, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, "The evolution of primary
sexual characters in animals", 2010, p15-16.
35. ^ "syngamy." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 Jun. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/syngamy>.
36. ^ "karyogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 03 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/karyogamy
37. ^ Peter Calow, "The encyclopedia of ecology & environmental management",
1998, p680. http://books.google.com/books?id=8LxE9RFpgJcC&pg=PA680
38. ^ "protist." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 17 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/480085/protist>.
39. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestors Tail", 2004, p626.
40. ^ Ted Huntington.
41. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
42. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
43. ^ Rowoand, M.D. Bath Advanced Science - Biology. Thomas
Nelson & Sons, Limited, 1992. Bath Science 16-19 Series,
p503. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9cEEouPBogC&pg=PA503
44. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
45. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
46. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
47. ^ John Ringo,
"Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
48. ^ estimate based on diplomonads having sex
repro, and origin of euk being (is now) {Nucleus 2700 -60mybn guess)(was
2710mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] J. William Schopf, "Major Events in the History of Life", (Boston,
MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1992).p57 (was)
  
2,640,000,000 YBN
17
206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis: a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).12 13

Meiosis, which looks similar to mitosis14 , is the process of cell division in
sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in
reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of
gametes in animals and spores in plants.15

Without the reduction back to haploid, genomes would double in size with every
generation.16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
3. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth
Edition, 2008, p253.
6. ^ "meiosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
12 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/meiosis
7. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
8. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
9. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p253.
10. ^ "meiosis." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 12 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/meiosis
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestors Tail",
2004, p627.
12. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
13. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New
York: Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
14. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p253.
15. ^ "meiosis." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 12 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/meiosis
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestors Tail",
2004, p627.
17. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
  
2,610,000,000 YBN
22
296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves.17 Anisogamy {aNISoGomE18 19 }, sex (cell
and nucleus fusion) between two cells that are different in size or shape.20 21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
5. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
6. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
7. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
8. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
10. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
11. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 18 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
12. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
13. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
14. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
15. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
16. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
17. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
18. ^ "anisogamy." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
19. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
20. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
21. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 18 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
22. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -90mybn
guess}
  
2,590,000,000 YBN
7
298) Oogamy {O-oG-omE5 }, a form of anisogamy, evolves in protists: sex between
a flagellated gamete and an unflagellated gamete.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oogamy&submit=Submit
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oogamy&submit=Submit
4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oogamy&submit=Submit
6. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda
S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -110mybn
guess}
  
2,580,000,000 YBN
5
300) Diploid cell fusion evolves (Gamontogamy).1 2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989). p76,p79
2. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/clevelan.html
3. ^
arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.mi.17.100163.002105
diatoms do gamontogamy gamontogomy_diatoms_annurev.mi.17.100163.002105.pdf
4. ^
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146%2Fannurev.ecolsys.28.1.391
annurev.ecolsys.28.1.391 (saved html file)
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir
Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale
for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -120mybn guess}
  
2,570,000,000 YBN
11
295) Two-step meiosis evolves (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides
twice into four haploid cells).6

Most protists divide by two-step meiosis, and one-step meiosis is rare.7 8

Many of the steps of meiosis closely resemble corresponding steps in mitosis.
Meiosis, like mitosis, is preceded by the replication of chromosomes, but this
single replication is followed not by one but two consecutive cell divisions
which results in four child cells instead of the two child cells of mitosis.9

Mitosis produces child cells that are genetically identical to their parent
cells and each other, while meiosis produces cells that differ genetically from
their parent cell and from each other.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
2. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
3. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989) p71.
5. ^ Igor B. Raikov, Meiosis in protists: Recent
advances and persisting problems, European Journal of Protistology, Volume 31,
Issue 1, 15 March 1995, Pages 1-7, ISSN 0932-4739,
10.1016/S0932-4739(11)80349-4. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0932473911803494)

6. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
7. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989) p71.
8. ^ Igor B. Raikov, Meiosis in protists: Recent advances
and persisting problems, European Journal of Protistology, Volume 31, Issue 1,
15 March 1995, Pages 1-7, ISSN 0932-4739,
10.1016/S0932-4739(11)80349-4. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0932473911803494)

9. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p253-257.
10. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p253-257.
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -130mybn
guess}
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
5
171) The Eubacteria phylum "Deinococcus-Thermus" evolves (includes Thermus
Aquaticus {used in PCR}, and Deinococcus radiodurans {which can survive long
exposure to radiation}).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
17 18
172) The Eubacteria phylum, Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u11 } evolves.

Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes with oxygen-producing photosynthesis,12
and are the ancestor of all eukaryote plastids (for example chloroplasts).13 14


Fossil evidence suggests that cyanobacteria existed as early as 3.8 billion
years before now, but the genetic evidence places the origin of cyanobacteria
here at 2.5 billion years before now.15 16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cyanobacterium." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in
Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
4. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19,
Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
7. ^ "cyanobacterium." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
8. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p569.
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
10. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
11. ^
"cyanobacterium." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
12. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p569.
13. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
14. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
15. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19,
Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
17. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC533871/ {2558
mybn}
18. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003). {2558 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] Journal of Molecular Evolution Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York ISSN: 0022-2844 (Paper) 1432-1432 (Online) Issue:
Volume 42, Number 2 Date: February 1996 Pages: 194 - 200
[4] Phylogenetic
Relationships of Nonaxenic Filamentous Cyanobacterial Strains Based on 16S rRNA
Sequence Analysis jme_42_2_1996.pdf
[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria
[6] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
6
315) The Eubacteria Phylum Chloroflexi evolves; (Green Non-Sulphur bacteria).4


The Chloroflexi are filamentous bacteria that perform anoxygenic
photosynthesis.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Bryant, Donald A., and Niels-Ulrik Frigaard. “Prokaryotic
Photosynthesis and Phototrophy Illuminated.” Trends in Microbiology 14.11
(2006):
488–496. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966842X06002265
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[2] Tree of Life http://tolweb.org/tree/
  
2,500,000,000 YBN
52) The end of the Archean and start of the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or
ProTReZOiK11 12 } Eon.13

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542 million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Proterozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/proterozoic
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=proterozoic&submit=Submit
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
5. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th Edition,
2006, p243.
6. ^ "Proterozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/proterozoic
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=proterozoic&submit=Submit
8. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
9. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
10. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th Edition,
2006, p243.
11. ^ "Proterozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/proterozoic
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=proterozoic&submit=Submit
13. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
14. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
15. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th
Edition, 2006, p243.
  
2,500,000,000 YBN
56) Banded Iron Formation starts to appear in many places.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
greenspirit.uk
  
2,480,000,000 YBN
19 20 21 22 23 24
170) Bacteria live on land.13 14 15

Chemoauthotrophs oxidize sulfur or nitrogen to form sulfate or nitrate, and
therefore sulfuric or nitric acid, which then dissolves rocks.16 17 18

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
2. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
3. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

4. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
5. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
6. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

7. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
8. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
9. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

10. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
11. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
12. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

13. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
14. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
15. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

16. ^ Konhauser, K.O. Introduction to Geomicrobiology. Wiley, 2009, p.
231. http://books.google.com/books?id=ndGmm920Va8C&pg=PA231
17. ^ Lengeler, J., G. Drews, and H. Schlegel. Biology of the Prokaryotes.
Wiley, 2009, p. 251. http://books.google.com/books?id=vXbJa4X5oHsC&pg=PA251
18. ^ Schaechter, M. Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Elsevier
Science, 2009,
p265. http://books.google.com/books?id=rLhdW5YzuO4C&pg=RA2-PA265
19. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
20. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
21. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

22. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). (2600-2700my)
23. ^ University of
Tennessee at Knoxville. "Bacteria's move from sea to land may have occurred
much later than thought." ScienceDaily, 22 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Jul.
2012. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111222195017.htm
24. ^ Florence Wisniewski-Dyé, Kirill Borziak, Gurusahai Khalsa-Moyers, Gladys
Alexandre, Leonid O. Sukharnikov, Kristin Wuichet, Gregory B. Hurst, W. Hayes
McDonald, Jon S. Robertson, Valérie Barbe, Alexandra Calteau, Zoé Rouy,
Sophie Mangenot, Claire Prigent-Combaret, Philippe Normand, Mickaël Boyer,
Patricia Siguier, Yves Dessaux, Claudine Elmerich, Guy Condemine, Ganisan
Krishnen, Ivan Kennedy, Andrew H. Paterson, Victor González, Patrick Mavingui,
Igor B. Zhulin. Azospirillum Genomes Reveal Transition of Bacteria from Aquatic
to Terrestrial Environments. PLoS Genetics, 2011; 7 (12): e1002430 DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1002430

MORE INFO
[1] "pyrite." The American Heritage� Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 May.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/pyrite
  
2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of a 200 million year ice age.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
  
2,300,000,000 YBN
48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide formed on land, begin here, and are also
evidence of more free oxygen in the air of Earth.9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
  
2,000,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely related to Rickettsia prowazekii, an aerobic
proteobacteria, is engulfed by an early eukaryote cell and over time a
symbiotic relationship evolves within the eukaryote cell (an endosymbiosis)
where the Rickettsia becomes the mitochondria.

Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all
eukaryotic cells, and are where cellular respiration occurs producing most of
the ATP in a eukaryotic cell.7

In eukaryotes the mitochondria perform the Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative
phosphorylation using oxygen to breakdown pyruvate from glycolysis into carbon
dioxide and water, and provide up to 36 ATP molecules.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
4. ^ "mitochondrion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/386130/mitochondrion>.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p100.
6. ^
"mitochondrion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/386130/mitochondrion>.
7. ^ "mitochondrion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/386130/mitochondrion>.
8. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p162,166,176.
9. ^ B. Franz
Lang, Michael W. Gray, and Gertraud Burger, "Mitochondrial Genome Evolution and
the Origin of Eukaryotes", Annu. Rev. Genet., V33, p351-397, p385. 1999. {2
BYBN}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {average of)
2230-1840 bybn} {earliest of) 2350-1640 bybn} {average of 1995my) 2350-1640
mybn}
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {1.8 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Michael W. Gray, et al, "Genome structure and gene content in protist
mitochondrial DNAs", Nucl. Acids Res. (1998) 26(4): 865-878
doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865 http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/4/865.full
  
1,874,000,000 YBN
26
61) The earliest large filamentous fossil (Grypania).13 14 Grypania spiralis
is about 10 cm long, and is thought to be either a green alga or a large
cyanobacterium.15 16 If eukaryote, Grypania would be the earliest
non-acritarch eukaryote fossil.17 18 19

Grypania may be like Acetabularia {aS-i-TaB-YU-lAR-Eu20 }, a large
single-celled green algae.21
The Grypania fossils have no blade (analogous to a
leaf) or holdfast structures,22 but stretching implies that Grypania was a
sessile organism connected to a surface.23

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
2. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
3. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
4. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
5. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
6. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
7. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
8. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
9. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
10. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
11. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
12. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
13. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
14. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
15. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
16. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
17. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
18. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
19. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
20. ^ "Acetabular." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random
House, Inc. 02 May. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Acetabular>.
21. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
22. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic Multicellular Organisms from
the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in the Jixian Area, North
China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct. 27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
23. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
24. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
25. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
26. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E.
Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and
syndepositional iron formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for
the tectonic setting of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior
region. Can. J. Earth Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Samuelsson, Joakim, Peter R Dawes, and Gonzalo Vidal.
“Organic-walled Microfossils from the Proterozoic Thule Supergroup, Northwest
Greenland.” Precambrian Research 96.1–2 (1999):
1–23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301926898001235
[2] Jacques Dumais, Kyle Serikawa and Dina F Mandoli, "Acetabularia: A
Unicellular Model for Understanding Subcellular Localization and Morphogenesis
during Development", Journal of Plant Growth Regulation Volume 19, Number 3
(2000), 253-264, DOI:
10.1007/s003440000035 http://www.oeb.harvard.edu/faculty/dumais/Publications/JP
GR2000.2.pdf

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA24 25   
1,800,000,000 YBN
46) The end of the Banded Iron Formation.5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
  
1,570,000,000 YBN
19 20 21
99) The first homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts in algae, plants, fungi and animals.13 14 15 16

For example, when a homeobox gene responsible for growing a mouse eye is added
to the cell of a fruit-fly embryo that is destined to be a leg, an extra fruit
fly eye is built on the leg.17 18

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
9. ^ Thomas R. Bürglin, "Analysis of TALE superclass homeobox genes (MEIS,
PBC, KNOX, Iroquois, TGIF) reveals a novel domain conserved between plants and
animals", Nucl. Acids Res. (1997) 25(21): 4173-4180 doi:10.1093/nar/25.21.4173
http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/21/4173.abstract
10. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin. “A
Comprehensive Classification and Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/12/2775.short
11. ^ Halder, G, P Callaerts, and WJ Gehring. “Induction of ectopic eyes by
targeted expression of the eyeless gene in Drosophila.” Science 267.5205
(1995) : 1788 -1792. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;267/5205/1788
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p399.
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p425,434.
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ Thomas R. Bürglin, "Analysis of TALE
superclass homeobox genes (MEIS, PBC, KNOX, Iroquois, TGIF) reveals a novel
domain conserved between plants and animals", Nucl. Acids Res. (1997) 25(21):
4173-4180 doi:10.1093/nar/25.21.4173
http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/21/4173.abstract
16. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin. “A
Comprehensive Classification and Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/12/2775.short
17. ^ Halder, G, P Callaerts, and WJ Gehring. “Induction of ectopic eyes by
targeted expression of the eyeless gene in Drosophila.” Science 267.5205
(1995) : 1788 -1792. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;267/5205/1788
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p399.
19. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin TR, "MEKHLA, a
novel domain with similarity to PAS domains, is fused to plant
homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins.", Plant Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/140/4/1142.full
20. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin. “A
Comprehensive Classification and Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/12/2775.short {1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown algae}
21. ^ Jongmin Nam, Claude W. dePamphilis,
Hong Ma, and Masatoshi Nei, "Antiquity and Evolution of the MADS-Box Gene
Family Controlling Flower Development in Plants", Mol Biol Evol (2003) 20(9):
1435-1447 first published online May 30, 2003 doi:10.1093/molbev/msg152
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/9/1435.abstract {1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown algae}
  
