1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.
980,000,000,000 YBN
3) All matter is made of particles of light. Light particles are the base unit
of all matter from the tiniest particles to the largest galaxies. In this sense
light particles are the most basic atoms.

The basic order of matter from smaller to larger is light particles, electrons
and positrons, muons, protons and antiprotons, atoms, molecules, living
objects, planets, stars, globular clusters, galaxies, and then galactic

970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.

960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.

950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of

This accumulation of light particles into atoms may be the result of particle
collision, gravitation, or a combination of both.

940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.

Most galaxies are too far away for even one particle of light they emit to be
going in the exact direction of our tiny location, and all the light particles
they emit are captured by atoms in between there and here.

As telescopes grow larger, the number of galaxies and the distance we can see
will increase.

935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which exist as
gas clouds (like the Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula). These gas clouds,
called nebulae continue to accumulate trapped light particles. At points of
high density planets and stars form and the cloud is eventually dense enough to
become a galaxy of stars. The stars emit light particles back out to the rest
of the universe, where the light again becomes trapped and forms new clouds.
Around each star are many planets and pieces of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant emitting of light particles (decay). Like
bacteria, these living objects grow in number, with the most successful
organisms occupying and moving around many stars. These advanced organisms then
move the groups of stars they control, as a globular cluster, away from the
plane of the spiral galaxy. As time continues, all of the stars of a galaxy are
occupied by living objects who have organized their stars into globular
clusters. These globular clusters together form an elliptical galaxy, and then
finally a globular galaxy. The globular galaxy may then exist for a long time
living off the matter in stars, in addition to matter from external sources.

So free light particles are trapped into volumes of space that grow in density
first forming atoms, then gas clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, an
elliptical galaxy, and finally a globular galaxy.

Globular galaxies at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale,
just as light particles at our scale may be globular galaxies at a much smaller
scale. This system may go on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.

930,000,000,000 YBN
8) An expanding universe seems unlikely to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken observation, for one reason because spectrum
size changes the position of spectral lines (as clearly shown in the 1936
Humason photo), and because the distance of a light source changes the
position, but not the frequency of spectral lines.


165,000,000,000 YBN
13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to form.

Galaxies may form from accumulation of light particles and from the collision
of two or more galaxies.

If a galaxy is viewed as an exponential accumulation of light particles
starting from a single light particle up until 500 billion stars, only in the
last 16% of that time would a galaxy have enough matter for even a single star.

33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.

Stars may form from the accumulation of matter or from collisions of two or
more large bodies. As time goes by, less collisions occur around a star,
because most smaller objects are absorbed by the star and planets.

Stars and planets may have centers of densely packed unmoving light particles.
The less dense and colder area near the surface of planets and stars may allow
atoms and molecules to form and stay together. Many light particles must move
through the internal maze of matter inside planets and stars to eventually
reach the surface and escape into empty space.

22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship,
perhaps 5 billion years after the first stars formed.

10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars forms in the Milky Way

5,500,000,000 YBN
16) The star the Earth orbits forms.
5,500,000,000 YBN
17) Planets form around our star from many collisions. Like the star, they are
red hot with liquid rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the
surface of the planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.

As the number of collisions decreases, and smaller objects are absorbed by the
star and planets, the average temperature of the star system is lowered. As the
temperature of the planets and moons decreases, their surfaces solidify, and
water and other molecules condense at the surface.

Perhaps most outer planets are larger, because their orbit covers a larger
space which includes more matter.

4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.

The moon of Earth may form as a planet that is captured by the Earth, or a
planet that collides with the Earth and then reforms from the remaining matter
of the collision, or forms in orbit of the Earth at the same time the Earth

4,600,000,000 YBN
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.

4,600,000,000 YBN
50) The start of the "Precambrian" and the Hadean {HA DEen} Eon.
4,571,000,000 YBN
31) The oldest meteorite yet found on Earth: 4.57 billion years old.
4,530,000,000 YBN
33) The oldest Moon rock returned from the Moon (4.53 billions old).
4,404,000,000 YBN
34) The oldest "terrestrial" zircon; evidence that the crust and liquid water
are on the surface of Earth. A terrestrial zircon is not from a meteorite.

4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth, like amino acids, phosphates, and sugars,
the components of living objects.

These molecules are made in the oceans, fresh water, and atmosphere of Earth
(and other planets) by lightning, light particles with high frequency from the
Sun, and from ocean floor volcanoes.

The initial building blocks of living objects are easily formed, but assembling
them into longer-chain molecules, or polymers, is more difficult. Amino acids
link up to form polymers called proteins, simple fatty acids plus alcohols link
up to form lipids (oils and fats), simple sugars like glucose and sucrose link
together to form complex carbohydrates and starches, and finally, the
nucleotide bases (plus phosphates and sugars) link up to form nucleic acids,
the genetic code of organisms, known as RNA and DNA.

Perhaps all proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and DNA are strictly the products
of living objects, while RNA can assemble without the help of any living

4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.

4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amimo acids into proteins using other RNA molecules ("messenger" or mRNA
molecules), as a template.

This protein assembly system is the main system responsible for all the
proteins on Earth.

Part of each tRNA molecule bonds with a specific amino acid, while another part
has a 3 nucleotide sequence that bonds with an opposite matching 3 nucleotide
sequence on an mRNA molecule.

Perhaps this system, where tRNA molecules build proteins directly from free
floating RNA strands, evolves before the first ribosome and the first cell.

4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA. This protein is called an RNA polymerase

For the first time, a nucleic acid functions both as a template for building
proteins (with the help of tRNA molecules) and also as a template for building
other nucleic acid molecules.

An RNA polymerase must be one of the first useful proteins to be assembled by
the early (presumably) precellular protein production system. Eventually an RNA
strand that codes for the RNA polymerase and the tRNA needed to make the
polymerase may be copied many times.

4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. The first Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing a platform for more
efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all the instructions
needed to make more polymerase, tRNA, and ribosomes. Alternatively the first
ribosome may not evolve until after the first cell.

All cells contain ribosomes. Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry
out protein synthesis, through a process called translation. These molecular
machines are responsible for accurately translating the linear genetic code on
the messenger RNA (mRNA), into a linear sequence of amino acids to produce a

4,365,000,000 YBN
166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that
allows the assembly of DNA from RNA; a ribonucleotide reductase.

This protein changes ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides, which can then
be assembled into the first DNA molecules on Earth.

DNA has the advantage of being more stable than RNA and can hold together in
longer strands. Longer strands allow for a more complex organism.

4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules, a DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS}.
4,360,000,000 YBN
6409) Transcription evolves. A protein (an RNA polymerase) assembles RNA from

4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth evolves. This is the first prokaryotic cell and
first bacterium. DNA is surrounded by a membrane of proteins made by ribosomes;
the first cytoplasm.

This cell may form in either fresh or salt water, near the sunlit water surface
or near underwater volcanoes on the ocean floor.

The DNA of this cell is a template containing the code for a copying molecule
(DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS}), and the necessary mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
molecules needed to build the cytoplasm. For the first time, ribosomes and DNA
build cell structure. DNA protected by cytoplasm is more likely to survive and
be copied.

This is the start of binary cell division. DNA polymerase duplicates DNA within
the cell and then the cell divides into two parts. A system of division may
evolve in which the original and the newly synthesized copy of DNA are each
attached to the cytoplasm, so that as the cell grows, the two copies of DNA can
be separated, and the growing mass can eventually divide into two cells.

This is also the start of passive transport. Amino acids, nucleotides, water,
and other molecules enter and exit the cytoplasm only because of a difference
in concentration from inside and outside the cell. This represents the
beginnings of the first digestive system.

This cell structure forms the basis of all future cells of every living object
on Earth. These first cells are probably anaerobic (or anoxygenic- do not
require free oxygen) and are heterotrophic, meaning that they do not make their
own food (amino acids, nucleotides, phosphates, and sugars) but instead depend
on obtaining these molecules from external sources.

4,350,000,000 YBN
183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, and waxes) by making
proteins that can assemble lipids.

4,345,000,000 YBN
27) A phospholipid bilayer evolves around the cell, providing added protection
from the external environment. All extant cells have this phospholipid

When phospholipids are added to water, they self-assemble into double-layered
aggregates, or bilayers, with the phosphate part of the molecule on the outside
and the fatty acid tail part on the inside.

4,340,000,000 YBN
26) Possibly DNA that is connected in a circle allows the DNA polymerase to
make continuous copies of the cell, which may increase the speed of cell
growth, duplication, and division.

As far as is known bacteria do not die of old age, but if a mutation stops them
from dividing, then they die. Bacteria can also die from physical destruction
in addition to lack of food and water.

4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons evolve. An operon is a sequence of DNA which a protein binds with
in order to block RNA polymerase from building an mRNA molecule, from part of
the sequence, which would be translated into a protein. Operons allow a
bacterium to produce certain proteins only when necessary. Bacteria before now
can only build a constant stream of all proteins encoded in their DNA.

4,340,000,000 YBN
6340) Facilitated diffusion evolves. Proteins in the cell membrane allow only
certain molecules to enter the cell.

"Facilitated diffusion" is passive transport aided by proteins.

4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can now
make ATP (adenosine {oDeNoSEN} triphosphate) by converting glucose into
pyruvate {PIrUVAT}. This is the beginning of cellular respiration, how cells
convert food into ATP and waste products.

ATP is the molecule that drives most cellular work.

That glycolysis is the most widespread metabolic pathway, that it occurs in the
cytoplasm, not in an organelle, and that it is the first stage in fermentation
all imply an ancient origin.

4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves in the cell cytoplasm. Cells can make lactic acid.

cells, which are anaerobic, can now convert pyruvate, the final product of
glycolysis, into lactate (an ionized form of lactic acid), and in the process
refuel glycolysis and the production of ATP molecules.

4,325,000,000 YBN
213) A second kind of fermentation evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells (all
anaerobic) can now convert pyruvate (the final product of glycolysis) into

4,315,000,000 YBN
196) Active transport evolves. Proteins and ATP are used to transport molecules
into and out of the cytoplasm.

Active transport enables a cell to maintain internal concentrations of small
molecules that differ from the cell's surroundings.

4,200,000,000 YBN
292) The prokaryote flagellum evolves.

Prokaryotic cells now have more mobility, and can make more choices about their

4,193,000,000 YBN
77) The Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve according to genetic
comparison. The Phylum Nanoarcheota.

Eubacteria and Archaea are the two major lines of Prokaryotes.

Archaea have a variety of shapes, including spherical, rodlike, and spiral

4,189,000,000 YBN
193) The Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (the ancestor of Aquifex and

Aquifex and Thermotoga are the only two major genera {JeN-R-u} of eubacteria
that are hyperthermophiles. They grow best in a environment that is around 80
degrees Celsius (176 degrees Fahrenheit).

4,187,000,000 YBN
180) The Archaea Phylum: Crenarchaeota evolves (the ancestor of Sulfolobus).

The Crenarchaea include many organisms that are extremely thermophilic
{tR-mu-FiL-iK} (heat-loving) and cryophilic {KrI-e-FiL-iK} (cold-loving).

4,187,000,000 YBN
181) The Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} evolves (the ancestor
of methanogens and halobacteria {HaL-O-BaK-TER-E-u}).

The earliest cell response to light.

The Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} are composed of two classes: methanogens,
which produce methane and are often found in intestines and sewage, and the
halobacteria, which survive in high concentrations of salt.

Some halobacteria use sensory rhodopsin {rO-DoP-SiN} (a pigment sensitive to
red light) for phototaxis (positive or negative movement along a light gradient
or vector).

4,112,000,000 YBN
58) The first autotrophic cells; cells that can produce some of their own

Autotrophs produce their own sugars, lipids, and amino acids.

There are only two kinds of autotrophs: chemoautotrophs and photoautotrophs.

Chemoautotrophs use chemical nutrients to synthesize carbohydrates, while
photoautotrophs use light to synthesize carbohydrates.

This is a chemoautotrophic cell: genes and metabolic sequences suggest that
chemoautotrophs evolve before photoautotrophs.

4,100,000,000 YBN
49) Photosynthesis evolves.

Anaerobic bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and an
electron donor (also called a reductant) like Hydrogen sulfide into glucose,
water, and sulfur. This process of moving carbon from carbon dioxide gas to the
hydrocarbon molecule glucose is called carbon fixation.

This is the ancestor of Photosystem I.

This system of photosynthesis does not liberate oxygen.

4,000,000,000 YBN
43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II evolves. Cells with this system emit free

Anaerobic bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and water
into glucose, releasing oxygen gas in the process.

This is the main system
responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of Earth.

4,000,000,000 YBN
51) The end of the Hadean {HADEiN} and start of the Archean {oRKEiN} Eon.
3,950,000,000 YBN
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments. Cells stay fastened together after cell division.

Multicellularity appears to have evolved independently multiple times in the
history of life on Earth.

With multicellularity comes the evolution of differentiation, cells with
different functions.

3,950,000,000 YBN
316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.

One early cell differentiation is that only the cell at the tip of the filament
can divide while the older cells below the tip do not divide.

Multicellular organisms can die from aging, a series of cell differentiations
that ultimately result in the inability for the multicellular body to continue
functioning and to decay.

3,950,000,000 YBN
322) Nitrogen fixation evolves. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia
from Nitrogen gas in the air.

West Africa  
3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration evolves. The first aerobic (or "oxygenic")
cell. These cells use oxygen to convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and

Aerobic cellular respiration evolves as an alternative to fermentation by using
oxygen to break down the product of glycolysis, pyruvate, into carbon dioxide
and water, producing up to 38 ATP molecules in the process.

3,850,000,000 YBN
36) The oldest physical evidence for life: the ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12
in grains of ancient apetite {aPeTIT} (which are calcium phosphate minerals).

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12 isotope and so the ratio of carbon-12 to
carbon-13 is different from a nonliving source (such as calcium carbonate or

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
3,850,000,000 YBN
45) The oldest sediment, the Banded Iron Formation begins.
Banded Iron
Formation is sedimentary rock that spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years ago,
made of iron-rich silicates (like silicon dioxide SiO2) with alternating layers
of black colored ferrous (reduced) iron and red colored ferric (oxidized) iron.
These alternating layers represent a seasonal cycle where the quantity of free
oxygen in the ocean rises and falls, possibly linked to photosynthetic

The atmosphere of Earth still has only small amounts of oxygen at this time.

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
3,500,000,000 YBN
39) The oldest fossil evidence of life: stromatolites. Stromatolites made by
photosynthetic bacteria are found in both Western Australia, and South Africa.

Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa  
3,500,000,000 YBN
287) The oldest fossils of an organism, and the oldest prokaryote and bacteria
fossils. The organism is similar to cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u}, and is
found in the 3,500 million year old chert (sedimentary rock made of silica) in
Australia and South Africa.

2.8 billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.

Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa  
3,400,000,000 YBN
190) The earliest fossils of coccoid {KoKOED} (spherical) bacteria.
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa  
3,260,000,000 YBN
71) The earliest fossil evidence of prokaryote reproduction by budding.

Like binary division, budding is a form of asexual reproduction. However, with
budding a new individual develops from a certain point of the parent organism.
The new individual may separate to exist independently, or the buds may remain
attached, forming colonies.

Swartkoppie, South Africa  
3,235,000,000 YBN
68) The earliest Archaea fossils.
(Sulphur Springs Deposit) Pilbara Craton of Australia  
3,200,000,000 YBN
66) The earliest acritarch fossils (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity). These acritarchs are also the earliest possible eukaryote fossils.

Acritarchs appear to be phytoplankton {FITO-PlaNK-TeN} (freely floating
microscopic algae) that grow thick coverings during a resting stage in their
life cycle. Some resemble the resting stage of modern marine algae known as

(Moodies Group) South Africa  
2,923,000,000 YBN
178) The Eubacteria Phylum Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ) evolves (Gram positive
bacteria: the cause of botulism, tetanus, and anthrax).

Firmicutes is a phylum of nonphotosynthetic, mainly gram-positive bacteria.
Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes are the two main groups of bacteria found in the

Firmicutes includes rods and cocci {KoKSE} forms, and some form endospores.

An endospore is a tough reduced dry form of a bacterium, triggered by a lack of
nutrients, that protects the bacterium, and allows it to be revived after long
periods of time.

2,800,000,000 YBN
76) The Eubacteria Phylum Proteobacteria evolves (includes Rickettsia {the
ancestor of all mitochondria}, gonorrhea, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli
{esRriKEo KOlI} or E coli {E KOlI}).

The proteobacteria are the largest group of bacteria by far in terms of number
of described species.

2,800,000,000 YBN
177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo KOlI}
bacteria. Conjugation is the exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor {male}
bacterium through a pilus to a recipient {female} bacterium. This may be the
process that evolves into eukaryote sexual reproduction.

In addition to pili and conjugation, proteins that can cut DNA and other
proteins that can connect two strands of DNA evolve.

2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.

These cells depend on the DNA duplicating and protein producing systems of
other cells to reproduce themselves. The first viruses may be made from
bacteria, or may be bacteria initially.

2,784,000,000 YBN
176) The Eubacteria Phylum, Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS} evolves (also
known as Planctobacteria).

Planctomycetes are a widely distributed group of eubacteria that reproduce by
budding, have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan like most bacteria,
and some have a membrane-bound nucleoid, similar to the eukaryotic nucleus.

2,784,000,000 YBN
179) The Eubacteria Phylum, Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu} evolves (the
source of streptomycin and the cause of tuberculosis and leprosy).

The Actinobacteria are a group of Gram-positive bacteria, that are rod-shaped
or form branching filaments, and include many soil bacteria.

2,775,000,000 YBN
174) The Eubacteria Phylum, Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ) evolves (the cause of
Syphilis, and Lyme disease).

Spirochetes {SPIrOKETS} are helical heterotrophs that spiral through their
environment by rotating, internal, flagellum-like filaments.

2,775,000,000 YBN
175) The Eubacteria Phylum Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ} evolves.

Bacteroidetes is composed of Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, mostly anaerobic,
nonsporeforming bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment,
including in soil, sea water, and in the guts and on the skin of animals.

2,775,000,000 YBN
217) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E} evolves.

Chlamydiae are parasites that can survive only within animal cells. One species
Chlamydia trachomatis (TreKOmuTis} is the most common cause of blindness on
Earth, and also causes a common sexually transmitted disease.

2,775,000,000 YBN
6309) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlorobi {KlOROBE} evolves (green sulphur

Chlorobi are obligately anoxygenic (cannot survive in the presence of oxygen),
photosythesizing bacteria, that fix carbon from carbon dioxide into carbon
compounds for cell growth, by using sulfur compounds, hydrogen, or ferrous iron
as electron donors (oxidizing them).

2,775,000,000 YBN
6310) The Eubacteria Phylum Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo) evolves.

Verrucomicrobia are found in soil, fresh and marine waters, and hot springs.
Like Planctomycetes, some members of Verrucomicrobia also have intracellular
membrane enclosed compartments, including a membrane that encloses the DNA.

2,730,000,000 YBN
80) Endo and exocytosis evolve. Cells can now eat other cells.

In endocytosis the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the

In Exocytosis substances contained in vesicles are released from the cell.

2,700,000,000 YBN
60) The eukaryotic cell evolves. The first cell with a nucleus. The first
protist. The nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.

There are some differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
In prokaryotic
cells the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed called
the "nucleoid" while in eukaryotic cells most of the DNA is contained in a
nucleus that is bounded by a double membrane. Eukaryotic cells are generally
much larger than prokaryotic cells. Typical bacteria are between 1-5 um in
diameter, while eukaryotic cells are typically 10-100 um in diameter. Unlike
prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton
enables eukaryotic cells to change their shape and to surround and engulf other
cells. Eukaryotic cells also have internal structures that prokaryotic cells
lack such as mitochondria and plastids. DNA in prokaryotic cells is usually in
the form of a single circular chromosome, while DNA in the nucleus of
eukaryotes contains linear chromosomes. Some organelles in eukaryotes also
contain DNA; most mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA is also circular reflecting
their prokaryote origin.

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably haploid (has a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets of DNA).

All protist, fungi, animal and plant cells descend from this common eukaryotic

2,700,000,000 YBN
62) The earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiR AN
molecules). Steranes are formed from sterols {STeRoLZ}, molecules made by

Northwestern Australia  
2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves in a eukaryote cell. The endoplasmic
reticulum (or ER) is a membrane system that extends from the nucleus, important
in the synthesis of proteins and lipids.

2,690,000,000 YBN
207) The cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN} forms in the eukaryote cytoplasm.
2,690,000,000 YBN
208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia evolve.

The eukaryote flagellum and cilia are structurally the same but are very
different from the prokaryote flagellum. The eukaryote flagellum is composed of
a characteristic "9+2" arrangement of microtubules {mIKrO-TUB-YU-LZ} surrounded
by a sheath which is an extension of the plasma membrane. Unlike the prokaryote
flagella that rotate, the flagella and cilia of eukaryotic cells undulate in a
wave-like motion to propel the cell.

Some cilia are nonmotile and serve as signal-receiving "antennae" for the

The sperm cells of algae, animals, and some plants have flagella.

2,680,000,000 YBN
65) The circular chromosome in the eukaryote nucleus changes into linear

Alternatively, the eukaryotic cell may descend from a prokaryote that already
has linear DNA.

Some extant prokaryotes have a linear chromosome.

2,680,000,000 YBN
216) Histones evolve. Histones are proteins found in all eukaryotic cell nuclei
that package and order a single continuous DNA molecule into structural units
called nucleosomes {nUKlEuSOMZ}. The nucleosomes are coiled into a 30 nanometer
fiber called a chromatin, and then looped again around a chromosome scaffold
into a larger 300 nanometer fiber which forms one of the two chromatids in a

2,680,000,000 YBN
291) The eukaryote cell evolves two intermediate stages between cell division
and DNA synthesis.

In prokaryotes, DNA synthesis can take place uninterrupted between cell
divisions, but eukaryotes duplicate their DNA exactly once during a discrete
period between cell divisions.

2,670,000,000 YBN
199) The Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves. The Golgi apparatus packages
proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations.

2,670,000,000 YBN
290) The nucleolus evolves. The nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus that makes
ribosomal RNA.

2,660,000,000 YBN
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the nucleus divides resulting in two new nuclei,
each of which contains an identical copy of the parental chromosomes. Mitosis
is usually immediately followed by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm.

Mitosis is thought to have evolved from prokaryote binary fission and possible
intermediate stages can be seen in some protists.

2,640,000,000 YBN
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. This is the first diploid cell and the first

Because of sex, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more genetic
variety. Having two chromosome sets also provides a backup copy of important

Eukaryotic sexual reproduction, which is initially the fusion of two cells and
their nuclei, may first occur in a single cell protist that usually reproduces
asexually by mitosis. Two haploid eukaryote cells (gametes, cells with one set
of chromosomes each) merge and then their nuclei merge to form the first
diploid cell, a cell with two sets of chromosomes, the first zygote. "Syngamy"
{SiNG-Gu-mE} refers to gamete fusion and "karyogamy" {KaR-E-oG-e-mE} to nucleus
fusion. In most cases syngamy is immediately followed by karyogamy.

This fusion of two haploid cells results in the first diploid single-celled
organism, which may then immediately divide back to two haploid cells.

Conjugation, the second major kind of sexual phenomenon, which occurs in the
ciliates, involves the fusion of gametic nuclei instead of independent gamete

Initially sex may be the fusion of two indistinguishable cells (isogamy) with
gender (anisogamy) only evolving later. Although possibly eukaryote cell fusion
and gender is directly descended from prokaryote conjugation.

All sexual species alternate between haploid and diploid. There are three main
different types of sexual life cycles; haplontic, haplodiplontic, and
This begins the haplontic life cycle: in the entire life cycle the only diploid
cell is the zygote and mitosis only occurs in the haploid phase.

Most fungi and some protists including some algae are "haplontic"; they have a
multicellular haploid stage and no multicellular diploid stage. Plants and some
algae are "haplodiplontic"; they make both a multicellular haploid and
multicellular diploid organism. Animals are "diplontic"; they make a diploid
multicellular organism and no multicellular haploid organism.

2,640,000,000 YBN
206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis: a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).

Meiosis, which looks similar to mitosis, is the process of cell division in
sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in
reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of
gametes in animals and spores in plants.

Without the reduction back to haploid, genomes would double in size with every

2,610,000,000 YBN
296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves. Anisogamy {aNISoGomE}, sex (cell and nucleus
fusion) between two cells that are different in size or shape.

2,590,000,000 YBN
298) Oogamy {O-oG-omE}, a form of anisogamy, evolves in protists: sex between a
flagellated gamete and an unflagellated gamete.

2,580,000,000 YBN
300) Diploid cell fusion evolves (Gamontogamy).
2,570,000,000 YBN
295) Two-step meiosis evolves (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides
twice into four haploid cells).

Most protists divide by two-step meiosis, and one-step meiosis is rare.

Many of the steps of meiosis closely resemble corresponding steps in mitosis.
Meiosis, like mitosis, is preceded by the replication of chromosomes, but this
single replication is followed not by one but two consecutive cell divisions
which results in four child cells instead of the two child cells of mitosis.

Mitosis produces child cells that are genetically identical to their parent
cells and each other, while meiosis produces cells that differ genetically from
their parent cell and from each other.

2,558,000,000 YBN
171) The Eubacteria phylum "Deinococcus-Thermus" evolves (includes Thermus
Aquaticus {used in PCR}, and Deinococcus radiodurans {which can survive long
exposure to radiation}).

2,558,000,000 YBN
172) The Eubacteria phylum, Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u} evolves.

Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes with oxygen-producing photosynthesis,
and are the ancestor of all eukaryote plastids (for example chloroplasts).

Fossil evidence suggests that cyanobacteria existed as early as 3.8 billion
years before now, but the genetic evidence places the origin of cyanobacteria
here at 2.5 billion years before now.

2,558,000,000 YBN
315) The Eubacteria Phylum Chloroflexi evolves; (Green Non-Sulphur bacteria).

The Chloroflexi are filamentous bacteria that perform anoxygenic

2,500,000,000 YBN
52) The end of the Archean and start of the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or
ProTReZOiK} Eon.

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542 million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.

2,500,000,000 YBN
56) Banded Iron Formation starts to appear in many places.
2,480,000,000 YBN
170) Bacteria live on land.

Chemoauthotrophs oxidize sulfur or nitrogen to form sulfate or nitrate, and
therefore sulfuric or nitric acid, which then dissolves rocks.

2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of a 200 million year ice age.
2,300,000,000 YBN
48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide formed on land, begin here, and are also
evidence of more free oxygen in the air of Earth.

2,000,000,000 YBN
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely related to Rickettsia prowazekii, an aerobic
proteobacteria, is engulfed by an early eukaryote cell and over time a
symbiotic relationship evolves within the eukaryote cell (an endosymbiosis)
where the Rickettsia becomes the mitochondria.

Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all
eukaryotic cells, and are where cellular respiration occurs producing most of
the ATP in a eukaryotic cell.

In eukaryotes the mitochondria perform the Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative
phosphorylation using oxygen to breakdown pyruvate from glycolysis into carbon
dioxide and water, and provide up to 36 ATP molecules.

1,874,000,000 YBN
61) The earliest large filamentous fossil (Grypania). Grypania spiralis is
about 10 cm long, and is thought to be either a green alga or a large
cyanobacterium. If eukaryote, Grypania would be the earliest non-acritarch
eukaryote fossil.

Grypania may be like Acetabularia {aS-i-TaB-YU-lAR-Eu}, a large single-celled
green algae.
The Grypania fossils have no blade (analogous to a leaf) or holdfast
structures, but stretching implies that Grypania was a sessile organism
connected to a surface.

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA  
1,800,000,000 YBN
46) The end of the Banded Iron Formation.
1,570,000,000 YBN
99) The first homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts in algae, plants, fungi and animals.

For example, when a homeobox gene responsible for growing a mouse eye is added
to the cell of a fruit-fly embryo that is destined to be a leg, an extra fruit
fly eye is built on the leg.

1,570,000,000 YBN
197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.

1,520,000,000 YBN
202) The Protist Phylum Amoebozoa evolves (amoebas and slime molds); the first
feeding using pseudopods (a temporary projection of the cytoplasm).

The Amoebozoa include amoebas, both naked and testate (partially enclosed by a
"test" or shell), and slime molds and are characterized by pseudopods. Slime
molds will diverge into two main branches, plasmodial slime molds and cellular
slime molds.

1,520,000,000 YBN
203) Colonialism (where cells form a colony) evolves for the first time in

Many cells that form colonies are apparently identical but because each cell is
exposed to a different environment, they transcribe different genes.

1,500,000,000 YBN
15) The first "plastids" evolve. Cyanobacteria form plastids through
endosymbiosis within a eukaryotic cell. Like mitochondria, these organelles
copy themselves and are not made by the cell DNA.

Plastids provide the eukaryotic cell with food from photosynthesis and gain
protection by living within the cell.

This is a primary plastid endosymbiosis and so these plastids are surrounded by
a double membrane. The inner wall of the plastid being that of the bacterium,
the outer wall being that of the eukoaryote.

1,500,000,000 YBN
86) The first plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).

This begins the plant kingdom. The first plant is probably unicellular, similar
to the glaucophytes {GlxKoFITS}.

1,500,000,000 YBN
220) The Protists Opisthokonts evolve (the ancestor of all Fungi,
Choanoflagellates and Animals).

1,400,000,000 YBN
209) The earliest extant plant: Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu}.

Glaucophytes are unicellular algae found in freshwater.

Glaucophyta probably branched off the evolutionary tree before the divergence
of red and green algae from one another.

1,300,000,000 YBN
188) The Plant Phylum Chlorophyta {KlORoFiTu} evolves, Green Algae: (ancestor
of Volvox, Sea lettuce, Spirogyra, and Stoneworts).

The green algae are the most diverse group of algae on Earth today in terms of
number of species (having at least 7000 species).

The first land plants most likely
evolve from green algae.

1,300,000,000 YBN
219) The plant Phylum Rhodophyta {rODOFITu} evolves (Red Algae).

Rhodophyta are common and widespread, unicellular and multicellular algae
(reaching up to 1 m {or 3 feet} in length), and are mostly free-living but some
are parasitic or symbiotic.

1,300,000,000 YBN
323) The Protists Excavates evolve: the ancestor of the Parabasalids
{PaRu-BAS-a-liDS}, and the Diplomonads {DiP-lO-mO-naDZ} {which includes Giardia

Most of these species have an excavated ventral feeding groove, and all lack
mitochondria which are thought to be lost secondarily.

1,280,000,000 YBN
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.

In this organism, unlike single cell eukaryotes, cells stay fastened together
after cell division.

Multicellularity seems to have arisen multiple times independently in
eukaryotes: in fungi, animals, slime molds, and algae.

(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
1,280,000,000 YBN
85) Differentiation in a multicellular eukaryote evolves. In addition to gamete
(or spore) cells, there are somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells
are asexual (non-fusing).

All cells of an organism are somatic cells, except the sperm and egg cells, the
cells from which they arise (gametocytes), and undifferentiated stem cells.

Cell differentiation is how cells in a multicellular organism become
specialized to perform specific functions in a variety of tissues and organs.

1,280,000,000 YBN
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves.
1,280,000,000 YBN
301) The haplodiplontic life cycle evolves in algae (mitosis occurs in both
haploid and diploid life stages).

This is also known as the "alternation of generations".

Some algae and plants have a
haplodiplontic life cycle; a life cycle where both diploid and haploid stages
are multicellular. The multicellular haploid stage is called the gametophyte
and the multicellular diploid stage is called the sporophyte.

1,274,000,000 YBN
187) A captured red alga, through endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid in the
ancestor of all chromalveolates.

This is a secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured
instead of a cyanobacterium which results in a plastid with more than two

1,250,000,000 YBN
88) The Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS} evolve (the ancestor of
the Chromista {Cryptophytes, Haptophytes, and Stramenopiles
{STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ}} and Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS}).

1,250,000,000 YBN
201) The earliest certain eukaryote fossils and earliest certain fossils of
eukaryote filamentous multicellularity: a bangiophyte {BoNJEuFIT} red alga

These are also the earliest fossils of a eukaryote that can reproduce sexually
and that have differentiated cells (a basal holdfast).

(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada  
1,200,000,000 YBN
221) The first fungi. This begins the Fungi Kingdom.

Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic (unable to build structural materials by
photosynthesis) and so must feed on other living things.

Fungi live on organic material and are therefore generally parasitic (live or
feed on another organism to the detriment of the host organism) or are
saprophytic (live on dead or decaying organic matter). Some types of fungi,
however, form symbioses with plants.

Fungi may reproduce sexually or asexually and like plants show alternations in
their life cycle.

1,180,000,000 YBN
6280) The Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS} (the ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS}).

These three protist phyla all have an alveolar {aL-VE-e-lR} membrane system,
made of flattened membrane-bound sacs called "alveoli" {aL-VE-e-lI}.

1,100,000,000 YBN
75) The oldest extant fungi phylum "Microsporidia" evolves.

Microsporidia are obligate (survive only as) intracellular parasites of
eukaryotes; commonly infecting insects, crustaceans, and fishes.

1,100,000,000 YBN
313) The Protist Phylum "Dinoflagellata" evolves.

Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS} are single-celled, aquatic organisms that
have two dissimilar flagella. Most are microscopic and marine. An important
link in the food chain, Dinoflagellates also "bloom" which can produce
luminescence seen in the sea.

1,080,000,000 YBN
87) The Excavates Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS}; the ancestor of protists
which have mitochondria with discoidal (shaped like a disk) cristae (the folded
inner membrane of a mitochondrion) (the ancestor of euglenids, leishmanias
{lEsmaNEuZ}, trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ}, and acrasid {oKrASiD} slime molds).

1,080,000,000 YBN
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.

The earliest eye is a light sensitive area in a unicellular eukaryote that
probably evolved from a plastid.

Eukaryotes are the first organisms to evolve the ability to follow light
direction in three dimensions in open water.

1,050,000,000 YBN
169) The Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ} (also called Heterokonts)
evolve (ancestor of all brown algae, golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota

Almost all Stramenopiles have unique three-part hairs on the flagella at some
stage in the life cycle.

1,000,000,000 YBN
324) The Protists Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u} evolve (also called

Mesomycetozoea are in the protist Phylum Choanozoa (which includes the
Choanoflagellates {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS}, thought to be the ancestor of

985,000,000 YBN
309) The Protist Phylum Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu} evolves (ancestor of the
Oomycetes; water molds).

900,000,000 YBN
6281) The protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u} evolve (ancestor of all Radiolaria,
Foraminifera and Cercozoa).

850,000,000 YBN
224) The Fungi "Zygomycota" evolves (ancestor of bread molds, and pin molds).
767,000,000 YBN
312) The Protist Phylum "Ciliophora" {SiL-E-oF-R-u} evolves (the "Ciliates")
(ancestor of the paramecium).

The Ciliophora are characterized by having numerous cilia which they use to
move themselves. Most ciliates are unicellular.

767,000,000 YBN
314) The Protist Phylum "Apicomplexa" {a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su} evolves (includes
Malaria and Toxoplasmosis).

Apicomplexans have a special cell organelle called the apical complex which
helps to invade the host cell.

680,000,000 YBN
326) The Protists "Choanoflagellates" {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS} evolve.
lates are the closest relatives to the animals and may be direct ancestors of

There are about 140 species of choanoflagellates. Some are free-swimming,
propelling themselves with a flagellum. Others are attached by a stalk,
sometimes with several together in a colony. Choanoflagellates use their
flagellum to drive water into the funnel where food particles like bacteria are
trapped and engulfed.

670,000,000 YBN
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist. This allows larger free
moving organisms to evolve.

This multicellularity is thought to be independently evolved, and not related
to the earlier filamentous multicellularity of prokaryotes like cyanobacteria,
and eukaryotes like algae.

670,000,000 YBN
297) The diplontic life cycle evolves; this organism is predominantly diploid,
mitosis in the haploid phase does not occur.

All animals are diplontic, and descend from this multicellular organism.

660,000,000 YBN
81) The first animal and first metazoan, the sponge evolves. This begins the
Animal Kingdom, and the Phylum Porifera; the sponges. There are only three
major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians, and bilaterians.

The word "porifera" means "pore bearing" in Latin, and water continuously flows
through the pores in sponges.

Metazoans are multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform
different functions). Sponges have cells that form a body wall, cells that
secrete the skeleton, contractile {KunTraKTL} cells, cells that digest food,
and other kinds of cell types.

All sponge cells are totipotent and so are capable of regrowing a new sponge.
In sponges there is no distinction between germ line and soma. Some sponges can
live for over 1000 years.

Sponges have two layers, each a single cell thick. The outer surface is called
the pinacoderm {PiN-o-KO-DRM} and is made of cells called pinacocytes
{PiN-o-KO-SITS}. On the inner surface is the choanoderm {KOenO-DRM or
KO-aNo-DRM} which is made of flagellated cells called choanocytes {KOenO-SITS
or KO-aNo-SITS}. Between these two thin cellular sheets is the jellylike
mesohyl {mASuHIL}, which may vary in thickness and plays vital roles in
digestion, gamete production, secretion of skeleton, and transport of nutrients
and waste products by special amoeboid cells.

660,000,000 YBN
517) The male gonad (testis {TeSTiS} or testicle) evolves in a sponge. In
sponges sperm are contained in spermatic cysts, which are choanocyte chambers
transformed by the formation of sperm (spermatogenesis), but ova are
distributed throughout the mesohyl {mASuHIL} (or middle layer).

650,000,000 YBN
41) The start of the 60 million year (Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).
650,000,000 YBN
69) Cells that group as tissues that are arranged in layers evolve in

Unlike the Porifera, in the Placozoa and all later metazoans, cells group as

650,000,000 YBN
79) The Metazoan Phylum "Placozoa" evolves.

Placozoans look like amoebas but are multicellular. The only known species is
Trichoplax adhaerens {TriKOPlaKS aDHEReNZ}. Trichoplax lives in the sea and
feeds on single celled organisms, mostly algae. There are only 4 cell types in
Trichoplax compared to the more than 200 cell types in humans. Trichoplax has
two main cell layers, like a cnidarian or ctenophore. Between these two layers
are a few contractile cells that are similar to muscle cells, however
placozoans have no muscle or nerve cells.

Trichoplax has the lowest content of DNA of any metazoan, about two-thirds that
in sponges, and only 10 times that of bacteria.

650,000,000 YBN
223) The Fungi "Chytridiomycota" {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) evolves (includes all
Chytridiomycetes {KI-TriDEO-mI-SE-TEZ})).

The chytrids are primitive fungi and are mostly saprobic (feed on dead species,
decomposing chitin and keratin). Many chytrids are aquatic (mostly found in
freshwater) and some species are unicellular.

Northern Russia  
640,000,000 YBN
83) The first nerve cell (neuron), and nervous system evolves in the ancestor
of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. This leads to the first ganglion and brain.
This is the earliest touch and sound detection, and memory.

As time continues in the evolution of the metazoans, the number of neurons
increases while the size of neurons decreases, showing that more neurons and
smaller neurons, similar to transistors in a computer, give an organism more
memory and as a result a selective advantage in survival.

640,000,000 YBN
96) Muscle cells evolve in the ancestor of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. Both
the earliest known muscle and nerve cells are found in Ctenophores and

640,000,000 YBN
225) A closeable mouth evolves for the first time, in the ancestor of all
ctenophores and cnidarians.

640,000,000 YBN
414) The female gonad (the first ovary) evolves in the ancestor of Ctenophores
and Cnidarians.

640,000,000 YBN
523) The animal Phylum Ctenophora {Ti-noF-R-u} evolves (comb jellies).

Like the Cnidarians, the Ctenophores are diploblastic; they have two embryonic
germ layers- the ectoderm {EKTeDRM} and the endoderm {eNDeDRM} which become the
adult epidermis and gastrodermis, respectively. The middle mesenchyme
{meSeNKIM}, a watery gelatinous fluid, never produces the complex organs seen
in triploblastic Metazoa.

The main body cavity of the ctenophores is also the digestive chamber, and they
have a simple nerve net.

Unlike cnidarians, ctenophores lack stinging cells, there is no alternation of
generations in the life cycle, and ctenophores are never colonial.

On the surface of the body are eight equally spaced comb plates, called ctenes
{TENZ}. Each ctene is composed of a band of cilia. The ctenes provide most of
the movement for the ctenophores.

Ctenophores are hermaphroditic. Ovaries and testies differentiate from the
endoderm. The gametes are released through temporary gonopores {GoN-o-PORZ},
and fertilization is external.

635,000,000 YBN
6413) The start of the Ediacaran Period.

A large increase in the evolutionary turnover rate of acritarchs is thought to
be the result of the evolution of the nervous system and gut in the eumetazoa
(all ctenophora, cnidaria, and bilateria).

630,000,000 YBN
82) The Animal Phylum Cnidaria {NIDAREeo} evolves (the ancestor of sea
anemones, sea pens, corals, and jellyfish). Cnidaria also evolve the earliest
animal eye.

Cnidaria are primarily radially symmetrical animals with tentacles, have a
single body cavity with only one opening to take in food and to release wastes,
and have specialized stinging cells.

Cnidarians have two alternate body plans, the polyp and the medusa {miDUSe}. A
sea anemone or Hydra is a typical polyp: fixed to the ground with mouth on top.
Corals are colonial marine polyps that secrete calcareous {KaL-KAR-E-uS}
(calcium carbonate) skeletons which they live inside of. The medusa form is
upside down compared to the polyp form, and is free swimming. A jellyfish has a
typical medusa form, swimming through the open sea. Many cnidarians have both
polyp and medusa forms in a single life cycle.

Polyps often reproduce by budding; a new baby polyp clone grows on the side of
the parent. When cnidaria reproduce sexually, sperm are released into the water
and fertilization is usually external.

Digestion in Cnidarians starts in the gastrovascular cavity, but once the food
is reduced to particles small enough to enter the digestive cells of the
gastrodermis, digestion is completed inside the cell (intracellularly).

Cnidarians have a nervous system which is a network without a centralized
structure. They also have muscles which are contracted to propel them.

Cnidarians see in black or white, because their eyes have only one pigment; for
color vision the eye must have more than one pigment.

600,000,000 YBN
91) The start of the Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN} soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.

The sudden appearance of Ediacaran fossils may relate to the accumulation of
free oxygen in the atmosphere and sea, which may permit an oxidative

Because the Ediacaran animals are soft-bodied, they are infrequently preserved.

Sonora, Mexico|Adelaide, Australia| Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
600,000,000 YBN
107) The Animals Bilaterians evolve (metazoans with two sided symmetry).
is the first triploblastic animal; an animal with a third embryonic layer, the
mesoderm {meZuDRM}. This is also the earliest animal brain.

In most bilaterians food enters in one end (the mouth) and waste exits at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an advantage for sense organs like light,
sound, touch, smell, and taste detection to be located on the head near the
mouth to help with getting food.

Unlike the diploblastic Cnidaria and Ctenophora, bilaterians are triploblastic.
A third embryonic layer, the mesoderm, lies between the ectoderm and endoderm.
This layer increases the options for the development of organs with specific

This begins the Animal Subkingdom "Bilateria".

600,000,000 YBN
403) The earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (the ancestor of acoela flat
worms and nemertodermatida).

The Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track, anus and coelom.

Flatworms have no lungs or gills and breathe through their skin. Flatworms also
have no circulating blood and so their branched gut presumably transports
nutrients to all parts of the body.

600,000,000 YBN
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian. Since the gut of this organism has
no anus, undigested food must be regurgitated through the mouth. The intestine
is lined with a single layer of endodermal cells that perform some or all of
the processes of digestion and absorption.

600,000,000 YBN
532) A cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian.

All bilaterally symmetrical metazoans except the Phyla Acoelomorpha and
Platyhelminthes, have a tubular gut with an anus, mouth, and through-put of
food. The Phyla Nemertea and Entoprocta are the earliest bilaterians with an

600,000,000 YBN
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.
600,000,000 YBN
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.
590,000,000 YBN
70) The end of the Varanger Ice Age (650-590 mybn).
590,000,000 YBN
95) The coelom (SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.

The coelem is a fluid filled cavity that forms within the mesoderm and exists
between the gut and body wall in most triploblastic animals.

The advantage of a coelem is that it allows the body wall and gut wall to act
independently, and also that other organ systems can be developed in the
fluid-filled space. In addition, the fluid in the cavity can act as a
deformable skeleton.

590,000,000 YBN
98) The first circulatory system evolves; blood vessels, and blood evolve in a
bilaterian. The first blood cells. Cnidarians and flatworms are at most two
sheets of tissue thick and so allow gas exchange and nutrient distribution by
diffusion, but larger animals with thicker tissues require a circulatory system
to distribute materials.

The circulatory system transports molecules like gases, food, and waste to and
from individual cells.

In bilaterians with circulatory systems blood may be distributed by contractile
vessels in the blood vessel walls, and/or by hearts.

580,000,000 YBN
93) The Bilaterians Protostomes evolve. Protostomes are divided into two major
groups: the Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} and the Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu}.

The difference between protostomes and deutrostomes arises during embryonic
development. In protostomes, the first indentation of the gastrula (an early
stage of the embryo) develops into the mouth and the second indentation
develops into the anus. The reverse is true for the deuterostomes.

580,000,000 YBN
105) The Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve; the ancestor of all Echinoderms
(iKIniDRMS }, Hemichordates, and Chordates.

580,000,000 YBN
131) The first shell (or skeleton) evolves. The first known shell belongs to a
group of ciliates called tintinnids. Skeletons evolve independently in
different groups of organisms.

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
570,000,000 YBN
311) The Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu} evolve (Arrow Worms).

The earliest teeth evolve. Animals start to eat other animals.

The evolution of teeth and animal predation starts an "arms race" that rapidly
transforms ecosystems around the Earth. Teeth and shells evolve as advantages
to survival.

565,000,000 YBN
345) The Deuterostome Phylum Hemichordata evolves; The "Hemichordates", the
ancestor of pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS} and acorn worms).

Adult Pterobrachs are sessile, fastening to solid structures, but the younger
(or larval) form is free swimming, and is thought to have retained this form
before evolving into tunicates and then the first fish.

565,000,000 YBN
347) The Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves. Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds. Chordates get their name from the notochord {nOTe-KORD}, the
cartilage rod that runs along the back of the animal, in the embryo if not in
the adult.

The ancestor of all chordates evolves "upside-down": unlike earlier
invertebrates who have a ventral nerve cord (near the belly) and a dorsal heart
(near the back), this ancestor and all later vertebrates have a dorsal nerve
cord and a ventral heart.

Chordates have four key characters: a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve chord;
gill slits (also called pharyngeal {Fu-riN-JE-uL} slits); and a muscular,
post-anal tail. The notochord provides skeletal support throughout most of the
length of the chordate and provides a firm but flexible structure from which
attached muscles can contract.

In the higher fishes the notochord is surrounded and gradually replaced by
segmental vertebrae.

565,000,000 YBN
348) The earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (also called sea

560,000,000 YBN
117) The earliest animal shell (or skeleton) evolves.
This is the earliest evidence of
animals eating other animals (predation).
This begins the appearance of small shelly fossils
and deep burrows correlated with a decline in stromatolites, possibly from

The earliest animal shells are made by tiny organisms with simple tubelike
skeletons, such as Cloudina and Sinotubulites in addition to sponge skeleton

The shell of Cloudina is made of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and is possibly
made by some kind of worm.

Predatory bore holes have been found in Cloudina shells. This is the oldest
evidence of predation known.

When animals begin to develop hard parts, their probability of preservation
greatly improves.

(Ara Formation) Oman|Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province  
560,000,000 YBN
318) The Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} evolve. Ecdysozoa are animals
that molt (lose their outer skin) as they grow. This is the ancestor of round
worms, and arthropods (which includes insects and crustaceans {also known as

560,000,000 YBN
331) The Protostomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} evolve, the ancestor of
all rotifers, phoronids, brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ}, entoprocts {eNTuProKS},
bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ}, platyhelminthes, gastrotrichs, nemertea, molluscs and

560,000,000 YBN
349) The first fish evolves.
560,000,000 YBN
6290) The earliest extant fish, the Chordates Lancelets {laNSleTS} (also called
amphioxus {aMFEoKSiS}). This is also the first liver and kidney.

The Lancelet is different from a worm in not being cylindrical, and swims like
a fish using its muscles with side-to-side undulations.

Lancelets are not vertebrates. They have only a nerve tube on the notochord and
no brain other than a small swelling at the front end of the nerve tube. They
also have an eye-spot.

The gill slits of Lancelets are primarily for filter feeding. Gas exchange (the
absorption of oxygen and emission of carbon dioxide), mostly occurs across the
external body surface.

Lancelets have no heart and blood is pumped around the body by contractions of
the blood vessels.

550,000,000 YBN
328) The Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes {aSKHeLmiNtEZ} evolves; the ancestor of the
worms nematodes and priapulids.

547,000,000 YBN
334) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Brachiopoda {BrAKEoPiDu} evolves (the
brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}).

The Brachiopods are marine invertebrates that have bivalve dorsal and ventral
shells enclosing a pair of tentacled, armlike structures that are used to sweep
minute food particles into their mouth.

543,000,000 YBN
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts are repeated serially, for example

Some think that segmentation evolved independently in annelid worms,
arthropods, and vertebrates. But the universality of Homeobox genes, evolved
over a billion years earlier, implies that all segmented species may share a
common segmented ancestor.

542,000,000 YBN
53) The end of the "Precambrian". The end of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK} Eon. The end of the Neoproterozoic and start of the
Paleozoic {PAlEuZOiK} Era, and the end of the Ediacaran and start of the
Cambrian Period.

542,000,000 YBN
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many (between 20 and 35) of the major phyla
of animals. An increase of animals with shells.

The Cambrian metazoan radiation may be the result of a major increase in
atmospheric oxygen, and animal predation.

540,000,000 YBN
104) The Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} Phylum Platyhelminthes
{PlaTEheLmiNtEZ} evolves (flatworms).

Platyhelminthes, which is Greek for flat worms, include free-living and
parasitic acoelomate worms (worms with no coelum). They can reproduce sexually,
and also asexually by transverse fission (splitting in half).

540,000,000 YBN
319) The Protist Phylum "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo} evolves.

Radiolarians are protists found in the upper layers of all oceans, are mostly
spherically symmetrical, and known for their complex and beautiful tiny
skeletons, called "tests" which are usually made of silica (SiO2).

Radiolarian skeletons are used to analyze the layers of the sedimentary record.

540,000,000 YBN
321) The Protist Phylum "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu} evolves.

Foraminifera are unicellular protists characterized by long, fine pseudopods
that extend from a cytoplasmic body encased within a test, or shell.

540,000,000 YBN
340) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu} evolves (ribbon worms).

Nemertea are unsegmented worms with a coelem that live in marine, freshwater
and terrestrial environments.

540,000,000 YBN
341) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Tardigrada {ToRDiGRiDe} evolves (tardigrades).

Tardigrades are slow-moving, microscopic invertebrates that live in water or
damp moss, with four body segments and eight legs.

540,000,000 YBN
342) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Onychophora evolves. Onychophorans are a transition
between worms and arthropods: they have segmented worm-like bodies but they
also have jointed appendages, antennae, and shed their cuticle like arthropods

535,000,000 YBN
114) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.

Muscles for pumping blood and for maintaining adequate blood pressure can be
divided into three groups: contractile blood vessels (found in nemerteans and
annelids), ostiate {oSTEAT} hearts (found in arthropods), and chambered hearts
(found in molluscs and vertebrates).

533,000,000 YBN
343) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Mollusca evolves; Mollusks.

The phylum Mollusca is the second largest animal phylum after the arthropods,
and is divided into seven classes, three of which (Gastropoda {GaSTroPeDu}
(snails), Bivalvia (clams and muscles), and Cephalopoda {SeFeloPeDu} (squids
and octupuses) are of major importance.

Early Cambrian mollusk fossils show the segmentation of the mollusk worm-like
ancestor, and have individual plates which imply that the mollusk shell fused
together over the course of millions of years.

530,000,000 YBN
338) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) evolves.

Annelids are various worms or wormlike animals, characterized by an elongated,
cylindrical, segmented body and includes the earthworm and leech.

530,000,000 YBN
339) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Arthropoda evolves; the "Arthropods".

Arthropods can be compared to a segmented worm encased in a rigid exoskeleton.

The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. Arthropods
include the trilobites, the crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, and lobsters), the
Myriapoda (centipedes and millipedes), the Chelicerata (arachnids and horseshoe
crabs) and the insects. All arthropods have a segmented body covered by an
exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armor and as a surface for
muscle attachment.

530,000,000 YBN
350) The Chordata Vertebrates evolve. This Subphylum, Vertebrata, contains most
fishes, and all amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

The characteristic features of the Vertebrata are a vertebral column, or
backbone, and a cranium, which protects the central nervous system (brain and
spinal cord) and major sense organs. This earliest vertebrate skeleton is made
completely of cartilage.

530,000,000 YBN
351) The extinct Vertebrates the Conodonts {KO-nu-DoNTS} evolve.

Conodonts have no lower jaw, but have calcified teeth positioned under
well-developed eyes.

530,000,000 YBN
6637) The Vertebrates Jawless fishes evolve (agnatha).

The earliest extant jawless fishes, the hagfishes evolve now. Hagfishes are
eel-like scavengers.

520,000,000 YBN
133) The Arthropod subphylum Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo) evolves (eight legs,
ancestor of the horseshoe crabs, sea spiders, and the Arachnids: mites,
spiders, and scorpions).

earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten, Sweden  
520,000,000 YBN
148) The earliest color vision evolves in arthropods.

Vertebrates with color vision include: some fishes and amphibians, many
reptiles and all birds, but only a few mammals, humans and some other higher
primates, can see in color.

520,000,000 YBN
346) The Deuterostome Phylum Echinodermata evolves; the "Echinoderms"
(iKIniDRMS }, the ancestor of the sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars, and
star fishes.

520,000,000 YBN
6349) The arthropods trilobites evolve.

Trilobites have a segmented body that is divided by into three vertical lobes.

There is a transition from soft-bodied organisms, to the clam-like shell
organisms, to the segmented calcite and chitin shells of the trilobites.

Horseshoe crabs may be descended from trilobites.

513,000,000 YBN
6351) The Arthropods Crustaceans evolve (the ancestor of all shrimps, crabs,
lobsters, and barnicles).

earliest fossils: Shropshire, England  
501,000,000 YBN
6348) The Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu} evolve; the ancestor of all
centipedes and millipedes.

earliest possible fossils: (Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA and
(Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia|(earliest fossils) Shropshire, England  
488,300,000 YBN
121) The end of the Cambrian (542-488.3 mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN} (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.

488,000,000 YBN
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN} radiation. During the Ordovician the number of
genera {JeN-R-u} will quadruple.

488,000,000 YBN
6635) The extinct Jawless fishes Ostracoderms {oS-Tru-KO-DRM} evolve.

The Ostracoderms are the first vertebrates to have paired appendages, an inner
ear with two semicircular canals, and bone, although almost exclusively in the
outer exoskeleton.

475,000,000 YBN
244) The non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo}, (the ancestor of the
Liverworts, Hornworts, and Mosses).

The Bryophytes are the simplest land plants, and reproduce with spores.

Most are 2-5 cm (or 1-2 in.) tall and extremely tolerant of dry and freezing

475,000,000 YBN
398) Plants live on land. The earliest fossil spores belonging to land plants.

Plants conquer land before animals do, and like animals may move to land not by
sea but by freshwater.

earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya  
472,000,000 YBN
402) The first animals live on land, the arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and

earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston, Ontario, Canada  
470,000,000 YBN
234) The non-vascular plants Hornworts evolve.
465,000,000 YBN
6636) The Jawless fishes lamprays evolve.
460,000,000 YBN
235) The non-vasular plants Mosses evolve.
460,000,000 YBN
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo}. This large group
includes all jawed fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

Jawed fishes have a skeleton made completely of cartilage. Only the teeth
become ossified when mineral crystals, mostly calcium phosphate, become
integrated into them.

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill skeleton.

460,000,000 YBN
404) The Jawed fishes Class Chondrichthyes {KoN-DriK-tE-EZ} evolves
(Cartilaginous fishes: ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates, and sawfishes).

460,000,000 YBN
458) The earliest fungi on land. The ancestor of all terrestrial fungi (the
Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota).

460,000,000 YBN
6414) The Fungi Phylum "Glomeromycota" {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu} evolves (arbuscular
{oRBuSKYUlR} mycorrhizal {MIKerIZL} fungi).

The Glomeromycota are mutualistic symbionts that form a close association
intracellularly between the fungus and the roots of plants.

earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA  
445,000,000 YBN
90) The end-Ordovician mass extinction. This is caused by an ice age. 60% of
all genera are observed extinct.

This is the first of five mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic.

443,700,000 YBN
122) The end of the Ordovician (488.3-443.7 mybn), and the start of the
Silurian (443.7-416) Period.

440,000,000 YBN
236) The Vascular plants evolve, the Phylum Tracheophyta {TrAKEoFiTu}.

Vascular plants have a specialized conducting system consisting mostly of
phloem (food-conducting tissue) and xylem (water-conducting tissue),
collectively called vascular tissue. The phloem transports sugar and the xylem
transports water and salts. Ferns, gymnosperms, and flowering plants are all
vascular plants. In contrast to the nonvascular bryophytes, where the
gametophyte is the dominant phase, the dominant phase among vascular plants is
the sporophyte. Because they have vascular tissues, these plants have true
stems, leaves, and roots.

440,000,000 YBN
360) The Jawed fishes Class Osteichthyes {oS TE iK tE EZ}) evolves; Bony
fishes, the ancestor of the ray-finned, lobe-fin, and lung fishes.

Bony-fishes have a skeleton that is at least partly ossified or made of bone.

The bony fishes are the ancestors of the tetrapods who will ultimately move
onto land.

The earliest bony fishes are the ray-finned fishes. The name ray is because
their fins have a skeleton similar to a handheld fan.

Most of the ray-finned fishes are known as teleosts, a very successful
evolutionary line that exist in both salt and freshwater.

Ocean and fresh water  
440,000,000 YBN
6172) The first lung evolves from the swim bladder in ray-finned fishes. Some
teleosts still use their swim bladder for breathing out of water. Fishes that
breathe with a lung evolve breathing through a completely different route than
fishes that breathe air through their gill chamber.

Ocean (presumably)  
425,000,000 YBN
377) The Jawed fishes, Lobe-fin fishes evolve. Lobe-fin fishes have a fleshy
lobe at the base of each fin. The earliest extant Lobe-fin fishes, the
coelacanths evolve now.

420,000,000 YBN
6350) The Arthropod superclass Hexapoda {HeKSu-PODu or HeKSoPuDu} evolves
(arthropods with six legs {3 pairs}, the ancestor of all insects).

The closest relative of the Hexapods is most likely the Branchiopoda; the brine

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Scotland  
418,000,000 YBN
6431) The Chelicerata Class Arachnida {araK-niDe} evolves (the Arachnids: the
ancestor of all scorpions, spiders, mites and ticks).

earliest fossils: ("Bertie Waterlime" of) NY, USA  
417,000,000 YBN
378) The Lobefin fishes, Lungfishes evolve.
416,000,000 YBN
123) The end of the Silurian (443.7-416 mybn), and start of the Devonian
{DiVONEiN} (416-359.2 mybn) Period.

416,000,000 YBN
6352) The Hexapod Class Insecta evolves: the insects.

The insects are the most diverse organisms known, having nearly one million
named species, which is over half of all named species on Earth.

The most primitive living insect Order Archaeognatha, the Bristletails evolves

410,000,000 YBN
6363) The Insect Order Zygentoma {ZIGeNTOmu} evolves: Silverfish.
400,000,000 YBN
227) The largest Fungi phylum "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu} evolves (the
ancestor of yeasts, truffles, Penicillium, and morels {mu-reLZ}).

The Ascomycota account for approximately 75% of all described fungi.

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Aberdeenshire, Scotland  
400,000,000 YBN
237) The Vascular plants ferns evolve (the ancestor of club mosses, ferns and

Ferns are flowerless, seedless vascular plants that have roots, stems, and
fronds (the leaf-like part of a fern), and reproduce by spores.

400,000,000 YBN
436) The Cartilaginous fishes Subclass: "Elasmobranchii" {elaZmOBrANKEE or I}
evolve, (the ancestor of sharks, dogfishes, skates and rays).

395,000,000 YBN
6429) The Green Algae Charophytes evolve (Stoneworts).
395,000,000 YBN
6430) The earliest fungi lichen {lIKiN}.

A lichen is a fungus, usually of the class Ascomycetes {aSKOmISETS}, that grows
symbiotically with algae and cyanobacteria, resulting in a composite organism
that characteristically forms a crustlike or branching growth on rocks or tree

Lichens have a planet-wide distribution and thrive in some of the Earth's
harshest environments, such as polar regions, deserts, and high mountains.

392,000,000 YBN
359) The Cartilaginous fishes Infraclass: "Selachii" {SelAKEE or I} evolves,
(the ancestor of all sharks: includes great white, hammerhead, mako, tiger and
nurse sharks).

392,000,000 YBN
437) The Cartilaginous fishes Subclass: "Holocephali" {HoloSeFolE or I}
evolves, (the ancestor of the chimaeras {KiMERoZ} also called rabbit-fishes or

386,000,000 YBN
406) The Arachnids Spiders evolve.
earliest fossils: (Givetian of) Gilboa, New York, USA  
385,000,000 YBN
405) The first forests. The earliest large tree fossils.

The first progymnosperms (treelike plants), like Archaeopteris.

earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York, USA  
385,000,000 YBN
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect, the ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu}). The earliest extant winged insects are the
Orders Ephemeroptera {eFeMeroPTRo}: Mayflies, and the Odonata {ODenoDo}:
Dragonflies and Damselflies.

Insect wings evolve only once, and all winged insects descend from the first
winged insect.

The development of wings may have helped early insects to escape predators and
to move over larger distances to find new habitats.

earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic  
375,000,000 YBN
380) The Jawed fishes superclass Tetrapoda {TeTC-ru-PoDu} evolves. The first
tetrapods (vertebrates with four feet) evolve in fresh water. These are the
first vertebrate limbs (arms and legs) and fingers. This is also the first
amphibian, the ancestor of caecillians, frogs, toads, and salamanders.

Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
367,000,000 YBN
408) The late Devonian mass extinction caused by an ice age.

70% of all species go extinct. This includes 3 of 5 trilobite orders, 90% of
brachiopod genera, and major loss of reefs.

363,000,000 YBN
379) The first vertebrates live on land (an amphibian).
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
360,000,000 YBN
226) The second largest Fungi phylum, "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu}
evolves (the ancestor of many mushrooms: button, chanterelle {saNTRreL},
cremini {KremENE}, enoki {inoKE}, fly agaric {uGaRiK}, oyster, porcino {PORCEnO
}, portabella, psilocybe, puffball, shiitake {sEToKE}, woodear, rusts, and club

The Basidiomycota phylum contains 37% of the described species of Fungi and all
produce basidia, which are the cells on which sexual spores are produced.

earliest fossils: Indiana  
360,000,000 YBN
6353) The Neoptera, folding wing insects evolve.

A mechanism to fold the wings against the body after landing has a selective
advantage by making the wings less conspicuous, awkward, and susceptible to

The Neoptera are a very successful lineage and are the ancestors of all
"higher" orders of insects.

earliest fossils: (Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK  
359,200,000 YBN
124) The end of the Devonian (416-359.2 mybn), and start of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn) Period.

359,000,000 YBN
243) The first plant seed evolves; the ancestor of all seed plants.

The earliest fossil seed is from a seed fern (Pteridosperm {TARiDOSPRM}).
Pteridosperms are a group of extinct seed plants with fernlike leaves and naked

Fossils indicate that the first seed evolves from an enclosing ring of
vegetative lobes that fuse together.

A seed can be described as an "integumented megasporangium". In the most
primitive vascular plants, the spores are all the same size, but eventually
gender evolves, producing small male "microspores" and larger female
"megaspores". Then individual female megaspores are enclosed by a ring of
vegetative lobes which form an integument or cover.

earliest fossils: Scotland  
355,000,000 YBN
6410) Hearing in Amphibians adapts to sounds transmitted through the air. This
is the beginning of vertebrates making vocal sounds.

350,000,000 YBN
361) The Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and Paddlefish evolve.
350,000,000 YBN
6355) The Neoptera: Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu} evolve (the ancestor of
Cockroaches, Termites, and Mantises).

340,000,000 YBN
384) The first hard-shell egg. The Tetrapods Amniota {aMnEOtu} evolve; the
ancestor of all reptiles, mammals and birds and the first hard-shell egg. The
hard-shell egg is waterproof. This is the start of vertebrate internal
fertilization, because on land the egg cannot be fertilized as most fishes and
amphibians do, by a male swimming near the eggs and spraying them with sperm.
Amniote males and females must copulate {KoPYelAT} so that the sperm can reach
the eggs inside the female.

Amniotes (reptiles, mammals, and birds) are distinguished from non-amniote
tetrapods (amphibians) by the presence of complex embryonic membranes. One of
these, the amnion, gives its name to the group.

All living amniotes lay hard-shelled eggs, except most mammals and some snakes
and lizards, where egg laying has been replaced by live birth.

The egg shell of amniotes may be flexible (like the eggs of many turtles and
lizards) or mineralized and hard (like the eggs of birds, crocodiles and many

earliest fossils: Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland  
335,000,000 YBN
6331) The Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu} and the Synapsida

The Sauropsida have two major lineages: the Parareptilia (turtles) and the
Eureptilia (dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds). The Synapsids also have two major
lineages: the pelycosaurs (which are sail-backed amniotes) and the therapsids
(which are mammal-like amniotes).

earliest possible Synapsid fossils: (Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada  
330,000,000 YBN
6307) The Synapsids Pelycosauria {PeLiKuSOREu} evolve (the ancestor of
Edaphosaurus {eDaFoSORuS} and Dimetrodon).

The most notable feature in some species of Pelycosaur is a broad "sail" along
the back.

325,000,000 YBN
381) The earliest extant Amphibians: Caecilians evolve.
320,000,000 YBN
238) The seed plants: Gymnosperms evolve. Gymnosperms are the earliest
surviving seed plants, and ancestor of all Cycads, Ginkgos and the Conifers).

The most primitive extant Gymnosperms, the Cycads evolve now.

Gymnosperm is Greek for "Naked Seed". A gymnosperm reproduces by a seed that is
in direct contact with the environment, as opposed to an angiosperm (a
flowering plant) whose seeds are enclosed by mature ovaries, or fruits.

320,000,000 YBN
6356) The Neoptera Order: Orthoptera evolves (the ancestor of crickets,
grasshoppers, locusts, and walking sticks).

317,000,000 YBN
385) The Sauropsid Class Reptilia {reP-TiL-E-u} evolves, the Reptiles; the
ancestor of all turtles, crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds.

The class Reptilia is a group of air-breathing vertebrates that have internal
fertilization, and scales covering part or all of their body. All reptiles are
cold-blooded, except for birds, and possibly some or all pterosaurs and

earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada  
314,000,000 YBN
240) The Gymnosperms Pinophyta {PInoFiTu} evolve (the ancestor of the Conifers:
includes Pine, Fir, Spruce, Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, Hemlock, Larch, Yew, and

The oldest known living plants are found among the conifers, some estimated to
be around 5000 years old.

earliest fossils: Wakefield, Yorkshire, England  
310,000,000 YBN
6357) The Neoptera: Paraneoptera evolve (the ancestor of bark lice, true lice,
thrips, and the Hemiptera {HemiPTRu}. The Hemiptera have mouthparts adapted for
piercing and sucking and include: Cicadas, Aphids, and "true bugs": such as Bed
bugs, and Stink bugs).

310,000,000 YBN
6359) The Neoptera Holometabola {HoLomeTaBolu or HOlOmeTABolu} evolve:
Holometabolous insects: (insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, the
ancestor of beetles, bees, true flies, and butterflies).

The holometabolous insects account for nearly 85% of all insects.

The Holometabola are insects that have complete metamorphosis (or
holometabolous development). Unlike hemimetabolous insects in which the
immature structures (legs, eyes, antennae, etc.) must also serve the adults,
holometabolous insects have a morphologically reduced larval stage and acquire
a completely new body during the pupal stage.

305,000,000 YBN
242) The Amphibians: Anura {unRu} evolve (the ancestor of all Frogs and Toads).
300,000,000 YBN
1310) The Stramenopiles Chrysophyta {KriSoFiTu} evolve (Golden algae).
299,000,000 YBN
125) The end of the Carboniferous (359.2-299 mybn), and start of the Permian
(299-251 mybn) Period.

299,000,000 YBN
6360) The Holometabola Order: Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu} evolves (the ancestor of
the Beetles).

Coleoptera is the largest order of all organisms known containing 350,000 named
species; 40% of all the insects.

Well known beetles include: Ladybugs, Fireflies, Dung beetles, Japanese
beetles, weevils, and scarabs.

earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA  
290,000,000 YBN
239) The Gymnosperms: Ginkgophyta evolve (Ginkgos).
290,000,000 YBN
6358) The Holometabola Order: Hymenoptera evolves (the ancestor of all bees,
ants, and wasps).

287,000,000 YBN
6308) The Synapsid Therapsids evolve (Cynodonts).

The Therapsids evolve from Pelycosaurs and largely replace them for a time as
the dominant terrestrial vertebrates. The legs of Therapsids are more directly
positioned under the weight of their body, which results in a more efficient
mode of movement.

274,000,000 YBN
307) The Stramenopiles: Phaeophyta {FEoFiTu} evolve (the ancestor of all Brown
Algae, includes many seaweeds like the giant kelps).

Note that brown algae are not plants but are protists.

266,000,000 YBN
308) The Stramenopiles: Diatoms evolve.

Diatoms are microscopic unicellular or colonial algae, having cell walls of
silica consisting of two interlocking symmetrical valves.

260,000,000 YBN
232) The earliest endothermic (or "warm-blooded") and hair growing animal, a

Endothermy is the physiological maintenance, by a body, of a constant
temperature independent of the external environmental temperature. Hair for
insulation is correlated to endothermy.

Both birds and mammals are endothermic (also called "warm blooded") as opposed
to other vertebrates (like amphibians and crocodiles) which are ectothermic (or
"cold blooded) and cannot internally generate heat.

Endothermy allows birds and mammals to maintain a high and relatively constant
body temperature, even at rest, during a wide range of external environmental

256,000,000 YBN
6362) The Holometabola Order: Diptera {DiPTRe} evolves, true flies, having a
single pair of wings: the ancestor of the mosquito, gnat, deer fly, horse fly,
fruit fly, drosophila {DrO-SoF-u_lu}, and house fly).

251,400,000 YBN
102) The largest mass extinction of history, the End-Permian mass extinction.
82% of all genera are observed extinct.

The Permian–Triassic extinction event is the Earth's most severe extinction
event, with up to 96% of all marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate
species becoming extinct. It is the only known mass extinction of insects.

251,000,000 YBN
54) The end of the Paleozoic and start of the Mesozoic Era, and the end of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) and start of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn) period.

251,000,000 YBN
452) The supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe) forms.
250,000,000 YBN
241) The gymnosperms "Gnetales" {ne-TA-lEZ} evolve; thought to be the closest
living gymnosperm relatives of the angiosperms.

235,000,000 YBN
304) The Protist Phlyum "Haptophyta" {HaPTuFITu} evolves, the Coccolithophores

Most haptophytes are coccolithophores, unicellular (flagellated) marine
protists with calcified plates (or coccoliths) embedded in their cell walls.

Some haptophytes turn parts of the ocean bright turquoise during their blooms.

228,000,000 YBN
412) The Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina  
228,000,000 YBN
6282) Dinosaurs divide into two major lines: the Ornithischians {ORnitiSKEiNZ}
(Bird-hipped dinosaurs) and the Saurischians {SoriSKEiNZ} (Lizard-hipped

228,000,000 YBN
6283) The Saurischian {SoriSKEiN} Dinosaurs split into two major lines: The
Sauropodomorpha (SoroPiDimORFu} and the Therapoda {tiRoPiDu}.

The Sauropodomorphs are divided into prosauropods and sauropods, are mostly
plant-eating, and include the large, long-necked dinosaurs like Apatosaurus.

The Theropod {tERePoD} dinosaurs are bipedal and carnivorous and include
Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Velociraptor. All birds descend from a Therapod

earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina  
225,000,000 YBN
126) The Synapsids Mammals evolve. The first mammary gland.

Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates that have four limbs (except for some
aquatic species).
The female has mammary glands, which secrete milk for the nourishment
of the young after birth. In the majority of mammals the body is partially or
entirely covered with hair.

earliest fossils: (Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA  
225,000,000 YBN
369) The Ray-Finned Fishes Teleost (TeLEoST) fishes evolve.

Teleosts are a large group of fishes with bony skeletons, including most common

220,000,000 YBN
387) The most primitive extant reptiles, the Testudines {TeSTUDinEZ} evolve:
the ancestor of all Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins.

The turtle shell evolves from broadened ribs.

220,000,000 YBN
389) The reptiles: Tuataras {TUeToRoZ} evolve.
(Islands of) New Zealand  
220,000,000 YBN
428) The first flying vertebrate, the Reptiles Pterosaurs evolve.

Flight in pterosaurs, birds, and bats evolves independently.

Pterosaurs actively fly (contracting their wing muscles to flap), as opposed to
only glide.

That some pterosaurs had hair is evidence that they may have been warm-blooded.

210,000,000 YBN
390) The Reptiles Iguania evolve: (the ancestor of iguanas, chameleons, and
spiny lizards).

210,000,000 YBN
391) The Reptiles: Scleroglossa evolve (the ancestor of snakes, skinks, and

210,000,000 YBN
6313) The earliest extant Teleosts: Bonytongues evolve.
201,600,000 YBN
127) The End-Triassic mass extinction. 53% of all genera are observed extinct.

Many terrestrial vertebrates and large amphibians go extinct.

201,600,000 YBN
228) The end of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn), and start of the Jurassic
(201.6-145.5 mybn) Period.

201,600,000 YBN
6372) The Ornithischians Thyreophora {tIrEoFeru} evolve; the ancestor of the
armored ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} and the plated stegosaurs {STeGeSORZ}.

(Kayenta Formation) Arizona, USA  
201,000,000 YBN
6652) Wasps evolve.
200,000,000 YBN
370) The Teleosts: eels and tarpons evolve.
200,000,000 YBN
392) The Reptiles: Crocodilia {KroKoDiLEu} evolve (the ancestor of Crocodiles,
allegators, and caimans {KAmeNS}).

195,000,000 YBN
246) The Saurischian {SoriSKEiN} Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ} evolve; the ancestor of
the large, long-necked dinosaurs like Apatosaurus {uPaTuSORuS}, Brachiosaurus
{BrAKEuSORuS}, and Diplodocus {DiPloDiKuS}.

western USA  
195,000,000 YBN
6373) The Ornithischian Ornithopoda {ORnitoPiDu} evolve; the duck-billed
dinosaurs, ancestor of the Hadrosaurs.

190,000,000 YBN
371) The Teleosts: herrings and anchovies evolve.
190,000,000 YBN
6289) The Supercontinent Pangea splits into Laurasia and Gondwana. The northern
part, Laurasia will form North America and Europe. The southern part, Gondwana
will form South America and Africa.

190,000,000 YBN
6347) The Holometabola Order Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu} evolves (the ancestor of
moths, butterflies, and caterpillars).

earliest fossils: Dorset, England  
180,000,000 YBN
456) The earliest extant mammals, the Mammal Order Monotremata
{moN-O-Tre-moD-e} evolves: the Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ}.

Monotremes are an order of primitive egg-laying mammals restricted to
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea. The Monotremes consist of only the platypus
and two species of echidna.

Monotreme means "single hole" in Greek. Like birds and reptiles, monotremes
have a single opening, the cloaca {KlO-A-Ko}, for the passage of liquid and
solid wastes, the transfer of sperm, and, in the female, the laying of eggs.

After hatching, young cling to the belly of the mother. Monotremes have no
nipples, but milk is secreted for the young by mammary glands on the belly of
the mother through openings in the mother's skin.

Monotremes are also the most primitive extant warm blooded and hair growing

Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
170,000,000 YBN
372) The Teleosts: carp, minnows, and piranhas evolve.
170,000,000 YBN
373) The Teleosts: salmon, trout, and pike evolve.
170,000,000 YBN
383) The Amphibians: Salamanders evolve.

Salamanders are able to regenerate a lost limb or tail, by cells in the damaged
area changing back to slightly less mature versions.

165,000,000 YBN
358) The Cartilaginous fishes: batoidea {BuTOEDEu} evolve, the ancestor of all
rays, skates, and sawfishes.

150,000,000 YBN
330) Stegosaurus, an armored, plant-eating Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereN} dinosaur
lives around this time.

western USA  
150,000,000 YBN
374) The Teleosts: Lightfish and Dragonfish evolve.

Lightfish are characterized by luminescent organs on the undersides of their

150,000,000 YBN
393) The Therapods {tERePoDZ} Birds evolve. The first feather.

Fossils of therapod dinosaurs from China indicate that feathers may have
originally evolved on non-flying reptiles for insulation (or courting) and not
for flight.

At least one known feathered dinosaur can probably glide, which suggests that
flapping flight evolves as an extension of gliding from trees.

Birds have highly developed color vision.

145,000,000 YBN
245) The Seed plants angiosperms evolve. The first flowering plant.

Almost all grains, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices come from
plants with flowers. Much of our clothing comes from flowering plants too, for
example: cotton and linen are made from "fibers" of flowering plants, as are
rope and burlap. Many commercial dyes and drugs also come from flowering

Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants
now living. The angiosperms are vascular seed plants in which the ovule (or
egg) is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed hollow ovary. The
ovary is usually enclosed in a flower, the part of the angiosperm that contains
the male or female reproductive organs or both. The fruit is the ovary of a
plant which encloses seeds.

Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly China  
144,000,000 YBN
128) The end of the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 mybn), and start of the Cretaceous
(145.5-65.5 mybn) Period.

143,000,000 YBN
6288) The earliest extant Angiosperm "Amborella".
140,000,000 YBN
247) The Angiosperms Nymphaeales {niM-FE-A-lEZ} evolve, the Water Lilies.
140,000,000 YBN
421) The Ornithiscian Ceratopsian dinosaurs evolve (the ancestor of

Ceratopsian dinosaurs are plant-eating dinosaurs. Later ceratopsians have
massive heads armed with a sharp beak, long horns and a large sheet of bone
that grows from the back of the skull.

Mongolia, China  
140,000,000 YBN
457) The Mammals Marsupials evolve. The first nipple and breast.

Marsupium means pouch in Latin. Marsupials are born as tiny embryos and crawl
through their mother's fur into the pouch where they clamp their mouths to a
nipple. The other main group of mammals are called placentals because they feed
their embryos using a placenta which allows the baby to be born much later. The
pouch is like an external womb.

136,000,000 YBN
460) The Birds Enantiornithes {iNaNTEORNitEZ} evolve.
134,000,000 YBN
250) The Angiosperms: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ} evolve (the ancestor of nutmeg,
avocado, sassafras, cinnamon, black and white pepper, camphor, bay (or laurel)
tree, and magnolia.).

133,000,000 YBN
253) The Angiosperms Eudicots {YUDIKoTS} evolve (the largest lineage of

The two main groups of the Eudicots are the "rosids" and the "asterids".

Eudicots are also called "tricolpates" which refers to the structure of the

132,000,000 YBN
462) The Birds Hesperornithiformes {HeS-Pe-rOR-nit-e-FOR-mEZ} evolve.
130,000,000 YBN
375) The Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying fish, pufferfish, and barracuda

130,000,000 YBN
376) The Teleosts: cod and anglerfish evolve.
125,000,000 YBN
163) The Mammals Eutheria evolve: Placental mammals.