1,570,000,000 YBN
13 14
197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the eukaryote tree
pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

2. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
4. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

5. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
7. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

8. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
10. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of
the eukaryote tree pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

11. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
13. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf} {problem with 1250 my
bangia red algae fossils)1126 mybn}
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1570 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution", J Mol Evol
(2003) 56:540 563
[2] J Mol Evol (2003) 56:540 563 Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution Thomas
Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao
  
1,520,000,000 YBN
18 19 20 21 22
202) The Protist Phylum Amoebozoa evolves (amoebas and slime molds);10 11 the
first feeding using pseudopods (a temporary projection of the cytoplasm12 ).13


The Amoebozoa include amoebas, both naked and testate (partially enclosed by a
"test" or shell14 ), and slime molds15 and are characterized by pseudopods.16
Slime molds will diverge into two main branches, plasmodial slime molds and
cellular slime molds.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p515.
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p515.
7. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p515.
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ "pseudopod." The American
Heritage� Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 May. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pseudopod
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p515.
14. ^
http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.u
k/mag/artjun03/gsamoebae.html

15. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p594-596.
16. ^ "protozoan". Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 09
Sep.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/480488/protozoan/32619/Annotated
-classification
>.
17. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p594-596.
18. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1520 mybn}
19. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1400 my}
20. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1587mybn)
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1400) {c1220}
22. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c1090}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.unige.ch/sciences/biologie/biani/msg/Amoeboids/Amoebozoa/Conosea.html

  
1,520,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10
203) Colonialism (where cells form a colony3 ) evolves for the first time in
Eukaryotes.

Many cells that form colonies are apparently identical but because each cell is
exposed to a different environment, they transcribe different genes.4

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ "colonial." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
2. ^ "colonial." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
3. ^ "colonial." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
4. ^ Nicholas H. Barton, "Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {1956 mybn}
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1999 mybn}
9. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1600mybn)
10. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho,
Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). (1800-1900 for
eukaryote/prokaryote separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Biorealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
15) The first "plastids" evolve. Cyanobacteria form plastids through
endosymbiosis within a eukaryotic cell. Like mitochondria, these organelles
copy themselves and are not made by the cell DNA.6

Plastids provide the eukaryotic cell with food from photosynthesis and gain
protection by living within the cell.7

This is a primary plastid endosymbiosis and so these plastids are surrounded by
a double membrane.8 The inner wall of the plastid being that of the bacterium,
the outer wall being that of the eukoaryote.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Lee, R.E. Phycology. Cambridge
University Press, 2008,
p85. http://books.google.com/books?id=gfoIAFHgusgC&pg=PA85
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
7. ^ Lee, R.E. Phycology.
Cambridge University Press, 2008,
p85. http://books.google.com/books?id=gfoIAFHgusgC&pg=PA85
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p551.
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Ted Huntington.
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
13. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {c1600 my}
14. ^ S. Blair
Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics
3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see comments {1576 MYBN}
15. ^ Knoll A,
Summons R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p152. {no later than) 1200 my}
16.
^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see comments {1576
MYBN} {needs to be at least as old as Euglenozoa since many have plastids)1956}
{Euglenozoa)1956}

MORE INFO
[1] "Plastid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastid
[2] Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
43 44 45 46 47 48 49
86) The first plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).32 33
34 35 36

This begins the plant kingdom. The first plant is probably unicellular, similar
to the glaucophytes {GlxKoFITS37 }.38 39 40 41 42

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay,
Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton
reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
4. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay,
Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton
reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
9. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
14. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
16. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
19. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
21. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
23. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
24. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
25. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
26. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
27. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
28. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
29. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
30. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
31. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
32. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
33. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
34. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
35. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
36. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
37. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
38. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
39. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
40. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
41. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
42. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
43. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1500)
44. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {first plastid) 1300mybn}
45. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {first plastid) c1600}
46. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120.
{1550 mybn}
47. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1609 mybn)
48. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{1580} http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
49. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf {fossil
Grypania) 1874my}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith and Ema E. -Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution", Springer New
York, (2003). file:///home/ted/ulsf/docs/cav-smith_apusozoa_fulltext.html
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
220) The Protists Opisthokonts evolve (the ancestor of all Fungi,
Choanoflagellates and Animals).7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya
D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1380 mybn}
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1400mybn}
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1600 mybn}
13. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{960 mybn}
  
1,400,000,000 YBN
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
209) The earliest extant plant: Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu14 }.15 16 17

Glaucophytes are unicellular algae found in freshwater.18

Glaucophyta probably branched off the evolutionary tree before the divergence
of red and green algae from one another.19

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon,
Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ Hwan Su Yoon,
Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
13. ^ Lee, R.E. Phycology. Cambridge University Press,
2008, p85. http://books.google.com/books?id=gfoIAFHgusgC&pg=PA85
14. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
16. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
17. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
18. ^ Lee, R.E. Phycology. Cambridge
University Press, 2008,
p85. http://books.google.com/books?id=gfoIAFHgusgC&pg=PA85
19. ^ Lee, R.E. Phycology. Cambridge University Press, 2008,
p85. http://books.google.com/books?id=gfoIAFHgusgC&pg=PA85
20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1400)
21. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
22. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150 mybn}
23. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1290 mybn}
24. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1225 mybn}
25. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849
(2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (c1500my)
26. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(1558my)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P6064
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
188) The Plant Phylum Chlorophyta {KlORoFiTu20 } evolves, Green Algae:
(ancestor of Volvox, Sea lettuce, Spirogyra, and Stoneworts).21 22 23 24 25

The green algae are the most diverse group of algae on Earth today in terms of
number of species (having at least 7000 species).26

The first land plants most
likely evolve from green algae.27 28

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
4. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
5. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlorophyta&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
10. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
11. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlorophyta&submit=Submit
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
15. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
16. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
17. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
19. ^ Taylor, Taylor, Krings, "Paleobotany: The
Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants", 2009, p133-134.
20. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlorophyta&submit=Submit
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
22. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
23. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
24. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
25. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
26. ^ Taylor, Taylor, Krings, "Paleobotany: The Biology and
Evolution of Fossil Plants", 2009, p123.
27. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
28. ^ Taylor, Taylor, Krings,
"Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants", 2009, p133-134.
29. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1300mybn)
30. ^ "algae." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/14828/algae>.
31. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1150 mybn}
32. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450mybn}
33. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (968mybn)
34. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2
Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular
Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10
August 2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001). (1061?)
35. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2",
(London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1993). fr2b (1650-800mybn)
36. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html (1000my)
37. ^ Herman N,
"Organic World One Billion Years Ago", Nauka, Leningrad, 1990.
38. ^ Knoll A, Summons
R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J, "The Geological Succession of Primary Producers in
the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers
in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p150.
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17
219) The plant Phylum Rhodophyta {rODOFITu10 } evolves (Red Algae).11 12

Rhodophyta are common and widespread, unicellular and multicellular algae
(reaching up to 1 m {or 3 feet} in length), and are mostly free-living but some
are parasitic or symbiotic.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P9565
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
15. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450 mybn}
16. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1428mybn)
17. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
323) The Protists Excavates evolve: the ancestor of the Parabasalids
{PaRu-BAS-a-liDS17 }, and the Diplomonads {DiP-lO-mO-naDZ18 } {which includes
Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u19 }).20 21 22

Most of these species have an excavated ventral feeding groove, and all lack
mitochondria which are thought to be lost secondarily.23

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=parabasalid&submit=Submit
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diplomonads&submit=Submit
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
11. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=parabasalid&submit=Submit
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diplomonads&submit=Submit
13. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
17. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=parabasalid&submit=Submit
18. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diplomonads&submit=Submit
19. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
20. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
22. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
23. ^ Jan Tachezy, "Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes:
mitochondria of anaerobic eukaryotes",
2008 http://books.google.com/books?id=LsPkO1fMPvQC&pg=PA273
24. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
25. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {2000 my}
26. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {2291} {2291 my}
27. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
{1600} {1600 my}
28. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{2230} {2230 my}
29. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1594 my}
30. ^ Cédric Berney
and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated
with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{1030 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Heterokonts". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterokonts
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18 19 20
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.10 11

In this organism, unlike single cell eukaryotes, cells stay fastened together
after cell division.

Multicellularity seems to have arisen multiple times independently in
eukaryotes: in fungi, animals, slime molds, and algae.12 13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
2. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
3. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
4. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
5. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
6. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
7. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
8. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
9. ^ Nicholas H. Barton, "Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225
10. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
11. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
12. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. “The Multiple Origins of Complex Multicellularity.”
Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 39.1 (2011):
217-239. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.1002
09

13. ^ Inaki Ruiz-Trillo, Gertraud Burger, Peter W.H. Holland, Nicole King, B.
Franz Lang, Andrew J. Roger, Michael W. Gray, The origins of multicellularity:
a multi-taxon genome initiative, Trends in Genetics, Volume 23, Issue 3, March
2007, Pages 113-118, ISSN 0168-9525, DOI:
10.1016/j.tig.2007.01.005. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
168952507000236)

14. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
15. ^ Ted Huntington.
16. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
17. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^
Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz
and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron formations,
Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting of
Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874 mybn}
19. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the
2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874
mybn}
20. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2009, p517.

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
[3] Ted huntington, Estimate based on origin
of brown algae around 1,973,000,000
(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
Canada14   
1,280,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
85) Differentiation in a multicellular eukaryote evolves. In addition to gamete
(or spore) cells, there are somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells
are asexual (non-fusing).2

All cells of an organism are somatic cells, except the sperm and egg cells, the
cells from which they arise (gametocytes), and undifferentiated stem cells.3

Cell differentiation is how cells in a multicellular organism become
specialized to perform specific functions in a variety of tissues and organs.4


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cell differentiation." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cell-differentiation
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Somatic_cells
4. ^ "cell differentiation." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science
and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 25 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/cell-differentiation
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red
alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
7. ^ Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of
Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
1 2 3
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -80mybn
guess}
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
301) The haplodiplontic life cycle evolves in algae (mitosis occurs in both
haploid and diploid life stages).4

This is also known as the "alternation of generations".5

Some algae and plants
have a haplodiplontic life cycle; a life cycle where both diploid and haploid
stages are multicellular. The multicellular haploid stage is called the
gametophyte and the multicellular diploid stage is called the sporophyte.6

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
3. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
4. ^ John
Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
5. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics",
2004, p201.
6. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series, p252.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Butterfield N. J.
A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905

MORE INFO
[1] Mark Kirkpatrick, "The evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles",
1994, p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
  
1,274,000,000 YBN
15 16
187) A captured red alga, through endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid in the
ancestor of all chromalveolates.11 12 13

This is a secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured
instead of a cyanobacterium which results in a plastid with more than two
membranes.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
12. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
13. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
15. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {1274
mybn}
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {1280mybn}
  
1,250,000,000 YBN
29 30 31 32 33 34
88) The Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS22 } evolve (the ancestor
of the Chromista {Cryptophytes, Haptophytes, and Stramenopiles
{STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ23 }} and Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS24 }).25 26 27 28

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
3. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
7. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626 (2003)
: 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
9. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
10. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
13. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
14. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
15. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
16. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
17. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
20. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
21. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
22. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
23. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
24. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
25. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
26. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
27. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
28. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
29. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin
of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004):
809 -818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract
{c1250 mybn}
30. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
31. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1665 mybn}
32. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1973mybn)
33. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
34. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1600mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Brown alga". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_alga
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science,
Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
  
1,250,000,000 YBN
18
201) The earliest certain eukaryote fossils and earliest certain fossils of
eukaryote filamentous multicellularity: a bangiophyte {BoNJEuFIT10 } red alga
fossil.11 12 13

These are also the earliest fossils of a eukaryote that can reproduce sexually
and that have differentiated cells (a basal holdfast).14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
2. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

3. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
4. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
5. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

6. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
7. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
8. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

9. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
10. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=bangiophyte&submit=Submit
11. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
12. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

13. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of
Primary Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
14. ^ Nicholas J.
Butterfield, "Bangiomorpha pubescens n. gen., n. sp.: implications for
the evolution of sex, multicellularity, and the
Mesoproterozoic/ Neoproterozoic radiation of eukaryotes", Paleobiology, 26(3),
2000, pp.
386–404. http://www.algaebase.org/pdf/AC100CF316a8734043nPXq2B4E75/386.pdf
15. ^ http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=1700
16. ^ Science 1990 vol 250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A
bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science 250:
104-107 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
17. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

18. ^ Science 1990 vol 250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A
bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science 250:
104-107 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {1250 mybn}
(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada16 17   
1,200,000,000 YBN
21 22 23 24
221) The first fungi. This begins the Fungi Kingdom.14 15

Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic (unable to build structural materials by
photosynthesis) and so must feed on other living things.16

Fungi live on organic material and are therefore generally parasitic (live or
feed on another organism to the detriment of the host organism17 ) or are
saprophytic (live on dead or decaying organic matter18 ). Some types of fungi,
however, form symbioses with plants.19

Fungi may reproduce sexually or asexually and like plants show alternations in
their life cycle.20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf}
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
11. ^ "parasitic." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/parasitic
12. ^ "saprophytic." Grzimek's Animal Life
Encyclopedia. The Gale Group, Inc, 2005. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/saprophytic-zoology
13. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
17. ^ "parasitic." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/parasitic
18. ^ "saprophytic." Grzimek's Animal Life
Encyclopedia. The Gale Group, Inc, 2005. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/saprophytic-zoology
19. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
20. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
21. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1200 mybn}
22. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1368
mybn}
23. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1513mybn) {1513 mybn}
24. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c1200) {c1100} {c1100 mybn}
  
1,180,000,000 YBN
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
6280) The Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS16 } (the ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS17 }).18 19 20

These three protist phyla all have an alveolar {aL-VE-e-lR21 } membrane system,
made of flattened membrane-bound sacs called "alveoli" {aL-VE-e-lI22 }.23

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
2. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
7. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
10. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
11. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
12. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
15. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
16. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
17. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
20. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
21. ^ "alveolar." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 03 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/alveolar
22. ^ "alveolus." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 03 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/alveolus
23. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003, p135.
24. ^ Hackett
JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
{1180 mybn}
25. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p120. {1480 my}
26. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956 my}
27. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
28. ^ Emmanuelle J.
Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{1000 my}
29. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c820 my}
30. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1628}
  
1,100,000,000 YBN
14 15
75) The oldest extant fungi phylum "Microsporidia" evolves.9 10

Microsporidia are obligate (survive only as11 ) intracellular parasites of
eukaryotes;12 commonly infecting insects, crustaceans, and fishes.13

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ "obligate." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/obligate
8. ^ Murray Wittner, Louis M. Weiss, "The
microsporidia and microsporidiosis", 1999,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?ei=SqNvT_O5JKbTiAKf8PDuAg
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ "obligate." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/obligate
12. ^ Murray Wittner, Louis M. Weiss, "The microsporidia and microsporidiosis",
1999, p2. http://books.google.com/books?ei=SqNvT_O5JKbTiAKf8PDuAg
13. ^ Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008,
p427. {Fungi_Dictionary_Of_2008.pdf}
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (>1460mybn)
15. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c1100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=93911
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
  
1,100,000,000 YBN
18 19 20 21 22
313) The Protist Phylum "Dinoflagellata" evolves.13 14 15

Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS16 } are single-celled, aquatic organisms
that have two dissimilar flagella. Most are microscopic and marine. An
important link in the food chain, Dinoflagellates also "bloom" which can
produce luminescence seen in the sea.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before ciliophora and
apicomplexa branch
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise
of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
14. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
15. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise
of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
16. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
17. ^ "dinoflagellate." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 26 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
18. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing
and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and
Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{Dinosterane molecular fossils)1100 my}
19. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {DNA)1040 mybn}
20. ^ A. H. Knoll,
E. J. Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic Organisms in Proterozoic
Oceans", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470,
Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological, Molecular and Cellular
Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp.
1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209698 {1.8 bybn} {Dinosterane
molecular fossils)1100 my}
21. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {940 mybn}
22. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7,
2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{430 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch (1600mybn)
[3] Pratt, L. M., Summons, R. E. and
Hieshima, G. B.: 1991, Sterane and Triterpane Biomarkers in the Precambrian
Nonesuch Formation, North American Midcontinent Rift, Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta
55, 911–916
[4] J.J. Brocks, R.E. Summons, 8.03 - Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers
for Early Life, In: Editors-in-Chief: Heinrich D. Holland and Karl K.
Turekian, Editor(s)-in-Chief, Treatise on Geochemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, 2003,
Pages 63-115, ISBN 9780080437514,
10.1016/B0-08-043751-6/08127-5. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/p
ii/B0080437516081275)

[5] Moldowan, J. Michael et al. “Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of
biofacies: Molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with
pre-Triassic ancestors.” Geology 24.2 (1996): 159 -162.
http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/24/2/159.abstract
AND http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/24/2/159.full.pdf
[6] Raven, Evert, Eichhorn, "Biology of Plants", (New York: Worth Publishers,
1992). p98-99
[7] "coenocyte." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 23 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/coenocyte
  
1,080,000,000 YBN
27 28 29 30 31
87) The Excavates Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS}; the ancestor of protists
which have mitochondria with discoidal (shaped like a disk18 ) cristae (the
folded inner membrane of a mitochondrion19 ) (the ancestor of euglenids,
leishmanias {lEsmaNEuZ20 }, trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ21 }, and acrasid
{oKrASiD22 } slime molds).23 24 25 26

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
4. ^
"leishmanias." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/leishmanias>.
5. ^ "trypanosome." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trypanosome>.
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=acrasiomycetes&submit=Submit
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
10. ^
Baldauf, "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes", Journal of
Systematics and Evolution 46 (3): 263–273
(2008). http://www.plantsystematics.com/qikan/manage/wenzhang/jse08060.pdf
11. ^ "leishmanias." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun.
2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/leishmanias>.
12. ^ "trypanosome." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08
Jun. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trypanosome>.
13. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=acrasiomycetes&submit=Submit
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
17. ^
Baldauf, "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes", Journal of
Systematics and Evolution 46 (3): 263–273
(2008). http://www.plantsystematics.com/qikan/manage/wenzhang/jse08060.pdf
18. ^ "discoidal." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 24 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/discoidal>.
19. ^ "cristae." Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th
Edition. HarperCollins Publishers. 24 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cristae>.
20. ^ "leishmanias." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun.
2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/leishmanias>.
21. ^ "trypanosome." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08
Jun. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trypanosome>.
22. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=acrasiomycetes&submit=Submit
23. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
24. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
25. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
26. ^
Baldauf, "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes", Journal of
Systematics and Evolution 46 (3): 263–273
(2008). http://www.plantsystematics.com/qikan/manage/wenzhang/jse08060.pdf
27. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
28. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {1956 mybn}
29. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1999 mybn}
30. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1600mybn)
31. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). (1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Biorealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,080,000,000 YBN
24 25 26 27
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.18
19 20

The earliest eye is a light sensitive area in a unicellular eukaryote that
probably evolved from a plastid.21 22

Eukaryotes are the first organisms to evolve the ability to follow light
direction in three dimensions in open water.23

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

3. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
4. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

5. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

6. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
7. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

8. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

9. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
10. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

11. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
12. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

13. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

14. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
15. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

16. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
17. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

18. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

19. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

20. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
21. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

22. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
23. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

24. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119.
25. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {guess
based on earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}
26. ^ Hackett
JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{guess based on earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}
27. ^ my
own estimate based on where euglenozoa genetically appear to evolve {guess
based on earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Peter Hegemann, "Algal Sensory Photoreceptors", Annual Review of
Plant Biology, Vol. 59: 167 -189 (Volume publication date June 2008)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092847
%40recept.2009.1.issue-1

[2] Trevor D. Lamb, Detlev Arendt, and Shaun P. Collin, "The evolution of
phototransduction and eyes", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B October 12, 2009
364:2791-2793;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0106 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1
531/2791.full

[3] Kreimer, G. (2009) The green algal eyespot apparatus: a primordial visual
system and more? Current Genetics 55:19-43 doi:10.007/s00294-008-0224-8 PMID
19107486 http://www.springerlink.com/content/v54v124mxg52r091/
  
1,050,000,000 YBN
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
169) The Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ13 } (also called
Heterokonts) evolve (ancestor of all brown algae, golden algae, diatoms, and
oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu14 )).15 16

Almost all Stramenopiles have unique three-part hairs on the flagella at some
stage in the life cycle.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
3. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
5. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
7. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
9. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
10. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
11. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
13. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
14. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
15. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
17. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003, p153-155.
18. ^ Yoon,
Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {1050 mybn}
19. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
{1180 mybn}
20. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p120. {1480my}
21. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
22. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956my} {Alveolates and Plant split)1956my}
23. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600 my}
{Chromalveolates)1600 my}
24. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf} {c775my} {c754my}
25. ^
Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and
Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of
Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{c1000my}
26. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste,
Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic evolution:
Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad
Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{872 my}
  
1,000,000,000 YBN
11
324) The Protists Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u7 } evolve (also called
DRIPS).8

Mesomycetozoea are in the protist Phylum Choanozoa (which includes the
Choanoflagellates {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS9 }, thought to be the ancestor of
sponges).10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1000 MYBN (end of
Mesoproterozoic}

MORE INFO
[1] Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, Orr R, Ruden T, et al.
2008 Multigene Phylogeny of Choanozoa and the Origin of Animals. PLoS ONE 3(5):
e2098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098
[2] Leonel Mendoza, John W. Taylor, and Libero Ajello, "THE CLASS
MESOMYCETOZOEA: A Heterogeneous Group of Microorganisms at the Animal-Fungal
Boundary", Annual Review of Microbiology October 2002, Vol. 56:
315-344. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.
160950

  
985,000,000 YBN
23 24 25
309) The Protist Phylum Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu17 } evolves (ancestor of the
Oomycetes18 ; water molds).19 20 21 22

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
11. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
16. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
17. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
18. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
19. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
21. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
22. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
23. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {985}
24. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
25. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.ilmyco.gen.chicago.il.us/Terms/coeno128.html#coeno128
[2] "Coenocyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenocyte
[3]
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Protists.html#Water_Mol
ds

[4] http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/16protists.htm
  
900,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12
6281) The protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u7 } evolve (ancestor of all Radiolaria,
Foraminifera and Cercozoa).8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ Medlin, L. , Kooistra, W. , Potter, D. , Saanders, G. and
Wandersen, R. (1997): Phylogenetic relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids , The origin of the
algae and their plastids (D Bhattacharya, ed ) Plant systematics and evolution
(Suppl ) http://epic.awi.de/2100/ AND http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf
{900 my}
10. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_a=rhizaria&taxon_b=haptophyta&submit=Sea
rch
{900 my}
11. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my} {754 my}
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Moreira D, von der Heyden S, Bass D, López-García P, Chao E,
Cavalier-Smith T (July 2007). "Global eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small- and
large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and
Excavata". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44 (1): 255–66.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1055-7903(06)00433-7
[2]
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_a=rhizaria&taxon_b=alveolates&submit=Sea
rch

[3] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
  
850,000,000 YBN
17 18 19 20
224) The Fungi "Zygomycota" evolves (ancestor of bread molds, and pin molds).13
14 15 16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
14. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
17. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1250mybn)
18. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2
Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular
Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10
August 2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001). (1107mybn)
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19,
Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003). (1107mybn)
20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c850m)
  
767,000,000 YBN
18 19 20
312) The Protist Phylum "Ciliophora" {SiL-E-oF-R-u11 } evolves (the "Ciliates")
(ancestor of the paramecium).12 13 14

The Ciliophora are characterized by having numerous cilia which they use to
move themselves15 .16 Most ciliates are unicellular.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
7. ^ "ciliophora."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 Jun. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ciliophora>.
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
11. ^ "ciliophora." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 Jun. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ciliophora>.
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
14. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
15. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003, p135-145.
16. ^ "ciliate." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 30 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/ciliate
17. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates",
Second Edition, 2003, p135-145.
18. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm
Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{750 my}
19. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric
Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
20. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
  
767,000,000 YBN
18 19 20
314) The Protist Phylum "Apicomplexa" {a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su13 } evolves (includes
Malaria and Toxoplasmosis).14 15 16

Apicomplexans have a special cell organelle called the apical complex which
helps to invade the host cell.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
13. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
17. ^ Woo, P.T.K. Fish Diseases
and Disorders: Volume 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infections. CABI, 2006. CABI
Publishing Series.,
p183. http://books.google.com/books?id=bm7HSCLcCbUC&pg=PA183
18. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste, Frédéric
Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a
relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U
S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
19. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}
20. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm
Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{api+dino and ciliate split)1100 my}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003, p135
  
680,000,000 YBN
34 35 36 37 38
326) The Protists "Choanoflagellates" {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS25 } evolve.26 27 28
29 30 31
Choanoflagellates are the closest relatives to the animals and may be
direct ancestors of sponges.32

There are about 140 species of choanoflagellates. Some are free-swimming,
propelling themselves with a flagellum. Others are attached by a stalk,
sometimes with several together in a colony. Choanoflagellates use their
flagellum to drive water into the funnel where food particles like bacteria are
trapped and engulfed.33

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
16. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
18. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
19. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
20. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

21. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
22. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
23. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
24. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
25. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
26. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
27. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
28. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
29. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

30. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
31. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
32. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
33. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
34. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
35. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000 drips and 900 choano) {900 MYBN}
36. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {900 MYBN}
37. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1020 mybn}
38. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450
choano) {1450 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003)
[2] "Ichthyosporea".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthyosporea
  
670,000,000 YBN
20 21 22
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist.15 16 This allows
larger free moving organisms to evolve.17

This multicellularity is thought to be independently evolved, and not related
to the earlier filamentous multicellularity of prokaryotes like cyanobacteria,
and eukaryotes like algae.18 19

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506.
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
13. ^ Shuhai Xiao, Yun Zhang, Andrew H. Knoll, "Three-dimensional
preservation of algae and animal embryos in a Neoproterozoic phosphorite",
Nature 391, 553-558 (5 February
1998) http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n666
7/full/391553a0_fs.html

14. ^ Buss, L. W. The Evolution of Individuality (Princeton Univ. Press, NJ,
1987).
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506.
16. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
18. ^ Shuhai Xiao, Yun Zhang, Andrew H. Knoll, "Three-dimensional
preservation of algae and animal embryos in a Neoproterozoic phosphorite",
Nature 391, 553-558 (5 February
1998) http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n666
7/full/391553a0_fs.html

19. ^ Buss, L. W. The Evolution of Individuality (Princeton Univ. Press, NJ,
1987).
20. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
22. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)

MORE INFO
[1] Nicholas H. Barton, "Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225
[2] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, 188-191
  
670,000,000 YBN
297) The diplontic life cycle evolves; this organism is predominantly diploid,
mitosis in the haploid phase does not occur.6 7

All animals are diplontic, and descend from this multicellular organism.8

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
3. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
4. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
6. ^ John Ringo,
"Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
7. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The evolution of
haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
8. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
  
660,000,000 YBN
56 57 58 59 60
81) The first animal and first metazoan, the sponge evolves. This begins the
Animal Kingdom, and the Phylum Porifera; the sponges. There are only three
major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians, and bilaterians.35 36 37

The word "porifera" means "pore bearing" in Latin38 , and water continuously
flows through the pores in sponges39 .