The Eutheria are mammals that have a placenta. The placenta is an organ that
forms in the uterus to aid in the exchange of food and wastes between the blood
of the mother and fetus through an umbilical cord.

Placental mammals include all living mammals except marsupials and monotremes.
The placenta allows for a longer developmental period within the protection of
the womb which may give the placentals a selective advantage.

earliest fossils: (Daxigou) Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China  
125,000,000 YBN
395) The bird beak evolves.
earliest fossils: (Yixian Formation) Liaoning Province, northeastern
120,000,000 YBN
463) The birds Neornithes {nEORnitEZ} evolve (modern birds: the most recent
common ancestor of all extant birds).

120,000,000 YBN
6361) Bees evolve.
(possibly) Africa  
120,000,000 YBN
6653) Ants evolve.
112,000,000 YBN
252) The Angiosperms Monocotyledons (or "Monocots") evolve: Flowering plants
that have a single cotyledon (or seed leaf) in the embryo.

Monocots are the second largest lineage of flowers after the Eudicots, and
include lilies, palms, orchids, and grasses.

The two main orders of Monocots are "Base Monocots" and "Commelinids".

108,000,000 YBN
254) The Basal Eudicots evolve (the ancestor of the buttercup, clematis, poppy,
macadamia, lotus, and sycamore).

106,000,000 YBN
267) The "Core Eudicots" evolve (the ancestor of the cactus, caper, buckwheat,
rhubarb, venus flytrap, old world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa, spinach, and
grape plants).

105,000,000 YBN
491) The Eutheria Superorder Afrotheria evolves (the ancestor of all elephants,
manatees, and aardvarks).

Afrotheres originate in Africa and are the earliest extant placental mammals.

100,000,000 YBN
465) The Birds "Ratites" evolve (the ancestor of the ostrich, rhea {rEe}, emu,
cassowary {KaSOwaRE}, and kiwi).

95,000,000 YBN
498) The Eutheria Superorder "Xenarthra" {ZeN-oR-tro} evolves in South America,
the Xenarthrans {ZeNoRtreNZ} (the ancestor of Sloths, Anteaters, and

South America  
93,000,000 YBN
256) The Angiosperms: "Rosids" evolve (Basal Rosids include: the pomegranate,
clove, guava, allspice, and eucalyptus).

93,000,000 YBN
261) The Rosids Order "Fabales" {FoBAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of beans, pea,
peanut, soy, and lentil).

93,000,000 YBN
265) The Monocots "Base Monocots" evolve (the ancestor of vanilla, orchid,
asparagus, onion, garlic, agave, aloe, and lily).

93,000,000 YBN
266) The Monocots "Commelinids" {KomelIniDZ} evolve (the ancestor of palms,
coconut, corn, rice, barley, oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo, grass,
pineapple, papyrus, turmeric {TRmRiK}, banana, and ginger).

93,000,000 YBN
275) The Basal Asterids Order "Ericales" {AReKAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
the kiwifruit, ebony, persimmon, blueberry, cranberry, brazil nut, new world
pitcher plant, and tea).

93,000,000 YBN
283) The Asterids Order "Apiales" {APEAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of dill,
celery, cilantro, carrot, parsnip, fennel, parsley, and ivy).

93,000,000 YBN
285) The Asterids Order "Asterales" {aSTRAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
tarragon, daisy, artichoke, sunflower, lettuce, and dandelion).

91,000,000 YBN
259) The Rosids Order "Malpighiales" {maLPiGEAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
coca, rubber tree, cassava, poinsettia, willow, poplar, and aspen).

90,000,000 YBN
270) The Rosids Order "Brassicales" {BraSiKAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
horseradish, mustard, cabbage, broccoli, radish, and papaya).

89,000,000 YBN
262) The Rosids Order "Rosales" {ROZAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of hemp, hop,
jackfruit, fig, strawberry, rose, raspberry, apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach,
and almond).

89,000,000 YBN
279) The Asterids Order "Gentianales" {JeNsinAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
oleander, and coffee).

86,000,000 YBN
278) The Asterids Order "Solanales" {SOlanAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of bell
pepper, tomato, tobacco, potato, and eggplant).

85,000,000 YBN
263) The Rosids Order "Cucurbitales" (KYUKRBiTAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
melon, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, and zucchini).

85,000,000 YBN
264) The Rosids Order "Fagales" {FaGAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of many flowers
that produce edible nuts: for example Birch, Hazel {nut}, Chestnut, Beech
{nut}, Oak, Walnut, Pecan {PEKoN}, and Hickory).

85,000,000 YBN
466) The Bird Order "Galliformes" {GaLliFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of the
Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peacock, and Quail).

85,000,000 YBN
467) The Bird Order "Anseriformes" {aNSRiFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
ducks, geese, and swans).

85,000,000 YBN
499) The Eutheria Superorder "Laurasiatheres" evolves. The Laurasiatheres are a
major line of placental mammals that originate in the northern continent

85,000,000 YBN
6654) The Eutheria Superorder Euarchontoglires {YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} evolves
(the ancestor of all Rabbits, rodents, tree shrews, colugos, and the primates).

84,000,000 YBN
454) The Rocky mountains start to form.
82,000,000 YBN
271) The Rosids Order "Malvales" {moLVAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of okra,
marsh mallow {malO}, durian {DUREiN}, cotton, balsa, and cacao {KoKoU}.

82,000,000 YBN
272) The Rosids Order "Sapindales" {SaPiNDAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of the
maple, lychee, mahogany, cashew, mango, pistachio, and the citrus trees:
orange, lemon, and grapefruit).

82,000,000 YBN
420) The Ornithopods {ORnitePoDZ} Hadrosaurs evolve; the duck-billed dinosaurs.
82,000,000 YBN
500) The Laurasiatheres Order Insectivora evolves (the ancestor of shrews,
moles, and hedgehogs).

80,000,000 YBN
422) The Therapods {tERePoDZ} Dromaeosaurs {DrOmEoSORZ} evolve: Raptors.
80,000,000 YBN
482) The earliest extant Marsupials, the Order "Didelphimorphia" evolve (New
World opossums).

75,000,000 YBN
492) The Afrotheres: Aardvarks evolve.
74,000,000 YBN
280) The Asterids Order "Lamiales" {lAmEAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of many
spices: mint, basil, marjoram {moRJ uruM}, oregano, rosemary, sage, savory,
thyme, teak, sesame, olive, ash, lilac and jasmine).

73,000,000 YBN
484) The Marsupials: Bandicoots and Bilbies {BiLBEZ} evolve; in Australia.
70,000,000 YBN
424) Two of the largest meat-eating dinosaurs known are common (both Therapods
{tERePoDZ}): Tyrannosaurus rex {TiraNiSORuS reKS} is the top predator in North
America and Giganotosaurus {JiGuNOTuSORuS} is the top predator in South

70,000,000 YBN
425) The Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereNZ} Ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} evolve (the
shield back and/or clubbed tail dinosaurs); the most heavily armored
land-animals known.

70,000,000 YBN
426) The Marine reptiles Mosasaurs {mOSeSORZ} evolve.
70,000,000 YBN
469) The Bird Order "Podicipediformes" {PoDiSiPeDeFORmEZ} evolves (grebes

70,000,000 YBN
507) The Euarchontoglires {YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} Order "Lagomorpha" {loGomORFo}
evolves: the ancestor of Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas {PIKuZ}.

Rabbits, like Rodents also have very prominent gnawing teeth at the front.

70,000,000 YBN
516) The Euarchontoglires {YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} Tree Shrews and Colugos
{KolUGOZ} evolve.

66,000,000 YBN
120) The largest Pterosaur and largest flying animal ever known, Quetzalcoatlus
{KeTZLKWoTLuS} evolves.
Quetzalcoatlus has a wing span of 12 meters (or 40 feet).

65,500,000 YBN
129) The End-Cretaceous mass extinction. 47% of all genera are observed

Made extinct are: 60% of plant species, and all dinosaurs, mosasaurs,
pterosaurs, plesiosaurs {PlESEoSORZ} and pliosaurs {PlIoSORZ}.

A comet or meteor collides with the Earth in what is now the Yucatan {YUKoTaN}
Peninsula of Mexico and huge amounts of lava erupt from India. No large animals
survive on land, in the air, or in the sea.

65,500,000 YBN
397) The end of the Mesozoic and start of the Cenozoic Era, and the end of the
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 mybn), and start of the Tertiary (65.5-1.8 mybn) Period.

65,000,000 YBN
429) The start of the rapid diversification of mammals.
65,000,000 YBN
468) The Bird Order "Gruiformes" {GrUiFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of cranes,
rails, and bustards {BuSTRDZ}).

65,000,000 YBN
485) Marsupial moles evolve.
65,000,000 YBN
486) The Marsupials Tasmanian Devil and Numbat {nuMBaT} evolve.
65,000,000 YBN
488) The Marsupial Order "Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu} evolves (the ancestor
of Wombats, Kangeroos, Possums, and Koalas).

65,000,000 YBN
508) The Euarchontoglires {YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} Order "Rodentia" evolves;
The Rodents: "Myomorpha" {MIemORFu} evolve (the ancestor of rats, mice,
gerbils, voles {VOLZ}, lemmings, and hamsters).

63,000,000 YBN
587) The Euarchontoglires {YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} Order Primates evolve, most
likely in Africa or the Indian subcontinent. The first opposable thumb.

The primates contain more than 300 species, including monkeys, apes, and

Africa or India  
60,000,000 YBN
470) The Bird Order "Strigiformes" {STriJiFORmEZ} evolve (owls).
60,000,000 YBN
504) The Laurasiatheres Order "Carnivora" evolves (the ancestor of Cats, Dogs,
Bears, Weasels, Hyenas, Seals, and Walruses).

58,000,000 YBN
524) The Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ} evolve.
55,000,000 YBN
471) The Bird Order "Apodiformes" {oPoD-i-FORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
hummingbirds, and swifts).

55,000,000 YBN
476) The Bird Order "Piciformes" {PESiFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
woodpeckers, and toucans).

55,000,000 YBN
477) The Bird Order "Passeriformes" {PaSRiFORmEZ} evolves (perching songbirds).
This order includes many common birds: for example crows, jays, sparrows,
warblers, mockingbirds, wrens, robins, orioles, bluebirds, vireos {VEREOZ},
larks, swallows, and finches.

More than half of all species of birds are passerines.

earliest fossils: Australia|Gondwana  
55,000,000 YBN
495) The Afrotheres Order Proboscidea {PrO-Be-SiD-E-e} evolves (the ancestor of
Mammoths, Mastodons, and Elephants).

Algeria, Africa|Africa  
55,000,000 YBN
497) The Afrotheres: Manatee and Dugong evolve.
55,000,000 YBN
502) The Laurasiatheres "Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu} evolve (the
ancestor of all Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu}: camels, pigs, ruminants, hippos,
and all Cetacea {SiTASEu or SiTAsEu}: Whales, and Dolphins).

Hippos are the closest living land relative of the whales and dolphins.

55,000,000 YBN
503) The Laurasiatheres "Perissodactyla" {PeriSODaKTilu} evolve (also called
"odd-toed ungulates") {uNGYUlATS or uNGYUliTS} (the ancestor of all Horses,
Tapirs {TAPRZ }, and Rhinos).

55,000,000 YBN
509) The Rodents: Beavers.
55,000,000 YBN
511) The Rodents: Dormouse, Mountain Beaver, Squirrel and Marmot {moRmuT}

55,000,000 YBN
585) The Bird Order Psittaciformes {SiTaS-iFORmEZ} evolves (Parrots).
55,000,000 YBN
6381) Horses evolve.
55,000,000 YBN
6387) The Ruminants Giraffes evolve.
54,000,000 YBN
810) The last common ancestor between hippos with dolphins and whales.
53,500,000 YBN
812) The earliest marine mammal (and earliest whale) "Himalayacetus".
earliest fossils: (Subathu Formation) Northern India  
52,000,000 YBN
501) The Laurasiatheres Order "Chiroptera" {KIroPTRu} evolves (the ancestor of
fruit bats, and echolocating bats).

51,000,000 YBN
513) The Rodents: Old World Porcupines evolve.
50,000,000 YBN
438) The Himalayan {HiMolAYeN} mountains start to form.
Himalyia Mountains, India  
50,000,000 YBN
816) The early whale Ambulocetus evolves.
50,000,000 YBN
6382) The first camels.
50,000,000 YBN
6383) The first rhinos.
49,000,000 YBN
474) The Bird Order "Falconiformes" {FaLKoNiFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
falcons, hawks, eagles, and Old World vultures).

49,000,000 YBN
515) The Rodents: New World porcupines, guinea pigs, agoutis {uGUTEZ}, and
capybaras {KaPuBoRoZ} evolve.

40,000,000 YBN
525) The Primates "New World Monkeys" evolve (the ancestor of the Sakis,
Spider, Howler and Squirrel monkeys, Capuchins {KaP YU CiNZ}, and Tamarins).

The ancestor of all New World monkeys probably originates in Africa, but all
surviving descendants now live in the Americas, which suggests that a small
group of New World monkeys got across the early Atlantic Ocean to South
America, perhaps by rafting on fallen trees over a chain of islands.

37,000,000 YBN
442) Dogs evolve.
37,000,000 YBN
475) The Bird Order Cuculiformes {KUKUliFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
cuckoos, and roadrunners).

35,000,000 YBN
6384) The Xenarthrans Ground sloths evolve.
34,000,000 YBN
813) Toothed and Baleen whale lines split.

Toothed whales include dolphins, sperm, and killer whales. Baleen whales
include blue, humpback, and gray whales.

30,000,000 YBN
444) Cats evolve.
30,000,000 YBN
520) The Primates: True Lemurs evolve.
30,000,000 YBN
6385) The first pigs evolve.
25,000,000 YBN
531) The Primates "Old World Monkeys" evolve (the ancestor of the Macaques,
Baboons, Mandrills, Proboscis and Colobus {KoLiBeS} monkeys).

This is also the last common ancestor of the Old World monkeys and the
hominoids, which includes apes and humans.

(perhaps around Lake Victoria) Africa  
25,000,000 YBN
6386) The first deer evolves.
24,000,000 YBN
662) The ancestor of all Hominoids (Gibbons and Hominids) loses its tail.
23,000,000 YBN
478) The Monotreme: Echidna evolves.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
23,000,000 YBN
479) The Monotreme: Duck-Billed Platypus evolves.
Australia and Tasmania  
22,000,000 YBN
559) The Hominoid Proconsul evolves in East Africa.
20,000,000 YBN
549) The ancestor of all Homonids may move (over land) from Africa into

18,000,000 YBN
537) The Hominoids: Gibbons evolve in South-east Asia.
South-East Asia  
15,000,000 YBN
6388) The first Kangeroos evolve.
15,000,000 YBN
6389) The first bovids {BOViDZ} evolve (hollow-horned ruminants: oxen,
antelopes, sheep, cattle, and goats).

14,000,000 YBN
542) The earliest extant Hominids: Orangutans evolve in South-East Asia.
South-East Asia  
10,500,000 YBN
550) The ancestor of all Gorillas, Chimpanzees, and archaic humans may move
over land from Eurasia back into Africa.

10,000,000 YBN
543) The Hominids: Gorillas evolve in Africa.
6,000,000 YBN
544) The Hominids: Chimpanzees evolve in Africa. This is the last common
ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

4,400,000 YBN
546) The Hominid: Ardipithecus evolves. The earliest bipedal primate.

Bipedalism may evolve so that hands are free to carry food for later use, and
to use weapons.

Hominids walking upright on two legs, away from a life in the trees, may signal
that they have become the top of the food chain on land as the result of using

Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya, Africa  
4,000,000 YBN
547) The Hominid: Australopithecus (x-STrA-lO-PitiKuS} evolves.
Sterkfontein, South Africa  

3,390,000 YBN
269) Hominids use stones as tools.

Some may view the use of stones as tools by hominids as the start of science on

Dikika, Ethiopia  
3,000,000 YBN
446) North and South America connect.
2,700,000 YBN
564) The Hominid: Paranthropus {Pa raN tru PuS} evolves; a line of extinct
early bipedal hominids.

2,500,000 YBN
455) The oldest formed stone tools. The start of the Paleolithic or "Old Stone

Gona, Ethiopia  
2,200,000 YBN
447) The first humans. The Hominid: Homo habilis evolves (the earliest member
of the genus "Homo").

This is when the human brain begins to get bigger.

(Kenya and Tanzania) Africa  
2,000,000 YBN
545) The Hominids: Bonobos {BunOBOZ} evolve.
1,800,000 YBN
130) The end of the Tertiary {TRsEARE} (65-1.8 mybn), and start of the
Quaternary {KWoTRnARE or KWoTRNRE} (1.8 mybn-now) Period.

1,800,000 YBN
563) Homo erectus {hOmO ireKTuS} evolves in Africa.
Lake Turkana, East Africa  
1,700,000 YBN
449) Homo erectus moves into Eurasia from Africa.
1,500,000 YBN
583) The controlled use of fire by Hominids.

Controlled fires may be made first by Australopithecus or Homo erectus.

(Swartkrans cave) Swartkrans, South Africa  
1,000,000 YBN
589) Homo erectus evolves far less body hair, except on the head, face, airpit,
chest, and groin.

1,000,000 YBN
6467) Homo erectus reaches China.
Gongwangling, Lantian County, Shaanxi Province, China  
970,000 YBN
200) Humans wear clothing.
Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK  
400,000 YBN
615) The earliest evidence of spears.
Kathu Pan 1, South Africa|(Schöningen, Germany.)  
302,000 YBN
6517) There are 1 million humans on Earth, all hunter-gathering people.
200,000 YBN
548) Homo sapiens evolve in Africa.

The oldest Homo sapiens fossils are from Ethiopia.

Ethiopia, Africa  
200,000 YBN
590) The Human language of thirty short sounds begins to develop. All words are
single syllable.

This is the beginning of the transition from the verbal language of chimpanzees
and monkeys, to the language humans use now, which has shorter sound duration
and a larger number of sounds.

The majority of the 40 or so basic sounds in human language (A, B, K, D, E,
etc.) are probably learned before humans leave Africa, because although words
vary, all humans use the same base sounds.

Humans start to name objects and actions.

130,000 YBN
450) Homo Neanderthalensis evolves in Europe and Western Asia.
Europe and Western Asia  
120,000 YBN
572) The start of the Wurm glaciation, which connects a land bridge between
Asia and America.

101,000 YBN
[99000 BC]
594) Homo sapiens move out of Africa into Eurasia. This is the beginning of
differences in race within the human species.

100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
257) The oldest Homo sapiens skull outside of Africa; in Israel.
(Skhul Cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
597) The earliest human burial, Skhul {SKuL?} cave in Israel.
(es-Skhul cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
6333) The theory that the universe is controlled by Gods.

The explanation that many phenomena in the universe are controlled by objects
with human and animal bodies that have supernatural powers is one of the
earliest theories that tries to explain how the universe works.

(Es-Skhul) Mount Carmel, Israel  
61,000 YBN
[59000 BC]
614) Humans use a bow and arrows, and poison arrow heads.
Sibudu Cave, South Africa  
53,300 YBN
[51300 BC]
557) Homo Erectus goes extinct.
Ngandong, Indonesia  
50,000 YBN
[48000 BC]
6399) The start of the mass extinction of large mammals due in part to human

46,000 YBN
[44000 BC]
577) The earliest water ship. Sapiens from Southeast Asia reach Australia by
water ship.

43,000 YBN
[41000 BC]
1187) The earliest known mine: "Lion Cave" in Swaziland, Africa; mined for the
iron mineral hematite which is ground to produce the red pigment ochre.

Swaziland, Africa  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
598) The earliest sapiens fossils in Europe (Romania).
Peştera cu Oase, Romania (and baby tooth: Grotta del Cavallo, Italy, jaw:
Kent's Cavern, UK)  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
604) The earliest oil lamp.
Southwest France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
1262) The earliest known human-made painting.; a cave painting made by using a
blowing technique in Spain.

(The Panel de las Manos) El Castillo Cave, Spain|Southern France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
5871) The earliest musical instrument, a flute, made from the wing bone of a

Hohle Fels Cave, Germany  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
6483) Humans catch fish.
Peçstera cu Oase, Romania  
39,000 YBN
[37000 BC]
599) Sapiens reach China.
(Tianyuan Cave) Zhoukoudian, China (Tongtianyan Cave, Liujiang County, Guangxi
35,000 YBN
[33000 BC]
3943) The oldest known sculpture of the human form, a statue made from

Hohle Fels Cave, Germany  
32,000 YBN
[30000 BC]
602) Humans weave textiles from flax and use coloring dyes.
Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia  
31,700 YBN
[29700 BC]
42) Humans raise dogs.
Goyet cave, Belgium  
29,000 YBN
[27000 BC]
6215) The earliest ceramic objects, the Venus figurines.
Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia  
28,000 YBN
[26000 BC]
451) The Neanderthals go extinct.
Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, Spain  
26,000 YBN
[24000 BC]
6224) The earliest "fired" clay (clay dried and hardened by fire).
Dolní Věstonice, Pavlov, Czech Republic  
25,000 YBN
[23000 BC]
724) Woven baskets.
Pavlov, Czech Republic   
23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6231) The earliest human-made structure. A stone wall.
(Theopetra Cave) Kalambaka, Greece  
23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6461) The earliest fishing hooks.
(Jerimalai Cave, east end of East Timor, an island off northwestern
19,000 YBN
[17000 BC]
6175) Cereal gathering.
Near East (Southwest Asia Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi
18,000 YBN
[16000 BC]
603) The earliest pottery.
(Yuchanyan cave), Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6225) The earliest rope.
Lascaux, France  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6516) There are 10 million humans on Earth, all hunter-gathering people.
14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6227) The earliest known map.
Mezhirich, Ukraine  
14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6439) Lime cement is used as an adhesive on small stone tools (microliths) from
Northern Sinai.

Geometric Kebaran site Lagama North VIII, Gebel Maghara, Northern Sinai,
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
578) Sapiens reach America. The oldest human bones in America.
Mexico City and Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA  
12,000 YBN
[10000 BC]
6522) Humans transform from hunting and gathering to agriculture, from a
migratory to a sedentary life, building the first cities.

11,700 YBN
[9700 BC]
827) The end of the Pleistocene (PlISTeSEN), and start of the Holocene {HoLoSEN
or HOLoSEN} epoch. This is the end of the last Ice Age.

11,700 YBN
[9700 BC]
828) The start of the Neolithic or "New Stone Age" in the Fertile Crescent, a
region of the Middle East arching from the Nile Valley to the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers.

11,500 YBN
[9500 BC]
829) Humans shape metal objects.

Copper is the first metal shaped by humans.

(Shanidar Cave) North East Iraq|(Çayönü) Anatolia (modern Turkey)|Northern
Iraq|Eastern Anatolia  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
606) The oldest city, Jericho.
Jericho, (modern West Bank) Palestine  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
608) The oldest saddle quern {KWRN} (a flat stone and rounded stone used to
grind grain into flour).

Abu Hureyra, Syria  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
617) Goats are kept, fed, milked, and killed for food.
Euphrates river valley at Nevali Çori, Turkey| (11,000 bp), and the Zagros
Mountains of Iran at Ganj Dareh (10,000).  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
1292) The earliest stone buildings and temple; in Turkey.
Göbekli Tepe, near Sanliurfa, Southeastern Turkey  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
6468) The earliest settlement in China.
Nanzhuangtou, Xushui County, Hebei Province, China  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
6509) Rye is grown in modern Syria.

The domestication of plants is thought to have originated in the Fertile

Abu Hureyra, Syria  
10,870 YBN
[8870 BC]
6438) The earliest settlement in Mesopotamia.
Zawi Chemi, Shanidar, Northern Iraq  
10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
610) Flax is grown.

Flax is an oil and fiber crop.

Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria  
10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
6315) Sheep are raised for wool, skins, meat and dung (which is used for fuel).
Northern Zagros to southeastern Anatolia|(Middle East) Eastern
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
205) Pigs are raised and killed for food.
(Near East) Eastern Mediterranean and Island South East Asia|southeastern
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
1259) Clay tokens of various geometrical shapes that represent products are
used in Mesopotamia.

eastern Iran, southern Turkey, Israel, Sumer (modern Iraq)|Babylonia|Syria,
Sumer and Highland Iran  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
6316) Cows are raised for milk, for meat and eventually for plowing.
upper Euphrates Valley  
9,800 YBN
[7800 BC]
607) The earliest flint sickle.

A sickle has a semicircular blade and is used for cutting grain or tall grass.

Tell Aswad (modern Syria)|Palestine  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
612) Wheat is grown in modern Syria.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria|southeastern Turkey and northern Syria (Nevali Cori,
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
613) Common millet is grown in China.
Cishan, North China  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
6185) Barley is grown in modern Syria.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
6440) The earliest gypsum cement (or plaster).
Abu Hureyra, Syria  
9,240 YBN
[7240 BC]
1478) The earliest domesticated plants in America. Squash is grown in Peru.
Paiján, Peru  
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
1288) Mehrgarh {mARGoR}, an Indus Valley city is founded.
Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan  
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
6484) The earliest fishing net.
Korpilahti, Karelian Isthmus, Finland (Antrea, Finland, now:Kamennogorsk,
8,800 YBN
[6800 BC]
6511) Lentils are grown in Israel.
Yifta'el, North Israel  
8,500 YBN
[6500 BC]
6512) Peas are grown in Turkey.
Çayönü, Turkey  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
605) The oldest known boat, a dug-out boat.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
6220) The earliest drums.
Moravia, Czeck Republic  
7,700 YBN
[5700 BC]
719) Rice is grown near the Yangtze river in China.
Kuahuqiao, Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang Province|Yangtze (in Hubei and Hunan
provinces), China  
7,100 YBN
[5100 BC]
720) Corn is grown in Mexico.
San Andrés, Mexico|(Oaxaca, Mexico)  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
627) The first metal to be smelted and casted (copper). Smelting is separating
a metal from its ore by using heat and a reducing or oxidizing material.

Casting involves pouring liquid metal into a shaped mold of baked clay, stone,
metal, or sand.

Belovode, Eastern Serbia  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
727) The earliest reed boats.
6,900 YBN
[4900 BC]
648) The sail boat.
6,800 YBN
[4800 BC]
6527) The first fruit trees, olives are grown in Israel and Jordan.
(Chalcolithic) Tuleilat Ghassul (north of the Dead Sea)  
6,500 YBN
[4500 BC]
6437) The earliest settlement in Europe, Provadia-Solnitsata {PrOVoDEYo
SOLnETSoTo?}, in Bulgaria is founded.

(near) Provadia, Bulgaria  
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
665) Wine making.
(Areni-1 cave complex in) southeastern Armenia|Egypt  
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6232) The earliest Sun-dried mud bricks and mud-brick house; in Mesopotamia.

Mud brick, dried by the Sun, is one of the first building materials.

Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
5,800 YBN
[3800 BC]
6540) The earliest nut crops, almond trees are grown in the eastern part of the
Mediterranean basin.

Eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
233) The earliest writing (on clay objects in Mesopotamia). The first numbers.
The first stamp (or seal).

The first writing begins as symbols for numbers on clay bulla (hollow clay
containers that hold clay tokens). These symbols represent the quantity and
kind of tokens inside the bulla. Markings on clay tokens which represent
products like sheep, oil, or metal, may lead to the first symbols of the
alphabet. Hollow bullae and clay tokens are eventually replaced by solid clay
tablets with the same impressions.

Mesopotamia (Babylonia)|Sumer (Syria, Sumer, Highland Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
294) The sundial, the earliest timekeeping device. The length of the shadow
indicates the time of day.

China and Chaldea  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
621) The earliest plow. Plows are used to break up soil.
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
622) The earliest irrigation (an artificial supply of water to land for food

Middle east (eastern part of Mediterranean)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
625) Donkeys are raised and used for transport.
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
634) The Egyptian calendar (12 months of 30 days, plus 5 extra days).
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
646) The earliest known wheel, a pottery wheel, in Mesopotamia.
Mesopotamia (and a similar pottery wheel from Choga Mish, Iran)  
5,490 YBN
[3490 BC]
702) Cotton is grown in Peru.
Northwestern Peru|Indus valley  
5,350 YBN
[3350 BC]
1261) Writing on clay tablets.

Symbols that represent a product (such as cows, sheep, and cereals), drawn with
a stylus on clay tablets, are the earliest record of what will become the
modern alphabet. Many of the symbols look like the marked clay tokens that
represent actual products, and that are replaced by the drawn symbols on clay

This is the first training and industry of scribes, which will ultimately
evolve into the modern school system. Writing will be continuously taught
eventually in all major civilizations (even through the Dark Ages) until now.

These tablets are all economic records, used to keep a record of objects owned
or traded, and contain no stories.

5,310 YBN
[3310 BC]
704) The earliest wheeled vehicles, and ox pulled wheeled vehicles; in Poland.
(TRB - Funnel Beaker culture) Bronocice, Krakow, Poland  
5,200 YBN
[3200 BC]
6493) Cheese-making.
Linear Pottery settlements along the lower Vistula river (including Brześć
Kujawski 3 and 4, Miechowice 4, Smólsk 4, Wolica Nowa 1, Stare Nakonowo 2, and
Ludwinowo 6 and 7)  
5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
641) The earliest record of a belief in Gods and Goddesses.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
569) The earliest stringed musical instrument (the lyre and the harp); in

Sumer (modern Iraq)  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
596) Written symbols are combined to form words; there is a transition from
word-writing to sound-writing in Sumarian.

The vast majority of Sumerian language is made of one-syllable words. This
suggests that all earlier spoken languages contained only single-syllable

Jemdet Nasr  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
628) Bronze (copper and tin) are smelted and casted; in modern Turkey.

The start of the Bronze Age; which varies on different parts of Earth.

Bronze is made by smelting together two separate ores, one bearing copper, and
the other tin. Bronze tools will replace copper tools.

Tell Judaidah, Turkey|Egypt  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
650) Cuneiform writing. Pictures are not drawn with pointed reed, but drawn
with a cut reed-stem pressed into the wet clay to make wedges.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
664) Soldering of metals.
Tell al-'Ubaid|Mesopotamia  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
668) Silk making; in China.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
672) The earliest dam; built in Egypt to provide a water reservoir.
Wadi Gerrawi, Egypt  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
675) The earliest silver objects.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
676) Metal casting where wax is melted in a clay mold.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
1276) The first recorded political assembly.
Sumer, Uruk, Kish  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6222) The inclined plane (or ramp).
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6226) The abacus; a counting and calculating device.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6441) The earliest bow drill. A bow drill can drill holes and start a fire from

4,980 YBN
[2980 BC]
654) The earliest pyramid in Egypt, the step pyramid of Djoser, designed by
Imhotep, the earliest known scientist of history.

Sakkara, Egypt  
4,800 YBN
[2800 BC]
6565) Musical reed instruments.
4,750 YBN
[2750 BC]
320) The earliest metal saw.
4,700 YBN
[2700 BC]
1052) The earliest arch.
Nippur, Mesopotamia  
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
635) Iron is smelted and casted.

The start of the Iron Age in Turkey.

Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia (modern Turkey)|Palestine|Tell Hammeh
(az-Zarqa), Jordan|Central Europe and north Assyria  
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
637) Scribes change from writing right to left in columns to writing left to
right in rows.

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
691) Skis are used in Skandinavia.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
6230) The earliest dice and boardgame.
Ur, Mesopotamia  
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
6462) The Babylonians describe constellations.
(Elamite capital) Susa, Iran  
4,450 YBN
[2450 BC]
708) Animal skin (leather) is used for writing (the earliest parchment).
4,400 YBN
[2400 BC]
1277) The earliest recorded written history.
4,345 YBN
[2345 BC]
800) Writing on papyrus. Papyrus sheets are made from the fibrous layers within
the stem of the papyrus plant.

4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
629) The Akkadian language, the earliest known semitic language. The earliest
verb tense, and noun gender. The first dictionary.

Agade, Mesopotamia   
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
667) The earliest evidence of glass making, glass beads; in Mesopotamia.
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
1271) The earliest written stories. These consist of epics and myths, hymns and
laments, proverbs and wisdom.

These writings record a belief in Gods, Goddesses, a Heaven, and an Under

There are clear similarities between the Sumerian and the later Greek stories,
for example stories about the creation of the universe, good and bad deeds of
the gods, and of a flood.

The Sumerians believe in a variety of Gods and Goddesses. People of other
regions have similar Gods and Goddesses, but with different names, for example,
the Sumerian Goddess of love and war, Inanna is analogous to the Babylonian
Ishtar, the Greek Aphrodite, and the Roman Venus. Similarly the Sumerian
sky-god An {oN}, is analogous to the Babylonian "Anu" {o-nU}, the Greek "Zeus",
and Roman "Jupiter".

4,200 YBN
[2200 BC]
6446) Egyptian writing becomes completely phonetic. The first alphabet.

Egyptian scribes reduce Egyptian writing to only 26 signs with no vowels.

4,200 YBN
[2200 BC]
6539) Citrus trees are grown in China.
4,130 YBN
[2130 BC]
6234) The earliest musical horn.
Lagash, Mesopotamia  
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
1279) The earliest Health science (or medical) text; which lists 10 remedies.
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
6376) The first place value number system, a sexagesimal (base 60) number
system. Fractional values such as 1/60 and 1/3600 are also in use. This base 60
number system is still in use to measure time and angles.

4,050 YBN
[2050 BC]
1278) The earliest recorded laws.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
706) Humans ride horses.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
711) The earliest spoked wheel. Spokes make the wheel lighter in weight.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
733) The earliest lock and key.
Nineveh, Assyria on the Tigris River  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
1283) The earliest library catalog.
Nippur an ancient city of Babylonia on the Euphrates River southeast of
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
6236) Metal is traded as money; in Babylonia.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
6542) The vegetables leek, garlic and onion are grown around the fertile

3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
1181) The earliest brass (a copper and zinc alloy).
Tepe Yahya (modern Iran)|Asia Minor  
3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
1280) The earliest agricultural science text.
3,650 YBN
[1650 BC]
716) The earliest mathematical text.
3,600 YBN
[1600 BC]
6460) The "Pythagorean Theorem" is known in Babylonia: that the sum of the
squares of the two legs of a right triangle is equal to the square of the

3,531 YBN
[1531 BC]
639) The first planet, Venus, is recognized in Babylon.
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
624) The earliest oven-baked mud brick (also called "burned brick").
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
723) The earliest pulley.
Nimroud, Assyria  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
1516) The "Vedas", four ancient Indian collections of poems or hymns, originate
as an oral tradition before being written down 1200 years later.

3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
6228) The water clock (or Clepsydra {KlePSi-Dru}).
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
6456) The earliest American city, an Olmec city in Veracruz, Mexico.
(El Manati shrine, near modern) San Lorenzo, Veracruz, Mexico  
3,450 YBN
[1450 BC]
6449) The first letters that represent vowel sounds.
Ugarit (modern Ra's Shamra on Syria's north coast)  
3,400 YBN
[1400 BC]
6454) The earliest Chinese writing.
near Anyang, north-central China  
3,350 YBN
[1350 BC]
6559) The earliest evidence of human kissing.
3,350 YBN
[1350 BC]
6561) Welding of metals using heat and hammering.
3,348 YBN
[1348 BC]
2727) Monotheism, the theory that only one God exists; by Amenhotep IV, Pharaoh
of Egypt. All monotheistic religions may originate from the influence of this
earliest recorded monotheism.

Amarna, Egypt  
3,300 YBN
[1300 BC]
736) Two piece mold metal casting.
3,300 YBN
[1300 BC]
5862) The earliest written musical notation and musical composition.
Ur, Babylonia|Mesopotamia  
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
3134) Shellac is used as plastic.
India|(from India to Spain and the South of France)  
3,200 YBN
[1200 BC]
6605) The first steel; in Egypt. Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon with
carbon content up to 2 percent.

Egypt|Cypress, Syria, and eastern Greece|Cypress and Israel  
3,150 YBN
[1150 BC]
6447) The Phoenician alphabet, the ancestor of the Greek alphabet.
(coastal centers) Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Beurut, and Ashkelon  
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
746) Complex pulleys. The lifting power of a pulley is multiplied by the number
of ropes pulling the load.

3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6237) The earliest lens.
Nimrud, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6448) The Aramaic alphabet, the ancestor of Hebrew, Arabic, and probably the
alphabets of India. Consonant letters are used to mark vowel sounds.

3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6450) The earliest Hebrew writing.
Khirbet Qeiyafa near the Elah valley, Israel  
2,922 YBN
[922 BC]
753) The monotheistic religion: Judaism is founded. The story of Moses.
2,850 YBN
[850 BC]
751) The Greek alphabet; each vowel is given its own sign.
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
6452) The Indian alphabets of India and South-East Asia.
2,785 YBN
[785 BC]
771) Eclipses are predicted by Babylonian astronomers.
2,753 YBN
[753 BC]
6457) Rome is founded.
Rome, Italy  
2,690 YBN
[690 BC]
1066) The earliest aquaduct, a channel to move water from one place to another
near Nineveh.

Jerwan, Nineveh  
2,690 YBN
[690 BC]
6378) The earliest concrete (lime cement mixed with limestone); used in an

Jerwan, Nineveh  
2,651 YBN
[651 BC]
6337) All planets visible to the naked eye (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and
Saturn) are clearly distinguished from stars in Babylonia.

2,650 YBN
[650 BC]
6458) The Etruscan {iTruSKeN} alphabet. Letter names are changed to /A/, /BA/,
/KA/, etc.

2,622 YBN
[622 BC]
826) The Old Testament (The Torah, The Hebrew Bible, The Ten Commandments, and
The Story of Genesis).

2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
630) Metal coin money is traded.
Lydia, Anatolia  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
762) The Universe is explained without using the theory of Gods by Thales of
Thales claims the universe originated as water, that moon light is reflected
sun light, and measures a pyramid by comparing the pyramid shadow with the
shadow from a stick.

Miletus, Greece  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
2619) The concept of a Devil is created and is first recorded in the book of
Job, written around this time.

2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
6455) The earliest Native American writing.
San Jose Mogote, Oaxaca, Mexico  
2,588 YBN
[588 BC]
6434) The monotheistic religion: Zoroasterism is founded.
(Chorasmia south of the Aral Sea, modern Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan) Central
Asia and/or (born in Rhages, now Rayy, a suburb of Tehrān, a town in
Media)Tehrān, Iran  
2,580 YBN
[580 BC]
764) The Earth-centered Universe theory, and the theory that humans evolved
from fish.

The Earth-centered theory will dominate until the 1500s.

2,550 YBN
[550 BC]
1036) The Latin alphabet.
2,533 YBN
[533 BC]
6436) The start of Buddhism.
(modern) southern Nepal, India  
2,529 YBN
[529 BC]
772) The Earth is described as a sphere by Pythagoras.
Croton, Italy  
2,521 YBN
[521 BC]
6435) The Chinese philosopher Confucius lives around this time.
(hometown, place of birth and death) state of Lu, China  
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
825) The crossbow is invented in China.
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
6518) There are 100 million humans on Earth.
2,475 YBN
[475 BC]
6464) Babylonian astronomers divide the sky into 12 parts which correspond to
constellations (also called the zodiac).

2,470 YBN
[470 BC]
840) That the brain controls the body is understood, and the first human
dissection. The optic nerve and Eustachian {YU-STA-siN} tubes are identified.

(academy at Croton, now:) Crotone, southern Italy  
2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
836) That stars are other Suns and made of red-hot metal is recognized and the
theory that people live on the Moon, and that the Universe is made of tiny
bodies by Anaxagoras.

Clazomenae (75 miles/120 km north of Miletus)|Athens|Did not move to Athens
until around 462 bce  
2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
1894) The earliest particle (or wireless) communication. The optical telegraph;
using fire signals.

Argos, Greece  
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
841) The theory that all matter is made of atoms.
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
842) The theory that the universe is made of only four elements: water, air,
fire and earth.

2,451 YBN
[451 BC]
906) Books of Protagoras are burned for doubting the existence of Gods.
2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
838) The first recorded trial of a person for atheism; Anaxagoras.
Athens, Greece  
2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
843) The theory that the Earth moves through space.
Croton, Italy  
2,432 YBN
[432 BC]
849) The Metonic {miToNiK} calendar: 12 years of 12 months and 7 years of 13

Athens, Greece (presumably)  
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
845) The Universe is explained as being infinite in size, filled with many
other worlds, and the Milky Way as a large group of stars. The motions of atoms
are described based on natural laws, not on the wants of gods or demons.

Abdera, Thrace  
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
847) A school of health science is founded by Hippocrates. Disease is viewed as
a physical phenomenon, not the product of gods or demons.

2,424 YBN
[424 BC]
6533) Grafting of plants in Greece.
Greece|(presumably for Theophrastus) (The Lyceum) Athens, Greece   
2,399 YBN
[399 BC]
846) Socrates is sentenced to death, in part for disrespecting the Gods.
Athens, Greece  
2,387 YBN
[387 BC]
851) The school "the Academy" is founded by Plato in Athens. The word "academy"
will eventually be applied to all schools.

Athens, Greece  
2,378 YBN
[378 BC]
854) The sky is divided into degrees of latitude and longitude (a system that
is eventually applied to the Earth).

2,358 YBN
[358 BC]
856) The theory that the Earth rotates around its own axis, and that some
planets rotate around the Sun.

(Academy) Athens, Greece (presumably)  
2,335 YBN
[335 BC]
859) The school called the Lyceum {LI SEuM} is opened by Aristotle in Athens.
Aristotle also adds a fifth element "aether", which the "heavens" are made of,
and puts forward the first theory of gravity.

Athens, Greece  
2,330 YBN
[06/28/330 BC]
864) The calendar of Callipus, 76 years of 940 months, which is more accurate
than that of Meton.

(probably) Cyzicus (an ancient city in NW Asia Minor, in Mysia, on a peninsula
in the Sea of Marmara)  
2,325 YBN
[325 BC]
887) The theory that the Moon influences the tides.
Massalia (now: Marseille France)  
2,311 YBN
[311 BC]
885) The theory that pleasure is good and pain is bad.
2,305 YBN
[305 BC]
884) Nerves are distinguished from blood vessels. The liver, ovaries, Fallopian
tubes, and retina are identified.

Alexandria, Egypt  
2,300 YBN
[300 BC]
871) That falling bodies accelerate is recognized.
(Lyceum) Athens, Greece (presumably)  
2,300 YBN
[300 BC]
1166) A lathe is used in Egypt; a workpiece is rotated against a cutting tool.
2,300 YBN
[300 BC]
6482) The earliest known use of a chain-drive; used in an automatic repeating

Rhodes, Greece  
2,297 YBN
[297 BC]
902) The Museum and Library of Alexandria is founded.
2,295 YBN
[295 BC]
878) Euclid's "Elements" compiles all known mathematics.
(Mouseion) Alexandria, Egypt  
2,285 YBN
[285 BC]
1028) Compressed air is used for a catapult and for the earliest musical
keyboard instrument, an organ, by Ctesibius in Alexandria.

Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,274 YBN
[274 BC]
886) The cerebrum and cerebellum of the brain are identified.
Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,265 YBN
[265 BC]
6591) A paddle-wheel turned by oxen propels a Roman water ship.
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
663) The earliest lever; a rigid bar pivoted on a support point that can be
used to exert a force on an object.

Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
822) The earliest screw; the Archimedes screw, a device for raising water.

The concept of density (mass divided by volume) is understood.

Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
882) The rotation of the Earth around its own axis once a day and around the
Sun once a year is understood by Aristarchus.

(Mousion of Alexandria) Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,250 YBN
[250 BC]
890) The earliest known escapement, a device that controls the rotation of a
toothed gear to provide periodic impulses.

2,250 YBN
[250 BC]
894) The ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola are described in Alexandria.
Alexandria, Egypt  
2,246 YBN
[246 BC]
898) The size of Earth is correctly calculated by using the angle of the Sun's
shadow and the distance between two cities.

Alexandria, Egypt  
2,240 YBN
[240 BC]
1325) The earliest observation of a comet.
2,231 YBN
[231 BC]
833) The earliest evidence of gears: the spur and worm gears.

A gear is a toothed machine part, such as a wheel or cylinder, that meshes with
another toothed part to transmit motion or to change speed or direction.

Syracuse, Sicily  
2,160 YBN
[160 BC]
1029) The distance to the Moon is measured using parallax; by measuring how
much an object appears to move compared to a more distant object when the
observer changes positions.

(before 141 BC) Bithynia (presumably Nicaea)|(observatory on) Island of Rhodes,
2,160 YBN
[160 BC]
6477) The law of inertia (that a body preserves its motion) is understood.
(before 141 BC) Bithynia (presumably Nicaea)|(observatory on) Island of Rhodes,
2,140 YBN
[140 BC]
1070) The invention of paper in China. Paper is made by putting a mixture of
fibers and water on a fine screen; when the water drains away the remaining mat
of fibers is removed and dried.

Pa-chhiao near Sian in the Shensi province of China|Xian, China  
2,134 YBN
[134 BC]
1041) A nova is observed. The first star catalog that uses celestial
coordinates of latitude and longitude, and that divides stars by brightness.
The "precession of the equinoxes" is recognized; that the position of the stars
at equinox changes slightly each year.

(observatory on) Island of Rhodes, Greece  
2,100 YBN
[100 BC]
870) The earliest known metal spur gear and mechanical computer.
near the island of Antikythera, Mediterranean Sea  
2,075 YBN
[75 BC]
1116) Negative numbers are used in China.
2,056 YBN
[56 BC]
1045) The theory that light is made of atoms that move very fast.
Rome, Italy  
2,050 YBN
[50 BC]
1050) The first glass blowing; in Jerusalem.
(origin of glass blowing probably in the Syro-Palestine area, but earliest
artifact is from) Jerusalem  
2,045 YBN
[01/01/45 BC]
1056) The Julian calendar: 365 days with an extra day every 4 years.
Rome (presumably)  
2,040 YBN
[40 BC]
1058) The earliest waterwheel. The earliest elevator (or vertical lift).
2,037 YBN
[37 BC]
6549) The germ theory of disease; that disease can be caused by tiny living

Rome (presumably)  
2,008 YBN
[8 BC]
1049) Silk from China is traded as far west as Rome.
1,980 YBN
[20 AD]
1390) The monotheistic religion: Christianity is founded, branching from

1,950 YBN
[50 AD]
1078) The steam engine is invented in Alexandria. A hollow metal sphere rotates
from the power of steam jets that escape through open tubes on each side of the
The steam engine will not be used for practical purposes until the

The earliest syphon, syringe, and chariot odometer.

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,950 YBN
[50 AD]
6566) A wind-wheel powered machine.
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,935 YBN
[65 AD]
6432) The glass prism.
1,925 YBN
[75 AD]
1270) The last cuneiform texts. This ends 3000 years of cuneiform writing.
Sumer/Babylon (Southern Iraq)  
1,923 YBN
[77 AD]
1083) The earliest Encyclopedia.
1,917 YBN
[83 AD]
766) The earliest magnetic compass; in China.
China (more specific)  
1,900 YBN
[100 AD]
5861) The earliest known complete musical composition, including musical

(now Aidin, Turkey) (verify)  
1,900 YBN
[100 AD]
6638) The earliest distillation; in Alexandria.

Distillation is the process of evaporating or boiling a liquid and condensing
its vapor.

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,850 YBN
[150 AD]
1087) Ptolomy's "Almagest", an Earth-centered model of the universe, with the
Earth a stationary sphere in the center, surrounded by 7 larger planetary
spheres for the Moon, Sun, planets, and fixed stars.

(in Mouseion?) Alexandria, Egypt  
1,850 YBN
[150 AD]
6177) A bellow-fed musical organ.
1,838 YBN
[162 AD]
971) The valves of the heart are described, and that the brain controls the
voice is shown.

1,825 YBN
[175 AD]
1068) Crank-handles are used in China.
1,800 YBN
[200 AD]
1073) The earliest "press-on" printing in China.
1,710 YBN
[290 AD]
1092) An encyclopedia of alchemy.
Panopolis {now Akhmim}, Egypt  
1,675 YBN
[05/??/325 AD]
947) The Council of Nicaea {nI-SE-u} condemns the claim of Arius {u-rI-uS or
AR-E-uS}, that Jesus was not divine, as a heresy.

Nicaea, Bithynia(now İznik, Turkey)  
1,672 YBN
[328 AD]
6451) The Arabic alphabet.
(early inscription) Namara, Syria  
1,669 YBN
[331 AD]
1375) Roman emperor Constantine I abolishes all pagan (polytheistic) hospitals.
1,609 YBN
[02/24/391 AD]
1002) Roman Emperor Theodosius I prohibits the visiting of non-Christian

(presumably) Rome, Italy  
1,609 YBN
[391 AD]
1003) The library in the Temple to Serapis (the Serapeum) in Alexandria is
violently destroyed by Christian people and the temple is converted to a
Christian church.

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,606 YBN
[08/24/394 AD]
1095) The last recorded hieroglyph inscription in Egypt.
island of Philae, near Aswan  
1,585 YBN
[03/??/415 AD]
1009) The murder of Greek philosopher Hypatia by Christian people.
(steps of a church called The Caesarium ) Alexandria, Egypt  
1,552 YBN
[448 AD]
1043) Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II orders all non-Christian books

1,501 YBN
[499 AD]
1309) The Earth rotation around its own axis is described by Indian astronomer

Kusumapura (modern Patna), India  
1,472 YBN
[528 AD]
1426) That the medium is actually an impediment to a projectile's motion is

Alexandria, Egypt  
1,471 YBN
[529 AD]
1014) Byzantine {BiZeNTEN} Emperor Justinian closes the schools of Alexandria
and Athens (including Plato's Academy).

Athens, Greece (and Alexandria,Egypt)  
1,458 YBN
[542 AD]
1381) The Hôtel-Dieu in Lyon {lE-ON} is founded: the earliest hospital in

Lyon, France  
1,411 YBN
[589 AD]
1328) Toilet paper is used in China.
1,400 YBN
[600 AD]
1111) The earliest windmill, in Persia. This windmill uses a vertical shaft and
horizontal sails to grind grain.

Persia (Iran)  
1,387 YBN
[613 AD]
1391) The monotheistic religion: Islam is founded.
Mecca, Arabia (modern Saudi Arabia)  
1,360 YBN
[640 AD]
1120) The first flame throwing weapon: "Greek fire".
1,300 YBN
[700 AD]
1118) The numerals (0 through 9), and decimal notation are used in Pakistan.
Bakhshali (near modern Peshawar, Pakistan)  
1,249 YBN
[751 AD]
1253) Jabir prepares and identifies acids.
Kufa, (now Iraq)  
1,230 YBN
[770 AD]
1060) Wood-cut printing; in Japan. A paper with text is attached with rice
paste to a block of wood, the uninked parts are cut away, the block is inked,
and a paper pressed on it.

1,219 YBN
[781 AD]
1254) Lower case letters.
Aachen, in north-west Germany, or York, England  
1,211 YBN
[789 AD]
1256) Charlemagne {soRlemAN} establishes schools where math and grammar are

Aachen, in north-west Germany  
1,200 YBN
[800 AD]
6221) String instruments are played with a bow.
River Oxus (modern) Turkmenistan (Central Asia)  
1,185 YBN
[815 AD]
1021) The "Bayt al-Hikma" (House of Wisdom) school is founded, where many
scientific works are translated into Arabic.

1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1144) Gunpowder is invented; in China

The earliest gunpowder, black powder, is a mixture of saltpeter (potassium
nitrate), sulfur, and charcoal.

1,100 YBN
[900 AD]
1379) A health science school is founded in Salerno, Italy.
Salerno (near Naples), Italy  
1,100 YBN
[900 AD]
5865) The first polyphonic (many-voiced) music (Organum), and distinct pitches.
northern part of the West Frankish empire|Possibly written in what is now
Eastern France  
1,095 YBN
[905 AD]
1303) Gypsum plaster is used to hold broken bones in place by Al-Razi
{oL-rAZE}, who also openly rejects Islam and other religions.

Rayy (near Tehran, Iran)   
1,080 YBN
[920 AD]
6183) Norwegian explorers reach North America.
L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland  
1,040 YBN
[960 AD]
6186) The earliest rocket, in China; gun-powder rockets probably in hollow
bamboo tubes.

1,036 YBN
[964 AD]
1502) A star catalog that includes Arabic star names which, in corrupted form,
are still in use today.

(court of the Emire Adud ad-Daula in) Isfahan, Persia (modern Iran)  
1,024 YBN
[976 AD]
1307) The earliest Arabic numerals in Europe.
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1022) The Encyclopedia the "Suda".
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1054) Paper money is used; in China.
975 YBN
[1025 AD]
5868) Musical staff notation.
(Cathedral school) Arezzo, Italy  
962 YBN
[1038 AD]
1308) The pin-hole camera.
Cairo, Egypt  
959 YBN
[1041 AD]
1124) Movable type printing, where individual blocks can be put together to
form a text, is invented in China.

Baked clay types are placed side by side on an iron plate coated with a mixture
of resin, wax, and paper ash. Gently heating this plate and then letting the
plate cool solidifies the type.

912 YBN
[1088 AD]
1339) The University of Bologna is founded.
Bologna, Italy  
900 YBN
[1100 AD]
5883) Non-religious (secular) music evolves in France.
Provence, France (Southern France)  
894 YBN
[1106 AD]
1411) Al-Ghazzali's {oL-Go-Zo-lE} book "The Incoherence of the Philosophers"
slows the influence of ancient Greek philosophy in Arab and Persian nations.

(Niẓāmīyah college) Nishapur, Iran  
868 YBN
[1132 AD]
1146) The first cannon and gun; in China.
Ta-tsu, Szechuan Province, China  
850 YBN
[1150 AD]
6239) The first stringed instrument to use a keyboard.
833 YBN
[1167 AD]
1340) The University of Oxford is founded.
Oxford, England (now: United Kingdom)  
830 YBN
[1170 AD]
1319) The University of Paris is founded.
Paris, France  
816 YBN
[11/??/1184 AD]
1153) The start of the Inquisition. Pope Lucius III makes burning the official
punishment for heresy {HAReSE}.

The Inquisition will last until the 1800s.

Verona, Italy  
772 YBN
[1228 AD]
1392) The theory that all matter is made of light.
Oxford, England  
766 YBN
[1234 AD]
1125) The movable metal block printing press is invented; in Korea.
758 YBN
[1242 AD]
1403) Instructions for making gunpowder are introduced to Europe.
Oxford, England  
733 YBN
[1267 AD]
1401) Mechanically propelled ships and carriages, and that the Earth can be
circumnavigated are proposed by Roger Bacon.

Oxford, England  
723 YBN
[1277 AD]
1404) Roger Bacon is imprisoned and his works are ordered suppressed.
Oxford, England  
720 YBN
[1280 AD]
5873) Musical notes are defined in terms of time ("long", "breve" {BrEV} and
"semibreve" {SeME-BrEV}).

Cologne, Germany  
720 YBN
[1280 AD]
6238) The first eyeglasses.
Florence, Italy  
700 YBN
[1300 AD]
1121) The first mechanical clocks in Europe; driven by a falling weight that
that turns a clock hour hand.

690 YBN
[1310 AD]
1424) Sulfuric and other strong acids are described. Before this vinegar was
the strongest acid known.

684 YBN
[1316 AD]
1428) The first book devoted entirely to anatomy.
Bologna, Italy  
665 YBN
[1335 AD]
1425) The law of inertia is revived.
Paris, France  
652 YBN
[04/07/1348 AD]
1357) The Charles University in Prague is founded, the first university in
central Europe.

Prague, Czech Republic (EU)  
640 YBN
[1360 AD]
1977) Uniformly accelerated motion is described, and rectangular coordinates
(latitude and longitude) are used to draw geometric figures.

Paris, France (presumably)  
635 YBN
[03/12/1365 AD]
1360) The University of Vienna is founded; the oldest university in the German
speaking world.

Vienna, Austria  
623 YBN
[1377 AD]
1979) The theory that the Earth rotates daily is revived in France.
Paris, France (presumably)  
603 YBN
[1397 AD]
5897) The first harpsichords; in Italy.
Padua, Italy  
602 YBN
[1398 AD]
1364) Sungkyunkwan University in Korea is founded.
Seoul, South Korea  
570 YBN
[1430 AD]
6584) The magic lantern, an early image projector.
Venice, Italy  
565 YBN
[1435 AD]
1435) The movable type printing press is introduced into Europe.

Printing in Europe will spread quickly, and results in low cost books. This
increase in books leads to more educated and literate people and faster

Strassburg (now Strasbourg, France)  
565 YBN
[1435 AD]
1440) The laws of perspective (how to draw a three-dimensional scene on a
two-dimensional plane).

Florence, Italy  
560 YBN
[02/12/1440 AD]
1437) Space is described as infinite in size, and stars are described as other
suns with inhabited planets.

Cusa, Germany  
550 YBN
[1450 AD]
1171) The earliest wound spiral spring and spring driven clocks. Replacing a
falling weight with a spring to drive the wheel-train allows smaller
time-keeping devices to be made.

southern Germany or northern Italy  
546 YBN
[1454 AD]
1436) The first printed book in Europe (copies of the Bible).
Mainz, Germany  
533 YBN
[1467 AD]
6478) The cipher wheel for encrypting messages.
Rome, Italy (presumably)  
517 YBN
[1483 AD]
6481) A parachute is designed.
Milan, Italy  
514 YBN
[1486 AD]
1467) Gliders, a helical air-screw, and a flying machine with flapping wings
are designed.

Milan, Italy  
508 YBN
[10/12/1492 AD]
1450) Humans from Europe reach America by crossing the Atlantic Ocean in three
small ships.

(probably) San Salvador  
500 YBN
[1500 AD]
6480) A screw cutting machine is designed.
Florence, Italy  
496 YBN
[1504 AD]
1474) That the new lands represent a new continent separated from Asia by a
second ocean is recognized.

487 YBN
[09/25/1513 AD]
1485) Europeans reach the Pacific Ocean.
from a peak in Darién, Panama  
483 YBN
[10/31/1517 AD]
1389) The start of the Protestant Reformation.
Wittenberg, Germany  
478 YBN
[09/08/1522 AD]
1475) Humans circumnavigate the Earth. This proves that a single ocean covers
the Earth.

Seville, Spain  
470 YBN
[1530 AD]
1503) The disease "syphillis" is described and named.
Verona, Italy (and possibly mountain villa at Incaffi)  
469 YBN
[1531 AD]
1546) Spanish physician Michael Servetus publishes a book that describes Jesus
as only human.

Toulouse, France (presumably)  
467 YBN
[1533 AD]
1541) The method of triangulation to measure distance: a base line of known
length is chosen, and from its endpoints the angles of sight to a remote object
are measured. The distance to the object from either endpoint can then be
calculated using simple trigonometry.

Friesland (present day Netherlands) (presumably)  
462 YBN
[10/28/1538 AD]
1371) The University of Santo Domingo is founded, the first university in the
Western Hemisphere.

Santo Domingo, (now the) Dominican Republic  
462 YBN
[1538 AD]
3059) The theory that the Earth and planets rotate around a central fixed

(University of Padua) Padua, Italy|Verona, Italy (and possibly mountain villa
at Incaffi)  
458 YBN
[1542 AD]
1511) Appendicitis (an inflammation of the appendix) is described.
457 YBN
[1543 AD]
1482) The Sun centered theory is revived by Copernicus.
(presumably) written in (Frauenburg, East Prussia now:)Frombork, Poland;
(printed in)Nuremberg, Germany  
455 YBN
[1545 AD]
1537) The first imaginary numbers; the square root of a negative number.
(University of Pavia) Pavia, Italy (presumably)  
455 YBN
[1545 AD]
1543) Arteries are tied to stop bleeding and artificial limbs are created.
Paris, France  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
1507) The scientific classification of minerals.
written: Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany| published: Basel, Switzerland  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
1547) Pulmonary circulation is understood by Michael Servetus (SRVETuS): that
blood goes from the right side of the heart to the lung where it is mixed with
air becoming red, and then to the left side of the heart where it is sent
through the rest of the body.

Vienne, France  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
3057) The germ theory of disease is revived.
Verona, Italy  
449 YBN
[1551 AD]
1549) The first planetary tables based on the Sun-centered theory.
447 YBN
[10/27/1553 AD]
1548) Michael Servetus is burned alive for heresy {HAReSE} in Switzerland.
Geneva, Switzerland  
440 YBN
[1560 AD]
1538) The first systematic computations of probabilities (for example the
chance of a certain combination in the fall of 3 dice).

440 YBN
[1560 AD]
1563) The first scientific society (a group for the communication of scientific
research), the precursor of the Academy of the Lynx.

439 YBN
[1561 AD]
1562) Fallopian tubes, and semicircular canals are identified, and the vagina,
placenta, clitoris and cochlea are named.

(University of Padua) Padua, Italy  
435 YBN
[1565 AD]
1558) The first illustrations of fossils.
Zurich, Swizerland (presumably)  
431 YBN
[1569 AD]
1550) Cyclindrical projection is used to make a map so that lines of latitude
and longitude are straight.

Duchy of Cleves, Germany (presumably)  
427 YBN
[1573 AD]
1575) A comet is proven to be farther away than the moon and to have an orbit
that is not circular which disproves the ancient theory of crystal planetary

Island of Hven (now Ven, Sweden)  
418 YBN
[1582 AD]
1566) The Gregorian calendar: February 29th is omitted in century years which
are not divisible by 400.

Rome, Italy  
415 YBN
[1585 AD]
1581) Decimal point notation is introduced into Europe.
Netherlands (presumably)  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
1583) Objects of different weight are shown to fall the same distance in the
same amount of time.

Netherlands (presumably)  
409 YBN
[1591 AD]
1182) The first modern flush toilet.
(Palace of Queen Elizabeth) Richmond, Surrey, England  
409 YBN
[1591 AD]
1568) Letters are used to represent constant and unknown numbers (the first

(possibly) Paris, France  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1587) That plants, like animals, have gender is recognized.
Venice, Italy  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1613) The first thermometer is invented by Galileo. A glass tube is turned
upside down in a container of water. A change in temperature changes the level
of the water within it.

Padua, Italy  
404 YBN
[08/03/1596 AD]
1616) A variable star is discovered, a star that shows periodic changes in

Resterhave (near Dorum) East Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast
Netherlands) (presumably)   
403 YBN
[1597 AD]
1589) The preparation of hydrochloric acid, and other chemical compounds are

400 YBN
[02/17/1600 AD]
1578) Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned alive at the stake for
heresy in Rome.

(Campo de Fiori {flower market}) Rome, Italy  
400 YBN
[1600 AD]
1571) That the Earth is a spherical magnet on which a compass points to the
magnetic poles is recognized, and the first electroscope, which measures static

London, England (presumably)  
397 YBN
[1603 AD]
1636) The first star catalog to show the entire celestial sphere, and the Bayer
{BIR} star naming system where each star is named after the constellation
associated with it in order of brightness, for example Betelgeuse, the
brightest star in Orion is named Alpha Orionis, and Rigel is Beta Orionis.

Augsburg, Germany  
397 YBN
[1603 AD]
3678) The first synthetic luminescent material; barium sulfide.

Luminescence is light emission that cannot be attributed to the temperature of
the emitting body.

Bologna, Italy  
396 YBN
[1604 AD]
1622) The inverse squared law of light: that the intensity of light is
inversely related to the square of the distance.

Prague, (now: Czech Republic) (presumably)  
394 YBN
[1606 AD]
2099) Europeans discover and explore Australia.
392 YBN
[1608 AD]
1618) The earliest telescope (a refracting telescope); a double convex lens
(the "object glass") is placed at the farther end of a tube, and a double
concave lens (the "eyepiece") at the nearer end.

Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland) (modern: Netherlands)  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1599) The "law of falling bodies"; that the distance covered by a falling body
is proportional to the square of the elapsed time is understood, and that the
path of a projectile is a parabola (that two forces can work on an object at
the same time) is understood.

(University of Padua) Padua, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1619) That planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus of the
ellipse, and that a line connecting a planet and the Sun will sweep over equal
areas in equal times is shown by Johannes Kepler; (Kepler's first two laws of
planetary motion).

Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of
Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center)  
390 YBN
[01/??/1610 AD]
1605) The four moons of Jupiter are first seen and their period determined by

(University of Padua) Padua, Venice, Italy  
390 YBN
[12/11/1610 AD]
6485) The phases of planet Venus are seen by Galileo.
Florence, Italy  
390 YBN
[1610 AD]
6488) The earliest Microscope, a compound light microscope.
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland) (modern: Netherlands)  
389 YBN
[06/13/1611 AD]
1617) That the Sun has spots and rotates around its own axis is shown.
Osteel, East Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast Netherlands)  
389 YBN
[1611 AD]
1627) A story about a man who travels to the moon by Kepler.
Prague, (now: Czech Republic)  
388 YBN
[1612 AD]
3680) The theory of storage of light; that light can be absorbed in materials
and re-emitted later.

(Collegio Romano) Rome, Italy  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
1584) Exponential notation and logarithms.
Scotland (presumably)  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1608) Copernicanism is declared a heresy by Pope "Paul V" (Camillo Borghese).
Rome, Italy  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1644) The circulatory system is described; that the heart is a muscle that
contracts to push blood out, that blood can only move in one direction, in a
circle from the heart to the arteries, from the arteries to the veins, and
through the veins back to the heart.

London, England  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1831) The reflecting telescope.

A reflecting telescope focuses light reflected off a parabolic shaped (concave)
mirror instead of through a lens.

Rome, Italy  
383 YBN
[01/15/1617 AD]
6491) The first double (or binary) star system is observed.
(University of Florence) Florence, Italy  
381 YBN
[1619 AD]
1632) That the square of the period of orbit of a planet is proportional to the
cube of its distance from the Sun is shown by Kepler; (Kepler's third law of
planetary motion).

Linz, Austria  
381 YBN
[1619 AD]
1641) That the curvature of the lens in the human eye changes as the eye
focuses to different distances is recognized.

Dillingen, Germany  
379 YBN
[1621 AD]
1651) The law of refraction, which describes how a light ray bends when passing
between two mediums of different density.

Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
376 YBN
[1624 AD]
6241) The submarine.
Thames River, England  
374 YBN
[1626 AD]
1693) The sealed thermometer (which measures temperature independently of air

(The Low Countries) Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg|was: Tuscany,
Italy (presumably)  
370 YBN
[1630 AD]
1642) That the Sun completes one rotation every 25 days is recognized, and the
inclination of the Sun's axis to the Earth's orbit is determined to be 7

Rome, Italy  
369 YBN
[11/07/1631 AD]
1663) The transit of Mercury across the Sun is observed.
Paris, France (presumably)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1655) The "vernier {VRnYA or VRNER} scale", a device capable of precise
measurement is invented.

Ornans, France (presumably: birth and death location)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1664) The speed of sound is measured (as around 500 meters or 1500 feet per
second) and shown to be independent of pitch, by measuring the time difference
between seeing the flash of a gun and hearing the sound over a long distance on
a still day.

Paris, France (presumably)  
367 YBN
[06/22/1633 AD]
1611) Galileo is condemned to life imprisonment by the Inquisition.
Rome, Italy  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1657) The "Académie Parisienne" (the precursor to the French Academy of

Paris, France (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1660) Frequencies of sounds are measured.
Paris, France (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1669) That the direction of the Earth's magnetic field changes over time is

?, England  
364 YBN
[1636 AD]
1219) Harvard College is founded.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
363 YBN
[1637 AD]
1615) The slow swaying (or "libration" {lI-BrA-suN}) of the moon as it rotates
is recognized.

Florence, Italy  
363 YBN
[1637 AD]
1668) The Cartesian coordinate system, where points are plotted on a two
dimensional graph.

Netherlands (presumably)  
361 YBN
[11/24/1639 AD]
1708) The transit of Venus is observed.
Hoole, Lancashire, England (presumably)  
361 YBN
[11/24/1639 AD]
6581) That the orbit of the Moon around the Earth is approximately elliptical
(with the Earth at one focus) and that the Sun has a perturbing effect on the
Moon’s orbit is shown.

Hoole, Lancashire, England (presumably)  
360 YBN
[1640 AD]
1697) The micrometer (a device for precision measurement) is invented and
applied to the telescope.

Middleton (West Yorkshire), England  
360 YBN
[1640 AD]
6490) The Earth's acceleration due to gravity is measured.
Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
359 YBN
[1641 AD]
6244) The repeating gun, a gun in which ammunition is fed from a magazine.
358 YBN
[1642 AD]
1719) A mechanical calculating machine that can add and subtract.
Rouen, France (presumably)  
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
1692) The earliest vacuum (a space empty of matter), and barometer (which
measures atmospheric pressure) are invented. When a tube filled with mercury is
turned upside down into a dish, the space above the mercury in the tube is
found to be a vacuum.

Florence, Italy  
356 YBN
[11/22/1644 AD]
1694) The phases of Mercury are observed.
(rooftop observatories on many houses) Danzig (now Gdansk in Poland)  
356 YBN
[1644 AD]
2618) The principle of the conservation of motion is described by René

Netherlands (presumably)  
355 YBN
[1645 AD]
1844) That the strength the Sun holds the planets with decreases by the inverse
distance squared is recognized.

Paris, France  
352 YBN
[09/19/1648 AD]
1721) Atmospheric pressure is shown to change at different elevations. This
implies that empty space (a vacuum) exists above the atmosphere.

Rouen, France (presumably)  
352 YBN
[1648 AD]
1648) The label of "gas" is applied to a substance. Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is

Vilvoorde, Belgium  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1675) The first air pump. That sound cannot be produced in the absence of air
is proven.

This air pump is like a waterpump but airtight, and is powered by hand pumping.

Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1722) The hydraulic press; that pressure applied to a confined liquid is
transmitted equally through the liquid in all directions is recognized.

Rouen, France (presumably)  
348 YBN
[1652 AD]
1775) Lymphatic vessels are identified; which have thinner walls than blood
vessels, and carry the clear, watery fluid portion of the blood (lymph) into
the spaces around cells and back into the blood vessels.

Uppsala, Sweden  
345 YBN
[03/25/1655 AD]
1763) The first known moon of Saturn, Titan is identified.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
345 YBN
[1655 AD]
1702) Exponents are extended to include negative numbers and fractions.
(University of Oxford) Oxford, England  
342 YBN
[1658 AD]
1804) Red blood cells are observed and described.
Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
341 YBN
[1659 AD]
1771) The ring of Saturn is seen and the apparent sizes of the planets are
measured in seconds of arc.

The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
340 YBN
[11/28/1660 AD]
1704) The Royal Society is formed.
London, England  
340 YBN
[1660 AD]
1737) Gas is collected for the first time and that electrical attraction is
transmitted through a vacuum is proven.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
340 YBN
[1660 AD]
3142) A sub-atmospheric pressure is measured using a mercury filled tube to
measure the pressure produced in a bell jar by a piston pump.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1738) Acids, bases, and neutral liquids are recognized using acid-base
indicators, and an element is defined as any substance that cannot be broken
down farther into another substance.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1754) The connection of arteries and veins, and microscopic blood vessels
(eventually named "capillaries") are observed.

Bologna, Italy  
338 YBN
[1662 AD]
1739) That pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related is proven. A long
J-shaped tube traps air at the end using mercury. Adding twice the mercury,
adds twice the pressure, reducing the volume of air at the end by half.
Removing half the mercury doubles the volume of air.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
337 YBN
[1663 AD]
2247) The first static electricity generator is built: a sulfur globe is
rotated against a cloth which can produce sizable electric sparks.

Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
336 YBN
[1664 AD]
1666) The theory that light is made of particles is revived by Rene Descartes
(DAKoRT), who compares light to a ball, and is the first to describe the two
major theories of light: that light may be transmitted by particle collision
(the "wave" or "constant collision" theory) or by particles that move mostly
without collision through space (the "corpuscular" or "rare collision" theory).

(in 1633:) Netherlands (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1688) The theory that comets move in elliptical orbits.
Pisa, Italy (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1707) The theory of light "diffraction". Light passed through two narrow holes,
one behind the other, causes some light to appear outside of the cone of light
made by the holes. This is thought to be a new property of light named
"diffraction" in which light bends around the side of a hole. But this outer
light can also be explained as light reflected off the inside surface of the

Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1726) The period of a Mars day is measured as 24 hours and 40 minutes.
Bologna, Italy  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1776) The first blood transfusion is performed.
London?, England  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1799) The wave theory of light is firmly established by Robert Hooke, with the
medium being a fluid between the stars associated with the ancient concept of
aether. In this view light is analogous to sound: a motion that results from
the collisions of many transparent material particles of a medium.

Hooke also uses the
word "cells" to describe tiny rectangular holes in a thin sliver of cork viewed
under a microscope, and publishes the first images of a microorganism (and

London, England  
334 YBN
[10/??/1666 AD]
1827) Calculus: differentiation is used to find the rate of change (or slope)
of an equation and integration is used to calculate the area or volume
described by an equation.

Cambridge, England  
332 YBN
[11/26/1668 AD]
3257) The equation Distance = velocity multiplied by Time is identified. In
addition the concept and equation of momentum (mass times velocity), and the
theory of the conservation of momentum is established. Note that conservation
of momentum may result from the separate conservation of mass and of motion.

London, England (presumably)  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1727) Jupiter's period of daily rotation of nine hours fifty-six minutes is
determined by observing the movement of spots in Jupiter's clouds.

(Observatory at) Panzano (near Bologna), Italy  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1736) The theory of "spontaneous regeneration" of flies from meat is disproven,
by proving that maggots only appear in meat placed in open vessels which flies
can land on, and not in closed vessels.

Florence, Italy (presumably)  
331 YBN
[03/18/1669 AD]
3258) The concept of energy (mass multiplied by velocity squared), and the
theory of conservation of energy is defined.

The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1735) The phenomenon of "double refraction" is observed. Objects viewed through
calcite are seen double which is explained as light being refracted at two
different angles. This may be the result of light particles reflecting off of
atoms in the two perpendicular planes within the crystal.

Copenhagen, Denmark  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1758) The first detailed description of invertebrate anatomy.
Bologna, Italy  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1774) The element Phosphorus is identified as a heavy glowing liquid obtained
by distilling a red oil distilled from urine with carbon.

Hamburg, Germany (presumably)  
329 YBN
[1671 AD]
1854) A calculating machine that can add, subtract, multiply and divide is

Mainz, Germany  
329 YBN
[1671 AD]
2119) The element Hydrogen is identified when released by mixing iron filings
with acids, and is found to be flammable.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
328 YBN
[02/19/1672 AD]
1829) The corpuscular theory of light is firmly established by Isaac Newton. In
this view light is thought to be made of material particles that move through
any medium. Newton shows that color is a property of light, not of objects.
Newton also separates white light into primary colors and recombines primary
colors to form white light. Newton also shows that light of different colors
refract at different angles.

Cambridge, England  
328 YBN
[1672 AD]
1731) The scale of our star system is measured using the parallax of Mars to
measure the distance from Earth to Mars which provides a scale to calculate the
distance to the other planets.

Paris, France;Guiana, South America  
327 YBN
[1673 AD]
3377) The combustion of gun powder is used to create a vacuum.
Paris, France (presumably)  
326 YBN
[1674 AD]
1825) The element Oxygen is identified.
Oxford, England  
325 YBN
[1675 AD]
1732) The space between the ring of Saturn is seen.
Paris, France  
324 YBN
[06/13/1676 AD]
1837) The binomial theorem is described: for any positive integer n, the nth
power of the sum of two numbers a and b may be expressed as the sum of n + 1

Cambridge, England   
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1851) The speed of light is shown to be finite and is measured by subtracting
the time it takes for the moon of Jupiter, Io to enter and exit the shadow of
Jupiter when the Earth is moving toward Jupiter, from the time it takes when
the Earth is moving away from Jupiter.

(Paris Observatory) Paris, France  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1870) The first observatory in the southern hemisphere.
Saint Helena  
323 YBN
[1677 AD]
1784) Sperm cells are first described.
Delft, Netherlands  
322 YBN
[06/25/1678 AD]
3862) The first woman to teach at a university after the collapse of science of
the 400s CE.

(University of Padua) Padua, Italy  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
1794) The helical spring.
London, England (presumably)|(if 1657:) Oxford, England (presumably)  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
1871) The first catalog of telescopically located southern hemisphere stars.
London, England (presumably)  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
3592) Direct neuron activation (or direct neuron writing). Jan Swammerdam (Yon
SVoMRDoM) contracts a muscle by making neurons fire using electricity. A frog
leg hanging from a silver wire twitches when a brass ring contacts it.

This electrical muscle movement will eventually lead to very precise remote
neuron stimulation.

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
321 YBN
[03/15/1679 AD]
1858) Binary numbers are established; the basis of all modern computers.
Hannover, Germany  
321 YBN
[1679 AD]
1863) The first pressure cooker. Water boiled in an air-tight container raises
the pressure in the container, which raises the boiling point of water allowing
food to cook faster. A safety value prevents explosions.

London, England  
318 YBN
[03/03/1682 AD]
1788) The cell nucleus is described.
Delft, Netherlands  
317 YBN
[09/12/1683 AD]
1785) The first picture of bacteria.
Delft, Netherlands  
315 YBN
[1685 AD]
3348) A portable pin-hole camera.
(Würzburg praemonstrantensian monastery) Würzburg, Germany  
313 YBN
[1687 AD]
1845) The law of gravitation by Isaac Newton; that all matter attracts other
matter with a force that is the product of their masses, and the inverse of
their distance squared.

Newton clearly distinguishes between mass and weight, viewing mass as the
quantity of matter contained in a body, and defines a force as the product of
mass and acceleration (F=ma).

Newton shows that the acceleration on any mass from a second mass due to
gravity can be calculated as the mass of the second object divided by the
distance between the two objects squared and theorizes that even light
particles are affected by gravity.

Cambridge, England (presumably)  
313 YBN
[1687 AD]
3895) That a mite causes scabies, a skin inflammation, is proven, and the mite
first seen with a microscope.

Livorno, Italy  
310 YBN
[1690 AD]
1200) A gear-cutting machine (a machine for cutting gears out of cylinders of

310 YBN
[1690 AD]
1864) The steam engine is reinvented; a pump with a piston is raised by steam.
Leipzig, Germany  
306 YBN
[1694 AD]
1888) A water wheel is used to lift ore from a mine.
(Falun Mine) Blankstoten, Sweden  
305 YBN
[1695 AD]
3260) The quantity mass times velocity squared is named "vis-visa" ("the living
force"), and the theory that vis-visa, not momentum is the quantity always

Hannover, Germany (presumably)  
303 YBN
[1697 AD]
1885) The "phlogiston {Flo-JiS-ToN} theory" of combustion. Phlogiston is
thought to be the combustible element in substances.

Halle, Germany  
302 YBN
[1698 AD]
1777) The size and distance of other stars is measured by comparing the
apparent size of Sirius to a fractional portion of the Sun.

The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
301 YBN
[1699 AD]
2008) The theory that color is determined by the frequency of light.
Paris, France  
300 YBN
[07/11/1700 AD]
1857) The "Akademie der Wissenschaften" (Academy of Sciences) is established in

Berlin, Germany  
300 YBN
[1700 AD]
3593) A frog muscle is caused to move by rubbing a cut nerve with a scalpel.
Paris, France (presumably)  
300 YBN
[1700 AD]
6251) The pianoforte (or piano) is invented.
Florence, Italy  
298 YBN
[06/28/1702 AD]
1892) That liquids such as water always boil at the same temperature is

Paris, France (presumably)  
295 YBN
[1705 AD]
1872) The path of a comet is correctly calculated.
London, England (presumably)  
292 YBN
[1708 AD]
4481) Light rays are shown to move low-mass objects.
Paris, France  
290 YBN
[1710 AD]
3773) The first theory of relativity; that a motion requires at least two
bodies, as opposed to the theory of absolute space, time, and motion.