Metazoans are multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform
different functions). Sponges have cells that form a body wall, cells that
secrete the skeleton, contractile {KunTraKTL40 } cells, cells that digest food,
and other kinds of cell types.41 42 43 44

All sponge cells are totipotent and so are capable of regrowing a new sponge.45
In sponges there is no distinction between germ line and soma.46 Some sponges
can live for over 1000 years.47

Sponges have two layers, each a single cell thick. The outer surface is called
the pinacoderm {PiN-o-KO-DRM48 } and is made of cells called pinacocytes
{PiN-o-KO-SITS49 }. On the inner surface is the choanoderm {KOenO-DRM or
KO-aNo-DRM50 } which is made of flagellated cells called choanocytes
{KOenO-SITS51 or KO-aNo-SITS52 }. Between these two thin cellular sheets is
the jellylike53 mesohyl {mASuHIL54 }, which may vary in thickness and plays
vital roles in digestion, gamete production, secretion of skeleton, and
transport of nutrients and waste products by special amoeboid cells.55

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p497-501.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
13. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
188-191.
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
17. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
18. ^
http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/Porifera
19. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 2006, p335.
20. ^ "contractile."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 31 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/contractile>.
21. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
22. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
23. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
24. ^ Brusca
and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, 188-191.
25. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
26. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pinacoderm&submit=Submit
27. ^ "pinacocyte." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinacocyte
28. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoderm&submit=Submit
29. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanocyte&submit=Submit
30. ^ "choanocyte." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/choanocyte
31. ^ Meglitsch, P.A., and F.R. Schram. Invertebrate Zoology.
Oxford University Press, USA, 1991, p56.
32. ^
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/pronunciation.php?id=animal-kingdom/simple-org
anisms-echinoderms/29852&title=mesohyl

33. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p183.
34. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p101.
35. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
36. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
37. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
38. ^
http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/Porifera
39. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 2006, p335.
40. ^ "contractile."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 31 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/contractile>.
41. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
42. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
43. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
44. ^ Brusca
and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, 188-191.
45. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
46. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-499.
47. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life",
2009, p101.
48. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pinacoderm&submit=Submit
49. ^ "pinacocyte." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinacocyte
50. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoderm&submit=Submit
51. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanocyte&submit=Submit
52. ^ "choanocyte." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/choanocyte
53. ^ Meglitsch, P.A., and F.R. Schram. Invertebrate Zoology.
Oxford University Press, USA, 1991, p56.
54. ^
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/pronunciation.php?id=animal-kingdom/simple-org
anisms-echinoderms/29852&title=mesohyl

55. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p183.
56. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
57. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
58. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {c800my}
59. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
60. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] Müller, Werner E. G. “The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera
as Integrated Animals.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 43.1 (2003):
3–10. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3884834
  
660,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18
517) The male gonad (testis {TeSTiS10 } or testicle) evolves in a sponge.11 In
sponges sperm are contained in spermatic cysts, which are choanocyte chambers
transformed by the formation of sperm12 (spermatogenesis), but ova are
distributed throughout the mesohyl {mASuHIL13 } (or middle layer).14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
3. ^ "testis." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 21 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/testis
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
5. ^ "testis." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 21 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/testis
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
7. ^ "spermatogenesis."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/spermatogenesis>.
8. ^
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/pronunciation.php?id=animal-kingdom/simple-org
anisms-echinoderms/29852&title=mesohyl

9. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
10. ^ "testis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
21 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/testis
11. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
12. ^ "spermatogenesis." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/spermatogenesis>.
13. ^
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/pronunciation.php?id=animal-kingdom/simple-org
anisms-echinoderms/29852&title=mesohyl

14. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
15. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {based on evolution of sponge) c850my}
17. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
18. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglycan
[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p17
  
650,000,000 YBN
41) The start of the 60 million year (Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).3
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July 1994 "Proterozoic
and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating evolutionary
tempo" Andrew H Knoll
2. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July
1994 "Proterozoic and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating
evolutionary tempo" Andrew H Knoll
3. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp
6743-6750, July 1994 "Proterozoic and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for
accelerating evolutionary tempo" Andrew H Knoll
  
650,000,000 YBN
10 11 12
69) Cells that group as tissues that are arranged in layers evolve in
metazoans.7

Unlike the Porifera, in the Placozoa and all later metazoans, cells group as
tissues.8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
5. ^ D.
T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p2-3.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p494.
7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
8. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p494.
10. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750) {c750MYBN (Ctenophores are first metazoans
with tissues}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1
  
650,000,000 YBN
20 21
79) The Metazoan Phylum "Placozoa" evolves.12 13

Placozoans look like amoebas but are multicellular.14 The only known species
is Trichoplax adhaerens {TriKOPlaKS15 aDHEReNZ}. Trichoplax lives in the sea
and feeds on single celled organisms, mostly algae. There are only 4 cell types
in Trichoplax compared to the more than 200 cell types in humans. Trichoplax
has two main cell layers, like a cnidarian or ctenophore. Between these two
layers are a few contractile cells that are similar to muscle cells16 , however
placozoans have no muscle or nerve cells17 18 .

Trichoplax has the lowest content of DNA of any metazoan, about two-thirds that
in sponges, and only 10 times that of bacteria.19

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ based on "Trichomonas." The American Heritage Stedman's Medical
Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/trichomonas
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p494.
10. ^ Grell, K.G., Gruner, H.E., Kilian, E.F., 1980.
Einfu¨hrung. In: Graner, H.E. (Ed.), Lehrbuch der speziellen Zoologie, Vol.
1: Wirbellose Tiere: I. Einfu¨hrung Protozoa, Placozoa, Porifera. Fischer,
Stuttgart.
11. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
13. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
15. ^ based on "Trichomonas." The American Heritage Stedman's Medical
Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/trichomonas
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p494.
17. ^ Grell, K.G., Gruner, H.E., Kilian, E.F., 1980.
Einfu¨hrung. In: Graner, H.E. (Ed.), Lehrbuch der speziellen Zoologie, Vol.
1: Wirbellose Tiere: I. Einfu¨hrung Protozoa, Placozoa, Porifera. Fischer,
Stuttgart.
18. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
19. ^ Meglitsch, P.A., and F.R. Schram. Invertebrate Zoology. Oxford University
Press, USA, 1991, p53.
20. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {780 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Srivastava, Mansi et al. “The Trichoplax genome and the nature of
placozoans.” Nature 454.7207 (2008) :
955-960. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v454/n7207/abs/nature07191.html
[2] Dellaporta, Stephen L. et al. “Mitochondrial genome of Trichoplax
adhaerens supports Placozoa as the basal lower metazoan phylum.” Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences 103.23 (2006) : 8751 -8756.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/23/8751.full
  
650,000,000 YBN
19 20 21
223) The Fungi "Chytridiomycota" {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) evolves (includes all
Chytridiomycetes {KI-TriDEO-mI-SE-TEZ}12 )).13 14 15

The chytrids are primitive fungi and are mostly saprobic (feed on dead species,
decomposing chitin and keratin). Many chytrids are aquatic (mostly found in
freshwater)16 and some species are unicellular.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
"Chytridiomycetes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chytridiomycetes-1
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2008/browse_taxa.php?path=0,5597
&selected_taxon=5597

7. ^ "Chytridiomycetes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chytridiomycetes-1
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2008/browse_taxa.php?path=0,5597
&selected_taxon=5597

11. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
12. ^ "Chytridiomycetes."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chytridiomycetes-1
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2008/browse_taxa.php?path=0,5597
&selected_taxon=5597

16. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
17. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
18. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
19. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1460mybn)
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1000mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=71577&tree=0.1
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomycota
[3] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chytridiomycetes&submit=Submit
[4] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
Northern Russia18   
640,000,000 YBN
19 20 21 22 23
83) The first nerve cell (neuron), and nervous system evolves in the ancestor
of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians.14 15 This leads to the first ganglion and
brain.16 This is the earliest touch and sound detection, and memory.17

As time continues in the evolution of the metazoans, the number of neurons
increases while the size of neurons decreases, showing that more neurons and
smaller neurons, similar to transistors in a computer, give an organism more
memory and as a result a selective advantage in survival.18

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2,30.
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (presumably)
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (presumably)
10. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p2,30.
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (presumably)
12. ^ Ted Huntington.
13. ^ Ted Huntington.
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (presumably)
15. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2,30.
16. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (presumably)
17. ^ Ted Huntington.
18. ^ Ted Huntington.
19. ^ Peterson, Kevin
J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
20. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN (estimate
based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn}
21. ^ S OOta and N Saitou, "Phylogenetic relationship of muscle tissues deduced
from superimposition of gene trees.", Mol Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/856.abstract {Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
22. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
23. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {574mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Ghysen, A. (2003). The origin and evolution of the nervous system.
The International journal of developmental biology , 47 (7-8),
555-562. http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14756331
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750mybn)
  
640,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12
96) Muscle cells evolve in the ancestor of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians.7
Both the earliest known muscle and nerve cells are found in Ctenophores and
Cnidarians.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
2. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
3. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
4. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
5. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
6. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
7. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
8. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn}
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
(c750mybn) {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN (estimate
based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
12. ^ S OOta and N Saitou, "Phylogenetic
relationship of muscle tissues deduced from superimposition of gene trees.",
Mol Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/856.abstract {Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
  
640,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
225) A closeable mouth evolves for the first time, in the ancestor of all
ctenophores and cnidarians.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
5. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3. {c750MYBN (all metazoans but sponges have a closable
mouth}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750) {c750MYBN (all metazoans but sponges have a
closable mouth}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1
  
640,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15
414) The female gonad (the first ovary) evolves in the ancestor of Ctenophores
and Cnidarians.9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
2. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
4. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
6. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
8. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

9. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
10. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

11. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
12. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
13. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
{based on evolution of cnidaria) 580my}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
15. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglycan
[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p17
[4] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c850my)
[5] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
[6] Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)
  
640,000,000 YBN
26 27
523) The animal Phylum Ctenophora {Ti-noF-R-u12 } evolves (comb jellies).13

Like the Cnidarians, the Ctenophores are diploblastic; they have two embryonic
germ layers- the ectoderm {EKTeDRM14 } and the endoderm {eNDeDRM15 } which
become the adult epidermis and gastrodermis, respectively. The middle
mesenchyme {meSeNKIM16 }, a watery gelatinous fluid, never produces the complex
organs seen in triploblastic Metazoa.17

The main body cavity of the ctenophores is also the digestive chamber, and they
have a simple nerve net.18

Unlike cnidarians, ctenophores lack stinging cells, there is no alternation of
generations in the life cycle, and ctenophores are never colonial.19 20 21

On the surface of the body are eight equally spaced comb plates, called ctenes
{TENZ22 }. Each ctene is composed of a band of cilia. The ctenes provide most
of the movement for the ctenophores.23

Ctenophores are hermaphroditic. Ovaries and testies differentiate from the
endoderm. The gametes are released through temporary gonopores {GoN-o-PORZ24 },
and fertilization is external.25

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophore>.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
3. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 02 May. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophore>.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
5. ^ "ctenophora." Dictionary.com Unabridged.
Random House, Inc. 02 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophora>.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
7. ^ "ectoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/ectoderm
8. ^ "endoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/endoderm
9. ^ "mesenchyme." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.
31 Dec. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mesenchyme>.
10. ^ {ULSF: Note that this info is taken from cnidaria, but is
the same for ctenophora} Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p225,274.
11. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p491-493.
12. ^ "ctenophora." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02
May. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophora>.
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
14. ^ "ectoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/ectoderm
15. ^ "endoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/endoderm
16. ^ "mesenchyme." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random
House, Inc. 31 Dec. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mesenchyme>.
17. ^ {ULSF: Note that this info is taken from
cnidaria, but is the same for ctenophora} Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates",
2003, p225,274.
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
19. ^
http://www.imas.utas.edu.au/zooplankton/image-key/ctenophora
20. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p269-270.
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
22. ^
Henderson, I.F., and W.D. Henderson 1920A Dictionary of Scientific Terms,
Pronunciation, Derivation, and Definition of Terms in Biology, Botony, Zoology,
Anatomy, Cyctology, Embroyology, Physiology. Van Nostrand.
http://books.google.com/books?id=ky0wAAAAYAAJ. http://books.google.com/books?id
=ky0wAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA65&dq=ctene+pronounced
23. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p274-275.
24. ^ "gonopore."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 Jun. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/gonopore>.
25. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p47.
26. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
27. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750)
  