(Trinity College) Dublin, Ireland  
287 YBN
[03/28/1713 AD]
6594) The mass and density of the planets are determined and the theory that
the Universe is made of mostly empty space by Newton.

Newton calculates the mass of Jupiter to be around 1/1000th the mass of the
Sun, Saturn around 1/2000th, and the Earth to be 1/200000th.

Newton estimates the density of Earth to be about 4 times the density of the
Sun, Jupiter 3/4 the density, and Saturn only 1/2 the density.

Newton allows that gravitational attraction may arise as a result of emissions
from the bodies themselves, or by the action of a material medium.

Newton also recognizes that the Sun is moved by the gravity of the other

(Dabam) London, England  
286 YBN
[1714 AD]
1925) A thermometer that uses mercury and the Fahrenheit temperature scale.
That boiling point changes with change in pressure is recognized.

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
282 YBN
[1718 AD]
1876) The movement of the stars over long periods of time is proven. This adds
proof against the ancient claim that the stars are fixed on a celestial sphere.

280 YBN
[1720 AD]
6650) The theory that space is mostly dark because other stars are too far away
for light emitting from them to be going in our direction.

275 YBN
[1725 AD]
3604) A machine uses a perforated roll of paper to form patterns in textiles.

Perforated paper is the basis for early mechanical computers, and perforated

Lyon, France  
274 YBN
[1726 AD]
3381) "Coal gas", a flammable gas made mostly of hydrogen, methane and carbon
monoxide is produced by distillation of coal.

Teddington, England (presumably)  
271 YBN
[1729 AD]
1957) That electricity can flow in silk and metal is discovered.
London, England  
267 YBN
[12/27/1733 AD]
1965) The theory that electricity is made of two different fluids; "vitreous"
and "resinous".

Paris, France  
265 YBN
[1735 AD]
1996) Life of Earth, including the human species, is systematically categorized
by Carolus Linnaeus (lin Aus).

264 YBN
[1736 AD]
1923) Substances that can conduct a flow of electricity are called "conductors"
and those that cannot are called "insulators".

London, England  
264 YBN
[1736 AD]
1966) That the Earth is an oblate spheroid (a sphere flattened at the poles) is

262 YBN
[1738 AD]
1971) The kinetic theory of gases and heat. Pressure is explained as the impact
of molecules on a surface. Pressure and motion are shown to increase with

Basel, Switzerland (presumably)| (published in ) Strasbourg  
260 YBN
[1740 AD]
2019) That phosphorus gains weight when burned (now known as oxidation) is
found. This conflicts with the phlogiston theory.

Berlin, Germany (presumably)  
260 YBN
[1740 AD]
2067) Parthenogenesis (reproduction without fertilization) is conclusively
proven; in female aphids.

Geneva?, Switzerland (presumably)  
258 YBN
[1742 AD]
1975) The Celsius (or centigrade) temperature scale is invented; the freezing
and boiling point of water are divided into 100 degrees.

Uppsala, Sweden (presumably)  
257 YBN
[1743 AD]
1976) The first philosophical society in America, "the American Philosophical
Society" is formed.

Philadelphia, Pennsylviania, (English Colonies) USA  
256 YBN
[1744 AD]
2121) An electric spark is used to ignite a flammable liquid; ether.
255 YBN
[03/27/1745 AD]
1244) An electric spark ignites black powder.
255 YBN
[11/04/1745 AD]
1972) The storage of electricity. The first electric memory and capacitor
(commonly called the Leyden jar).

A Leyden jar is a glass bottle holding water that can store electricity and
give the holder of the bottle a large electric shock.

(University of Wittenburg) Wittenburg, Germany(was for von Kleist: Pomerania?,
Prussia) (coast of Baltic Sea between Germany and Poland)  
255 YBN
[1745 AD]
2966) An electrostatic motor.

A clapper swings back and forth between two bells of oppositely charged
glasses, causing a ring on contact with each, until the charge is gone.

(University of Erfurt) Erfurt, Germany  
254 YBN
[1746 AD]
2953) The theory that electricity is made of two streams of electrical fluid
that move in opposite directions.

Paris, France (presumably)  
254 YBN
[1746 AD]
2968) That electricity in an electrostatic generator comes from the ground and
not the sphere is proven.

London, England  
253 YBN
[07/11/1747 AD]
1981) The theory that electricity is a single fluid, and that lightning is

Philadelphia, PA (English colonies) USA (letter to London, England)  
253 YBN
[1747 AD]
2055) Citris fruits are proven to cure scurvy in one of the earliest clinical

253 YBN
[1747 AD]
3452) The basis of refrigeration is understood. That evaporating liquids
produces cold is recognized.

(Academy of Petersburg) Petersburg, Russia  
252 YBN
[02/14/1748 AD]
1932) The phenomenon of "nutation", that the apparent declination of some stars
changes annually because of the movement of the nodes of the Moon's orbit
around the Earth.

Kew, England  
252 YBN
[1748 AD]
2954) Osmosis is described (the spontaneous passage or diffusion of water or
some other solvent through a semipermeable membrane).

Paris, France (presumably)  
252 YBN
[1748 AD]
4537) That irregularities in the motions of satellites occur because the bodies
they orbit are not perfectly spherical is recognized.

Berlin, Germany  
251 YBN
[04/29/1749 AD]
2971) That the electric charge is stored in the glass of a Leyden jar is

Philadelphia, Pennsylviania, (English Colonies) USA  
250 YBN
[1750 AD]
2025) The theory that the Sun is not the center of the universe, and that the
Milky Way is flattened.

249 YBN
[1751 AD]
2047) Diderot's (DEDrO) twenty-eight volume encyclopedia.
Paris, France  
248 YBN
[01/03/1752 AD]
2009) The different spectra of an alcohol flame colored by various salts is

Edinburgh, Scotland  
248 YBN
[02/20/1752 AD]
2976) A spark is passed through a vacuum tube.
London, England  
248 YBN
[1752 AD]
1922) Digestion of food is proven to be chemical and not mechanical; small
metal cylinders with food inside are regurgitated by birds with partially
digested food.

Paris, France (presumably)  
248 YBN
[1752 AD]
1983) Lightning is proven to be electricity by charging a Leyden jar with
electricity from the sky using a kite.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (presumably)  
247 YBN
[12/??/1753 AD]
2972) Electrostatic induction is identified: that an electrified object can
induce an opposite charge in a second object just by being close.

London, England  
247 YBN
[1753 AD]
2957) That air can hold electricity is discovered.
London, England  
245 YBN
[01/25/1755 AD]
1370) Moscow State University is founded.
Moscow, Russia  
245 YBN
[06/05/1755 AD]
2089) Carbon dioxide is isolated; when released by mixing magnesium oxide with
an acid.

Edinburgh, Scotland  
245 YBN
[1755 AD]
2072) The nebular hypothesis, that the star system formed as a result of the
gravitational interaction of atoms, that the Milky Way is a lens shaped
collection of stars, and that other such "island universes" exist.

Königsberg, Germany  
242 YBN
[1758 AD]
3649) The first color specification based on the painters' three primary colors
(red, yellow, and blue).

(lecture at U of Göttingen) Göttingen, Germany  
241 YBN
[1759 AD]
2141) The theory that specialized organs arise out of unspecialized tissue in
the embryo is introduced and will replace the theory that a body is preformed
in the egg or sperm.

Halle, Germany  
241 YBN
[1759 AD]
3011) The electrical inverse distance squared law. The theory that electrical
attraction and repulsion between charged bodies decreases by the inverse of the
distance between them squared.

St. Petersberg, Russia  
240 YBN
[1760 AD]
2074) Locating the center of an earthquake by recording the time when the
earthquake is felt in different places is described.

Cambridge, England  
240 YBN
[1760 AD]
2122) Electrolysis. Molecules are split using electricity. Water is separated
into hydrogen and oxygen gases by passing electricity through water.

Turin, Italy  
237 YBN
[1763 AD]
2080) That valleys are formed by streams that run through them is understood,
and that all rocks are not sedimentary is proven because basalt is shown to be
formed by volcanoes (has an igneous origin).

236 YBN
[05/08/1764 AD]
6589) A globular cluster is recognized as a group of stars.
Paris, France  
234 YBN
[05/29/1766 AD]
2113) Hydrogen gas is isolated by dissolving metals in acids and collecting the
gas released in bottles inverted over water or mercury.

London, England  
232 YBN
[1768 AD]
2667) The first Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Edinburgh, Scotland  
232 YBN
[1768 AD]
4482) That light particles do not appear to interfere or collide with each
other is recognized.

London, England  
231 YBN
[1769 AD]
1206) The first self-propelled vehicle. A steam-engine powered automobile.
231 YBN
[1769 AD]
2069) The theory that fossils that resemble no living creature may have been
animals that went extinct.

Geneva?, Switzerland (presumably)  
229 YBN
[1771 AD]
2118) That quantity of charge equals electric potential times capacity is

London, England  
228 YBN
[06/04/1772 AD]
2138) Carbon dioxide gas is dissolved in water which is the beginning of the
soda-water industry.

Leeds, England  
228 YBN
[06/04/1772 AD]
6495) Five new gases are identified and isolated (including nitrous oxide and
carbon monoxide). That some gases cannot be collected over water because they
are soluble in water, but can be collected over mercury is realized.

Leeds, England|(does not move to Calne until 1773)  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2076) The theory that gravity must change the speed of light particles, that a
mass may be so large that light particles cannot escape it, and that the force
that causes light to be emitted from luminous bodies is much higher than the
force of gravity at the surface of the Sun.

Thornhill, Yorkshire, England  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2140) The mass of a light particle is measured to be around 10 nanograms.
Leeds, England  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2172) The inverse square law of gravitation is applied to chemical forces of

Dijon, France  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2285) Nitrogen gas is isolated.
Edinburgh, Scotland  
226 YBN
[08/01/1774 AD]
2139) Oxygen gas is isolated by collecting the gas emitted by heating mercury

Calne, England  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2111) The first catalog of Messier objects, celestial objects which include
nebulae and star clusters.

Paris, France (presumably)  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2200) The element chlorine is isolated, as a gas, using hydrochloric acid on
manganese dioxide.

Uppsala, Sweden  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2216) Combustion is shown to be a reaction with a gas in the air (later named
oxygen). Material in the air is shown to combine with metals when heated, which
will end the phlogiston theory of combustion, and demonstrates the conservation
of mass.

Paris, France (presumably)  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2664) The earliest telegraph.
Switzerland (presumably)  
223 YBN
[1777 AD]
2201) Eleven new acids are identified (including citric and lactic), in
addition to the identification of casein, aldehyde, and glycerol. The effect of
light on silver compounds is also described, which 50 years later will be used
in the development of photography.

(starts phramacy position in 1777 in) Uppsala, Sweden  
222 YBN
[1778 AD]
1209) A threshing machine: a farm machine that separates seeds from plants.
Houston Mill, near Dunbar, East Lothian, Scotland  
222 YBN
[1778 AD]
2248) Methane gas is discovered and isolated.
Como, Italy  
219 YBN
[03/13/1781 AD]
2840) Planet Uranus is identified.

This is the first new planet to be discovered since prehistoric times.

Bath, England  
219 YBN
[1781 AD]
2208) That the shape of crystals implies their chemical composition is

Paris, France (presumably)  
218 YBN
[11/??/1782 AD]
2348) Periodic variations in the intensity of the light from variable stars is
explained as the star being eclipsed by a darker companion body.

York Minster, England  
218 YBN
[1782 AD]
2220) The theory that respiration is a combustion process that accounts for
animal heat.

Paris, France (presumably)  
218 YBN
[1782 AD]
6608) The first sewer (a drain used to carry away surface water or sewage) to
be installed under the streets.

New York City, New York, USA  
217 YBN
[02/01/1783 AD]
2183) The motion of the Sun relative to the other stars is recognized; the Sun
is found to be moving towards the constellation Hercules.

Datchet, near Winsor, England|(Slough, England)  
217 YBN
[06/04/1783 AD]
2192) The hot air balloon.
Annonay, France  
217 YBN
[07/15/1783 AD]
2206) A steam engine boat.
Saône River, near Lyon, France  
217 YBN
[11/21/1783 AD]
2194) Human flight by balloon.
Paris, France  
217 YBN
[1783 AD]
2114) The density of gases is measured by measuring the weight of particular
volumes of gas.

London, England  
216 YBN
[01/15/1784 AD]
2115) Water is shown to be a compound, not an element. The fusion of molecules
using electricity.

Water is produced by burning hydrogen gas in oxygen gas with an electric spark.
This shows that water is a combination of two gases, hydrogen and oxygen, and
not an element as was thought for centuries.

London, England  
216 YBN
[1784 AD]
2180) That some nebulae contain stars is observed, and nebulae are thought to
be very large and distant collections of stars.

Datchet, England  
216 YBN
[1784 AD]
2259) The first gas is liquefied, sulfur dioxide.
(École du génie) Angers, France  
215 YBN
[02/17/1785 AD]
3463) The earliest "diffraction" grating; constructed using hair.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA  
215 YBN
[06/02/1785 AD]
2116) Air is shown to be a mixture of gases, and not a single element by
showing that nitric acid is produced by sparking air. Air is found to be made
of around 4 parts nitrogen to 1 part oxygen.

London, England  
215 YBN
[1785 AD]
2107) The first artificial insemination (impregnating an organism by injecting
semen into the vagina).

Pavia, Italy (presumably)  
215 YBN
[1785 AD]
2168) Electric and magnetic attraction and repulsion are proven to be both
proportional to amount of charge and inversely proportional to distance

Paris?, France (presumably)  
213 YBN
[07/28/1787 AD]
6595) The earliest iron ship.
Birmingham, England  
213 YBN
[08/27/1787 AD]
2265) That volume and temperature of a gas are inversely related is known. In
addition, for each degree Centigrade rise in temperature, the volume of a gas
is found to expand by 1/273 parts of its volume at 0˚ Celsius, which implies
that at a temperature of -273˚ Celsius the volume of a gas would reach 0, and
that there can be no lower temperature.

Paris, France (presumably)  
211 YBN
[1789 AD]
2222) Light is listed as the most simple element on the first list of the known

Paris, France (presumably)  
210 YBN
[1790 AD]
3271) A sewing machine.
209 YBN
[04/??/1791 AD]
2295) That all objects emit heat and that heat always moves from a hot body to
a cold body is known.

209 YBN
[1791 AD]
2175) Remote neuron activation (or remote neuron writing) by Luigi Galvani. A
muscle is contracted remotely by using a remote electric spark while metal is
connected to the nerve.

Bologna, Italy  
208 YBN
[1792 AD]
2312) Coal gas is used to light a house.
Redruth, Cornwall, England  
208 YBN
[1792 AD]
2343) That acids and bases neutralize each other in fixed proportions is shown.
Gross-Ober-Tschirnau, near Glogau, in Lower Silesia, Prussia (presumably)  
207 YBN
[1793 AD]
2372) That the amount of water vapor the air can hold rises with temperature is

Manchester, England  
206 YBN
[1794 AD]
2085) The theory of natural selection: that species less adapted are more
likely to die while those better adapted will continue and multiply.

Edinburgh, Scotland (presumably)  
204 YBN
[07/01/1796 AD]
2280) Immunity by vaccination is proven: that having cow pox disease provides
immunity from the more severe small pox disease is confirmed.

Berkeley, England (presumably)  
204 YBN
[1796 AD]
2330) That different parts of the brain control different parts of the body is

Vienna, Germany  
203 YBN
[1797 AD]
2338) Marble is produced by melting and quickly cooling limestone (which is
calcium carbonate).

202 YBN
[1798 AD]
2117) The gravitational constant, the mass, and the density of the Earth are

London, England  
201 YBN
[1799 AD]
2283) The metric system.
201 YBN
[1799 AD]
2315) Elements are shown to combine in definite proportions.
Segovia, Spain  
200 YBN
[03/20/1800 AD]
2250) The electric battery (or voltaic pile) is invented: stacks of alternating
silver and zinc plates, each separated by a moist pad produce a large electric
force when the opposite ends are connected with a conductor.

This battery provides a continuous source of electrical current.

Pavia, Italy  
200 YBN
[03/27/1800 AD]
2179) Invisible light is recognized: an invisible portion of the spectrum of
light beyond the color red (later named infrared) is found to heat up a
thermometer more than any other color.

Slough, England  
200 YBN
[06/27/1800 AD]
3254) The change in temperature caused by compressing and expanding air is

Manchester, England  
200 YBN
[06/??/1800 AD]
3597) That electricity in water mixed with litmus is colored blue around the
silver electrode and red around the zinc electrode is found. Litmus is a
material obtained from certain lichens that turns blue in in alkaline solution
and red in acid solution.

(Royal Military Academy at Woolwich) Woolwich, England  
200 YBN
[09/17/1800 AD]
2436) Hydrogen and oxygen gas are collected separately from the electrolysis of

Jena, Germany (presumably)  
200 YBN
[11/??/1800 AD]
2437) Electroplating is discovered: by passing electric current through a
solution of copper sulfate, metallic copper can be made to cover (or plate) a
conductive object that is used as an electrode.

Jena, Germany (presumably)  
199 YBN
[01/01/1801 AD]
2261) The first known asteroid (and minor planet), Ceres {SErEZ}, is

Palermo, Sicily  
199 YBN
[02/22/1801 AD]
2167) The invisible light, ultra-violet light is discovered: an invisible part
of the spectrum of light beyond the violet part causes a silver chloride
chemical reaction more strongly than any other part of the spectrum.

Jena, Germany (presumably)  
199 YBN
[11/12/1801 AD]
2405) The frequencies and wavelengths (or particle intervals) of light are
determined and the theory of light interference: that two light waves can add
to each other or cancel each other out, similar to two sound waves. The first
glass diffraction gratings are in use.

London, England  
199 YBN
[12/10/1801 AD]
2508) The first oxygen-hydrogen torch and gas torch welding.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  
199 YBN
[1801 AD]
2374) The law of partial pressures: that each component of a mixture of gases
exerts the same pressure that it would exert if it alone occupied the whole
volume of the mixture, at the same temperature.

Manchester, England  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2365) Spectral lines are identified as dark lines in the spectrum of a ray of
light from the Sun.

London, England  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2439) The first dry electric battery.
Gotha, Germany  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2464) That different gases all expand by equal amounts with rise in temperature
is discovered.

Arcueil, France (presumably)  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
6609) The first water distribution system of a city; Philadelphia.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA  
197 YBN
[10/21/1803 AD]
2375) That atoms of different elements vary in size and mass is shown, and the
first table of elements by atomic mass with Hydrogen assigned a value of 1.

Manchester, England  
197 YBN
[1803 AD]
2400) The steam engine railway train.
South Wales, England  
196 YBN
[12/20/1804 AD]
6506) The size of an atom is estimated to be around a nanometer.
London, England (presumably)  
196 YBN
[1804 AD]
6519) There are 1 billion humans on Earth.
195 YBN
[1805 AD]
3223) The first percussion ignition gun.
Belhelvie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland (presumably)  
195 YBN
[1805 AD]
6249) The first refrigeration machine: ether is expanded into a vacuum to lower
the temperature inside a refrigerator, then compressed to raise the temperature
outside the refrigerator, and this process is then repeated.

Philadelphia, PA, USA  
194 YBN
[11/20/1806 AD]
2474) The theory that chemical combination occurs between substances of
opposite charge.

London, England  
194 YBN
[1806 AD]
2346) Asparagine {e-SPAR-e-JEN}, the first amino acid, is isolated.
Paris, France  
193 YBN
[1807 AD]
2313) Streets are lit with gas lighting; in London.
London, England  
192 YBN
[1808 AD]
2428) The phenomenon of light "polarization" is observed: an image of sun light
reflected from a window that passes through calcite is found to produce only
one image instead of the usual two images from double refraction.

Paris, France  
191 YBN
[11/15/1809 AD]
6606) Electric arc welding and an electric arc furnace: a metal (aluminum) is
melted using electricity.

London, England  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2466) Gases are shown to combine in small whole number ratios by volume and not
by mass (as long as temperature and pressure are constant). For example, two
parts of hydrogen unite with one part nitrogen to form ammonia.

Paris, France (presumably)  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2481) The first electric light; the arc lamp.
London, England  
190 YBN
[1810 AD]
2480) Chlorine is shown to support combustion like oxygen does, and Hydrogen is
shown to be characteristic of acids.

London, England  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
2380) "Fourier's theorem": that any periodic oscillation can be reduced to a
sum of simple sinusoidal waves.

Grenoble, France  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
2432) The concept of molecules, and the method to determine correct atomic mass
and molecular formula. By presuming that the distance between molecules does
not vary, equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure must
contain the same number of molecules.

Vercelli, Italy  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
2564) That fats are combinations of glycerol and fatty acids is recognized.
Paris, France (presumably)  
186 YBN
[1814 AD]
2571) The spectroscope. That substances emit specific spectral lines is known.
The spectrum of planet Venus is found to have the same absorption lines as the
Sun, and the spectrum of other stars are found to have absorption lines that
are different from those of the Sun.

Benedictbeuern (near Munich), Germany  
185 YBN
[11/??/1815 AD]
2544) The theory that all atomic masses are multiples of the atomic mass of

London, England (presumably)  
185 YBN
[1815 AD]
2419) Optical isomers are discovered: chemically identical molecules that
rotate polarized light in different directions because of differences in their

Paris, France (presumably)  
185 YBN
[1815 AD]
2469) Chemical radicals are recognized: a group of atoms that take part in most
chemical reactions as a single unit, usually passing from one compound to
another but incapable of existing freely for a long time.

Paris, France (presumably)  
184 YBN
[1816 AD]
2384) That strata layers can be recognized by the kinds of fossils in them is

183 YBN
[01/12/1817 AD]
2408) The theory that light is a transverse wave (oscillates at a right angle
to the direction of travel) in an aether medium. This theory is used to explain
light polarization as the alignment of light waves oscillating in the same
But polarization can also be explained as "planarization", in which light is
filtered into parallel planes when reflected.

London, England  
183 YBN
[1817 AD]
2600) The theory that chemicals contain light.
Heidelberg, Germany  
182 YBN
[1818 AD]
2790) That fungi originate from spores is proven.
Berlin, Germany  
180 YBN
[04/21/1820 AD]
2454) Electricity is understood to cause magnetism, and the first
electromagnet; electric current running through a wire causes a magnetic
compass needle to move.

Copenhagen, Denmark  
180 YBN
[09/18/1820 AD]
2423) The direction of electric current in a wire is related to magnetic

If the right hand holds a wire with the thumb pointing from positive to
negative, the fingers indicate the direction the north pole of a magnet will be

Paris, France  
180 YBN
[09/25/1820 AD]
2424) Magnetism is identified as electricity; that electric current runs
through a permanent magnet. In addition two parallel wires are found to attract
each other when carrying current in the same direction, and repel each other
when carrying current in opposite directions.

Paris, France  
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
2486) The electric current meter: a needle is deflected to measure a current;
wrapping a wire several turns around the needle is found to increase the

Halle, Germany  
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
2505) The continent of Antarctica is discovered.
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
3374) The first gas combustion engine. This engine uses hydrogen gas combustion
to create a vacuum.

(Magdalen College) Cambridge, England  
179 YBN
[07/05/1821 AD]
2883) Electrical current in air and in a vacuum is moved by a magnet.
London, England  
179 YBN
[09/11/1821 AD]
2701) The dynamic electric motor. This electric motor creates sustained
mechanical motion from electricity, and is based on the principle that like
poles of a magnet repel one another.

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
179 YBN
[1821 AD]
2397) Thermoelectricity (or the Seebeck (ZABeK) effect) is discovered: that an
electric current flows between different conductive materials that are kept at
different temperatures.
This is the basis of the thermocouple {tr-mO-KuPL} and thermopile

Berlin, Germany  
177 YBN
[06/14/1823 AD]
3297) The grating equation, nλ=Dsinθ is established. This equation equates
wavelength (or particle interval) of light to the grating groove spacing and
the angle between the spectral line and the perpendicular to the grating. This
equation is then used to calculate wavelengths of light from a diffraction
grating for the first time.

Benedictbeuern (near Munich), Germany (presumably)  
175 YBN
[1825 AD]
2526) The first practical electromagnet (also known as an inductor). This
electromagnet can support more than it's own weight.

Surrey, England (presumably)  
174 YBN
[03/??/1826 AD]
3454) That the spectrum of a flame can be used to detect the presence of
chemical compounds is understood.

London, England  
174 YBN
[07/31/1826 AD]
3440) The phenomenon of electrical oscillation is discovered (the basis of
alternating current and radio communication).

(Bureau des Longitudes) Paris, France (presumably)  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
2355) The first permanent photograph and photograph reproduction process. A
pewter plate is coated with asphalt which hardens on exposure to light, the
unhardened areas are removed with oil of lavender mixed with petroleum jelly.
Prints of the image can then be made on a press.

Chalon-sur-Saône, France  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
3384) A gas combustion vacuum engine car and boat.
London, England  
173 YBN
[05/01/1827 AD]
2606) The concept of electrical resistance, and "Ohm's law": that current is
equal to voltage divided by resistance.

Berlin, Germany (written in Cologne?)  
173 YBN
[1827 AD]
2724) The mammal egg, the ovum, is discovered.
(Königsberg now) Kaliningrad, Russia  
173 YBN
[1827 AD]
2774) That the wavelength (or particle interval) of light of a given spectral
line can be used as a standard of length is realized.

Paris, France  
173 YBN
[1827 AD]
3591) The earliest electric printer. A spark is passed through a rotating strip
of litmus paper which, by the formation of nitric acid, leaves a red dot.

New York City NY (presumably)  
173 YBN
[1827 AD]
6599) Roads are paved with asphalt.
(Pont Moraud Bridge) Lyons, France|France|(A bridge in) Paris, France  
172 YBN
[02/??/1828 AD]
2857) The first "organic" molecule (urea) is produced from inorganic sources.
(Berlin Gewerbeschule (trade school)) Berlin, Germany  
172 YBN
[06/??/1828 AD]
2805) Insulated electric wire.
Albany, NY, USA  
171 YBN
[03/27/1829 AD]
2844) Electric current is produced by moving a wire near a magnet; the
phenomenon of dynamic electrical induction.

Pavia, Italy  
171 YBN
[1829 AD]
2735) The terms "kinetic energy" (as E=½mv²) and "work" (as W=Fd) are

Paris, France  
171 YBN
[1829 AD]
2767) The theory that space in the universe might be curved while only
appearing to be straight. The start of "Non-Euclidean" geometry; a geometry
where one or more of Euclid's postulates is supposed to be false. That angles
in a triangle made of curved lines may not add to pi as one of Euclid's
postulates requires is demonstrated.

Kazan, Russia  
170 YBN
[1830 AD]
2624) The practice of blood-letting is denounced.
London, England (presumably)  
170 YBN
[1830 AD]
4003) The first sound recordings. Sound vibrations are recorded by a tuning
fork moving an attached whisker onto a sooted glass plate.

(University of) Göttingen, Germany  
169 YBN
[02/17/1831 AD]
2702) The electrical transformer: a device used to transfer electricity from
one circuit to another, in particular a pair of wire coils that can be used to
transfer electricity with a change in voltage, current, or phase.

A primary coil is found to cause current in an unconnected secondary coil, but
only when the primary current is switched on or off, and not during a constant

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
169 YBN
[09/??/1831 AD]
2705) The (dynamic) electric generator (or "dynamo"). By mechanically moving a
conductor near a magnet, a constant electric current is produced.

Now a steam engine or water power can be used to produce electricity. The
generator creates a large and low cost supply of electric current.

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
169 YBN
[10/??/1831 AD]
6601) A heat sensor that can detect heat from a person 25 feet (or 7 meters)

Naples, Italy  
169 YBN
[1831 AD]
2496) The occurrence of different compounds with the same chemical composition
is named "isomerism" {I-SoM-e-riZM}.

Stokholm, Sweden (presumably)  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2514) The first plastic materials, made of nitrocellulose, are created by
treating starch, sawdust, and cotton with nitric acid.

Nancy, France  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2717) The alternating electric current (or AC) generator.
Paris, France  
166 YBN
[01/01/1834 AD]
1247) A mechanical reaper; a machine that cuts grain.
Rockbridge County, Virginia, USA  
166 YBN
[01/09/1834 AD]
2704) The laws of electrolysis: the mass of a substance deposited on an
electrode is in proportion to the quantity of electricity, and to the atomic
mass of the element liberated.

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
166 YBN
[06/19/1834 AD]
2899) The speed of electricity in wire is measured using a rotating mirror.
(King's College) London, England  
166 YBN
[1834 AD]
2741) A programmable mechanical calculating machine that uses punch card
programs, with looping, iteration, and conditional branching is designed.

Cambridge, England (presumably)  
166 YBN
[1834 AD]
2758) The first computer program.
Cambridge, England (presumably)  
166 YBN
[1834 AD]
2851) Methyl alcohol (methanol) is discovered by distilling wood.
(Ecole Polytechnique) Paris, France (presumably)  
165 YBN
[01/19/1835 AD]
3459) That infrared light (or "heat rays") can be reflected and polarized is

(University of Edinburgh) Edinburgh, Scotland  
165 YBN
[02/06/1835 AD]
2810) The electrical relay, a device that allows the electric current of
telegraph signals to be carried over long distances.

Princeton, NJ, USA  
165 YBN
[1835 AD]
3300) The process of silvering objects (like mirrors) by chemical reduction of
a silver nitrate solution with an aldehyde.

(University of Giessen), Giessen, Germany  
164 YBN
[02/09/1836 AD]
6602) The nerve cell, or neuron, is first identified.
(Breslau now:) Wrocław, Poland (presumably)  
164 YBN
[1836 AD]
2813) A high voltage induction coil that can reach 600,000 volts, far above any
voltage that can be generated with a voltaic pile.

Maynooth, Ireland  
164 YBN
[1836 AD]
2926) A screw propeller that replaces the paddle wheel.
London, England (presumably)  
163 YBN
[07/??/1837 AD]
3995) The principle of the electric speaker; that an iron bar emits sounds that
correspond to the number of currents that rapidly magnetize and demagnetize it.

Salem, Massachusetts, USA  
162 YBN
[12/??/1838 AD]
3103) The basis of the fuel-cell battery: the chemical union of hydrogen and
oxygen gas in acidified water caused by platinum that generates electricity.

(University of Basel) Basel, Switzerland  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2500) The occurrence of different forms of the same element is named
"allotropy" {u-lo-Tro-PE}.

Stokholm, Sweden (presumably)  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2540) The parallax of a different star is measured, by comparing the position
of 61 Cygni {SiG-nI}, to two other more distant stars during the course of a
year. After correcting for the proper motion, the star appears to move in an
ellipse every year which is due to parallax.

Königsberg, (Prussia now:) Germany  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2934) The first cell theory: that all plants are made of cells.
(University of Jena) Jena, Germany  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
3386) The direct-acting gas combustion engine; a cylinder is directly moved by
the explosion.

?, England  
161 YBN
[07/29/1839 AD]
3308) Light is converted into electricity (the photoelectric or photovoltaic
effect). This is the first photovoltaic (or "solar") cell. Sunlight contacting
metal electrodes that are immersed in a liquid electrolyte (such as ferric
chloride mixed with ether) produces a very small electric current.

(University of Paris) Paris, France  
161 YBN
[1839 AD]
3072) Cell theory is extended to all animals and plants.
(University of Louvain) Louvain, Belgium  
161 YBN
[1839 AD]
3137) The plastic polystyrene {Po-lE-STI-rEN} is discovered; the first recorded
polymerization {Pu-liMR-u-ZA-suN}.

Berlin, Germany  
160 YBN
[03/12/1840 AD]
3875) Infrared spectral lines are identified.
London, England (presumably)  
160 YBN
[12/17/1840 AD]
3238) The heat created by electrical current is found to equal the square of
the current multiplied by the resistance.

Broom Hill (near Manchester), England  
160 YBN
[1840 AD]
2921) The first chemical fertilizers. That loss of soil fertility is caused by
the consumption by plants of the minerals necessary for life such as sodium,
potassium, calcium, and phosphorus is recognized.

(University of Giessen), Giessen, Germany  
159 YBN
[01/11/1841 AD]
3600) An electric clock.
London, England  
159 YBN
[1841 AD]
3158) Cell division is described.
(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany (presumably)  
159 YBN
[1841 AD]
3190) The theory that the nucleus transmits inherited characteristics.
(University of Zurich) Zurich, Switzerland  
158 YBN
[03/30/1842 AD]
3171) The first use of an anesthetic for surgery; a person is made to lose
consciousness by inhaling ether before surgery in which a neck tumor is

Jefferson, Georgia  
158 YBN
[07/04/1842 AD]
5837) The "light fountain"; the basis of fiber optic communication.
Paris, France (presumably)  
158 YBN
[1842 AD]
2929) The Doppler effect: that frequency of light and sound is affected by the
relative motion of the source and observer.

(Prague Polytechnic, now Czech Technical University)Prague, Czech
157 YBN
[1843 AD]
6240) The first remote controlled wired explosive.
Paterson, New Jersey, USA (presumably)  
156 YBN
[1844 AD]
3093) The first photographs from a microscope.
(New York University) New York City, New York, USA  
155 YBN
[01/04/1845 AD]
2811) Sunspots are shown to be cooler than the rest of the Sun.
Princeton, NJ, USA  
155 YBN
[04/??/1845 AD]
2839) The spiral shape of other galaxies is recognized.
(Birr Castle) Parsonstown, Ireland  
155 YBN
[09/18/1845 AD]
2713) Plane polarized light is found to rotate when passing through glass
subjected to an electromagnetic field.

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
155 YBN
[1845 AD]
3401) The air filled tire.
London, England (presumably)  
154 YBN
[09/23/1846 AD]
3073) Planet Neptune is first observed.
Berlin, Germany (and Paris, France)  
154 YBN
[10/??/1846 AD]
3022) Mathematical equations are used to represent logical statements.
(University College) London, England  
154 YBN
[1846 AD]
2716) The theory that gravity propagates with a finite velocity.
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
154 YBN
[1846 AD]
2828) The liquid explosive nitroglycerine is created by slowly adding glycerine
to a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids.

Torino, Italy (presumably)  
153 YBN
[1847 AD]
3094) That all substances become incandescent (start to glow red) at the same
temperature (around 525ºC or 977ºF) is recognized.

(New York University) New York City, New York, USA  
153 YBN
[1847 AD]
3213) Antisepsis {aNTi-SeP-SiS} (washing hands in strong chemicals) is
introduced into the health practice.

(Vienna General Hospital) Vienna, (Austria now:) Germany  
153 YBN
[1847 AD]
3225) The percussion gun cartridge, a casing containing an explosive charge and
a bullet or shot.

Paris, France  
152 YBN
[06/05/1848 AD]
3477) The absolute temperature scale is created, with -273°C as absolute 0,
where all molecules stop moving.

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
152 YBN
[08/10/1848 AD]
2880) A constant high voltage from an induction coil is applied through
evacuated tubes filled with various gases.

London, England (presumably)  
151 YBN
[01/20/1849 AD]
3280) That two yellow lines missing in the spectrum of sunlight are emitted
from and also absorbed by an electric arc between coal electrodes is observed.

Paris, France (presumably)  
151 YBN
[07/23/1849 AD]
3290) The speed of light is measured using a terrestrial method. Light passes
between the teeth of a rapidly turning toothed disc on one hilltop, and
reflects off a mirror on another, 8 km (or 5 miles) away. If the disc turns
fast enough the reflected light passes through the next gap.

Paris, France  
151 YBN
[11/05/1849 AD]
3488) The first "organo-metallic" (or hydrocarbon-metallic) compounds. This is
the first time a metal atom is added to a hydrocarbon molecule: the new
compound zincmethyl is created when zinc and methyl are joined.

(Queenwood school) Hampshire, England  
150 YBN
[05/06/1850 AD]
3281) Light is shown to move more slowly in water than in air, and the speed of
light is shown to be inversely proportional to the index of refraction of the

Paris, France (presumably)  
150 YBN
[1850 AD]
3019) Ocean depths are mapped and the Atlantic ridge is discovered.
Washington, DC, USA  
150 YBN
[1850 AD]
3332) The speed of electricity in nerves is measured as 27 meters (or 90 feet)
per second.

(University of Königsberg) Königsberg, Germany  
149 YBN
[02/03/1851 AD]
3282) The rotation of the Earth around its own axis is proven experimentally
with a pendulum.

Paris, France (presumably)  
149 YBN
[09/29/1851 AD]
3292) The speed of light in water is shown to change depending on the motion of
the water.

Paris, France (presumably)  
148 YBN
[01/07/1852 AD]
6505) Electrolysis is performed on gases.
London, England (presumably)  
148 YBN
[05/10/1852 AD]
3489) The theory of "valence": that each type of atom has a fixed capacity for
combining with other atoms is created.

(Queenwood school) Hampshire, England  
148 YBN
[1852 AD]
3104) A practical passenger elevator with a safety device is invented.
Yonkers, NY, USA  
147 YBN
[02/16/1853 AD]
3143) The theory that a gas absorbs and emits light of the same frequencies.
(University of Uppsala) Uppsala, Sweden  
147 YBN
[1853 AD]
3312) The concept of energy is distinguished into "actual" and "potential"

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland, UK  
146 YBN
[1854 AD]
2945) The theory that an electrical mass will not be influenced by the
electrical force if moving with a velocity at least the speed of light.

(University of) Göttingen, Germany  
146 YBN
[1854 AD]
3111) That an epidemic of cholera is due to a transmittable agent in drinking
water is understood.

London, England  
146 YBN
[1854 AD]
3551) The first naturally occurring and artificial fats are synthesized by
combining glycerol and fatty acids.

(Collège de France) Paris, France  
144 YBN
[04/21/1856 AD]
3457) The bright D spectral lines in flames of hydrocarbons are shown to be
attributed to sodium, and the widespread occurrence of the D lines due to the
contamination of small amounts of sodium.

Edinburgh, Scotland  
144 YBN
[1856 AD]
3774) The first synthetic dyes are produced.
(Royal College of Chemistry) London, England  
143 YBN
[03/24/1857 AD]
3999) The earliest extant sound recording.
Paris, France  
143 YBN
[12/27/1857 AD]
2974) The luminescence of various gases in vacuum tubes under a high voltage is
observed, determined to be from the gases (not the electrodes), and the
spectrum of the light found to be specific to each gas.

(University of Bonn) Bonn, Germany  
143 YBN
[1857 AD]
3628) That mountain ranges are created by horizontal movements of the Earth's
crust is realized.

(University of Vienna) Vienna, Austria (now Germany)  
142 YBN
[07/01/1858 AD]
3033) The theory of evolution is popularized: the theory that life descends
from a single common ancestor, that many more organisms than can survive are
born, each with individual differences, and through a process of natural
selection, only the best adapted can survive to reproduce and pass on their
successful traits, while the less adapted die out.

Many religious people are shocked that humans and apes might have a common

(Linnean Society), London, England  
142 YBN
[08/16/1858 AD]
3305) The first transatlantic cable.
(Newfoundland to Ireland) Atlantic Ocean  
141 YBN
[08/27/1859 AD]
3264) The first modern oil well.
(near) Titusville, Pennsylvania, USA  
141 YBN
[10/20/1859 AD]
3087) The spectral lines emitted when a substance is burned are used to
determine the atomic composition of the substance. That each element emits and
absorbs light at the same specific frequencies is recognized.

The first element in the atmosphere of the Sun, sodium, is identified from the
two dark "D" lines in the Sun's spectrum, and the finding that a spectral
emission line can only be reversed to an absorption line when the absorber is
colder than the emitter.

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
141 YBN
[1859 AD]
3714) The first rechargeable battery; which is based on lead plates immersed in
sulfuric acid.