635,000,000 YBN
4
6413) The start of the Ediacaran Period.2

A large increase in the evolutionary turnover rate of acritarchs is thought to
be the result of the evolution of the nervous system and gut in the eumetazoa
(all ctenophora, cnidaria, and bilateria).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
2. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
  
630,000,000 YBN
56 57 58 59
82) The Animal Phylum Cnidaria {NIDAREeo} evolves (the ancestor of sea
anemones, sea pens, corals, and jellyfish).33 34 35 36 Cnidaria also evolve
the earliest animal eye.37 38

Cnidaria are primarily radially symmetrical animals with tentacles, have a
single body cavity with only one opening to take in food and to release wastes,
and have specialized stinging cells.39

Cnidarians have two alternate body plans, the polyp and the medusa {miDUSe40 }.
A sea anemone or Hydra is a typical polyp: fixed to the ground with mouth on
top.41 Corals are colonial marine polyps that secrete calcareous
{KaL-KAR-E-uS42 } (calcium carbonate43 ) skeletons44 which they live inside
of45 . The medusa form is upside down compared to the polyp form46 , and is
free swimming. A jellyfish has a typical medusa form, swimming through the open
sea. Many cnidarians have both polyp and medusa forms in a single life cycle.47


Polyps often reproduce by budding; a new baby polyp clone grows on the side of
the parent.48 When cnidaria reproduce sexually, sperm are released into the
water and fertilization is usually external.49

Digestion in Cnidarians starts in the gastrovascular cavity, but once the food
is reduced to particles small enough to enter the digestive cells of the
gastrodermis, digestion is completed inside the cell (intracellularly).50

Cnidarians have a nervous system which is a network without a centralized
structure51 52 . They also have muscles which are contracted to propel them.53


Cnidarians see in black or white, because their eyes have only one pigment; for
color vision the eye must have more than one pigment.54 55

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
6. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
11. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
12. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

13. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
15. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
16. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
17. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
18. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

19. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
20. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
21. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
22. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
23. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
24. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

25. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p31.
26. ^ "medusa." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/medusa
27. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490.
28. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490.
29. ^ "coral." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 23 Sep. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/coral
30. ^ Levine, "The Earth Through
Time", 2006, p338.
31. ^ Levine, "The Earth Through Time", 2006, p338.
32. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
33. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
34. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
35. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
36. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
37. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
38. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

39. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p31.
40. ^ "medusa." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/medusa
41. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490.
42. ^ "calcareous." Dictionary.com Unabridged.
Random House, Inc. 24 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/calcareous>.
43. ^ "calcareous." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford
University Press, 2002, 2003. Answers.com 23 Sep. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/calcareous
44. ^ "coral." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 23 Sep. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coral
45. ^ Levine, "The Earth Through Time", 2006, p338.
46. ^ Levine, "The Earth Through
Time", 2006, p338.
47. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490.
48. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490.
49. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p48.
50. ^ D.
T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p42.
51. ^ Bullock, T.H., O. Breidbach, and W. Kutsch. The Nervous Systems of
Invertebrates: An Evolutionary and Comparative Approach. Birkhäuser Basel,
1994. Experientia:
Supplementum. http://books.google.com/books?id=dW5e6FHOH-4C&pg=PA9
52. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p477-490.
53. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490.
54. ^ "Biology: Colour-blind", Nature 463,
1003 (25 February 2010)
55. ^ Megan O'Connor,Anders Garm,Justin N. Marshall,Nathan S.
Hart,Peter Ekström,Charlotta Skogh, and Dan-Eric Nilsson, "Visual pigment in
the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie", Proc. R. Soc. B June
22, 2010 277 (1689) 1843-1848; published ahead of print February 10, 2010,
doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.2248
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1689/1843
56. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
57. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
58. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
59. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] Collins, A.G. (2002). "Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the Evolution of
Cnidarian Life Cycles" (PDF). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15 (3):
418–432.
doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00403.x. http://cima.uprm.edu/~n_schizas/CMOB_8676
/Collins2002.pdf

[2] Philippe, H. (April 2009). "Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep
Animal Relationships". Current Biology 19: 706–712.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052. PMID
19345102. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982209008057
[3] doi:10.1038/4631003b; Published online 24 February
2010 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/4631003b.html
  
600,000,000 YBN
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
91) The start of the Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN10 } soft-bodied invertebrate
fossils.11

The sudden appearance of Ediacaran fossils may relate to the accumulation of
free oxygen in the atmosphere and sea, which may permit an oxidative
metabolism.12


Because the Ediacaran animals are soft-bodied, they are infrequently
preserved.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
3. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
5. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
6. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
7. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
8. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
9. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
10. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
11. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
12. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
13. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
14. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996). "Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/content/93/10/4990.full.pdf
15. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
16. ^ Meert, J.
G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.; Grice, W. C.; Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin, A.
(2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser Karatau
Microcontinent, Kazakhstan". Gondwana Research 19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005

17. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996). "Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/content/93/10/4990.full.pdf
18. ^ Ben Waggoner, "The Ediacaran Biotas in Space and Time", Integrative and
Comparative Biology , Vol. 43, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp.
104-113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3884845 {Waggoner_200302xx.pdf}
19. ^ H. J. Hofmann, G. M. Narbonne and J. D. Aitken, "Ediacaran remains from
intertillite beds in northwestern Canada", Geology, December, 1990, v. 18, p.
1199-1202. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/18/12/1199.abstract {Hofmann_Edi
acaran_Fossils_1990.pdf}
20. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
21. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
22. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329. {630 mybn}
23. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). {575 mybn}
24. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
{670 mybn}
25. ^ Meert, J. G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.; Grice, W. C.;
Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin, A. (2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?)
Fossils from the Lesser Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan". Gondwana Research
19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005


MORE INFO
[1] Ivantsov, A. Yu (2004). "New Proarticulata from the Vendian of the
Arkhangel'sk Region" (PDF). Paleontological Journal 38 (3): 247–253
[2] Peterson, Kevin
J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005): 9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.short
Sonora, Mexico14 |Adelaide, Australia15 | Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
Kazakhsta16   
600,000,000 YBN
44 45 46
107) The Animals Bilaterians evolve (metazoans with two sided symmetry).33 34
35
This is the first triploblastic animal; an animal with a third embryonic
layer, the mesoderm {meZuDRM36 }.37 This is also the earliest animal brain.38


In most bilaterians food enters in one end (the mouth) and waste exits at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an advantage for sense organs like light,
sound, touch, smell, and taste detection to be located on the head near the
mouth to help with getting food.39

Unlike the diploblastic Cnidaria and Ctenophora, bilaterians are
triploblastic.40 41 A third embryonic layer, the mesoderm, lies between the
ectoderm and endoderm. This layer increases the options for the development of
organs with specific functions.42

This begins the Animal Subkingdom "Bilateria".43

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
6. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
9. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
13. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
14. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
16. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
18. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
20. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
21. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396.
23. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
24. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
25. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
26. ^
"mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
27. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p59.
28. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
29. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396.
30. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p69.
31. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p396-400.
32. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
33. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
34. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
35. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
36. ^
"mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
37. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p59.
38. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
39. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396.
40. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
41. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p472-476.
42. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p59.
43. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
44. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
45. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
46. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
21 22 23
403) The earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (the ancestor of acoela flat
worms and nemertodermatida).15 16 17

The Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track, anus and coelom.18 19

Flatworms have no lungs or gills and breathe through their skin. Flatworms also
have no circulating blood and so their branched gut presumably transports
nutrients to all parts of the body.20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p472-476.
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ "Acoelomorpha". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoelomorpha
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
10. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
12. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^
"Acoelomorpha". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoelomorpha
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
16. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
18. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
19. ^
"Acoelomorpha". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoelomorpha
20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
21. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
23. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p396
  
600,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian. Since the gut of this organism has
no anus, undigested food must be regurgitated through the mouth. The intestine
is lined with a single layer of endodermal cells that perform some or all of
the processes of digestion and absorption.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p61,66-67.
5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
12 13 14
532) A cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian.9


All bilaterally symmetrical metazoans except the Phyla Acoelomorpha10 and
Platyhelminthes, have a tubular gut with an anus, mouth, and through-put of
food. The Phyla Nemertea and Entoprocta are the earliest bilaterians with an
anus.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
5. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p4.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
8. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
9. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
10. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p472-476.
11. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p4.
12. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my) {630my (first bilateral species-acoelomates}
14. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older) {575
(first bilateral species-acoelomates)(fossil record is older}
  
600,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p58-79.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
5. ^ D.
T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p58-79.
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
2. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
3. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology",
2004.
4. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
5. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my) {based on some Platyhelminthes have a penis)
630my}
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575
(fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001
  
590,000,000 YBN
70) The end of the Varanger Ice Age (650-590 mybn).3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July 1994 "Proterozoic
and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating evolutionary
tempo" Andrew H Knoll
2. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July
1994 "Proterozoic and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating
evolutionary tempo" Andrew H Knoll
3. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp
6743-6750, July 1994 "Proterozoic and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for
accelerating evolutionary tempo" Andrew H Knoll
  
590,000,000 YBN
11 12
95) The coelom (SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.7

The coelem is a fluid filled cavity that forms within the mesoderm and exists
between the gut and body wall8 in most triploblastic animals9 .

The advantage of a coelem is that it allows the body wall and gut wall to act
independently, and also that other organ systems can be developed in the
fluid-filled space. In addition, the fluid in the cavity can act as a
deformable skeleton.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates",
2003, p48.
5. ^ Valentine, J.W. On the Origin of Phyla. University of Chicago Press,
2004. American Politics and Political Economy Series,
p60. http://books.google.com/books?id=DMBkmHm5fe4C&pg=PA60
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4-5.
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
8. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p48.
9. ^ Valentine, J.W. On the
Origin of Phyla. University of Chicago Press, 2004. American Politics and
Political Economy Series,
p60. http://books.google.com/books?id=DMBkmHm5fe4C&pg=PA60
10. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4-5.
11. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {estimate based on coelom being before protostome-deutostome
division, after acoelomorph) 630-590 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "coelom." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 24 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/body-cavity
  
590,000,000 YBN
24 25
98) The first circulatory system evolves; blood vessels, and blood evolve in a
bilaterian.16 The first blood cells.17 Cnidarians and flatworms are at most
two sheets of tissue thick and so allow gas exchange and nutrient distribution
by diffusion, but larger animals with thicker tissues require a circulatory
system to distribute materials.18 19 20

The circulatory system transports molecules like gases, food, and waste to and
from individual cells.21 22

In bilaterians with circulatory systems blood may be distributed by contractile
vessels in the blood vessel walls, and/or by hearts.23

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p81.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p81.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p327.
6. ^ Solomon, E., L. Berg, and D.W. Martin. Biology.
Cengage Learning, 2010. Available Titles CourseMate Series,
p938-939. http://books.google.com/books?id=itHVNZicPgwC
7. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p299.
8. ^ Cowen, R. History of Life.
John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
p46. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z-Tam4XuXLkC&pg=PA46
9. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p81.
10. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p327.
11. ^ Solomon,
E., L. Berg, and D.W. Martin. Biology. Cengage Learning, 2010. Available Titles
CourseMate Series, p938-939. http://books.google.com/books?id=itHVNZicPgwC
12. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p299.
13. ^ Cowen,
R. History of Life. John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
p46. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z-Tam4XuXLkC&pg=PA46
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
16. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p81.
17. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p327.
18. ^
Solomon, E., L. Berg, and D.W. Martin. Biology. Cengage Learning, 2010.
Available Titles CourseMate Series,
p938-939. http://books.google.com/books?id=itHVNZicPgwC
19. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p299.
20. ^ Cowen, R. History of
Life. John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
p46. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z-Tam4XuXLkC&pg=PA46
21. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
22. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
23. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p72-73.
24. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
25. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on}
  
580,000,000 YBN
41 42 43 44
93) The Bilaterians Protostomes evolve.31 32 Protostomes are divided into two
major groups: the Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu33 } and the Lophotrochozoa
{LuFoTroKoZOu34 }.35 36 37 38

The difference between protostomes and deutrostomes arises during embryonic
development. In protostomes, the first indentation of the gastrula (an early
stage of the embryo39 ) develops into the mouth and the second indentation
develops into the anus. The reverse is true for the deuterostomes.40

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
3. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE;
Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
4. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
11. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
12. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
14. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
15. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
16. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
18. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
19. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
20. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
22. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
23. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
24. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
25. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
26. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
27. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
28. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
29. ^ "gastrula." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/gastrula>.
30. ^ Alters, S. Biology: Understanding Life. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2000.
Human and Introductory Biology Series,
p511. http://books.google.com/books?id=GRDUIbQwGc8C&pg=PA511
31. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
32. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
33. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
34. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
35. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
36. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
37. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
38. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
39. ^ "gastrula." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/gastrula>.
40. ^ Alters, S. Biology: Understanding Life. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2000.
Human and Introductory Biology Series,
p511. http://books.google.com/books?id=GRDUIbQwGc8C&pg=PA511
41. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
42. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (590my) {590 mybn}
43. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins.
“Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of evidence to
investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages.” Integrative and
Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {543 mybn}
44. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {910 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=priapulids
[2] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide
Pisani, "The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic
and the geological fossil records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April 27, 2008 363
(1496) 1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