(Conservatory of Arts and Crafts) Paris, France  
140 YBN
[04/16/1860 AD]
3088) The element cesium is identified, the first element to be discovered

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
140 YBN
[04/??/1860 AD]
3458) The position of the spectral emission lines are found to be the same for
a variety of metals, independent of the molecular compound the metal is in, and
the heat source used.

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
140 YBN
[1860 AD]
3124) The atomic masses of some elements are found to be far from integral
values, which casts doubt on the theory that all elements are made of multiples
of hydrogen.

(Ecole Polytechnique) Paris, France (presumably)  
139 YBN
[06/??/1861 AD]
3462) By matching solar dark lines to the bright lines emitted by elements,
various metals are found to be in the atmosphere of the Sun, and others are
ruled out.

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
139 YBN
[10/26/1861 AD]
3997) The first microphone, speaker, and telephone is invented. Sound is
converted to electricity and back to sound again.

A microphone converts variations in sound (air pressure) into variations in
electric current, which can be carried over long distances in metal wire, and
then converted back into the air vibrations of sound using a speaker.

Sound can be sent farther as electric current in a wire than mechanically in
air and travels silently.

(built in workshop behind Reis's house and cabinet in Garnier's Institute,
Friedrichsdorf, demonstrated before Physical Society) Frankfort, Germany  
139 YBN
[11/07/1861 AD]
3493) That the spectrum of an element may change with change in temperature is
proven by showing that at high temperatures a blue line appears for lithium.

(St. Bartholomew's Hospital) London, England  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
2651) The first transcontinental telegraph line, connecting San Francisco to
the East Coast of the USA.

139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3015) The process of dialysis to separate different substances is invented.
(Mint) London, England  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3417) That some microorganisms are anaerobic (do not need oxygen) and others
are aerobic (need oxygen) is established.

(École Normale Supérieure) Paris, France  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3582) Organic chemistry is defined as merely the chemistry of carbon compounds
with no mention of living organisms.

(University of Ghent) Ghent, Belgium  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3645) The first color image is projected.
(King's College, exhibit at the Royal Institution) London, England  
138 YBN
[02/??/1862 AD]
3743) The spectra of metallic compounds are found to be different than the
spectra of the metals themselves.

(University of Berlin?) Berlin, Germany  
138 YBN
[11/04/1862 AD]
3219) The machine gun (or Gatling gun) is invented and can fire 200 bullets per
minute (around 3 bullets a second).

Indianapolis, Indiana (presumably)  
138 YBN
[1862 AD]
3306) A periodic table of elements.
(École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris) Paris, France  
138 YBN
[1862 AD]
3375) The first direct-acting internal combustion gas engine car.
Paris, France (presumably)  
138 YBN
[1862 AD]
3521) The absorption spectrum of a protein is described.
(University of Tübingen) Tübingen, Germany  
137 YBN
[02/19/1863 AD]
3427) Spectral lines from elements are matched to spectral lines from other

(Tulse Hill) London, England  
137 YBN
[1863 AD]
3414) The process of pasteurization: heating to kill microscopic organisms is
shown to stop fermented substances like wine and beer from going sour.

(École Normale Supérieure) Paris, France  
136 YBN
[02/23/1864 AD]
3466) Some substances are found to emit different spectra, depending on how
they are excited; by flame or electricity.

(University of Bonn) Bonn (and Münster), Germany  
136 YBN
[08/05/1864 AD]
3178) The spectrum of a comet is first described.
Florence, Italy  
136 YBN
[09/08/1864 AD]
3428) The spectra of nebulae and galaxies are seen. Unlike stars, nebulae are
shown to have no spectrum except for a few emission lines, and therefore to be
composed of gas by using spectral comparison.

The spectrum of the Andromeda galaxy and a globular cluster are both found to
have a continuous spectrum with absorption lines, similar to that of a star.

(Tulse Hill) London, England  
136 YBN
[10/27/1864 AD]
3657) The theory that light is an electromagnetic transverse wave in a
surrounding aether medium is created.

(King's College) London, England  
135 YBN
[04/24/1865 AD]
3370) The theory of "entropy": the quantity of a body's energy that is
unavailable for work.

(New Polytechnicum) Zurich, Germany  
135 YBN
[1865 AD]
3403) The Mendelian {meN-DElE-eN} law of genetic inheritance (the 1:2:1 ratio
of inheritance of a trait) is described.

The first time specific characteristics are followed through generations, and
that characteristics are inherited in an all or none fashion is shown.

(Natural Science Society) Brünn, Austria (now: Brno, the Czech Republic)  
134 YBN
[05/17/1866 AD]
3430) A nova (an exploded star) is found to be surrounded by hydrogen gas; from
its spectrum.

(Tulse Hill) London, England  
134 YBN
[1866 AD]
3267) A meteor swarm is shown to have a comet-like orbit.
(Cambridge Observatory) Cambridge, England  
134 YBN
[1866 AD]
3679) Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) is prepared and recognized as a phosphor (a substance
that exhibits phosphorescence, a luminescence that persists after removal of
the exciting source).

(Sorbonne laboratory) Paris, France  
134 YBN
[1866 AD]
3695) Dynamite is invented.
Paris, France (guess)  
132 YBN
[04/23/1868 AD]
3435) The Doppler effect is used to estimate the relative radial (or line of
sight) velocity of celestial objects by comparing the position of spectral
lines from the celestial object to those of a terrestrial light source. Sirius
is estimated to be moving away from the Earth.

(Tulse Hill) London, England  
132 YBN
[06/23/1868 AD]
6252) The first practical typewriter.
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA  
132 YBN
[11/23/1868 AD]
3648) The first permanent color photograph is created by superimposing (and
fastening together) three different colored transparent images.

?, France  
132 YBN
[1868 AD]
3418) Bacteria are isolated from distinct diseases.
(École Normale Supérieure) Paris, France  
132 YBN
[1868 AD]
3447) The new element helium is named from an unrecognized yellow spectral line
in the light of the Sun's atmosphere.

(?), India  
131 YBN
[01/30/1869 AD]
4839) The theory that waves radiating from the electricity in the brain might
allow images of thought to be captured on a photograph.

London, England (presumably)  
131 YBN
[03/17/1869 AD]
3495) That a spectral emission line becomes thicker because of increased
pressure is observed.

(Royal College) London, England  
131 YBN
[05/??/1869 AD]
3147) The spectrum of the Aurora Borealis is examined and found to have mainly
one bright line not belonging to any known simple or compound gases.

(University of Uppsala) Uppsala, Sweden  
131 YBN
[1869 AD]
3761) The first practical artificial plastic, Celluloid: a transparent plastic
created by heating a mixture of nitrocellulose, camphor, and alcohol under
pressure until the mold.

Albany, NY, USA  
130 YBN
[04/21/1870 AD]
3571) Multiple bonds between two atoms are described.
(Kazan University) Kazan, Russia  
130 YBN
[04/28/1870 AD]
3766) That specific parts of the cerebrum can contract certain muscles is shown
by direct electrical stimulation of the cerebrum of dogs, and the first map of
the brain that connects brain location to function.

(University of Berlin?) Berlin, Germany  
130 YBN
[1870 AD]
2687) A communication cable connects Asia and Australia.
130 YBN
[1870 AD]
3778) The first synthetic perfume.
(Perkin factory) Greenford Green, England (presumably)  
129 YBN
[01/07/1871 AD]
3704) A periodic table with spaces that represent elements not found yet.
(University of St. Petersburg) St. Petersburg, Russia  
129 YBN
[09/11/1871 AD]
6607) The spectrum of lightning is found to include spectral emission lines
found in air.

(private observatory) Bothkamp, Germany  
129 YBN
[1871 AD]
2661) The start of binary digital communication: communication using only a
series of on or off values; the Baudot {BxDO} code.

128 YBN
[06/07/1872 AD]
6624) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is produced; a synthetic resin, second only to
polyethylene in production, made from the polymerization {Pu-liMR-u-ZA-suN} of
vinyl chloride.

(for doctorate at University of Tübingen) Tübingen, Germany  
128 YBN
[1872 AD]
1249) The first "binder", a machine that automatically binds grain with wire,
into bundles.

Janesville, Wisconsin, USA  
128 YBN
[1872 AD]
3317) Dust in the air is shown to contain microorganisms.
(Royal Institution) London, England  
128 YBN
[1872 AD]
3909) Bacteria are grown (or cultured) outside of the body.
(University of Breslau) Breslau, Lower Silesia (now Wroclaw, Poland)  
127 YBN
[02/12/1873 AD]
3336) Selenium is found to convert light into electricity.
Valentia, Ireland  
126 YBN
[11/23/1874 AD]
4087) The crystal diode (or rectifier) is invented. Metal sulfide crystals are
found to transmit electricity more easily in one direction than in the other,
and this will later be used to convert an alternating current into a direct

(Würzburg University) Würzburg, Germany  
126 YBN
[12/12/1874 AD]
3872) The basis of color photography: putting dye in a photographic emulsion
allows specific colors of light (including infrared) to be photographed,
because the dyes allow only those specific colors to reach the light sensitive
silver compound.

(Astrophysical observatory) Potsdam, Germany  
125 YBN
[04/27/1875 AD]
3851) Electrical stimulation and physical destruction of various portions of
the brain of living monkeys is shown to cause blindness, deafness, the loss of
sense of touch, smell, and taste, and the need to scratch.

(King's College Hospital and Medical School) London, England  
125 YBN
[08/28/1875 AD]
5575) The first direct neuron reading: changes in electric currents on the
brains of rabbits and monkeys are measured during chewing, and in response to
light shown in the eyes.

Liverpool, England  
124 YBN
[02/15/1876 AD]
4065) Rapidly rotating static electricity is shown to act like an electric
current; producing a magnetic field.

(working for Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore) (University of Berlin)
Berlin, Germany  
124 YBN
[05/01/1876 AD]
3656) The theory that electric current conduction in water is not due to
conduction by the water, but by dissolved particles, such as sodium ions, and
that the high conductivity of acids is because hydrogen is one of their
migrating components.

(University of Würzburg) Würzburg, Germany  
124 YBN
[1876 AD]
3819) The first practical refrigerator is built using liquid ammonia as a

(Technische Hochschule) Munich, Germany  
124 YBN
[1876 AD]
4094) The luminescence produced at the cathode in an evacuated tube (under high
electric potential) is named "Cathode-rays", shown to be emitted
perpendicularly to the cathode surface, and to cast sharp shadows.

(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
123 YBN
[03/05/1877 AD]
3756) The purple pigment (rhodopsin) in the retina is shown to turn a yellowish
color when exposed to light. Using this effect, a rabbit retina is removed, the
changed dyes fixed with chemicals, and a permanent picture (an "optogram") is
made showing the last image the rabbit saw (in this case, a barred window).

(University of Heidelberg) Heidelberg, Germany  
123 YBN
[12/24/1877 AD]
4002) A sound recording is played back out loud.
(private lab) Menlo Park, New Jersey, USA  
123 YBN
[1877 AD]
3928) That certain diseases are transmitted by insects is proven (a mosquito is
shown to transmit a parasite that causes elephantiasis).

Hong Kong (presumably)  
123 YBN
[1877 AD]
4039) Telephone wires are connected to individual homes.
Boston and New York, USA  
122 YBN
[10/10/1878 AD]
3878) The ultra-violet spectra of various substances are photographed.
(King's College and Institute of Chemistry) London, England  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3576) A practical electric light bulb.
Newcastle, England (presumably)  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3790) Synthetic fabric. The first synthetic silk (rayon).

Fibers are produced by forcing (extruding) solutions of cellulose nitrate
through very tiny holes in glass, and allowing the solvent to evaporate.

Paris, France (presumably)  
121 YBN
[04/05/1879 AD]
4059) Molecules of bromine and iodine are shown to be diatomic; breaking into
single atoms on heating as shown by the density of their vapors being reduced
by two-thirds of their normal values.

(University of Stuttgart), Stuttgart, Germany (presumably)  
121 YBN
[05/15/1879 AD]
3847) That ultraviolet light is absorbed inside the atmosphere of Earth is

Paris, France  
121 YBN
[1879 AD]
3853) Chromosomes are identified in the nucleus of cells using dyes.
(University of Kiel) Kiel, Germany  
121 YBN
[1879 AD]
3958) Saccharin, the first commercially available artificial sweetener.
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA  
121 YBN
[1879 AD]
4183) Nucleic acids are identified.
(University of Strasbourg) Strasbourg , Germany  
120 YBN
[02/09/1880 AD]
3420) A successful vaccine is created by growing the agent of disease on an
artificial media to create a milder form.

(École Normale Supérieure) Paris, France  
120 YBN
[06/03/1880 AD]
4038) Sound is sent and received using light particles: a mirror vibrating from
sound sends reflected sunlight to a receiver to be transformed back into sound.

(top of Franklin School) Washington, D. C., USA  
120 YBN
[11/23/1880 AD]
3948) The cause of malaria is found to be a protist, which shows that disease
can be caused by a protist and not only by a bacterium.

(Académie de Médecine) Paris, France  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
4095) That cathode rays can be bent by magnetic fields is shown.
(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
4348) Piezoelectricity {PIEZOeleKTriSiTE or PEZO- or PEAZO-} is discovered:
when pressure is applied to certain crystals, an electric potential is created.

(Sorbonne) Paris, France  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
5839) An artificial muscle: the physical contraction of rubber under electric
potential is measured.

Practical artificial muscles will not be used in consumer products for over 130

(University of Giessen) Giessen, Germany  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
6577) Slavery is outlawed in most major nations.
119 YBN
[01/05/1881 AD]
3608) The electronic camera and electronic image. An image is captured and sent

London, England (presumably)  
119 YBN
[02/??/1881 AD]
3421) A successful vaccine for anthrax is created by gently heating the anthrax
causing bacteria.

(École Normale Supérieure) Paris, France  
119 YBN
[12/15/1881 AD]
3738) Certain spectrum lines are found to become broader when an element is

(Solar Physics Observatory) South Kensington, England  
119 YBN
[1881 AD]
4040) A metal detector.
(Volta Lab) Washington, District of Columbia, USA  
119 YBN
[1881 AD]
4157) The Michelson experiment: Light is found to have the same speed in any
direction horizontal to the Earth; this causes doubt about the existence of an
aether medium and about the wave theory for light.

An interferometer splits a beam of monochromatic light with a glass plate into
two directions at a right angle to each other, and reflects them back together
to detect interference. If the Earth moves through an aether, one ray will take
more time and cause interference, but no interference is observed.

(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
119 YBN
[1881 AD]
4349) Inverse piezoelectricity is proven: when an electric potential is applied
to certain crystals, the crystal vibrates at a regular rate.

(Sorbonne) Paris, France  
119 YBN
[1881 AD]
6646) The electric car.
118 YBN
[01/12/1882 AD]
4011) The first central electricity station and distribution of electricity to
houses (for electric lighting); in London.

(57 Holborn Viaduct) London, England   
118 YBN
[03/24/1882 AD]
3620) The first invisible frequency light particle communication. The first
radio communication. The sending and receiving of a message using light
particles by electrical induction (also known as "electric waves", "electric
radiation", and simply "radio", but which may just be the photoelectric

(employed at Tuft's College) Sommerville, Massachusetts, USA  
118 YBN
[1882 AD]
3947) White blood cells are identified and their role of destroying foreign
objects in the immune system of animals is recognized.

(In his own private laboratory) Messina, Italy  
117 YBN
[03/05/1883 AD]
3880) That infrared light is absorbed by the atmosphere of Earth, and that some
of this absorption is due to water is recognized.

(Science and Art Department) South Kensington, England  
117 YBN
[06/06/1883 AD]
4339) The theory of ionic dissociation, how molecules that are electrolytes
separate in a liquid to form two or more charged "ions".

(Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences) Stockholm, Sweden  
116 YBN
[04/23/1884 AD]
4206) The first practical steam turbine {TR-BiN or TR-BIN}, a steam engine that
uses steam to turn a wheel with blades around the rim directly.

(Clarke, Chapman and Company) Gateshead, England  
116 YBN
[1884 AD]
3398) High pitch whistles measure the threshold of human hearing to be 18 khz
(or 18 thousand cycles per second).
A system of fingerprinting is established.

London, England   
116 YBN
[1884 AD]
4315) The first use of a local anesthetic: (a drug that stops the conduction of
impulses in sensory nerves in the region where it is applied); cocaine.

(General Hospital in Vienna) Vienna, Austria  
115 YBN
[01/30/1885 AD]
3500) The Balmer series is discovered, a simple mathematical formula that gives
the wavelengths of the spectral lines of hydrogen.

(Secondary School) Basel, Switzerland  
115 YBN
[1885 AD]
3711) The first practical gasoline engine and motor boat.
(factory) Stuttgart, Germany  
115 YBN
[1885 AD]
3712) The first motorbike.
(factory) Stuttgart, Germany  
115 YBN
[1885 AD]
4461) Spectral emission lines are observed to widen when subjected to an
electromagnetic field.

(Royal Observatory of Brusells) Bruselles, Belgium  
115 YBN
[1885 AD]
6604) The first steel-framed building and skyscraper.
Chicago, Illinois, USA  
114 YBN
[02/23/1886 AD]
4431) A low cost method of producing pure aluminum metal from aluminum oxide is

(Oberlin (Ohio) College Hall) Oberlin, Ohio, USA  
114 YBN
[07/27/1886 AD]
4096) Positively charged ion beams are discovered (and called "Kanalstrahlen"
or "channel rays").
Using a perforated cathode, rays going through the holes in the
direction opposite to that of the cathode rays are found.

(Potsdam Observatory) Berlin, Germany  
113 YBN
[03/04/1887 AD]
3713) The gasoline internal combustion engine car.
(factory) Stuttgart, Germany  
113 YBN
[03/??/1887 AD]
4285) The phenomenon of electrical resonance is discovered (this allows
specific frequencies of light to be singled out which improves radio

Electrical oscillations in one circuit can excite the same electrical
oscillations to flow (causing a spark) in a second unconnected distant circuit.

(University of Karlsruhe) Karlsruhe, Germany  
113 YBN
[05/02/1887 AD]
3762) Plastic photographic film.
Newark, New Jersey  
113 YBN
[05/??/1887 AD]
4286) That ultraviolet light causes more current to flow on a metal electrode
than lower frequencies of light is found.

In addition, electrical induction is shown to be like light in being propagated
in straight lines (casting a shadow), reflected, refracted (with a
refrangibility much greater than that of violet rays of light), and to be

(University of Karlsruhe) Karlsruhe, Germany  
113 YBN
[10/12/1887 AD]
4245) The alternating current electric motor.
(Tesla's private lab) New York City, NY, USA|(earlier claim of)Strasbourg,
113 YBN
[11/07/1887 AD]
4114) A flat disk sound recording device.
(own lab) Washington, DC, USA  
113 YBN
[1887 AD]
3739) The theory that subatomic particles produce spectra.
(Solar Physics Observatory) South Kensington, England (presumably)  
113 YBN
[1887 AD]
3960) That the number of chromosomes in cells is constant, and that each
species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in their cells is

(University of Liège) Liège, Belgium  
113 YBN
[1887 AD]
4369) The electricity of a heart beat is measured and recorded and found to
coincide with each heart muscle contraction. The first electrocardiograph

(St. Mary's Hospital) London, England  
112 YBN
[02/02/1888 AD]
4288) Light interference between two radio sources is demonstrated and
electrical induction is confirmed to have the speed of light.

The wavelength (or particle interval) of a radio emitter is measured to be 2.8
meters; much larger than visible light.

(University of Karlsruhe) Karlsruhe, Germany  
112 YBN
[12/13/1888 AD]
4291) That radio can be focused and polarized is proven.
(University of Karlsruhe) Karlsruhe, Germany  
112 YBN
[1888 AD]
3801) A pressure of 3,000 atmospheres is obtained.
(faculte Libre des Sciences of Lyons) Lyons, France  
112 YBN
[1888 AD]
4025) Moving images are captured and stored onto rolls of sensitized paper.
(College de France) Paris, France (presumably)  
112 YBN
[1888 AD]
4118) The theory that visible light can be produced from electrical

(University College) Liverpool, England  
112 YBN
[1888 AD]
4210) The first consumer camera, which brings the ability to capture photos to
average people.

(Eastman Dry Plate Company) Rochester, NY, USA (presumably)  
111 YBN
[02/16/1889 AD]
211) Electricity is used to restart a heart beating.
(University of Aberdeen) Aberdeen, Scotland  
111 YBN
[03/12/1889 AD]
6255) An automatic telephone exchange that allows people to connect their own
phone calls is invented.

Kansas City, Missouri, USA  
111 YBN
[05/02/1889 AD]
4117) The theory that matter contracts depending on its velocity relative to
the speed of light is used to explain the Michelson experiment while preserving
the theory of an aether medium for light.

Dublin, Ireland  
111 YBN
[06/03/1889 AD]
4834) The first commercial wireless telegraph message.
(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
111 YBN
[06/21/1889 AD]
4021) The motion picture camera and projector. Moving images are captured,
stored on plastic film, and projected onto a screen.

(Piccadilly) London, England  
111 YBN
[06/21/1889 AD]
4024) The theory that a picture seen by the eye can be captured from

(London and Provincial Photographic Association) London, England  
111 YBN
[11/12/1889 AD]
3966) The first "spectroscopic binary" star is identified; two stars that
appear as one, but over time a spectral line appears to double because of a
change in relative velocity of each star.

Harvard College Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
111 YBN
[11/28/1889 AD]
3818) The first planet of another star is detected by the oscillation of a
spectral line; the star Algol {aL-GoL}.
Unlike spectroscopic binary stars, these spectra
only show one oscillating spectral line, because the light from the companion
is too dim to see.

(Astrophysical Observatory at Potsdam) Potsdam, Germany  
111 YBN
[1889 AD]
3549) The first practical smokeless explosive powder, cordite is invented.
London, England (presumably)  
110 YBN
[09/04/1890 AD]
4301) The motion of nebulae such as those of Orion are measured and shown to be
similar to those of the stars which implies that these nebulae are part of the
Milky Way Galaxy.

(Lick Observatory) Mount Hamilton, CA, USA  
109 YBN
[03/26/1891 AD]
3522) The suggestion that the minimum electric charge should be called an

(Queen's University) Dublin, Ireland  
109 YBN
[12/10/1891 AD]
3822) Liquid oxygen and liquid ozone are shown to be attracted to both poles of
a magnet.

(Royal Institution) London, England (presumably)  
109 YBN
[1891 AD]
4417) A camera and motor driven telescope which compensates for the motion of
the Earth relative to distant celestial objects is used for long exposure
photographs. 500 asteroids will be identified with this method, a third of all
known to exist.

(University of Heidelberg) Heidelberg, Germany  
108 YBN
[1892 AD]
3700) The "germ plasm" theory of heredity; that all inherited traits come only
from the chromosomes.

(University of Freiburg) Freiburg, Germany  
108 YBN
[1892 AD]
3823) The double-wall vacuum container.
(Royal Institution) London, England (presumably)  
108 YBN
[1892 AD]
4326) The diesel engine: instead of a spark, the heat from compressing the
fuel-air mixture raises the temperature of the mixture to the point where
ignition happens.

(Carle von Linde firm) Berlin, Germany  
107 YBN
[1893 AD]
6610) The death rate from cholera is reduced by 70 per cent among 45 thousand
people inoculated by a highly virulent strain of heat-killed cholera.

106 YBN
[09/??/1894 AD]
6617) A Cepheid variable star (a variable star with a short and regular period
of luminosity) is found to have a period of radial velocity that matches its
period of luminosity. This suggests that a dark companion causes the variation
of Cepheid stars.

106 YBN
[10/??/1894 AD]
4258) The speed of cathode rays is shown to be about a thousand times slower
than the speed of light.

(Trinity College) Cambridge, England  
106 YBN
[1894 AD]
2657) The start of multiplexing: using a single wire to transmit multiple
messages by only sending one character at a time while alternating between a
group of messages.

105 YBN
[01/31/1895 AD]
3842) The element Argon and the series of inert gases is identified.

Argon is isolated from air and identified from its unique spectrum. Since Argon
combines with no element, Argon is recognized to be part of an eighth group of
elements that have a valence of zero.

(Own Laboratory) Terling, England  
105 YBN
[03/26/1895 AD]
4141) The element (and inert gas) helium is found on Earth, when liberated from
Uraninite dissolved in sulfuric acid and identified by spectrum.

(University College) London, England  
105 YBN
[11/05/1895 AD]
3936) X-rays are discovered.

Radiation from a cathode ray tube is found to pass through very thick paper and
even thin layers of metal, to cause luminescence in a paper covered with barium
platinocyanide. These rays cannot be bent by even a strong magnetic field like
cathode rays, but yet apparently do not refract, polarize or interfere like
visible light does. The rays are also found to be absorbed by air less than
cathode rays are. These rays are called "X-rays" and the first X-ray
photographs are captured; of the interiors of metal objects and of the bones in
a human hand.

X rays are extremely useful as a new tool in health sciences to see and
penetrate into bodies.

(University of Würzburg) Würzburg, Germany  
105 YBN
[1895 AD]
4717) Cathode rays aimed at an isolated metal cylinder give the cylinder a
negative charge, and when the current is reversed positive rays give the
cylinder a positive charge.

(École Normale) Paris, France  
105 YBN
[1895 AD]
4826) A radio signal is sent and received over 2 km (or 1 mile).
(father’s estate) Bologna, Italy  
104 YBN
[02/22/1896 AD]
3940) X-rays are detected in sunlight.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA (presumably)  
104 YBN
[03/02/1896 AD]
4151) Radioactivity is discovered: invisible rays are detected from a uranium

The fluorescent chemical, potassium uranyl {YR-i-nL} sulfate, is found to emit
x-rays (which appear on a photographic plate wrapped in black paper placed
underneath it) even without being made fluorescent by sunlight.

This emission of X-rays from potassium uranyl sulfate without any external
source, implies that atoms are composed of smaller particles.

(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
104 YBN
[03/18/1896 AD]
4276) The theory that x-rays are made of material particles.
(Private Lab) New York City, NY, USA (presumably)  
104 YBN
[03/25/1896 AD]
4152) The radiation emitted from uranium salts is found to be deeply
penetrating and to discharge a charged electroscope.

(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
104 YBN
[04/06/1896 AD]
4335) That all substances struck by X-rays emit secondary X-ray radiation is

(Columbia University) New York City, NY, USA  
104 YBN
[05/12/1896 AD]
4340) The fluoroscope: a fluorescent screen that is illuminated in real-time by
x-ray beams.

New York City, NY, USA (presumably)  
104 YBN
[05/19/1896 AD]
4715) The electric fluorescent lamp.
Llewellyn Park, New Jersey, USA   
104 YBN
[11/??/1896 AD]
4259) That x-rays ionize gases (cause gases to become electrical conductors) is
found, and is an easy method to produce gas ions.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
104 YBN
[12/29/1896 AD]
4759) X-rays are used to visualize gastrointestinal movements using a drink
made with bismuth which is opaque to x-rays.

(Harvard Medical School) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
104 YBN
[1896 AD]
4328) The disease "beriberi" {BAR-E-BAR-E} is shown to be caused by poor diet.
This leads to the discovery of vitamins and "beriberi" will be the first known
"dietary-deficiency disease".

Javanese Medical School in Batavia (now Jakarta) (presumably)  
103 YBN
[04/30/1897 AD]
4260) Cathode rays are shown to be made of particles (later called electrons).
This is the first particle (besides light) known to be smaller than an atom.

By deflecting cathode-rays with an electromagnetic field, the ratio of mass to
electric charge of cathode ray particles is measured to be 10-7 grams per
coulomb, 1000 times smaller than an ion of hydrogen from electrolysis. In
addition, the theory that cathode rays are made of small negatively charged
particles which are a part of all atoms.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
103 YBN
[08/07/1897 AD]
6658) Cathode ray particles are deflected by an electrostatic field. In
addition the velocity of cathode ray particles is found to increase with
electric potential and with tube exhaustion.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
103 YBN
[1897 AD]
4088) The first electronic display (the oscilloscope).

A cathode ray tube is made with a mica screen inside which is coated with
fluorescent material. This allows an electron beam inside the tube to be
deflected by varying currents in electromagnets, which moves a luminous spot of
light on the screen. This leads to the television and computer display.

(Physikal Institute) Strassburg, France  
103 YBN
[1897 AD]
4793) The theory that x-rays might be used for telepathy.
(private lab) London, England(presumably)  
102 YBN
[01/21/1898 AD]
4436) Kanalstrahlen are shown to be made of positively charged particles with a
mass to charge ratio similar to a hydrogen ion. These positive particles will
later be called protons. The speed of these particles is determined to be
around 1000 times slower than the speed of light.

(Wurzburg University) Wurzburg, Germany  
102 YBN
[05/02/1898 AD]
4380) Thermite, the explosive mixture of a metal oxide and aluminum powder is

(Business: TH. Goldschmidt) Essen-on-the-Ruhr, Germany  
102 YBN
[05/10/1898 AD]
3824) Hydrogen is liquefied.

The boiling point of hydrogen is measured as -238° C.

(Royal Institution) London, England (presumably)  
102 YBN
[07/01/1898 AD]
4255) The first radio controlled vehicle; a remotely controlled boat.
(Tesla's private lab) New York City, NY, USA  
102 YBN
[09/01/1898 AD]
4731) Uranium is found to emit at least two kinds of radiation, one which is
quickly absorbed that is named "alpha" radiation, and a second which has more
penetrative power that is named "beta" radiation.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
102 YBN
[1898 AD]
4109) The causal agent of tobacco mosaic disease is recognized as a completely
new type of infectious agent, smaller and different than bacteria, which is
named a "virus".

(Dutch Yeast and Spirit Factory) Delft, Netherlands  
102 YBN
[1898 AD]
4698) Electromagnetic writing and reading of data. Sound is recorded by varying
the magnetization of tiny parts of a single wound wire sequentially in direct
proportion to the electric current produced by the sound. When each part is
moved past an electromagnet the sound is played out loud again in a telephone
receiver. This will lead to video tapes and hard disks.

(Copenhagen Telephone Company) Copenhagen, Denmark  
101 YBN
[03/03/1899 AD]
4900) The first life is saved by wireless communication from a stranded

(Marconi Company) London, England (verify)  
101 YBN
[03/17/1899 AD]
4319) The first moon with a retrograde motion is observed; Phoebe {FE-BE}, a
moon of Saturn.

(Harvard College Observatory) Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA  
101 YBN
[09/13/1899 AD]
4732) A gas is found to be emitted from Thorium which will later be shown to be
Radon. All substances touched by the positive ions created by this gas are
shown to exhibit radioactivity that lasts for several days.

(McGill University) Montreal, Canada   
101 YBN
[09/??/1899 AD]
4739) That rays from radium cause radioactivity in all objects placed near them
is discovered.

(École de Physique et Chimie Sorbonne) Paris, France  
101 YBN
[12/11/1899 AD]
4374) Radium rays are deflected by a magnetic field. These rays will be
identified as Beta rays and shown to be electrons.

(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
101 YBN
[12/??/1899 AD]
4265) The negative ion is found to have the same mass and charge for all gases.
(British Association Meeting) Dover, England   
101 YBN
[1899 AD]
3825) Hydrogen is solidified.
(Royal Institution) London, England (presumably)  
101 YBN
[1899 AD]
4177) The theory that mass and time change for a body depending on its motion
relative to the speed of light, and that no matter can travel faster than the
speed of light.

(University of Leiden) Leiden, Netherlands  
101 YBN
[1899 AD]
4472) The pressure exerted by light is measured using very light mirrors in a

(Moscow State University) Moscow, Russia  
101 YBN
[1899 AD]
4473) The mechanical pressure light exerts on gas molecules is measured.
(Moscow State University) Moscow, Russia  
100 YBN
[01/29/1900 AD]
4155) Beta rays of radioactivity are identified as electrons by showing that
their charge to mass ratio is the same as the electron.

(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
100 YBN
[03/26/1900 AD]
4375) The velocity of the electrons of beta rays is found to be more than half
the speed of light, much higher than the electrons in cathode rays.

(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
100 YBN
[05/18/1900 AD]
4371) A non-deflected radiation more penetrative than x-rays is identified from
radium which will later be named "gamma" rays.

(chemistry laboratory of the École Normale) Paris, France  
100 YBN
[07/02/1900 AD]
3784) The first flight of a motor-driven gas-filled airship, an aluminum blimp.
Lake Constance, Germany  
100 YBN
[10/19/1900 AD]
4327) "Quantum theory", the theory that all energy exists in discrete units,
and the famous equation E=hv.

(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
100 YBN
[1900 AD]
4303) Around 120,000 galaxies (at the time called nebulae) are identified and
photographed. Spiral galaxies are found to out number all other celestial

(Lick Observatory) Mount Hamilton, CA, USA  
99 YBN
[02/14/1901 AD]
6342) X-rays are shown to kill Guinea pigs.
Boston, Massachusetts, USA  
99 YBN
[10/10/1901 AD]
4148) The first synthetic protein is created when two amino acid molecules are
condensed into dipeptides.

(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
99 YBN
[12/12/1901 AD]
4832) The first radio message is sent over the Atlantic Ocean.
Poldhu, Cornwall, England to St. John’s, Newfoundland  
99 YBN
[12/31/1901 AD]
4120) Yellow fever is shown to be caused by a virus; the first disease found in
humans to be attributed to a virus.

(Society of American Bacteriologists) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
99 YBN
[1901 AD]
4054) The theory that new species can arise as a result of mutation.
(University of Amsterdam) Amsterdam, Netherlands  
99 YBN
[1901 AD]
4156) The element uranium is identified as the radioactive portion of uranium

(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
99 YBN
[1901 AD]
4515) That there are different blood types is recognized and the ABO blood
group system is created.

(Pathological-Anatomical Institute) Vienna  
99 YBN
[1901 AD]
5510) The theory that the mass of an electron increases with velocity.
(University of Göttingen) Göttingen, Germany  
99 YBN
[1901 AD]
6253) The electric motor vacuum cleaner.
98 YBN
[03/17/1902 AD]
4398) The electron velocity (and electric potential) created by the
photoelectric effect is shown to depend only on the frequency of light.

(University of Kiel) Kiel, Germany  
98 YBN
[03/28/1902 AD]
4857) The theory of the "cubic atom", which explains the cycle of 8 elements on
the periodic table, and the stability of inert gases when all 8 vertices are

(Harvard University) Cambridge, Massachussets, USA  
98 YBN
[03/??/1902 AD]
4734) Radioactivity is recognized as atomic decay in which one atom decays into
another kind (also known as transmutation).

(McGill University) Montreal, Canada   
98 YBN
[10/17/1902 AD]
4253) That paternal and maternal chromosomes are pairs, and are the physical
basis of the Mendelian {meN-DElE-eN} laws of heredity is shown.

(Columbia University) New York City, NY, USA  
98 YBN
[10/27/1902 AD]
3983) The speed of x-rays is shown to be the same as the speed of light.
University of Nancy, Nancy, France (presumably)  
98 YBN
[11/10/1902 AD]
4736) Alpha rays are found to be deflectable by strong magnetic and electric
fields in the opposite direction of cathode rays and so are positively charged

(McGill University) Montreal, Canada   
98 YBN
[1902 AD]
4784) A method of sewing together (suturing) the ends of blood vessels is

(University of Lyons) Lyons, France  
97 YBN
[03/23/1903 AD]
4493) The airplane. The first powered, sustained, and controlled airplane

Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, USA  
97 YBN
[05/28/1903 AD]
3677) The radiation from radium is shown to be less when colder.
(private lab) London, England(presumably)  
97 YBN
[06/??/1903 AD]
4893) The scattering of x-rays by gases is shown to depend on the molecular
weight of the gas.

(University College) Liverpool, England  
97 YBN
[07/28/1903 AD]
4145) That helium is emitted from radium is shown spectroscopically.
(University College) London, England  
97 YBN
[12/05/1903 AD]
4462) The Saturnian {Sa-TR-nE-iN} model of the atom (negatively charged
electrons rotate around a large mass positively charged particle).

(Tokyo University) Tokyo, Japan  
97 YBN
[1903 AD]
4768) Chromatography: different substances in a liquid pigment mixture move
through a column of absorptive material at different rates separating into
colored bands.

(University of Warsaw) Warsaw, Poland  
96 YBN
[06/29/1904 AD]
4707) The amount of inert gas emitted by radium is found to be directly
proportional to the amount of uranium in any given sample, which is evidence
that uranium decays into radium.

(Mining Engineering and Chemistry company) New Haven, Conneticut, USA   
96 YBN
[1904 AD]
3647) The practical color photograph.
96 YBN
[1904 AD]
4077) The vacuum tube diode (or "rectifier", which can "rectify" alternating
current into direct current).

(University College) London, England  
96 YBN
[1904 AD]
4366) The word "hormone" is coined for substances released from the endocrine
{eN-De-KriN} gland, then carried by the blood, that profoundly influence the
function of another part of the body.

(University College) London, England  
96 YBN
[1904 AD]
4447) That calcium absorption lines do not share in the spectral line movement
of binary stars is evidence of calcium in between the stars that absorbs the

(Potsdam Observatory) Potsdam, Getmany  
96 YBN
[1904 AD]
5099) Radar: Radio light is used to determine the location of distant objects.
Düsselsorf, Germany (presumably)  
95 YBN
[05/01/1905 AD]
4740) A single gram of radium is estimated to emit over a billion Alpha and a
billion Beta particles each second.

(McGill University) Montreal, Canada   
95 YBN
[06/30/1905 AD]
4929) The special theory of relativity.

The theory that the speed of light is constant independently of the motion of
all other objects. The theory that motion changes mass and time is adopted, but
that an aether medium for light is unnecessary.

Bern, Switzerland  
95 YBN
[09/27/1905 AD]
4930) The theory that the intrinsic energy of all matter is dependent on the
speed of light, and the famous equation E=mc2 (originally m=L/c2).

Bern, Switzerland  
95 YBN
[12/22/1905 AD]
4796) That the color of a star is related to its size is recognized, the
relative brightness of a star is determined by scaling its apparent brightness
by its distance, and the theory of stellar evolution: that stars lose
brightness over time changing color in the direction of blue to red. In
addition, red and yellow stars are thought to be divided into two groups, one
with high brightness and the other with low brightness.

(University of Copenhagen, and at the Urania Observatory in Frederiksberg)
Copenhagen, Denmark (verify)  
95 YBN
[1905 AD]
4034) The color motion film camera and projector.
(private studio) Brighton, England (presumably)  
94 YBN
[07/20/1906 AD]
4743) Alpha particles are found to have a charge to mass ratio near 1/2 that of
Hydrogen, and are identified as helium.

(McGill University) Montreal, Canada   
94 YBN
[12/21/1906 AD]
4788) The electric switch and vacuum tube amplifier.

A third electrode is inserted into a diode (called "the grid"). A varying very
weak voltage on the grid can be converted into a similarly varying but much
stronger electron flow from the filament to the plate.

(De Forest Radio Telephone Company) New York City, New York, USA  
94 YBN
[12/24/1906 AD]
4479) Amplitude modulation (or "AM") radio communication.
(National Electric Signaling Company and General Electric?) Brant Rock,
Massachusetts, USA  
94 YBN
[12/27/1906 AD]
4710) Radioactivity is used to determine the age of rocks. From the quantity of
lead in uranium ores and the known rate of uranium disintegration, some rocks
are found to be at least 2.2 billion years old.

(Yale University) New Haven, Connecticut, USA   
94 YBN
[1906 AD]
4471) A diagnostic test for syphilis is created.
(Robert Koch Institute for Infectious Diseases) Berlin, Germany  
93 YBN
[05/??/1907 AD]
4269) The mass spectrometer, a device that can separate atoms with an electric
charge (ions) by their mass is invented.