  
580,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18 19
105) The Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve; the ancestor of all Echinoderms
(iKIniDRMS 12 }, Hemichordates, and Chordates.13 14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
9. ^ "echinoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
11. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
12. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
14. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
15. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {570 mybn}
17. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {910 mybn}
18. ^ Cartwright,
Paulyn, and Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple
lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan
lineages.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {367 mybn}
19. ^ Jun-Yuan
Chen, David J. Bottjer, Paola Oliveri,Stephen Q. Dornbos, Feng Gao, Seth
Ruffins, Huimei Chi, Chia-Wei Li, Eric H. Davidson, "Small Bilaterian Fossils
from 40 to 55 Million Years Before the Cambrian", Science, Vol 305, Issue 5681,
218-222, 9 July
2004 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;305/5681/218

MORE INFO
[1] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide Pisani,
"The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the
geological fossil records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April 27, 2008 363 (1496)
1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

  
580,000,000 YBN
10 11
131) The first shell (or skeleton) evolves. The first known shell belongs to a
group of ciliates called tintinnids.7 Skeletons evolve independently in
different groups of organisms.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
2. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
3. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
4. ^ "skeleton." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 25 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547371/skeleton>.
5. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
6. ^ "skeleton." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 25 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547371/skeleton>.
7. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
8. ^ "skeleton." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 25 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547371/skeleton>.
9. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
10. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf} {earliest hard shell fossil -
ciliate) 580 mybn}
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {Euglenozoa -pellicle) 1956 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Hamm, Smetacek, "Armor: Why, When, and How", in Falkowski, Knoll,
"Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea", 2007, p311-332, p323
[2] Bengtson, S.
(2004), Early skeletal fossils, in Lipps, J.H., and Waggoner, B.M.,
"Neoproterozoic- Cambrian Biological Revolutions" (PDF), Paleontological
Society Papers 10: 67–78, retrieved
2008-07-18 http://www.nrm.se/download/18.4e32c81078a8d9249800021554/Bengtson200
4ESF.pdf

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China9   
570,000,000 YBN
28 29 30 31
311) The Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu21 22 } evolve (Arrow Worms).23

The earliest teeth evolve. Animals start to eat other animals.24 25

The evolution of teeth and animal predation starts an "arms race" that rapidly
transforms ecosystems around the Earth.26 Teeth and shells evolve as
advantages to survival.27

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
2. ^ Vannier, J.; Steiner, M.;
Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian origin of
modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of the Royal
Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC 2197202. PMID
17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

3. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
7. ^ Vannier, J.;
Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian
origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of
the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

8. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
12. ^ Vannier,
J.; Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early
Cambrian origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms".
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC 2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

13. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
14. ^ "arrow worm." The
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press.,
2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
15. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
17. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
18. ^ Vannier, J.;
Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian
origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of
the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

19. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
20. ^ Ted Huntington.
21. ^ "arrow worm."
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University
Press., 2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
22. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
23. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
24. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
25. ^ Vannier,
J.; Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early
Cambrian origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms".
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC 2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

26. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
27. ^ Ted Huntington.
28. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(570)
29. ^ Chen, J.-Y.; Huang, D.-Y. (2002). "A possible Lower Cambrian chaetognath
(arrow worm)". Science 298 (5591): 187. doi:10.1126/science.1075059. PMID
12364798.
30. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
31. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", Oxford University
Press, New York., 2009, Chap 24, p224-225. http://timetree.org/book.php

MORE INFO
[1] Gonzalo Giribet, Daniel L. Distel, Martin Polz, Wolfgang Sterrer, and
Ward C. Wheeler Triploblastic Relationships with Emphasis on the Acoelomates
and the Position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and
Chaetognatha: A Combined Approach of 18S rDNA Sequences and Morphology Syst
Biol (2000) 49(3): 539-562 doi:10.1080/10635159950127385
[2] Martin Helmkampf, Iris Bruchhaus, Bernhard
Hausdorf, Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic
relationships, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 46, Issue 1,
January 2008, Pages 206-214, ISSN 1055-7903,
10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.004. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S105579030700317X)

[3] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
[4] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2002, p844
  
565,000,000 YBN
17 18 19
345) The Deuterostome Phylum Hemichordata evolves; The "Hemichordates", the
ancestor of pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS13 }14 and acorn worms).15

Adult Pterobrachs are sessile, fastening to solid structures, but the younger
(or larval) form is free swimming, and is thought to have retained this form
before evolving into tunicates and then the first fish.16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p201.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p203.
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
10. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
12. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
13. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
14. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p201.
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p203.
17. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
18. ^ Xian-guang Hou, Richard J. Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J. Siveter,
Mark Williams, Jan Zalasiewicz, Xiao-ya Ma. A pterobranch hemichordate zooid
from the lower Cambrian. Current Biology, 24 March 2011 DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.005 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096
0982211002776

19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p383.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126698
  
565,000,000 YBN
35 36
347) The Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves. Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds.22 23 Chordates get their name from the notochord {nOTe-KORD24 },
the cartilage rod that runs along the back of the animal, in the embryo if not
in the adult.25

The ancestor of all chordates evolves "upside-down": unlike earlier
invertebrates who have a ventral nerve cord (near the belly26 ) and a dorsal
heart (near the back27 ), this ancestor and all later vertebrates have a dorsal
nerve cord and a ventral heart.28

Chordates have four key characters: a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve chord;
gill slits (also called pharyngeal {Fu-riN-JE-uL29 } slits30 ); and a muscular,
post-anal tail.31 The notochord provides skeletal support throughout most of
the length of the chordate and provides a firm but flexible structure from
which attached muscles can contract.32 33

In the higher fishes the notochord is surrounded and gradually replaced by
segmental vertebrae.34

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p399-400.
6. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
7. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
10. ^
"notochord." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/notochord
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p399-400.
13. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
14. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
17. ^ "notochord." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 04 Jun. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/notochord
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
19. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01
Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
20. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). p399-400.
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
23. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
24. ^ "notochord." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/notochord
25. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
26. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
27. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
28. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p399-400.
29. ^ "pharyngeal." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 06 Mar. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/pharyngeal>.
30. ^ Hyman, L.H., and M.H. Wake. Hyman’s Comparative
Vertebrate Anatomy. University of Chicago Press, 1992,
p393. http://books.google.com/books?id=VKlWjdOkiMwC&pg=PA393
31. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p699.
32. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p699.
33. ^ Rowland, M. Biology. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Limited, 1992. Bath Science
16-19 Series, p650. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9cEEouPBogC&pg=PA650
34. ^ "Chordata." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 24 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chordata
35. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381. {565 MYBN}
36. ^
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3208583.stm

MORE INFO
[1] Douzery, E. J. P., Snell, E. A., Bapteste, E., Delsuc, F., &
Philippe, H. (2004). The timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils? Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 101 (43),
15386-15391. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403984101
[2] Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho
and Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of
Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science New Series, Vol. 271, No. 5248
(Jan. 26, 1996), pp. 470-477. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2890144
[3] Pennisi, Elizabeth. “Drafting a Tree.” Science
300.5626 (2003) : 1694.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1694.summary
[4] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary Emergence of
Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION: EDUCATION AND
OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[5] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
565,000,000 YBN
6 7
348) The earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (also called sea
squirts).5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p377-381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381. {565 mybn}
7. ^ Chen,
Jun-Yuan et al. “The First Tunicate from the Early Cambrian of South
China.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100.14 (2003): 8314
–8318. Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/100/14/8314.full
  
560,000,000 YBN
31 32 33 34 35 36
117) The earliest animal shell (or skeleton) evolves.17
This is the earliest
evidence of animals eating other animals (predation).18 19
This begins the
appearance of small shelly fossils and deep burrows correlated with a decline
in stromatolites, possibly from feeding.20

The earliest animal shells are made by tiny organisms with simple tubelike
skeletons, such as Cloudina and Sinotubulites21 22 in addition to sponge
skeleton fossils.23

The shell of Cloudina is made of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)24 , and is possibly
made by some kind of worm.25

Predatory bore holes have been found in Cloudina shells. This is the oldest
evidence of predation known.26 27

When animals begin to develop hard parts, their probability of preservation
greatly improves.28

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210.
2. ^
Dzik, J (2007), "The Verdun Syndrome: simultaneous origin of protective armour
and infaunal shelters at the Precambrian–Cambrian transition", in
Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran
Biota, Special publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 405–414,
doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 191881597 156823511 191881597
http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
3. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
4. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
5. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth",
sixth edition, 2002, p210.
6. ^ Dzik, J (2007), "The Verdun Syndrome: simultaneous
origin of protective armour and infaunal shelters at the Precambrian–Cambrian
transition", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall
of the Ediacaran Biota, Special publications, 286, London: Geological Society,
pp. 405–414, doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 191881597
156823511 191881597
http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
7. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
8. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
9. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth",
sixth edition, 2002, p210.
10. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th
edition 2002, p212.
11. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p168.
12. ^ Clites, Erica C., Mary L. Droser, and James G. Gehling.
“The Advent of Hard-part Structural Support Among the Ediacara Biota:
Ediacaran Harbinger of a Cambrian Mode of Body Construction.” Geology (2012):
n. pag. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2012/02/13/G32828.1
13. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
14. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p166.
15. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in
Late Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
16. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
17. ^ Dzik, J (2007), "The Verdun Syndrome:
simultaneous origin of protective armour and infaunal shelters at the
Precambrian–Cambrian transition", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower,
Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Special publications, 286,
London: Geological Society, pp. 405–414, doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN
9781862392335, OCLC 191881597 156823511 191881597
http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
18. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
19. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
20. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth",
sixth edition, 2002, p210.
21. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th
edition 2002, p212.
22. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p168.
23. ^ Clites, Erica C., Mary L. Droser, and James G. Gehling.
“The Advent of Hard-part Structural Support Among the Ediacara Biota:
Ediacaran Harbinger of a Cambrian Mode of Body Construction.” Geology (2012):
n. pag. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2012/02/13/G32828.1
24. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
25. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p166.
26. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in
Late Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
27. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
28. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth
edition, 2006, p329-333.
29. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a
potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic.", Source: American journal
of science (1990) volume: 290-A (Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf
30. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
31. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say
and Why It Matters", 2007, p163-170.
32. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th
edition 2002, p212.
33. ^ Adam C. Maloof, Susannah M. Porter, John L. Moore, Frank
Ö. Dudás, Samuel A. Bowring, John A. Higgins, David A. Fike, and Michael P.
Eddy, "The earliest Cambrian record of animals and ocean geochemical change",
Geological Society of America Bulletin, November 2010, v. 122, p. 1731-1774,
doi:10.1130/B30346.1 http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/122/11-12/1731.full

34. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a potential
index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic.", Source: American journal of
science (1990) volume: 290-A (Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf
35. ^ http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/neoproterozoic/ediacaran/ediacaran2.htm
36. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782

MORE INFO
[1] Philip W. Signor and Mark A. S. McMenamin "The Early Cambrian Worm
Tube Onuphionella from California and Nevada", Journal of Paleontology , Vol.
62, No. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 233-240 Published by: Paleontological
Society Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1305228
[2] MATTHEWS, S. C., AND V. V. MISSARZHEVSKY.
1975. "Small shelly fossils of late Precambrian and early Cambrian age: a
review of recent work." Journal of the Geological Society,
131:289-304 http://jgs.geoscienceworld.org/content/131/3/289.abstract
[3] GRANT, S. W. F. 1990. "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a
potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic." American Journal of
Science, 290(A):261-294
(Ara Formation) Oman29 |Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province30
  
560,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20
318) The Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu12 } evolve. Ecdysozoa are animals
that molt (lose their outer skin) as they grow.13 14 This is the ancestor of
round worms, and arthropods (which includes insects and crustaceans {also known
as "shell-fish"}).15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
7. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198710
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005),p390-394.
11. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198710
12. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
15. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198710
16. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c580) {c580 mybn}
18. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden,
MA: Blackwell, 2005),p388-394. (560) {560 mybn}
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {790 mybn}
20. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of
evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {530 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p390-394
[4] Telford, Maximilian J et al. “The Evolution of the Ecdysozoa.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1529 –1537.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1529.long
  
560,000,000 YBN
22 23 24 25 26
331) The Protostomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u16 } evolve, the ancestor
of all rotifers, phoronids, brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ17 }, entoprocts
{eNTuProKS18 }, bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ19 }, platyhelminthes, gastrotrichs,
nemertea, molluscs and annelids.20 21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brachiopods&submit=Submit
6. ^ "entoproct?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entoproct?s=t
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=bryozoans&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
10. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
11. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brachiopods&submit=Submit
12. ^ "entoproct?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entoproct?s=t
13. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=bryozoans&submit=Submit
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science,
(2003).
16. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
17. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brachiopods&submit=Submit
18. ^ "entoproct?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random
House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entoproct?s=t
19. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=bryozoans&submit=Submit
20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
21. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science,
(2003).
22. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
23. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c547) {c580 mybn}
24. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003). (550) {550 mybn}
25. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {790 mybn}
26. ^
Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating
multiple lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan
lineages.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {538 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=202032
  