Positive rays are deflected by magnetic and electric fields so that ions of
different ratios of charge to mass strike different parts of a phosphorescent

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
93 YBN
[11/13/1907 AD]
354) The helicopter. A helicopter achieves free flight while carrying a

93 YBN
[11/26/1907 AD]
6263) An image is displayed on a Cathode-Ray Tube.
Petrograd, Russia  
93 YBN
[1907 AD]
4438) The theory of space and time as a four dimensional structure called

(University of Göttingen) Göttingen, Germany  
92 YBN
[03/26/1908 AD]
5881) The theory that an electron is a chemical element.
(University College) London, England (presumably)  
92 YBN
[05/30/1908 AD]
4902) Secondary x-ray radiation emitted from objects bombarded with x-rays, is
found to have a constant absorption with no regard to the intensity of the
primary x-ray beam.

(University of Liverpool) Liverpool, England  
92 YBN
[06/06/1908 AD]
3616) The first images sent and received by radio.
London, England  
92 YBN
[06/27/1908 AD]
4190) Helium is liquefied; the gas that requires the lowest temperature for
liquefaction at 4 degrees above absolute zero.

(Leiden University) Leiden, Netherlands  
92 YBN
[1908 AD]
4238) Cellophane (a clear, flexible film made from cellulose).
Paris, France (presumably)  
91 YBN
[02/08/1909 AD]
4428) The first thermosetting plastic, a plastic that does not soften when
heated; "Bakelite".

(announced at: American Chemical Society lecture) New York City, NY, USA
91 YBN
[04/06/1909 AD]
4244) Humans reach the North Pole of Earth.
91 YBN
[09/??/1909 AD]
4729) The mass and size of an electron are determined; A mass of 10-27 grams
and size of 30 pm.

(École Normale, University of Paris) Paris, France  
91 YBN
[1909 AD]
4899) A wireless radio telephone is publicly demonstrated.
(Marconi Company) London, England (verify)  
90 YBN
[1910 AD]
4476) That hereditary characters are located on a specific chromosome is

(Columbia University) New York City, NY, USA  
90 YBN
[1910 AD]
4961) A pressure of 20,000 atmospheres is obtained.
(Harvard University) Cambridge, Massachussets, USA  
89 YBN
[01/??/1911 AD]
4321) The theory that most of human thinking is of images.
Boston, Massachusetts, USA (presumably)  
89 YBN
[04/19/1911 AD]
4691) The paths of ionizing rays (for example by α and β particles) are
captured photographically using a cloud chamber (a device that expands gas).

(Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
89 YBN
[04/28/1911 AD]
4192) Electrical superconductivity at low temperatures is recognized.
(Leiden University) Leiden, Netherlands  
89 YBN
[04/??/1911 AD]
4746) The atomic nucleus theory: that all atoms have a very small positively
charged sphere (or "nucleus") in their center. The size of an atom is estimated
to be around 100 pm.

(University of Manchester) Manchester, England   
89 YBN
[06/??/1911 AD]
3944) The theory that a machine could record the sounds of thought, and could
also write sounds back to the brain which are heard in thought.

New York City, NY   
89 YBN
[11/13/1911 AD]
4270) The products of chemical reactions are detected using an mass

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
89 YBN
[12/14/1911 AD]
4772) Humans reach the South Pole of Earth.
South Pole  
89 YBN
[1911 AD]
4846) The industrial use of bacteria to produce useful products: bacteria are
grown to produce large quantities of acetone and butyl alcohol.

Pasteur Institute and (University of Manchester) Manchester, England   
89 YBN
[1911 AD]
4908) The theory of atomic isotopes. An isotope is an element that is
chemically identical to another element, and occupies the same position on the
periodic table, but has a different atomic mass.

Also that the emission of a helium nucleus (an alpha particle) reduces the
initial element to a different element two less in number on the Periodic Table
is recognized.

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
89 YBN
[1911 AD]
4937) The first cancer causing virus is discovered.
(Rockefeller Institute, now called Rockefeller University) New York City, New
York, USA  
89 YBN
[1911 AD]
5093) A neutral molecular particle beam is created by heating a metal inside an
evacuated container; molecules in the vapor then diffuse through a small hole
in an internal wall.

(University of Paris) Paris, France  
88 YBN
[01/05/1912 AD]
5301) Electrophoresis (electricity is used to separate particles in liquids).
Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany  
88 YBN
[03/03/1912 AD]
4528) The brightness of Cepheid variable stars is shown to decrease linearly
with the logarithm of their period of variation; so the brighter the star, the
longer the period. By comparing the intrinsic brightness from the period of
variation to the apparent brightness, the distance to the variable star can be

(Harvard College Observatory) Cambridge, Massachussetts, USA  
88 YBN
[04/20/1912 AD]
4918) The terms "giant" and "dwarf" are introduced to describe two kinds of
stars with the same spectrum but different luminosity, and the first "white
dwarf" star is described.

(Princeton University) Princeton, New Jersey, USA.  
88 YBN
[05/04/1912 AD]
4939) The diffraction of x-rays by atomic planes in a crystal of zinc sulfide
is discovered. The wavelength (or particle interval) of x-rays is determined to
be around 10 picometers which is smaller than ultraviolet light, and this
suggests that x-rays are very high frequency light.

(University of Munich) Munich, Germany  
88 YBN
[07/16/1912 AD]
5203) Cathode rays are shown to disintegrate molecules and atoms.
(University College) London, England  
88 YBN
[08/??/1912 AD]
4274) That the same element can hold different electric charges is shown.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
88 YBN
[10/??/1912 AD]
4912) That beta decay (the emission of a high-speed electron) results in an
atom moving up one place on the periodic table is recognized.

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland (verify)  
88 YBN
[11/11/1912 AD]
4404) Diffraction is explained as particle reflection. The dispersion of light
by a crystal (grating, or prism) into a spectrum of increasing frequencies is
given a corpuscular explanation: that particles of the same spacing as planes
of atoms in a crystal (or grating grooves in a grating), at a specific angle of
incidence, all reflect in the same direction.

The grating equation is applied to the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction by
crystals and this is used to make accurate determinations of the wavelengths
(or particle intervals) of X-rays.

(Cavindish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
88 YBN
[1912 AD]
6262) The first radio broadcast: from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York

(Metropolitan Opera House) New York City, New York, USA  
87 YBN
[01/27/1913 AD]
4272) The theory of isotopes is experimentally confirmed. Different isotopes of
neon are deflected onto different parts of a photograph using a mass

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
87 YBN
[04/05/1913 AD]
5005) The Bohr model of the atom: that electrons move in fixed circular orbits
around a stationary positive nucleus with momentum=h/2pi (h is Planck's
constant). The electrons give off or absorb fixed amounts of energy (quanta) by
moving from one orbit to another.

(University of Manchester) Machester, England  
87 YBN
[05/28/1913 AD]
4932) The general theory of relativity, space and time are restricted to a
curved surface geometry.

(Federal Institute of Technology) Zurich, Switzerland  
87 YBN
[07/30/1913 AD]
4407) A monochromatic x-ray beam of known wavelength is used to determine the
distance between parallel atomic planes in crystals that reflect the particles
in the beam. This is the beginning of using x-ray "diffraction" to determine
the shape and the position of each atom in a molecule.

(University of Leeds) Leeds, England  
87 YBN
[10/20/1913 AD]
4863) The Andromeda galaxy is claimed to have a very high velocity relative to
the Earth.
From Doppler shift Andromeda is estimated to be moving towards the Earth
with an average radial velocity of 300 km/s, 1/100th the speed of light, the
highest velocity ever observed.

(Percival Lowell's observatory) Flagstaff, Arizona, USA  
87 YBN
[12/04/1913 AD]
4910) That the electrons of beta decay originate from the nucleus and not the
outer ring is given as evidence that there is negative charge in the nucleus.

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
87 YBN
[12/??/1913 AD]
5039) The frequency of secondary x-rays emitted from atoms is shown to increase
with atomic mass.

(University of Manchester) Machester, England  
87 YBN
[1913 AD]
4361) Vitamins A and B, and their importance in the growth process are

(University of Wisconsin) Wisconsin, USA  
87 YBN
[1913 AD]
4963) The "Geiger counter"; which detects high velocity subatomic particles.
(Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt) Berlin, Germany  
87 YBN
[1913 AD]
6614) That a rocket with an initial mass of 200 pounds can achieve a velocity
high enough for a 1-pound mass to escape the Earth is determined.

(Clark University) Worcester, Massachusetts, USA (presumably)  
86 YBN
[05/??/1914 AD]
5085) Gamma rays from radioactivity are found to have wavelengths in the X-ray

(University of Manchester) Manchester, England  
86 YBN
[07/28/1914 AD]
4792) Sound is recorded and played back with motion pictures on plastic film.
Berlin, Germany (verify)  
86 YBN
[07/??/1914 AD]
4879) The method of "spectral parallax": the distance to a star can be
determined by comparing the intensity of spectral lines of the star with
another star with the same spectrum at a known distance.

(Mount Wilson Observatory) Pasadena, California, USA  
86 YBN
[07/??/1914 AD]
4973) The first multistage rocket design.
(Princeton University) Princeton, New Jersey, USA (verify)  
86 YBN
[1914 AD]
4497) The Doppler effect for light is confirmed experimentally using an
interferometer to measure the difference in position of the sets of rings
produced by light from the two ends of a rotating white disk.

(Mareseilles University) Mareseilles, France  
86 YBN
[1914 AD]
4977) The theory that spiral "nebulae" are other galaxies.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
86 YBN
[1914 AD]
5179) A voltage-doubling circuit.
(University of Zurich) Zurich, Switzerland  
85 YBN
[01/??/1915 AD]
4864) From Doppler shift, fifteen galaxies are all measured to be moving away
from the Earth with an average velocity of 400 km/s. In addition, a spiral
galaxy is found to rotate at 100 km/s, about 8 times the edge of Jupiter.

(Percival Lowell's observatory) Flagstaff, Arizona, USA  
85 YBN
[04/13/1915 AD]
4817) The theory that the atomic nucleus is made of combinations of Hydrogen
and Helium atoms.

(Kent Chemical Laboratory, University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
85 YBN
[12/04/1915 AD]
4917) Bacteriophages {BaK-TER-E-u-FAJiZ} are identified; viruses that can
infect and kill bacteria.

(Brown Institution) London, England  
85 YBN
[1915 AD]
4970) That thrust and propulsion can take place in a vacuum, needing no air to
push against, is proven.

(Clark University) Worcester, Massachusetts, USA  
84 YBN
[01/26/1916 AD]
4855) The theory of a "covalent bond", in which the chemical combination
between two atoms is the result of the sharing of a pair of electrons, with one
electron contributed by each atom.

(University of California at Berkeley) Berkeley, California, USA  
84 YBN
[1916 AD]
6616) The theory that the number of electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
determines the chemical properties of the atom.

83 YBN
[10/04/1917 AD]
6508) The electric propulsion engine.
Worcester, Massachusetts, USA (presumably)  
83 YBN
[1917 AD]
4761) Ultrasonic sound (sound with a frequency too high to be heard by the
human ear) is produced by piezoelectricity and used to determine the location
of objects by reflection (sonar).

Sonar can detect objects in air, and in water (for example a fetus inside the
womb, and objects in the ocean).

(Collège de France) Paris, France (presumably)  
83 YBN
[1917 AD]
4765) The theory that the universe is expanding.
(University of Leiden) Leiden, Netherlands  
82 YBN
[04/??/1918 AD]
5008) The Sun is determined to be in the outer part of our galaxy.

The Cepheid variable-star method is used to determine that globular clusters
are distributed roughly in the shape of a sphere around a center in
Sagittarius, calculated to be 50,000 light years away.

(Mount Wilson Solar Observatory) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
82 YBN
[06/21/1918 AD]
6199) The first electronic read and write memory.

Unlike other forms of information storage, with electronic memory the only
moving parts are electric current.

(City and Guilds Technical College) London, UK  
82 YBN
[10/??/1918 AD]
5880) Isobars are defined as elements with the same atomic mass but different
positions on the periodic table.

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
82 YBN
[1918 AD]
5002) The first radioactive "tracer". A radioactive isotope of lead is used to
determine the solubility of lead salts.

(University of Budapest) Budapest, Hungary  
81 YBN
[04/??/1919 AD]
4750) Atomic transmutation and atomic fusion.

When a high speed Alpha particle from Radium collides with an atom of nitrogen
gas, a proton is knocked lose from the nitrogen atom which causes a point of
light to appear on a zinc sulfate screen. In losing a proton, the nitrogen atom
is converted into an oxygen atom. This is the first time one element is changed
into another, which was a dream of the alchemists. This is also the first
"nuclear" reaction and the first atomic fusion; a larger atom being made from
smaller atoms.

(University of Manchester) Manchester, England  
81 YBN
[1919 AD]
4906) The theory that fractional atomic weights are due to mixing of isotopes.
(Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
81 YBN
[1919 AD]
5071) Increase in temperature is shown to increase the number of genetic
mutations in fruit flies.

(Rice Institute) Houston, Texas   
80 YBN
[06/03/1920 AD]
4751) The theory of what will be called a neutron: that an electron can bind
more closely with a single Hydrogen nucleus to form a neutral atom of mass 1
with different properties than a neutral hydrogen atom.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
80 YBN
[08/??/1920 AD]
4411) A list of the size of all atomic radii is published.
(University of Manchester) Manchester, England  
80 YBN
[1920 AD]
5045) Neutral molecular beams of Hydrogen and Helium are "diffracted" using a
Lithium Fluoride crystal.

(University of Frankfurt) Frankfurt, Germany  
79 YBN
[01/21/1921 AD]
4924) Nuclear isomers are discovered, atoms that have identical nuclei but have
different half-lives.

(Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instute fur Chemie) Berlin, Germany  
79 YBN
[04/26/1921 AD]
5239) The Crab nebula is found to be expanding from photographs spanning 8

(Mount Wilson) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
79 YBN
[07/??/1921 AD]
4866) The atmosphere of Venus is found to have no oxygen or water vapor because
those absorption lines are not found in the spectrum of Venus.

(Percival Lowell's observatory) Flagstaff, Arizona, USA  
79 YBN
[09/??/1921 AD]
4783) Neurotransmitters are discovered: chemicals that transmit nerve impulses
across a synapse. A fluid released when a frog's vagus nerve is stimulated can
stimulate another heart directly.

(University of Graz) Graz, Austria  
79 YBN
[1921 AD]
4518) The system of antigens and antibodies is recognized. An antigen is a
substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an
antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, and the cells of transplanted

(The Hague) Netherlands  
78 YBN
[01/26/1922 AD]
5103) Light is described as being made of "atoms of light" all having the same
"very low mass", and the equations E=hv (by Planck) and E=mc2 (by Einstein) are
equated to solve for the mass of the atom of light.

(brother Maurice's lab) Paris, France (verify)  
78 YBN
[03/01/1922 AD]
5163) Separating isotopes by evaporative centrifuging is suggested, where a
material is heated into a vapour and separated by atomic mass in a rapidly
rotating tube.

(University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
78 YBN
[03/03/1922 AD]
4324) The theory of an all-inertial universe where gravity is explained as a
result of particle collision.

Menton, France  
78 YBN
[05/27/1922 AD]
5197) The theory of "polar fronts": that the atmosphere of Earth is made of air
masses that are either warm tropical air or cold polar air, and the sharp
boundaries between them are called "fronts" (similar to battle lines in war).

(Geophysical Institute) Bergen, Norway  
78 YBN
[12/13/1922 AD]
5108) The "Compton effect": x-rays are found to have a lower frequency after
being reflected by graphite, which implies that a light quantum has momentum
that is lost to an electron from the collision.

(Washington University) Saint Louis, Missouri, USA  
77 YBN
[05/04/1923 AD]
5004) Radioactive lead dissolved in water allows the absorption and
distribution of the lead in plants to be followed.

(University of Copenhagen) Copenhagen, Denmark  
77 YBN
[06/14/1923 AD]
3613) Electronic moving images are transmitted and received using radio.
Washington, D.C., USA.   
77 YBN
[09/03/1923 AD]
4860) Acids are defined as substances that lose a hydrogen ion in solution and
bases as substances that accept a hydrogen ion in solution.

(University of Copenhagen) Copenhagen, Denmark  
77 YBN
[09/10/1923 AD]
5104) The mass of a light particle (or "atom of light") is calculated to be
less than 10-50 grams.

(brother Maurice's lab) Paris, France (verify)  
77 YBN
[1923 AD]
4216) The consumer movie camera.
(Eastman Kodak Company) NJ, USA  
77 YBN
[1923 AD]
4927) An electronic theory of acids and bases: an acid is defined as an
electron-pair acceptor and a base as an electron-pair donor.

(University of California at Berkeley) Berkeley, California, USA  
77 YBN
[1923 AD]
5000) The ultracentrifuge. A centrifuge {SeN-Tre-FUJ} can force colloidal
{Ku-lOED-L} particles to settle out of a liquid, and can be used to determine
molecule size and mass.

(University of Uppsala) Upsala, Sweden  
76 YBN
[08/??/1924 AD]
4896) A light ray device that can disable vehicles and burn people.
Chicago, Illinois, USA  
76 YBN
[1924 AD]
3614) Photographs are sent over the phone wire.
Cleveland, OH, (to NYC, NY), USA  
76 YBN
[1924 AD]
4696) Tissue taken from one amphibian embryo and grafted onto another is shown
to assume the character of the host, losing its original nature.

(University of Freiburg) Breisgau, Germany  
75 YBN
[01/01/1925 AD]
5060) Spiral nebulae are proven to be other galaxies containing stars, and to
be very far away, by determining the distance of Cepheid variable stars.

(Mount Wilson) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
75 YBN
[04/04/1925 AD]
4754) Hydrogen nuclei are called "protons".
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
75 YBN
[06/06/1925 AD]
5024) The refraction of x-rays in glass is proven visually.
(University of Uppsala) Uppsala, Sweden  
75 YBN
[07/13/1925 AD]
5059) A color image electronic scanning camera.
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation)   
75 YBN
[10/22/1925 AD]
5292) The transistor or solid-state electronic switch and amplifier.

This is the first non-vacuum tube (solid state) electronic switch and
amplifier, also known as a "field-effect transistor" and the first millimeter
size electronic switch.

Brooklyn, New York City, New York, USA  
74 YBN
[01/26/1926 AD]
6264) A system of television is demonstrated publicly.
(Royal Institution) London, England  
74 YBN
[03/06/1926 AD]
5165) The concept of molecular orbitals. Atomic orbitals are thought to become
molecular orbitals, extending over two or more atoms in the molecule.

(University of Göttingen) Göttingen, Germany  
74 YBN
[03/16/1926 AD]
4968) The first flight of a liquid fuel rocket engine.
(Aunt Effie's Farm) Auburn, Massachusetts, USA  
74 YBN
[09/16/1926 AD]
5114) The space between ultra-violet and x-ray spectral lines is bridged
(around 10 nm).

(Laboratoire de Recherches Physiques) Paris, France|(University of Chicago)
Chicago, Illinois, USA  
74 YBN
[1926 AD]
4309) The concept of satellites and space stations.
Kaluga, Russia (presumably)  
74 YBN
[1926 AD]
4871) Helium is solidified.
(University of Leiden) Leiden, Netherlands  
74 YBN
[1926 AD]
5072) X-rays are found to greatly increase the rate of genetic mutation.
(University of Texas) Austin, Texas, USA  
73 YBN
[03/03/1927 AD]
4957) Electron beams are "diffracted" using a single crystal of nickel.
Electron beam particle intervals are found to be equivalent to x-rays (100 pm).

(Bell Telephone Laboratories) New York City, New York, USA  
73 YBN
[05/21/1927 AD]
5291) A human crosses the Atlantic Ocean by plane (in 33 1/2 hours).
73 YBN
[12/12/1927 AD]
5113) The name "photon" is suggested for the light quantum.
(University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
73 YBN
[1927 AD]
4947) Sleep is induced in cats using electrodes directly connected to the

(University of Zurich), Zurich, Switzerland  
72 YBN
[02/16/1928 AD]
5052) The "Raman effect": that light with visible frequencies reflected (or
scattered) off of some substances can change frequency.

(University of Calcutta) Calcutta, India  
72 YBN
[06/11/1928 AD]
5789) The first rocket powered plane.
Wasserkuppe (one of the Rhone mountains), Germany  
72 YBN
[07/22/1928 AD]
5830) The first scientific pregnancy test.
(Aus der Universitats-Frauenklinik der Charite zu Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
72 YBN
[1928 AD]
6265) The infrared (or heat) movie camera; which can see through fog and make
visible images of heat.

London, England (verify)  
72 YBN
[1928 AD]
6266) The first regular television broadcasts.
(General Electric, WGY) Schenectady, New York, USA   
71 YBN
[01/17/1929 AD]
5061) The radial velocities of other galaxies are found to be linearly related
to distance; the more distant the galaxy, the higher the radial velocity.

(Mount Wilson) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
71 YBN
[04/22/1929 AD]
4781) The electroencephalograph (or EEG). Oscillations of the electric
potential on the surface of the head are recognized and displayed graphically.
Changes in potential due to muscle movements are also detected.

(University of Jena) Jena, Germany  
71 YBN
[08/23/1929 AD]
6500) Direct neuron writing to the eye screen; a point on the occipital region
of the human brain is electrically stimulated and the human sees a small spot
of light.

70 YBN
[02/??/1930 AD]
5009) "Extragalactic nebulae" are renamed "galaxies".
(Harvard College Observatory) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
70 YBN
[08/19/1930 AD]
5177) Artificial radiation is induced by accelerating protons and molecules
into lead and beryllium using a voltage of 280 kV.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
70 YBN
[10/10/1930 AD]
5268) The circular particle accelerator (the cyclotron) in which an
electromagnetic field accelerates and deflects the path of ions into circles.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
70 YBN
[10/23/1930 AD]
5077) Very penetrating radiation is found to be emitted from beryllium
bombarded with alpha particles, which will be shown later to be neutrons.

(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
70 YBN
[1930 AD]
6578) Women gain the right to vote in most major nations.
69 YBN
[05/29/1931 AD]
5299) The theory that an anti-electron, and anti-proton may exist with the same
mass, but opposite charge as an electron and proton, and the theory that a
light particle is a sphere that can collide with other light particles.

(St. John's College, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
69 YBN
[09/10/1931 AD]
5446) The electron microscope, which uses magnetic fields to focus electron
beams similar to how a lens focuses light beams.

This microscope is a "transmission electron microscope" (or TEM) which
transmits electrons through the specimen.

(Technischen Hochschule/Technical University) Berlin, Germany  
69 YBN
[10/03/1931 AD]
5161) The first synthetic rubber: neoprene.
( E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company) Wilmington, Delaware, USA  
69 YBN
[1931 AD]
5054) Vitamin A is synthesized.
(Chemical Institute) Zürich, Switzerland  
68 YBN
[02/17/1932 AD]
5086) The neutron is identified and distinguished from a hydrogen atom as
having slightly less mass.

(Cavendish Lab University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
68 YBN
[03/01/1932 AD]
5342) The electric potential created in a single neuron in the eye of a
horse-shoe crab when light contacts the retina is measured; around 0.5

(University of Pennsylvania) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA  
68 YBN
[04/16/1932 AD]
5182) Atomic fission and the first nuclear transformation by protons: Lithium
atoms are split by protons under 125 kilovolts into two Helium atoms.

(Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
68 YBN
[05/08/1932 AD]
5386) A light source from outside the solar system is found to emit radio
frequencies of light.

(Bell Telephone Laboratories) New York City, New York, USA  
68 YBN
[06/15/1932 AD]
5183) A variety of elements are disintegrated using high-speed protons, for
example Fluorine into Oxygen and Sodium into Neon.

(Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
68 YBN
[08/02/1932 AD]
5381) The positive electron (the positron) is identified using a cloud chamber.
(California Institute of Technology) Pasadena, California  
68 YBN
[1932 AD]
6261) Plastic magnetic recording tape.
(BASF) Ludwigshafen, Germany  
67 YBN
[03/??/1933 AD]
4164) The speed of light in a vacuum is measured.
Irvine, CA, USA  
67 YBN
[07/30/1933 AD]
5069) Frequency modulation (or FM) radio communication.
New York City, New York, USA  
66 YBN
[01/29/1934 AD]
5192) The first chemical proof of atomic transmutation and atomic fusion.
(Radium Institute) Paris, France  
66 YBN
[03/09/1934 AD]
4755) The atomic fusion of two Hydrogen atoms into a Helium atom.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
66 YBN
[03/19/1934 AD]
5210) Supernovas are distinguished from ordinary novas.
(Mount Wilson Observatory) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
66 YBN
[05/??/1934 AD]
5275) Atomic fission of uranium by neutrons.
(University of Rome) Rome, Italy  
66 YBN
[07/11/1934 AD]
4248) The theory of particle beams as weapons that can destroy planes and kill
millions of people without a trace in an instant.

(Hotel New Yorker) New York City, NY, USA  
66 YBN
[08/18/1934 AD]
5087) The first atomic fission caused by light particles: Gamma rays
disintegrate a deuterium atom (an isotope of hydrogen containing one proton and
one neutron). From this the mass of a neutron is estimated to be more than a
hydrogen atom.

(Cavendish Lab University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
66 YBN
[12/04/1934 AD]
5126) That a heavier isotope tends to react more slowly than a lighter isotope
is used to build up quantities of rare isotopes.

(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
66 YBN
[1934 AD]
5356) Cherenkov {Cu-reN-KoF} radiation: blue light is found emitted by various
liquids bombarded by gamma rays.

(Lebedev Institute of Physics) Moscow, (Soviet Union now) Russia  
65 YBN
[02/??/1935 AD]
5162) The artificial silk: nylon.
(E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company) Wilmington, Delaware, USA  
65 YBN
[10/22/1935 AD]
5451) The scanning electron microscope (SEM), a device that moves a focused
electron beam in rows and columns over the surface of an object, and receives
both the electrons scattered by the object and the secondary electrons produced
by it.

(Technischen Hochschule/Technical University) Berlin, Germany
65 YBN
[11/19/1935 AD]
5498) The theory that when an electric current is passed into a nerve, an
electric potential increases until a threshold voltage is reached, and
"excitation" occurs.

(University College) London, England  
65 YBN
[1935 AD]
4786) An artificial heart.
(The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research) New York City, New York,
65 YBN
[1935 AD]
6627) Polyethylene is synthesized; the most widely used plastic on Earth.
64 YBN
[03/11/1936 AD]
5496) Muscle contraction (in crabs) can be varied in strength by changing the
frequency of electrical current pulses on the nerve connected to the muscle.

(University College) London, England  
64 YBN
[08/17/1936 AD]
5336) Neutrons are "diffracted" with crystals of Magnesium oxide. A neutron
beam is shown to have a wavelength of 160 pm, similar to x-rays.

(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
64 YBN
[1936 AD]
5422) A virus is cultured in vitro; in human embryonic nervous tissue.
(Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research) New York City, New York, USA  
63 YBN
[03/17/1937 AD]
5471) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is detected in a virus.
(Rothamsted Experimental Station) Harpenden, Hertfordshire, England  
63 YBN
[04/??/1937 AD]
6268) The turbo jet engine: a gas combustion engine that propels air vehicles
by hot exhaust gases from fuel burned with drawn in air.

(British Thomson-Houston works) Rugby, England  
63 YBN
[05/14/1937 AD]
5548) The first transuranium elements. Elements 93 through 96 are identified
from the collision of neutrons with uranium.

(Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instute fur Chemie in Berlin-Dahlem) Berlin, Germany  
63 YBN
[05/22/1937 AD]
5515) The first image of individual atoms. Atoms are visually confirmed to be
about 100 pm in size.
The field-emission electron microscope magnifies the tip of a
tungsten needle 200,000 times.

(Siemens and Halske) Berlin, Germany  
63 YBN
[06/30/1937 AD]
5364) Element 43, the first completely artificial element, the radioactive
metal technetium {TeKnEsEuM} is created by particle collision.

Technetium has no stable isotopes.

(Royal University) Polermo, Italy  
63 YBN
[09/??/1937 AD]
5525) The first radio telescope that has a reflector or radio dish.
Wheaton, Illinois, USA  
63 YBN
[1937 AD]
3622) The process of xerography {Zi-roG-ru-FE} (or electrophotography), which
uses electrostatic charges and heat to copy documents; the basis of
photocopiers and laser printers.

New York City NY, USA   
62 YBN
[04/??/1938 AD]
6271) Teflon is invented.
(E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company) Wilmington, Delaware, USA  
62 YBN
[06/16/1938 AD]
5382) Both positively and negatively charged particles with a mass in between
that of an electron and proton, are identified (from cosmic rays) and given the
name "mesotron", which will later be changed to "meson" {meZoN}.

(California Institute of Technology) Pasadena, California  
62 YBN
[06/22/1938 AD]
5448) The first image of a virus is captured.

Viruses are confirmed to be about 150 nm in size.

(Berliner Medizinischen Gesellschaft/Berlin Medical Society) Berlin,
61 YBN
[04/30/1939 AD]
5835) The bipedal (or two leg walking) robot.
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation) Mansfield, Ohio, USA  
60 YBN
[03/03/1940 AD]
5462) That uranium-235 produces far more fissions per minute than uranium-238
is demonstrated.

(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
60 YBN
[05/28/1940 AD]
5285) Uranium and thorium are fissioned by γ-rays.

This is the first fissioning of large atoms with light particles.

(Westinghouse Research Laboratories) East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA  
60 YBN
[06/14/1940 AD]
5568) The spontaneous fission of uranium is observed.
(Physico Technical Institute and Radium Institute) Leningrad, (U.S.S.R. now)
60 YBN
[08/24/1940 AD]
5217) An anti-bacterial form of the fungus Penicillin is found to be effective
against at least three kinds of bacteria in mice.

(University of Oxford) Oxford, England  
60 YBN
[11/13/1940 AD]
5524) A circular electron accelerator is built which creates artificial gamma

(General Electric Company) Scotia, New York, USA  
60 YBN
[12/02/1940 AD]
5439) The first color television images are broadcast.
(Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc.) New York City, New York, USA  
59 YBN
[01/23/1941 AD]
5580) That the oxygen liberated in photosynthesis comes from the water molecule
and not from carbon dioxide is proven by using oxygen-18, a stable but rare
oxygen isotope.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
59 YBN
[02/24/1941 AD]
5283) Uranium is fissioned by Alpha-Particles under an electric potential of

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
59 YBN
[10/08/1941 AD]
5331) That a sequence of DNA (a gene) controls the production of a particular
protein, is proven when X-rays cause a genetic mutation in a bread mold which
results in the mold failing to make vitamin B6. This mutation is also shown to
be inherited.

(Stanford University) Stanford, California, USA  
59 YBN
[1941 AD]
6648) The plastic polyester.
(Calico Printers' Association, Ltd.) England  
58 YBN
[03/12/1942 AD]
5428) The first detailed image of a virus is captured.
(RCA Research Laboratories) Camden, New Jersey, USA  
58 YBN
[11/04/1942 AD]
5289) The first explicit claim of a planet of a different star; recognized from
the movement in photos of the nearby star 61 Cygni.

(Sproul Observatory, Swartmore University), Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, USA  
58 YBN
[12/02/1942 AD]
5277) A self-sustained uranium fission reaction.

Cadmium rods are slowly withdrawn from a pile of graphite blocks with uranium
inside, and the first uranium fission chain reaction becomes self-sustaining,
driven only by neutrons spontaneously emitted by uranium.

(University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
57 YBN
[05/25/1943 AD]
5578) Changes in light absorption spectral lines are used to determine that
molecular changes have occurred.

(University of Pennsylvania) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA  
57 YBN
[11/01/1943 AD]
4916) The DNA molecule is recognized as being responsible for the creation and
inheritance of structural changes in a body, when a DNA molecule is found to
change a rough appearing bacteria into a smooth one, which is then passed onto
later generations.

(Rockefeller Institute, now called Rockefeller University) New York City, New
York, USA  
57 YBN
[1943 AD]
4949) That direct electrical stimulation to the brain can cause cats to become
enraged or scared is shown.

(University of Zurich), Zurich, Switzerland  
55 YBN
[07/16/1945 AD]
5311) The first atomic fission bomb is exploded; a plutonium bomb that compares
to about 21,000 tons of TNT.

(Alamogordo Test Range) Jornada del Muerto (Journey of Death) desert, New
Mexico, USA  
55 YBN
[10/08/1945 AD]
6272) The microwave oven.

Microwave light frequencies are strongly absorbed by water molecules, and so
heat materials containing water.

(Raytheon Manufacturing Company) Newton, Massachusetts, USA  
54 YBN
[01/10/1946 AD]
5528) Radio light is reflected off the moon and received back on Earth.
Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, USA  
54 YBN
[02/??/1946 AD]
5459) ENIAC, the first programmable general-purpose electronic digital

(University of Pennsylvania) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA  
54 YBN
[06/01/1946 AD]
5472) Radio-carbon dating. That C14 produced by cosmic-ray neutrons, can be
used to determine the age of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and living matter
is recognized.

(University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
54 YBN
[08/22/1946 AD]
5697) Multiple telescopes are used in parallel to observe a larger area.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
54 YBN
[09/17/1946 AD]
5742) Sexual reproduction (conjugation) is found in bacteria (E. Coli).
(Yale University) New Haven, Connecticut, USA  
54 YBN
[10/10/1946 AD]
3848) The first solar spectrum is captured from the upper atmosphere by a
rocket which confirms that the atmosphere of Earth absorbs light with
ultraviolet frequency.

(White Sands proving area) New Mexico, USA  
53 YBN
[01/10/1947 AD]
5581) Radar is used to see meteor showers, even during daylight.
(University of Manchester: Jodrell Bank) Cheshire, England  
53 YBN
[06/26/1947 AD]
5550) Elements 73 (tantalum) through 83 (bismuth) are fissioned with deuterons,
helium ions, or neutrons using up to 400 Mev.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
53 YBN
[08/31/1947 AD]
5582) Radio echos are captured off of an Aurora Borealis.
(University of Manchester: Jodrell Bank) Cheshire, England  
53 YBN
[10/14/1947 AD]
5603) An airplane moves faster than the speed of sound in air.
(over Rogers Dry Lake) Edwards, California, USA  
52 YBN
[04/16/1948 AD]
5417) The theory that the atomic nucleus consists of protons and neutrons
arranged in shells.

(Argonne Laboratory) Argonne, Illinois  
52 YBN
[06/17/1948 AD]
5295) The semiconductor transistor (or solid-state electric switch and

(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
52 YBN
[06/21/1948 AD]
6551) The first computer to run a stored program.
(Electrical Engineering Laboratories at the University of Manchester)
Manchester, England  
52 YBN
[1948 AD]
6273) The hook and loop fastener (Velcro).
Nyon, Switzerland  
51 YBN
[07/27/1949 AD]
6270) The first large passenger jet airplane (or jetliner) flies.
Hatfield, England  
51 YBN
[10/10/1949 AD]
5539) A neutral Meson is identified.
(University of Rochester) Rochester, New York, USA  
51 YBN
[11/24/1949 AD]
5228) That antibodies are only formed after birth is demonstrated.
(Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research) Melbourne,
50 YBN
[01/13/1950 AD]
5237) The theory that there is a cloud of about 100 billion comets that
surrounds our Sun about halfway to the nearest stars.

(Observatory at Leiden) Leiden, Netherlands  
50 YBN
[03/07/1950 AD]
5127) That the abundance of the O18 isotope in calcium carbonate varies with
the temperature at which it is deposited from water and so can be used to
create a temperature history of the past, is recognized.

(University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
50 YBN
[03/15/1950 AD]
5553) The fission of medium weight elements (copper, bromine, silver, and tin)
by protons using 70 million electron volts.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
50 YBN
[04/26/1950 AD]
5542) Negatively charged mesons are shown to disintegrate atoms.
(University of Bristol) Bristol, England  
50 YBN
[09/11/1950 AD]
5555) The atomic fusion of large atoms.

Accelerated carbon-12 ions collide and fuse with Aluminum-27 to produce
Chlorine-34, and with Gold-197 to produce Astatine-205 {aSTe-TEN}.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
50 YBN
[1950 AD]
5298) That viruses can be coded in bacteria DNA is shown.
(Institut Pasteur) Paris, France  
49 YBN
[11/11/1951 AD]
6274) Moving images are recorded on magnetic tape (videotape).
Los Angeles, California, USA  
49 YBN
[12/20/1951 AD]
5444) The first atomic fission reactor to produce electricity.
The heat from uranium fission
heats water to make steam which drives an electrical generator.

(Experimental Breeder Reactor-1) Arco, Idaho (verify)  
49 YBN
[1951 AD]
5876) That some genes can turn on or off another gene, and can control the rate
at which a gene is switched on and off is discovered.

(Carnegie Institute of Washington) Cold Spring Harbor, New York, USA  
48 YBN
[11/01/1952 AD]
5470) The first hydrogen fusion bomb is exploded.
(Elugelab Island in the Enewatak Atoll of the) Marshall Islands, Pacific
48 YBN
[1952 AD]
5123) The most distant galaxies are estimated to be 5 to 6 billion light years

(Mount Wilson Observatory) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
47 YBN
[02/26/1953 AD]
5397) The Perseus, Orion, and Sagittarius arms of the Milky Way Galaxy are

(Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago) Williams Bay, Wisconsin, USA  
47 YBN
[04/02/1953 AD]
5660) The double helix structure of DNA is understood.

The DNA molecule is a double helix made of a sugar-phosphate backbone, with the
connected nitrogenous bases (adenine {aDN-EN}, thymine {tI-mEN}, cytosine
{SITe-SEN} or guanine {GWo-nEN}) extending toward the center of the helix from
each of the two backbones. The double helix form requires that an adenine can
only pair with a thymine, and a cytosine can only pair with a guanine. The
process of copying (replication) can now be explained as the two strands of the
double helix being unwound, and each single helix then serves as a model for
its complement.

(Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
47 YBN
[05/29/1953 AD]
5700) A human reaches the top of Mount Everest, the highest point of Earth
(9000 meters or 29,000 feet- 5 miles up).

Mount Everest, border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of
46 YBN
[01/21/1954 AD]
5230) The first nuclear powered submarine is launched.
The fuel supply of
uranium lasts for months without the need to surface to recharge batteries.

Thames River, Connecticut, USA  
46 YBN
[05/05/1954 AD]
5649) The MASER (which stands for "microwave amplification by stimulated
emission of radiation").

A beam of ammonia molecules emerges through a hole, passes through an
electrostatic field into a cavity with an oscillating electric potential at the
molecular transition frequency. This causes microwave light to be emitted by
the molecules in the cavity which then induces the transition to light emission
in the molecules entering the cavity causing self-sustained oscillations with a
very stable frequency. So the MASER can be used as a very stable oscillator (or
atomic clock), as an amplifier of microwaves near a molecular resonance, and as
a microwave spectrometer.

(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
46 YBN
[10/21/1954 AD]
5250) A single neuron is made to fire by electrical stimulation (direct neuron

(Kyoto University) Kyoto, Japan  
46 YBN
[1954 AD]
5323) Progesterone {PrO-JeSTe-rON}, a female hormone, is found to prevent
ovulation (discharge of an ovum or ovule from the ovary) in humans. This leads
to the first birth control pill for humans.

(Worchester Foundation for Experimental Biology) Shrewsbury, Massachusetts,
45 YBN
[08/22/1955 AD]
5710) Radioimmunoassay {rADE-O-iMye-nO-aSA}: a method to measure tiny amounts
of substances by comparing the quantity of binding of a radiolabeled substance
to an antibody.

(Veterans Administration Hospital) Bronx, New York, USA  
45 YBN
[10/24/1955 AD]
5366) The antiproton is identified by the impact of very high speed protons on
copper atoms.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
44 YBN
[03/??/1956 AD]
5688) A bacteria enzyme is found to synthesize DNA molecules using nucleotides
and ATP. This enzyme will be isolated and named "polymerase".

(Washington University) Saint Louis, Missouri, USA  
44 YBN
[12/03/1956 AD]
5703) The first solid maser (also the first multi-level and continuous maser).
(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
44 YBN
[1956 AD]
5408) Sound reflection is used to show that the mid-Atlantic ridge is a
mountain range extending throughout the oceans of the world and is some
64,000 km (or 40,000 miles) long.