560,000,000 YBN
349) The first fish evolves.5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
560,000,000 YBN
6290) The earliest extant fish, the Chordates Lancelets {laNSleTS12 } (also
called amphioxus {aMFEoKSiS13 }14 ).15 This is also the first liver and
kidney.16

The Lancelet is different from a worm in not being cylindrical, and swims like
a fish using its muscles with side-to-side undulations.17

Lancelets are not vertebrates. They have only a nerve tube on the notochord and
no brain other than a small swelling at the front end of the nerve tube. They
also have an eye-spot.18

The gill slits of Lancelets are primarily for filter feeding.19 Gas exchange
(the absorption of oxygen and emission of carbon dioxide20 ), mostly occurs
across the external body surface.21

Lancelets have no heart and blood is pumped around the body by contractions of
the blood vessels.22

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Feb. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p205.
4. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Feb.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p205.
7. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
11 Feb. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
8. ^ "amphioxus." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.
01 Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/amphioxus>.
9. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p202.
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
11. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p205.
12. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 11 Feb. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
13. ^ "amphioxus." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random
House, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/amphioxus>.
14. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p202.
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
16. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say
and Why It Matters", 2007, p205.
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
20. ^ Campbell, N.A.,
and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Alternative eText
Formats Series, p915.
21. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin
Cummings, 2008. Alternative eText Formats Series, p700.
22. ^ Marshall Cavendish
Corporation. Aquatic Life of the World. Marshall Cavendish Corporation/Ccb,
2000. Aquatic Life of the World,
p295. http://books.google.com/books?id=xnzR54G3BfgC&pg=PA295

MORE INFO
[1] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary
Emergence of Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION:
EDUCATION AND OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
550,000,000 YBN
15
328) The Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes {aSKHeLmiNtEZ11 12 } evolves; the ancestor of
the worms nematodes and priapulids.13 14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
3. ^ "Aschelminthes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/aschelminthes
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=aschelminthes
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
7. ^ "Aschelminthes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/aschelminthes
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=aschelminthes
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
11. ^ "Aschelminthes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/aschelminthes
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=aschelminthes
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
14. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c550)
  
547,000,000 YBN
8
334) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Brachiopoda {BrAKEoPiDu5 } evolves (the
brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}).6

The Brachiopods are marine invertebrates that have bivalve dorsal and ventral
shells enclosing a pair of tentacled, armlike structures that are used to sweep
minute food particles into their mouth.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ "Brachiopoda." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth
Edition. Columbia University Press., 2013. Answers.com 01 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/brachiopoda
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ "brachiopod." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 18 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/brachiopod
5. ^ "Brachiopoda." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2013. Answers.com 01 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/brachiopoda
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ "brachiopod." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 18 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/brachiopod
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c547)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=202032
  
543,000,000 YBN
15
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts are repeated serially, for example
vertebrae).11 12

Some think that segmentation evolved independently in annelid worms,
arthropods, and vertebrates. But the universality of Homeobox genes, evolved
over a billion years earlier13 , implies that all segmented species may share a
common segmented ancestor.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
9. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin TR, "MEKHLA, a novel domain with similarity to PAS
domains, is fused to plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins.", Plant
Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/140/4/1142.full
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p622-624.
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
12. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
13. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin TR, "MEKHLA, a novel domain with similarity to PAS
domains, is fused to plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins.", Plant
Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/140/4/1142.full
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p622-624.
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {537 MYBN (based on Annaleda - segmented worns} {543
MYBN (based on arthropods, annelids - segmented worns=537}
  
542,000,000 YBN
13
53) The end of the "Precambrian". The end of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK9 } Eon. The end of the Neoproterozoic and start of the
Paleozoic {PAlEuZOiK10 } Era, and the end of the Ediacaran and start of the
Cambrian Period.11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Phanerozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/phanerozoic
2. ^ "Paleozoic." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 09 Mar.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Paleozoic>.
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic
and Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
5. ^ "Phanerozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phanerozoic
6. ^ "Paleozoic." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 09 Mar. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Paleozoic>.
7. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
8. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
9. ^ "Phanerozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phanerozoic
10. ^ "Paleozoic." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 09 Mar. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Paleozoic>.
11. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
12. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
13. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time
Scale.” Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
  
542,000,000 YBN
21 22
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many (between 20 and 35) of the major phyla
of animals.15 16 17 An increase of animals with shells.18

The Cambrian metazoan radiation may be the result of a major increase in
atmospheric oxygen19 , and animal predation20 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
3. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
5. ^
"Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
6. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
7. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
8. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
9. ^
"Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
10. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
11. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
12. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
13. ^ Dott,
Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th edition 2002, p209.
14. ^ Dzik, J (2007),
"The Verdun Syndrome: simultaneous origin of protective armour and infaunal
shelters at the Precambrian–Cambrian transition", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia;
Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Special
publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 405–414,
doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 191881597 156823511
191881597 http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
15. ^ "Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
16. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
17. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
18. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
19. ^ Dott,
Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th edition 2002, p209.
20. ^ Dzik, J (2007),
"The Verdun Syndrome: simultaneous origin of protective armour and infaunal
shelters at the Precambrian–Cambrian transition", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia;
Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Special
publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 405–414,
doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 191881597 156823511
191881597 http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
21. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>. {542-530
mybn}
22. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
{535 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Derek E. G. Briggs and Richard A. Fortey, "Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation", Paleobiology , Vol. 31, No. 2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency: Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp. 94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25482671
  
540,000,000 YBN
12 13 14
104) The Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u7 } Phylum Platyhelminthes
{PlaTEheLmiNtEZ} evolves (flatworms).8

Platyhelminthes, which is Greek for flat worms, include free-living and
parasitic acoelomate worms (worms with no coelum9 ).10 They can reproduce
sexually, and also asexually by transverse fission (splitting in half).11

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ "Acoelomate." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 04
Jun. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Acoelomate>.
10. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p285.
11. ^ Brusca and
Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p303-304.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)
13. ^ Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. et
al. “The Timing of Eukaryotic Evolution: Does a Relaxed Molecular Clock
Reconcile Proteins and Fossils?” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386 -15391.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386
14. ^ Peterson, Kevin J et al. “The Ediacaran Emergence of Bilaterians:
Congruence Between the Genetic and the Geological Fossil Records.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1435 -1443.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1435.full
  
540,000,000 YBN
17 18 19
319) The Protist Phylum "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo11 } evolves.12 13

Radiolarians are protists found in the upper layers of all oceans, are mostly
spherically symmetrical, and known for their complex and beautiful tiny
skeletons, called "tests" which are usually made of silica (SiO214 ).15

Radiolarian skeletons are used to analyze the layers of the sedimentary
record.16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of
Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com
30 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales,
rhizaria, chromalveolates
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of
Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com
30 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
8. ^ "radiolarian." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 10
Aug. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/489175/radiolarian>.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
11. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of
Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com
30 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales,
rhizaria, chromalveolates
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
14. ^ "silica." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 11 Aug. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/silica
15. ^ "radiolarian." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica,
2011. Web. 10 Aug. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/489175/radiolarian>.
16. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 11 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
17. ^ A. Braun, J. Chen, D. Waloszek and A. Maas, "First Early Cambrian
Radiolaria", Geological Society, London, Special Publications 2007, v. 286, p.
143-149. http://sp.lyellcollection.org/content/286/1/143.short
and http://www.core-orsten-research.de/Publications/PDF_Paper/ulm_team/2007b_Br
aun_etal.pdf {Earliest radiolaria fossils) 540 mybn}
18. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
19. ^ http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600my)
[2] Keeling, Patrick J. et al. "The tree of eukaryotes." Trends
in Ecology & Evolution 20.12 (2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534705003046
[3] Delsuc, Frederic, Henner Brinkmann, and Herve Philippe. "Phylogenomics and
the reconstruction of the tree of life." Nat Rev Genet 6.5 (2005):
361-375. http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v6/n5/abs/nrg1603.html
[4] http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/Bio-home/Pratt/boo305.htm
[5] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[6] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/radiolaria.html
[7] "Polycystine". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycystine
  
540,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20
321) The Protist Phylum "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu12 } evolves.13 14

Foraminifera are unicellular protists characterized by long, fine pseudopods
that extend from a cytoplasmic body encased within a test, or shell.15

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
8. ^ "foraminiferan." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 30 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/212983/foraminiferan>.
9. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p175.
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
15. ^ "foraminiferan." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 30
Mar. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/212983/foraminiferan>.
16. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p165-167. {earliest fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
17. ^ Culver, S. J. (1991)
Science 254, 689–691.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=254/5032/68
9
and http://www.sciencemag.org/content/254/5032/689.full.pdf {earliest
fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
18. ^ Culver, S. J. (1994) J. Foraminiferal Res.
24,
191–202. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=gsjfr&resid
=24/3/191
{earliest fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
19. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
20. ^ http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600mybn)
[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[3] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/foram.html
[4] "Allogromiida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allogromiida
[5] "Fusulinid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusulinid
[6] "Globigerinida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globigerinida
[7] "Miliolid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miliolid
[8] "Rotaliida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotaliida
[9] "Textulariida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textulariida
[10]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P4356&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

[11]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2007&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

  
540,000,000 YBN
10
340) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu7 } evolves (ribbon worms).8


Nemertea are unsegmented worms with a coelem that live in marine, freshwater
and terrestrial environments.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p321.
10. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (c541)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
540,000,000 YBN
10
341) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Tardigrada {ToRDiGRiDe7 } evolves (tardigrades).8

Tardigrades are slow-moving, microscopic invertebrates that live in water or
damp moss, with four body segments and eight legs.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "tardigrade." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "tardigrade." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ "Tardigrada." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 01 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrada-2
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ "Tardigrada." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 01 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrada-2
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ "tardigrade." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 22 May.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
540,000,000 YBN
10
342) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Onychophora evolves.8 Onychophorans are a transition
between worms and arthropods: they have segmented worm-like bodies but they
also have jointed appendages, antennae, and shed their cuticle like arthropods
do.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "onychophoran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ "onychophoran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
05 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p193.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution: What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p193.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Donald Prothero,
"Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p193.
10. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c543)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
535,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13
114) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.7

Muscles for pumping blood and for maintaining adequate blood pressure can be
divided into three groups: contractile blood vessels (found in nemerteans and
annelids), ostiate {oSTEAT8 } hearts (found in arthropods), and chambered
hearts (found in molluscs and vertebrates).9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p124-125.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p124-125.
5. ^ "ostium." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ostium>.
6. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p73, 327.
7. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p124-125.
8. ^ "ostium." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ostium>.
9. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p73, 327.
10. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p 73.
11. ^ Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.
12. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on} {539 MYBN (based on mollusca}
  
533,000,000 YBN
17 18 19
343) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Mollusca evolves; Mollusks.11

The phylum Mollusca is the second largest animal phylum after the arthropods,
and is divided into seven classes, three of which (Gastropoda {GaSTroPeDu12 }
(snails), Bivalvia (clams and muscles), and Cephalopoda {SeFeloPeDu13 } (squids
and octupuses) are of major importance.14

Early Cambrian mollusk fossils show the segmentation of the mollusk worm-like
ancestor,15 and have individual plates which imply that the mollusk shell
fused together over the course of millions of years.16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=gastropoda&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cephalopoda&submit=Submit
6. ^ "Mollusca." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mollusca
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=gastropoda&submit=Submit
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cephalopoda&submit=Submit
10. ^ "Mollusca." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mollusca
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=gastropoda&submit=Submit
13. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cephalopoda&submit=Submit
14. ^ "Mollusca." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mollusca
15. ^ Prothero, D.R., and C.D. Buell. Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why
It Matters. Columbia University Press, 2007, p192.
16. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p69.
17. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c539)
19. ^ Caron, Jean-Bernard et al. "A soft-bodied mollusc
with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale." Nature 442.7099 (2006):
159-163. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v442/n7099/full/nature04894.html

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
530,000,000 YBN
7
338) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) evolves.5

Annelids are various worms or wormlike animals, characterized by an elongated,
cylindrical, segmented body and includes the earthworm and leech.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ "annelid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/annelid
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ "annelid." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/annelid
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c537)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
530,000,000 YBN
15 16
339) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Arthropoda evolves; the "Arthropods".11

Arthropods can be compared to a segmented worm encased in a rigid
exoskeleton.12

The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. Arthropods
include the trilobites, the crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, and lobsters), the
Myriapoda (centipedes and millipedes), the Chelicerata (arachnids and horseshoe
crabs) and the insects.13 All arthropods have a segmented body covered by an
exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armor and as a surface for
muscle attachment.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p476.
5. ^
Hedges and Kumar, Time Tree, 2009,
p251. http://timetree.org/pdf/Pisani2009Chap29.pdf
6. ^ "arthropod." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/arthropod
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p476.
9. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
Time Tree, 2009, p251. http://timetree.org/pdf/Pisani2009Chap29.pdf
10. ^ "arthropod." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/arthropod
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
12. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p476.
13. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, Time Tree, 2009, p251. http://timetree.org/pdf/Pisani2009Chap29.pdf
14. ^ "arthropod." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/arthropod
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c543)
16. ^ Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
530,000,000 YBN
350) The Chordata Vertebrates evolve.7 This Subphylum, Vertebrata, contains
most fishes, and all amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

The characteristic features of the Vertebrata are a vertebral column, or
backbone, and a cranium, which protects the central nervous system (brain and
spinal cord) and major sense organs.8 This earliest vertebrate skeleton is
made completely of cartilage.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ "Vertebrata." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of
Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/vertebrata
6. ^ Palmer, D. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New Line
Books, 2002, p22.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ "Vertebrata." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/vertebrata
9. ^ Palmer, D. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New Line
Books, 2002, p22.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
  
530,000,000 YBN
5
351) The extinct Vertebrates the Conodonts {KO-nu-DoNTS1 } evolve.2

Conodonts have no lower jaw, but have calcified teeth3 positioned under
well-developed eyes4 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "conodont." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/conodont>.
2. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p90.
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p90-91.
4. ^
Palmer, D. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric
Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New Line Books, 2002,
p22.
5. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p90-91.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
[3] Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p85
  
530,000,000 YBN
7
6637) The Vertebrates Jawless fishes evolve (agnatha).5

The earliest extant jawless fishes, the hagfishes evolve now. Hagfishes are
eel-like scavengers.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
4. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates",
2002, p85.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
6. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p85.
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p364-371.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
  
520,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16
133) The Arthropod subphylum Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo9 ) evolves (eight legs,
ancestor of the horseshoe crabs, sea spiders, and the Arachnids: mites,
spiders, and scorpions).10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ J. W. Shultz
(2007). "A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological
characters". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150: 221–265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1096-3642.2007.00284.x
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
5. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
7. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
8. ^
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=6843&lvl=3
&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock

9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
10. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
11. ^
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=6843&lvl=3
&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock

12. ^ D. Waloszek, J.A. Dunlop, "A larval sea spider (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida)
from the Upper Cambrian ‘Orsten’ of Sweden and the phylogenetic position of
pycnogonids", Palaeontology, 45 (2002), pp.
421–446 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-4983.00244/abstract
13. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p168.
14. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
15. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p66-67.
16. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.

MORE INFO
[1] Charbonnier, S, J Vannier, and B Riou. “New Sea Spiders from the
Jurassic La Voulte-sur-Rhône Lagerstätte.” Proceedings of the Royal Society
B: Biological Sciences 274, no. 1625 (October 22, 2007): 2555
–2561. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1625/2555.full
[2] Dunlop and Seldon, "The Early History and Phylogeny of the Chelicerates",
in Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relatioinships", 1997, p231
earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten, Sweden12   
520,000,000 YBN
5 6
148) The earliest color vision evolves in arthropods.3

Vertebrates with color vision include: some fishes and amphibians, many
reptiles and all birds, but only a few mammals, humans and some other higher
primates, can see in color.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Koyanagi, M.; Nagata, T.; Katoh, K.; Yamashita, S.; Tokunaga, F. (2008).
"Molecular Evolution of Arthropod Color Vision Deduced from Multiple Opsin
Genes of Jumping Spiders". Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 (2): 130–137.
DOI:10.1007/s00239-008-9065-9. PMID
18217181. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e67h525378645572/?MUD=MP
2. ^ Koyanagi, M.; Nagata, T.; Katoh, K.; Yamashita, S.; Tokunaga, F. (2008).
"Molecular Evolution of Arthropod Color Vision Deduced from Multiple Opsin
Genes of Jumping Spiders". Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 (2): 130–137.
DOI:10.1007/s00239-008-9065-9. PMID
18217181. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e67h525378645572/?MUD=MP
3. ^ Koyanagi, M.; Nagata, T.; Katoh, K.; Yamashita, S.; Tokunaga, F. (2008).
"Molecular Evolution of Arthropod Color Vision Deduced from Multiple Opsin
Genes of Jumping Spiders". Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 (2): 130–137.
DOI:10.1007/s00239-008-9065-9. PMID
18217181. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e67h525378645572/?MUD=MP
4. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p665.
5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p168.
6. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the
Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210-211.

MORE INFO
[1] Yokoyama, S., and B. F. Radlwimmer. 2001. The molecular genetics and
evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates. Genetics Society of
America. 158: 1697-1710
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004)
  
520,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
346) The Deuterostome Phylum Echinodermata evolves; the "Echinoderms"
(iKIniDRMS 7 }, the ancestor of the sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars,
and star fishes.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Adam M. English, Loren E. Babcock, Census of
the Indian Springs Lagerstätte, Poleta Formation (Cambrian), western Nevada,
USA, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 295, Issues
1–2, 1 September 2010, Pages 236-244, ISSN 0031-0182,
10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.05.041. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S0031018210003287)

10. ^ J. Wyatt Durham, "Notes on the Helicoplacoidea and Early Echinoderms",
Journal of Paleontology , Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1967), pp.
97-102 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1301905
11. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p66.
12. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p384.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126698
  
520,000,000 YBN
22 23 24 25
6349) The arthropods trilobites evolve.15 16 17 18

Trilobites have a segmented body that is divided by into three vertical
lobes.19

There is a transition from soft-bodied organisms, to the clam-like shell
organisms, to the segmented calcite and chitin shells of the trilobites.20

Horseshoe crabs may be descended from trilobites.21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998). Article
ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
2. ^ http://www.nature.com0/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
3. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
4. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
5. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998).
Article ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
6. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
7. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
8. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
9. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998).
Article ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
10. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
11. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
12. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
13. ^ "trilobite." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
25 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/trilobite
14. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition,
2002, p209-213.
15. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998).
Article ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
16. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
17. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
18. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
19. ^ "trilobite." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
25 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/trilobite
20. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition,
2002, p209-213.
21. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What The Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p189-191.
22. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p168.
23. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
24. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental evolution: insights from studies of
insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my {510 mybn}
25. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html {540 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.trilobites.info/biostratigraphy.htm
[2] http://www.trilobites.info/origins.htm
[3] Babcock, L.E., S Peng, G. Geyer, & J.H. Shergold. 2005.
Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward
subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geosci. Journal
9(2):101-6. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t7062n5744462260/
[4] Niles Eldredge, "Trilobites and Evolutionary Patterns", p305-332 in Anthony
Hallam, "Patterns of evolution as illustrated by the fossil record, Volume 5",
1977, p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=q7GjDIyyWegC
[5] Hughes, N. 2007. The evolution of trilobite body patterning. Annu.
Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2007.
35:401–34. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.earth.35.0313
06.140258

[6] Richard A. Fortey "Trilobite Systematics: The Last 75 Years", Journal of
Paleontology , Vol. 75, No. 6, 75th Anniversary Issue (Nov., 2001), pp.
1141-1151 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1307082
[7] http://www.palaeos.org/Cambrian_Stage_3
  
513,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
6351) The Arthropods Crustaceans evolve (the ancestor of all shrimps, crabs,
lobsters, and barnicles).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p251-253.
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
5. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark
Williams, and Dieter Waloszek, "An early Cambrian phosphatocopid crustacean
with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts from Shropshire, England",
Special Papers in Paleontology, 70, 2003
6. ^ Siveter, David J., Mark Williams, and
Dieter Waloszek. “A Phosphatocopid Crustacean with Appendages from the Lower
Cambrian.” Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001): 479
–481. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/479.abstract
7. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek, "An early Cambrian
phosphatocopid crustacean with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts from
Shropshire, England", Special Papers in Paleontology, 70, 2003
8. ^ Siveter, David
J., Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek. “A Phosphatocopid Crustacean with
Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.” Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001):
479 –481. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/479.abstract
9. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009, p66-67.
10. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
11. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395

MORE INFO
[1]
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Crustacea/fossils.html
[2] http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0719_crustacean.html
earliest fossils: Shropshire, England5 6   
501,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
6348) The Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu7 } evolve; the ancestor of all
centipedes and millipedes.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
2009, p251-253.
5. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
7. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
8. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
2009, p251-253.
9. ^ Robison, Richard A. “Earliest-known Uniramous Arthropod.” Nature
343.6254 (1990): 163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html
{Robison_19900111.pdf}
10. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
11. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from the
Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596 {Budd_2001.pdf}
12. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A.
Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in the Silurian: Arachnids and
Myriapods from Shropshire, England.” Science 250, no. 4981 (November 2,
1990): 658 –661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;250/4981/658
13. ^ Robison, Richard A. “Earliest-known Uniramous Arthropod.”
Nature 343.6254 (1990): 163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html
{Robison_19900111.pdf}
14. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
15. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from the
Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596 {Budd_2001.pdf}
16. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B.,
Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and
Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land: Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern Ontario, Canada.” Geology
30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
17. ^ Budd, G.E., Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like
arthropod from the Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische
Zeitschrift, v. 75p. 37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596
18. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W.
Dalrymple, Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First
Steps on Land: Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
19. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A. Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in
the Silurian: Arachnids and Myriapods from Shropshire, England.” Science 250,
no. 4981 (November 2, 1990): 658
–661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;250/4981/658
20. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
21. ^ William A Shear, Andrew J Jeram and Paul Selden, "Centiped legs
(Arthropoda, Chilopoda, Scutigeromorpha) from the Silurian and Devonian of
Britain and the Devonian of North America.", American Museum novitates
3231:1-16 (1998) http://biostor.org/reference/30111
22. ^ Grimaldi, Engels, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p107-108.
23. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
24. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p111.
earliest possible fossils: (Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA9 10
and (Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia11 |(earliest fossils) Shropshire,
England12   
488,300,000 YBN
7
121) The end of the Cambrian (542-488.3 mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN5 } (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
3. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
4. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
5. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
6. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
7. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
488,000,000 YBN
13
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN10 } radiation. During the Ordovician the number
of genera {JeN-R-u11 } will quadruple.12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
3. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
4. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
5. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
6. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
7. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
8. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
9. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
10. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
11. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
12. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
13. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levine, "The Eath Through Time", 2006, p333
  
488,000,000 YBN
4
6635) The extinct Jawless fishes Ostracoderms {oS-Tru-KO-DRM1 } evolve.2

The Ostracoderms are the first vertebrates to have paired appendages, an inner
ear with two semicircular canals, and bone, although almost exclusively in the
outer exoskeleton.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "OSTRACODERM." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 May.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/OSTRACODERM>.
2. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p90.
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p90.
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution. What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p198.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
[3] Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p85
  
475,000,000 YBN
22 23 24
244) The non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo16 }, (the ancestor of
the Liverworts, Hornworts, and Mosses).17 18

The Bryophytes are the simplest land plants, and reproduce with spores.19 20

Most are 2-5 cm (or 1-2 in.) tall and extremely tolerant of dry and freezing
conditions.21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ "Bryophyta."
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
6. ^ "Bryophyta."
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^ Peter Robert
Bell, Alan R. Hemsley, "Green Plants: Their Origin and Diversity", 2000,
p102. http://books.google.com/books?id=HYkTvGq_RccC&pg=PA102
10. ^ Diego Fontaneto, "Biogeography of Microscopic Organisms: Is Everything
Small Everywhere?", 2011,
p211. http://books.google.com/books?id=QdcLHCPgG-wC&pg=PA211
11. ^ "Bryophyta." Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
12. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
13. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
14. ^ Peter Robert
Bell, Alan R. Hemsley, "Green Plants: Their Origin and Diversity", 2000,
p102. http://books.google.com/books?id=HYkTvGq_RccC&pg=PA102
15. ^ Diego Fontaneto, "Biogeography of Microscopic Organisms: Is Everything
Small Everywhere?", 2011,
p211. http://books.google.com/books?id=QdcLHCPgG-wC&pg=PA211
16. ^ "Bryophyta." Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
17. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
18. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
19. ^ Peter Robert
Bell, Alan R. Hemsley, "Green Plants: Their Origin and Diversity", 2000,
p102. http://books.google.com/books?id=HYkTvGq_RccC&pg=PA102
20. ^ Diego Fontaneto, "Biogeography of Microscopic Organisms: Is Everything
Small Everywhere?", 2011,
p211. http://books.google.com/books?id=QdcLHCPgG-wC&pg=PA211
21. ^ "bryophyte." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bryophyte
22. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
23. ^ S26 (c475)
24. ^ S15 (c475)

MORE INFO
[1] "Bryophyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryophyte
[2] "Bryophyta." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bryophyta-1
  
475,000,000 YBN
19 20
398) Plants live on land. The earliest fossil spores belonging to land
plants.14 15 16

Plants conquer land before animals do, and like animals may move to land not by
sea but by freshwater.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
2. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
5. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
8. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
11. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
12. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
13. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p520-521.
14. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
15. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
16. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
17. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p520-521.
18. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
19. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
{475 MYBN}
20. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya18   
472,000,000 YBN
17 18 19
402) The first animals live on land, the arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and
millipedes).13 14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
2. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
3. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
4. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
6. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
7. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
9. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
10. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
11. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
12. ^ Heather M.
Wilson and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
13. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
14. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
15. ^ Heather M.
Wilson and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
16. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
17. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
18. ^ Heather M. Wilson and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of
Paleozoic Millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland",
Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
19. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p67.
earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston, Ontario, Canada16   
470,000,000 YBN
3 4
234) The non-vascular plants Hornworts evolve.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c475)
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c475)
  
465,000,000 YBN
7
6636) The Jawless fishes lamprays evolve.5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution. What the Fossils Have to Say and Why
It Matters", 2007, p198.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution. What the Fossils
Have to Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p198.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution.
What the Fossils Have to Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p198.
7. ^ Prothero,
"Evolution. What the Fossils Have to Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p198.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
[3] "ostracoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jan.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/ostracoderm
  
460,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
235) The non-vasular plants Mosses evolve.1 2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ estimated
from tree on http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Embryophytes&contgroup=Green_
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The