(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
43 YBN
[01/16/1957 AD]
5711) Transfer RNA (T-RNA) is identified.
(Harvard University, Massachusetts General Hospital) Boston, Massachusetts, USA
43 YBN
[10/04/1957 AD]
5486) The first human-made satellite.

An 83-kg (or 184-pound) aluminum sphere that carries four antennas, reaches an
Earth orbit with an apogee (farthest point from Earth) of 940 km (or 584
miles), and circles Earth every 96 minutes.

(Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam) Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
43 YBN
[11/03/1957 AD]
5487) The first animal to orbit Earth; a dog.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
43 YBN
[1957 AD]
6502) Direct neuron writing to hearing using an implanted electric device; the
first cochlear implants.

42 YBN
[01/09/1958 AD]
5772) The "Mössbauer {moS-BoUR} effect": when atoms are in a crystalline
lattice, the lattice prevents them from recoiling, and so the atoms can emit
and absorb gamma radiation of the same exact frequency (resonantly). This
phenomenon allows highly precise measurements of frequency.

(Institut fur Physik im Max-Planck-Institut fur medizinische Forschung
{Institute of Physics at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research})
Heidelberg, Germany  
42 YBN
[05/01/1958 AD]
5608) A high intensity of corpuscular radiation temporarily trapped in the
Earth's magnetic field is discovered. These layers will come to be called the
magnetosphere {maG-nE-Tu-SFER} or the "Van Allen" radiation belts.

(National Academy of Science and American Physical Society joint meeting)
Washington, D. C., USA  
42 YBN
[08/01/1958 AD]
5606) The first atomic explosion in empty space and first rocket launched
atomic explosion.

(Johnson Island) Pacific Ocean  
42 YBN
[1958 AD]
6550) The integrated circuit (or IC).
(Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor)  
41 YBN
[01/03/1959 AD]
5596) The first ship to pass the moon.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
41 YBN
[01/27/1959 AD]
5672) The Earth is found to be slightly pear shaped from the motion of a 1 kg
(or 3 pound) satellite.

41 YBN
[04/??/1959 AD]
5787) Signals from life of other stars are searched for.
(National Radio Astronomy Observatory) Green Bank, West Virginia, USA  
41 YBN
[09/14/1959 AD]
5597) A ship impacts the moon of Earth.

The moon is shown to have no significant magnetic field or radiation belts.

(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
41 YBN
[10/18/1959 AD]
5598) The first pictures of the far-side of the moon of Earth.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan (U.S.S.R.)  
41 YBN
[11/05/1959 AD]
191) A device inside the body is controlled remotely; a radio controlled
artificial heart pacemaker.

(Yale University School of Medicine) New Haven, New Jersey, USA  
41 YBN
[12/07/1959 AD]
5372) An X-ray telescope.
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
40 YBN
[01/23/1960 AD]
4992) Humans reach around 11 km (or 7 miles) below sea level.
Marianas Trench of the Pacific Ocean  
40 YBN
[03/09/1960 AD]
5774) Light is proven to have mass. Gravity is shown to change the frequency of
light proving that the speed of light is not constant.

The Mössbauer effect is used (with radioactive Iron-57) to show that the
wavelength of a beam of light with gamma wavelength is increased (or
red-shifted) as the beam is sent from the top floor of a tower to the basement.
This is because of the stronger gravity field at the basement which is closer
to the center of Earth.

(Harvard University) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA   
40 YBN
[04/19/1960 AD]
5665) An x-ray photograph of the Sun.
(U. S. Naval Research Laboratory) Washington, D. C., USA  
40 YBN
[04/22/1960 AD]
5768) The LASER (which stands for "light amplification by stimulated emission
of radiation"). Light is fed into a ruby cylinder from a flash lamp, and the
ruby emits light that is monochromatic (single frequency) and coherent (all the
beams are in a single direction). These coherent beams of light can travel
thousands of kilometers without spreading very far apart.

(Hughes Research Laboratories) Malibu, California  
40 YBN
[04/??/1960 AD]
5073) A logical contradiction in the theory of space and time dilation is
identified in that time appears different depending on which of two clocks is
viewed as stationary, and the first recognition that spectral line position
changes as a result of a change in light source distance.

(University of London) London, England  
40 YBN
[08/12/1960 AD]
5485) The first passive communication satellite. Stations on the surface of
Earth send and receive data from the satellite, a mylar polyester balloon.

(Launchpad 17) Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA  
40 YBN
[08/30/1960 AD]
5737) The principle of "Computerized axial tomography" (CAT) is described: a
thin line of x-rays is used to determine the density of the inside of objects
by measuring the difference in x-ray absorption from many angles around an

(University of California Medical Center) Los Angeles, California, USA  
40 YBN
[12/28/1960 AD]
5705) Messenger RNA and the system that regulates protein synthesis in the cell
(regulatory genes called "operons") are identified.

(Pasteur Institute) Paris, France  
40 YBN
[12/30/1960 AD]
5769) The first gas laser (using a mixture of helium and neon).
(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
40 YBN
[12/??/1960 AD]
5412) The "seafloor spreading hypothesis": that continents are carried
passively on top of the spreading seafloor.

(Princeton University) Princeton, New Jersey, USA  
39 YBN
[04/12/1961 AD]
5601) The first human to orbit the Earth.
Saratovskaya oblast, U.S.S.R.  
39 YBN
[08/03/1961 AD]
5765) The first nucleic acid nucleotide is found to code for a specific amino
acid; a synthetic RNA molecule made of a single repeating nucleotide (uridylic
acid) {YR-e-Dil-iK} makes a protein containing only one amino acid
(phenylalanine) {FeNL-aL-u-nEN}.

(National Institutes of Health) Bethesda, Maryland, USA  
39 YBN
[12/30/1961 AD]
5663) That three DNA nucleotides code for one amino acid in a protein is

(Cavendish Lab University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
39 YBN
[1961 AD]
5706) The Bacteria Escherichia Coli is shown to have a single chromosome, which
is in the shape of a circle.

(Pasteur Institute) Paris, France  
38 YBN
[06/16/1962 AD]
5662) That RNA has a helical structure is recognized. RNA is usually
single-stranded but can fold back on itself to form a double helix as is the
case for tRNA and rRNA.

(King's College) London, England  
38 YBN
[09/24/1962 AD]
5656) The semiconductor {SeME-KeN-DuK-TR} LASER. A forward biased
Gallium-Arsenide p-n junction emits a monochromatic microwave light.

(General Electric Research Laboratory) Schenectady, New York, USA  
38 YBN
[10/12/1962 AD]
5376) X-ray sources from outside the solar system are observed.
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
38 YBN
[10/26/1962 AD]
6201) Laser writing and reading of data. Data is written to and read from
plastic film.

(Winston Research Corporation) Los Angeles, California, USA  
38 YBN
[1962 AD]
5490) An undersea station where humans live for prolonged periods of time.
(off coast of) Marseilles, France  
38 YBN
[1962 AD]
6628) That charged particles are emitted by the Sun in all directions following
the lines of force of the Sun's magnetic field is confirmed.

37 YBN
[03/04/1963 AD]
5750) Quasars (quasi-stellar radio sources) are identified; extragalactic
objects, starlike in appearance and having spectra with characteristically
large redshifts, that are thought to be the most distant and most luminous
objects in the universe.

(Wilson and Palomar Observatories, Carnegie institute of Washington and
California Institute of Technology) Pasadena, California, USA  
37 YBN
[06/16/1963 AD]
5602) The first woman to orbit the Earth.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan (U.S.S.R.)  
36 YBN
[07/15/1964 AD]
5770) A carbon dioxide laser is invented; the most powerful commercial gas

(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
36 YBN
[12/17/1964 AD]
5585) That a virus inserts its DNA into the DNA of the host cell which makes
the cell a cancer cell that produces more cancer cells is shown.

(The Salk Institute For Biological Studies) San Diego, California, USA  
36 YBN
[1964 AD]
3980) The liquid crystal display (LCD), which uses less electricity, weighs
less, and is thinner than a Cathode Ray Tube display.

RCA Labs, Princeton, New Jersey, USA  
35 YBN
[01/08/1965 AD]
5719) The first sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid are determined.
(Cornell University) Ithaca, New York, USA  
35 YBN
[05/13/1965 AD]
5797) The finding of "background radiation" and the claim that this supports
the "Big Bang" expanding universe theory.

(Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.) Crawford Hill, Holmdel, New Jersey,
35 YBN
[06/05/1965 AD]
5714) Two "termination" codons (nucleotide triplets) (UAG and UAA) are
identified as signals in messenger RNA for terminating a polypeptide chain.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
35 YBN
[07/14/1965 AD]
5615) The first ship to reach Mars and to return images of the surface; the
first images of another planet ever returned from deep space.

Planet Mars  
35 YBN
[1965 AD]
6276) A head-mounted computer display (for virtual reality).
34 YBN
[02/03/1966 AD]
5616) The first ship from Earth to make a soft landing on another world (the
Moon), and the first ship to return images from the surface of another world.

Moon of Earth  
34 YBN
[03/01/1966 AD]
5613) The first ship to impact a different planet; planet Venus.
Planet Venus  
34 YBN
[04/04/1966 AD]
5599) The first ship to orbit a body beyond the Earth; the Moon. The ship turns
around 8000 km (or 5000 miles) from the Moon, fires its rockets to slow down,
and enters lunar orbit.

(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
33 YBN
[04/03/1967 AD]
6202) Laser writing to a disk.
(Gauss Electrophysics, Inc), Santa Monica, California, USA  
33 YBN
[12/03/1967 AD]
5725) The first successful heart transplant.
(University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital) Cape Town, South
33 YBN
[1967 AD]
5341) Tissue compatibility is found to be determined by specific genes.
(Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA  
33 YBN
[1967 AD]
5845) The first handheld calculator.
(Texas Instruments) Dallas, Texas, USA  
33 YBN
[1967 AD]
6344) The theory that a chip inside the body could enable radio communication
of sound to and from thought.

32 YBN
[01/29/1968 AD]
6501) Direct neuron writing to the eye screen using an implanted electronic

(Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge and the Department of
Neurological Surgery and Neurology, United Cambridge Hospitals) Cambridge,
32 YBN
[02/09/1968 AD]
5739) Pulsars, stars that emit regularly timed bursts of radio light with a
small interval, are identified.

(Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
32 YBN
[02/27/1968 AD]
5759) A multi-wire solid-state particle detector increases the speed of
particle detection.

(CERN) Geneva, Switzerland  
32 YBN
[12/24/1968 AD]
5604) The first humans to orbit the moon.
Moon of Earth  
31 YBN
[03/21/1969 AD]
5776) The first known structure of an antibody is determined; a protein
molecule containing 1330 amino acids.

(The Rockefeller University) New York City, New York, USA  
31 YBN
[07/21/1969 AD]
655) Humans land and walk on the surface of the moon of Earth.
The first crewed
vehicle to land on the Moon. Two humans spend about 21 hours on the moon and
return 8 days after lift off.

Moon of Earth  
31 YBN
[09/15/1969 AD]
5753) A DNA molecule is broken with an enzyme; ("restriction enzymes").
(Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine) Baltimore, Maryland, USA  
31 YBN
[1969 AD]
5840) A walking robot that uses pneumatic (air-filled) rubber artificial

(Waseda Univerity) Tokyo, Japan  
31 YBN
[1969 AD]
5851) The Internet (people use computers to communicate over the telephone wire

(University of California at Los Angeles) Los Angeles, California,
USA|(Stanford Research Institute) Stanford, California, USA|(University of
California Santa Barbara) Santa Barbara, California, USA|(University of Utah)
Salt Lake City, Utah, USA  
30 YBN
[01/29/1970 AD]
5836) The digital electronic camera.

The Charged Coupled Device (or CCD); an electronic memory that can be charged
by light.

(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
30 YBN
[06/16/1970 AD]
5716) Two DNA molecules are combined using an enzyme (ligase {lI-GAS}). Using
this enzyme, the first artificial gene is synthesized from DNA segments; the
gene for a tRNA molecule.

(University of Wisconsin) Madison, Wisconsin, USA  
30 YBN
[09/08/1970 AD]
5574) A protein with the same amino acid sequence as the human growth hormone
is synthesized and displays growth-promoting activity.

(University of California) San Francisco, California, USA  
30 YBN
[09/24/1970 AD]
5600) A robotic ship from Earth returns samples from another body (the moon of

Dzhezkazgan, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
30 YBN
[12/15/1970 AD]
5617) The first ship to soft land on another planet (Venus) and the first to
transmit data after landing.

Planet Venus  
29 YBN
[04/19/1971 AD]
5667) The first orbiting ("space") station.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R. (verify)  
29 YBN
[11/14/1971 AD]
5618) The first ship to orbit another planet (Mars). The first global mapping
of the surface of Mars and detailed views of the Mars moons.

Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[11/27/1971 AD]
5619) A ship impacts Mars.
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[11/??/1971 AD]
5844) The first microprocessor and central processing unit (CPU); an integrated
circuit which contains 2,300 transistors with a clock rate of 740 kHz, has 46
instructions, and uses external RAM and ROM.

(Intel Corporation) Santa Clara, California, USA  
29 YBN
[12/02/1971 AD]
5620) The first ship to soft land on planet Mars and return data.
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[12/03/1971 AD]
5838) Light particle communication using liquid filled glass fiber (fiber optic

(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Holmdel, New Jersey, USA  
29 YBN
[1971 AD]
5852) The first e-mail (electronic mail) program.
(Bolt, Beranek, and Newman engineering) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
28 YBN
[07/15/1972 AD]
5621) A ship passes the meteor belt between Mars and Jupiter.
Planet Mars  
28 YBN
[07/31/1972 AD]
5751) Proteins are synthesized by using a virus to add DNA into bacteria.

This is the beginning of genetic engineering.

One result of this "recombinant" technology are bacteria that contain the gene
for producing the mammalian hormone insulin.

(Stanford University Medical Center) Stanford, California, USA  
28 YBN
[1972 AD]
5790) Two streams of high-velocity electrons are collided head on, and
electrons are collided with positrons.

(Stanford University Stanford Linear Accelerator Center {SLAC}) Stanford,
California, USA  
27 YBN
[12/03/1973 AD]
5622) A ship reaches Jupiter and sends the first close-up images.
The giant planet's
radiation belts and magnetic field are also mapped.

Planet Jupiter  
26 YBN
[03/29/1974 AD]
5614) The first ship to reach Mercury, to return closeup images, and to use the
gravitational pull of one planet (Venus) to reach another planet (Mercury).

Planet Mercury  
26 YBN
[1974 AD]
5846) The personal computer.
(Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
26 YBN
[1974 AD]
5896) A multi-window computer program with moveable windows.
(Xerox Palo Alto Research Center) Palo Alto, California, USA  
25 YBN
[10/20/1975 AD]
5623) The first ship to orbit and land on Venus, and to transmit the first
image from the surface of another planet.

The temperature at the surface is 460°C (or 860°F); atmospheric pressure is
90 times that at the surface of Earth.

Planet Venus  
25 YBN
[1975 AD]
6371) An external object is moved by thought (electricity in the brain).
24 YBN
[07/20/1976 AD]
5624) The first images and soil samples from the surface of Mars.
Planet Mars  
24 YBN
[11/30/1976 AD]
5695) The complete DNA sequence of a virus is determined; a small virus with
5,375 nucleotide pairs which codes for nine different proteins.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
23 YBN
[05/19/1977 AD]
5771) The first x-ray LASER.
(P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, USSR Academy of Sciences) Moscow,
23 YBN
[1977 AD]
6312) A self-driving car.
(Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Lab) Japan  
22 YBN
[07/25/1978 AD]
5810) The successful birth of a human baby after in vitro fertilization.
(General Hostpial) Oldham, UK  
21 YBN
[03/05/1979 AD]
5630) The first close-up images of the moons of Jupiter.
Planet Jupiter  
21 YBN
[09/01/1979 AD]
388) A ship reaches Saturn and sends the first close-up images.
Planet Saturn  
20 YBN
[09/12/1980 AD]
6189) The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (or STM). Individual atoms and
molecules of many kinds can be seen.

(IBM Zurich Research Laboratory) Ruschlikon, Zurich, Switzerland
20 YBN
[11/12/1980 AD]
5631) The first close-up images of the moons of Saturn.
Planet Saturn  
19 YBN
[04/??/1981 AD]
6649) Beams of protons and antiprotons are collided head on.
CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire), Geneva,
19 YBN
[11/12/1981 AD]
5805) The first reuse of a space craft.
(Launch Pad 39A) Merritt Island, Florida, USA  
18 YBN
[03/01/1982 AD]
5626) The first Venus soil samples and sound recording of another planet.
Planet Venus  
17 YBN
[06/13/1983 AD]
5627) The first ship from Earth to fly farther than all known planets of this
star system.

Planet Neptune  
17 YBN
[10/25/1983 AD]
5811) Humans are shown to be genetically closer to chimpanzees than other

(Yale University) New Haven, Connecticut, USA  
16 YBN
[03/10/1984 AD]
5814) A multicellular organism is "cloned" (genetically identical copies are

The nucleus in an ovum is replaced with the nucleus from an embryo cell and
reimplanted to produce genetically identical animals (sheep).

(AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology) Cambridge, UK  
16 YBN
[06/25/1984 AD]
5815) Copies are made of DNA sequences from an extinct species.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
16 YBN
[08/31/1984 AD]
6190) A DNA molecule is imaged at the atomic scale.
(IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Switzerland, presented in) Prague,
16 YBN
[11/16/1984 AD]
5813) "Genetic fingerprinting": certain sequences of DNA unique to each
organism can be used to identify individual organisms and also to determine
family relationships.

(University of Leicester) Leicester, UK  
15 YBN
[09/20/1985 AD]
5804) Polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS} chain reaction (PCR), a simple technique that
allows a specific segment of DNA to be copied billions of times in a few hours.

(Cetus Corporation) Emeryville, California, USA  
14 YBN
[01/24/1986 AD]
5628) A ship reaches Uranus and sends the first close-up images of the planet,
its moons, and its rings.

Planet Uranus  
12 YBN
[12/14/1988 AD]
6194) A microscopic electric motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
11 YBN
[08/25/1989 AD]
5629) A ship reaches Neptune and sends the first close-up images of the planet,
its moons and rings.

Planet Neptune  
10 YBN
[01/17/1990 AD]
6191) Individual atoms are moved. An STM is used at low temperatures to form
the letters "IBM" in xenon atoms.

(IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center) San Jose, California,
10 YBN
[01/29/1990 AD]
6278) A light particle (or optical) computer processor.
(AT&T Bell Labs) Holmdel, New Jersey, United States  
10 YBN
[02/14/1990 AD]
5632) The first ship to capture an image of the entire star system (Sun and all
planets) in one picture.

Outside star system  
10 YBN
[04/25/1990 AD]
5828) A telescope is placed in Earth orbit.
Earth Orbit (Launched from Launch Pad 39B) Merritt Island, Florida, USA  
[10/29/1991 AD]
5635) The first ship to reach and send close-up images of an asteroid.
Asteroid Gaspra (Ida encounter must occur later)  
[1991 AD]
5857) The World Wide Web is released to the public by way of FTP.
[1992 AD]
5859) The first free videophone program.
[08/28/1993 AD]
5636) A ship discovers the first known moon of an asteroid.
Asteroid Ida  
[1993 AD]
5858) The first Internet browser.
[12/07/1995 AD]
396) The first ship to orbit Jupiter.
[11/25/1996 AD]
186) An animal is cloned by replacing the nucleus of an ovum with the nucleus
from a somatic cell, and then stimulating the ovum with electrical pulses to
start dividing. This proves that the DNA of the differentiated somatic cell
does not involve an irreversible modification for the embryo to develop.

(University of Edinburgh, Roslin Institute), Roslin Midlothian, UK  
[09/15/1999 AD]
3887) The first images read directly from neurons.
(University of California, Berkeley) Berkeley, CA, USA  
[09/20/1999 AD]
5833) Embryonic stem cells transplanted onto spinal cord tissue, are shown to
differentiate, integrate with, and promote recovery in the spinal cord of
injured rats.

(Washington University School of Medicine) St. Louis, Missouri, USA  
[02/14/2000 AD]
5638) A ship orbits an asteroid.
Asteroid Eros  
[12/05/2000 AD]
5823) The human genome is sequenced.
(Celera Genomics) Rockville, Maryland, USA (and 13 other locations)  
[02/12/2001 AD]
5639) The first ship to land on an asteroid.
Asteroid Eros  
[06/28/2001 AD]
6192) A microscopic radio chip (an RFID chip).
(Hitachi) Japan  
[02/16/2002 AD]
6332) A remote control device emits drugs inside a human body.
(CCBR-SYNARC) Denmark  
[04/04/2003 AD]
6195) A nanometer scale electric motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
[07/01/2004 AD]
5641) The first ship to orbit Saturn.
Planet Saturn  
[07/22/2004 AD]
6655) The first image of a planet of a different star.
(European Southern Observatory) Santiago, Chili  
[11/29/2004 AD]
5832) Stem cells are used to repair damaged nerves, allowing a paralyzed human
to walk.

(Chosun University) Kwangju, South Korea  
[01/14/2005 AD]
5642) A ship lands on a moon of Saturn (Titan).
Planet Saturn, moon Titan  
[06/10/2008 AD]
6582) That mass and motion cannot be converted into each other is recognized.
(UC Irvine) Irvine, CA, USA  
[12/10/2008 AD]
3886) The first remote neuron reading. An image of what the eyes are seeing is
captured remotely using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

Different syllables of thought-audio are also distinguished remotely.

(Collaboration between researchers at two Japanese Universities, two research
Institutes, and ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories) Kyoto, Japan  
12 YAN
[01/31/2012 AD]
276) Sound a brain hears is recorded directly from the brain.
(University of California at Berkeley) Berkeley, CA, USA  
13 YAN
[03/23/2013 AD]
6640) The theory that globular clusters are the inevitable result of highly
adapted living objects.

(University of California) Irvine, California, USA  
13 YAN
[05/15/2013 AD]
6647) Stem cells are created by replacing the nucleus of an ovum with the
nucleus of a skin cell. This method allows people to be their own stem cell

(Oregon Health & Science University), Oregon, USA  
15 YAN
[2015 AD]
332) Sound a brain hears is recorded remotely and played out loud.
15 YAN
[2015 AD]
6394) A microscopic radio (or particle transmitter and receiver).
18 YAN
[2018 AD]
6208) A radio device functions inside a cell. The first human-made cell
organelle. A device like a microscopic RFID chip exists inside an individual
cell and can send and receive information with a remote external device.

20 YAN
[2020 AD]
4559) Walking robots are produced in mass quantity, and are available for the
public to buy.

This is the start of the "robot revolution"; how robots replace humans in most
manual labor tasks, greatly increasing the quantity of food produced and the
population of humans.

20 YAN
[2020 AD]
4573) Humans synthesize artificial milk and cheese.
20 YAN
[2020 AD]
6197) The first remote control microscopic flying device.
20 YAN
[2020 AD]
6632) Humans move an asteroid by capturing the asteroid inside a container.
23 YAN
[2023 AD]
6552) The first wireless microscopic microphone. The "micro-mic".
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
337) Remote neuron writing using microscopic devices in neurons. Microscopic
devices enter the human body by the lung, enter the blood circulation which
connects directly to all cells, and position themselves as organelles inside
each neuron. External devices communicate with the intracellular devices to
read the voltage and to remotely make the neuron cell fire.

Sounds, images, smells, touches, emotions, and muscle contractions can now be
remotely activated in a brain by sending light particles to intracellular

25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6193) The first wireless microscopic camera. The "micro-cam".
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6198) The first remote controlled microscopic flying camera.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6375) The wireless microscopic maser.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6395) The wireless nanometer scale radio transmitter and receiver (the

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
365) The first thought-audio is recorded. Thought-audio is recorded using
remote neuron reading and played out loud publicly. The first recorded thought
audio may sound like this: "1 2 3". Humans start to communicate by
thought-image and thought-sound only.

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
366) The first artificial muscle bipedal robots. These robots are lighter and
more electrically efficient, than motor robots.

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
680) The first images of thought are seen. Thought-images are recorded remotely
using remote neuron reading and shown publicly.

The first thought-image may be the image of a triangle.

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
791) Bipedal robots start replacing humans in most low-skill jobs (for example
as walking security cameras, in fast-food, and fruit picking).

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
6391) The first wireless nanometer scale camera. The "nano-cam".
40 YAN
[2040 AD]
4561) Walking robots can wash dishes, wash clothing, and do most other simple
household tasks.

40 YAN
[2040 AD]
6553) The first use of remote writing to motor neurons to stop an act of

45 YAN
[2045 AD]
6630) Obesity is cured with microscopic devices.
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
790) Humans walk around with robot servants. These robots perform tasks like
carrying objects and protection.

50 YAN
[2050 AD]
4564) An artificial muscle robot can fly by flapping wings.
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
4566) The first air highway, for autopiloted flying cars, is established.

The flying cars are extremely safe with emergency parachutes, airbags,
emergency landing thrusters, and have complete auto-navigation.

50 YAN
[2050 AD]
6298) An artificial muscle wing flapping passenger plane.
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
6300) Bacteria are identified and destroyed by microscopic devices inside an
animal body.

51 YAN
[2051 AD]
6520) There are 10 billion humans on Earth.
55 YAN
[2055 AD]
6302) Cancer cell growth is stopped by microscopic devices.
60 YAN
[2060 AD]
6301) A virus is identified and destroyed by microscopic devices.
75 YAN
[2075 AD]
6445) Humans stop unwanted weather (for example tornadoes and hurricanes), by
changing air temperature using millions of distributed remote control nanometer
sized devices.

80 YAN
[2080 AD]
6392) Accelerated nanocamera ships reach another planet and return closeup

100 YAN
[2100 AD]
367) Most humans communicate only by images and sounds of thought.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
793) Helicopter-cars form a second line of traffic above the streets.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
794) 100 ships with humans orbit Earth. Eventually, Earth orbit will be filled
with single family houses and stores.

100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4569) Most vehicles are machine controlled. Humans only determine the

100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4575) Robots walk on the moon of Earth and build buildings.
moon of Earth  
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4613) Humans conquer all bacteria and viruses. Nanoscale devices can identify
and destroy all known bacteria and viruses anywhere inside or outside of the

120 YAN
[2120 AD]
4583) Robots land and walk on an asteroid.
120 YAN
[2120 AD]
4584) Robots walk and build buildings on Mars.
140 YAN
[2140 AD]
687) Large scale atomic transmutation: Humans can convert most common atoms
(like Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, and Calcium) into much more useful atoms (like
Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen). This allows many humans to live independently
of Earth, in ships, and on planets and moons without air or water, because they
can produce all the air, fuel, water and food they need from the common atoms
of planets and moons.

Because of large scale transmutation large self-sufficient cities of humans can
be created on airless and waterless planets and moons.

140 YAN
[2140 AD]
6377) Robots build buildings on an asteroid.
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
659) The first major nation of Earth to be fully and constantly democratic,
where the people vote directly on the laws.

150 YAN
[2150 AD]
4592) The first humans land on Mars.
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
6223) The first "Moon colony". Humans permanently live on the Moon of Earth.
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
6304) Nucleic Acids are changed by remote control nanoscale devices. This will
lead to making physical changes to the shape of a body that originate at the
cellular level.

160 YAN
[2160 AD]
4590) Robots land and walk on planet Mercury.
160 YAN
[2160 AD]
4591) Robots land and walk on a moon of Jupiter.
160 YAN
[2160 AD]
6642) Humans orbit Venus.
180 YAN
[2180 AD]
4593) Robots land and walk on the surface of Saturn and its moons.
180 YAN
[2180 AD]
4594) Humans live permanently on Mars. The first Mars colony. The first city of
another planet.

190 YAN
[2190 AD]
4606) Humans land on Mercury.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
792) Robots and other machines have replaced humans in most manual labor tasks
(driving, cleaning, and food planting, harvesting, preparing and serving).
Robots also do the most dangerous parts of military, police, and fire fighting.

200 YAN
[2200 AD]
795) 1000 human-filled ships orbit Earth.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
4562) Hugging, kissing, sleeping together, and other non-sexual forms of
pleasure for money are decriminalized for adults in most developed nations.

200 YAN
[2200 AD]
4607) The first Mercury colony: humans live permanently under and on the
surface of Mercury.

200 YAN
[2200 AD]
6305) Microscopic devices repair, regrow, and reshape damaged cells.
210 YAN
[2210 AD]
4585) Humans land and walk on an asteroid.
220 YAN
[2220 AD]
4596) Robots land and walk on Uranus and its moons.
250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4567) The end of all arrests for information-sharing crimes, although many
secrets still remain.

250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4586) Humans live permanently on an asteroid.
250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4589) The end of arrests for recreational drugs in most major nations.
250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4611) Humans reach Jupiter and land on a moon.
260 YAN
[2260 AD]
4601) Robots land and walk on Neptune and its moons.
Triton, Neptune  
275 YAN
[2275 AD]
661) Most humans are not religious.
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4595) All money is electronic.
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4598) Humans live permanently in a ship that orbits the Sun.
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4620) Humans land on Saturn and its moons.
283 YAN
[2283 AD]
6521) There are 100 billion humans.
290 YAN
[2290 AD]
4599) The first ships that regularly transport humans from Earth to the moon of

300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4581) The end of arrests for nudity in public.
300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4627) Humans land on Uranus and its moons.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4609) Humans switch to a single time system for all places in the universe.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4630) Humans reach and land on Neptune and its moons.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
6393) The first ships to reach another star (Alpha Centauri) and to return the
first closeup images of the planets around another star. These nanocamera ships
are very small, and are accelerated to very high speeds, perhaps even half the
speed of light, allowing them to reach another star in under 10 years. There
need to be many ships in order to relay images over the long distances.

Possibly nanometer ships may work together to assemble larger structures from
the atoms around other stars.

370 YAN
[2370 AD]
6209) Living objects on planets of a different star are identified (bacteria
made of DNA on planets around Centauri).

Alpha Centauri  
400 YAN
[2400 AD]
4612) Humans send ships with robots to the stars of Alpha Centauri.
These large
scale ships may only go 1% the speed of light and take 400 years to get to

420 YAN
[2420 AD]
779) Most humans in developed nations reject the theory of gods.
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
683) The removal and conversion of the Venus atmosphere is started.

This is the first major "conversion of a gas atmosphere" engineering work of

500 YAN
[2500 AD]
686) The end of death by aging.
Using genetic editing, humans can reach any
developmental stage, and then hold that body shape indefinitely, dying only
from physical destruction. Humans now live for thousands of years. This causes
the human population to grow at an extremely fast rate.

500 YAN
[2500 AD]
4588) The end of arrests for all forms of trading money for consensual physical

500 YAN
[2500 AD]
6546) Microscopic ships reach Barnard's star, the second closest star, 6 light
years away, and send back the first images of the planets there.

500 YAN
[2500 AD]
6554) The end of homicide, by remote neuron writing.
600 YAN
[2600 AD]
4617) An asteroid is moved by propulsion, either by cables or by embedded

600 YAN
[2600 AD]
6547) Microscopic ships reach Sirius, 8 light years away, and send back the
first images of the planets there.

650 YAN
[2650 AD]
4619) Humans create atoms from light particles. Photon fusion: the reverse of
separating atoms into light particles.

650 YAN
[2650 AD]
6555) The first images of large living objects on a planet of another star are

Alpha Centauri  
700 YAN
[2700 AD]
4605) Robots land and walk on Venus.
750 YAN
[2750 AD]
4622) The first large ship to reach a different star (Alpha Centauri).

Smaller robot ships then land on all the planets and moons of Centauri.

Robots start mining and building to prepare for the many millions of humans
that will eventually arrive.

Alpha Centauri  
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
24) Humans consume an asteroid.
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4615) Humans live on Venus. The first Venus colony.
Humans live on and under the
surface of Venus in cooled buildings.

800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4624) Ships containing humans leave for the stars of Alpha Centauri and will
arrive successfully perhaps 400 years later. This begins the colonization of
other stars.

800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4628) Humans change the motion of a moon; perhaps a moon of Jupiter or Mars.
850 YAN
[2850 AD]
4580) Humans change the motion of a planet (planet Earth). The large quantity
of ships in orbit causes the motion of Earth to be carefully monitored and
periodically changed using organized ship movements. By this time the Earth and
Moon are visibly surrounded by millions of orbiting ships.

900 YAN
[2900 AD]
29) A ship impacts the surface of Jupiter. The first image of the surface of
Jupiter is captured. The solid and liquid body of Jupiter is confirmed to be 6
times the diameter of Earth.
The surface of Jupiter may appear to be molten
liquid like the surface of the Sun and the interior of the other planets.

900 YAN
[2900 AD]
775) A ship from Centauri leaves for Earth carrying matter from Centauri. This
is part of a long term project of bringing back matter from around Centauri to
be used around the star Earth orbits where consumable atoms are in great

Alpha Centauri  
900 YAN
[2900 AD]
4629) Human anatomical changes start to become apparent as a result of living
many generations in low gravity. Humans may start to look like ocean organisms
which do not walk but instead move by pushing the surrounding medium using
their appendages. Humans may also develop more and larger sex-related organs of
both genders.

1,000 YAN
[3000 AD]
4631) The start of the removal of the Jupiter atmosphere. Many humans may fear
Jupiter exploding. The removal of the atmosphere is a natural result of ships
"feeding" on the matter of Jupiter; the lost mass is replaced by added ships
and people.

1,150 YAN
[3150 AD]
4638) Ships with robots reach the second closest star, Barnard's star 6 light
years away. Robots land on the planets and start building more ships.

Barnard's Star  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4614) A ship from Centauri reaches Earth and returns the first objects from a
different star. Robots around Centauri build ships to go to other stars and
pull them closer.

Earth System  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4637) Humans reach a different star (Alpha Centauri). Humans now live around
two star systems and so the chance of extinction is greatly decreased. Humans
will start to reproduce at an exponential rate around the three stars of

Alpha Centauri  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4639) Humans completely control the motion of planet Mercury.
1,300 YAN
[3300 AD]
777) The end of major religions. Most humans belong to no major religion.
1,350 YAN
[3350 AD]
4640) Ships with robots reach Sirius.
1,400 YAN
[3400 AD]
4643) Humans control the motion of Mars.
1,400 YAN
[3400 AD]
6568) Humans reach Barnard's star.
Barnard's Star  
1,500 YAN
[3500 AD]
684) Much of the atmosphere of Venus has been removed and the surface has
cooled down. Nitrogen and Oxygen gases are now released into the atmosphere.

1,600 YAN
[3600 AD]
6569) Humans reach Sirius.
1,800 YAN
[3800 AD]
4645) The motion of Jupiter is controlled by orbiting ships.
2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4644) The atmosphere of Jupiter is completely removed, which causes the surface
to solidify and be more easily mined. Humans may add a nitrogen and oxygen
atmosphere or may simply mine Jupiter for matter, most of which is exported to
humans orbiting Jupiter or the Sun.

2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4646) Humans have robot ships at 10 different stars.
2,200 YAN
[4200 AD]
4651) The rings of Saturn are consumed by humans living there.
2,300 YAN
[4300 AD]
6379) Humans land on the surface of Jupiter.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4579) The Venus atmosphere is like the atmosphere of Earth. Venus becomes a
second Earth (although without oceans and much more efficiently organized).

2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4652) The first ships to hold an orbit above or below the planetary plane.
Ships can get closer to the Sun by occupying an orbit above or below the
planetary plane. These ships may hold a horizontal orbit by thrusting against
the y component of the Sun's gravity. Alternatively they may maintain a
thrustless orbit that crosses the planetary plane.

2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4655) Humans live on the surface of Jupiter.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4662) The motions of all the planets are under human control.
2,800 YAN
[4800 AD]
4669) Jupiter is the most populated planet, overtaking the Earth in number of
humans living in, on, and in orbit of it.

3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4656) The atmosphere of Jupiter is now Nitrogen and Oxygen, and heated to stay

3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4666) More humans live in ships than live in and on the surface of all the
planets, moons and asteroids.

3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4668) Humans have robot ships at 50 different stars.
3,100 YAN
[5100 AD]
4671) The first image of advanced living objects that evolved around a
different star. Their scientific technologies, constructions, and highly
adapted anatomies are of great interest. Obtaining this image is part of a
process that all advanced life must participate in; sending probe ships to
other stars and capturing images of any life that has evolved there.

3,200 YAN
[5200 AD]
4673) Humans inhabit 10 stars and have robot ships around 100 stars.
3,500 YAN
[5500 AD]
6176) The position of the Sun is under human control and is moved in the
direction of Centauri.

4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4674) The stars of Centauri are moved towards the Sun. This will make travel,
communication, and trading of matter between the two stars faster.

4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4675) Humans touch advanced living objects that evolved around a different
star. This will cause a large amount of excitement for the many billions of
organisms of both star systems.

4,500 YAN
[6500 AD]
4676) Humans form a cluster of 4 stars (the Sun and the three stars of
Centauri) and start to look like an "open cluster".

Each star is within 1 light year from each other.

Sun-Centauri cluster  
5,000 YAN
[7000 AD]
678) One trillion humans.
9,000 YAN
[11000 AD]
4680) Genetic engineering may produce humans that use photosynthesis, only
needing water, oxygen, and light.

10,000 YAN
[12000 AD]
4681) Humans may genetically remove the requirement to urinate, defecate,
sleep, and reproduce sexually.

11,000 YAN
[13000 AD]
4682) Humans may genetically remove the need for a constant supply of oxygen or

12,000 YAN
[14000 AD]
679) One quadrillion humans (1015).
12,000 YAN
[14000 AD]
4683) Our descendents probably will look very different from humans now,
adapted for efficiency and to low gravity space.

15,000 YAN
[17000 AD]
6570) More humans live around other stars than live around the Sun.
19,000 YAN
[21000 AD]
6548) One quintillion humans (1018).
25,000 YAN
[27000 AD]
4677) Humans have robot ships around 1000 stars, inhabit 100 stars, and form an
open cluster of 10 stars.

45,000 YAN
[47000 AD]
4679) Humans have robot ships around 10,000 stars, inhabit 1000 stars and form
a cluster of 100 stars.

50,000 YAN
[52000 AD]
4658) All asteroids are consumed.
63,000 YAN
[65000 AD]
6171) Humans reach the center of the Earth.
65,000 YAN
[67000 AD]
6174) Earth is completely filled with living objects, and has a population of
10 quintillion {KWiNTiLYeN} (1019) humans.
There is no more molten material inside the
Earth. All the molten compressed matter was extracted, cooled and consumed,
mostly as building materials, fuel, and food. Earth is completely filled with
tunnels, rooms, and living objects.

70,000 YAN
[72000 AD]
4684) Humans have robot ships at 100,000 stars, inhabit 10,000 stars, and form
a cluster of 1,000 stars.

Alternatively, the cluster of stars our descendents make, may be consumed by or
integrated with a larger star cluster, for example the Hyades or M13.

90,000 YAN
[92000 AD]
6210) Humans form a globular cluster of 10,000 stars. This cluster starts to
leave the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy.

The human population is now around 50 sextillion (50 x 1021).

100,000 YAN
6558) An object made by humans touches the surface of the Sun. By this time the
Sun is colder and much of the surface is solid. Matter of the Sun continues to
be removed for food, fuel and building materials.

121,000 YAN
681) The Moon of Earth population reaches the maximum possible (200
quadrillion, 200 x 1015 ).

Moon of Earth  
125,500 YAN
4672) Planet Mercury is completely filled with living objects, and functions
like a large ship, perhaps even dividing into smaller separate ships.

127,000 YAN
682) The population of humans on planet Mars reaches a physical maximum of 1
quintillion (1 x 1018) humans.

138,000 YAN
4678) All the planets of the Sun are consumed.

All that remains are ships that orbit the Sun; most matter must now be taken
from the Sun and other stars.

148,000 YAN
100) The Sun is consumed.

That the planets and Sun will probably be consumed is evidence that a globular
cluster is made by an advanced organism that goes out and brings back other
stars to consume, the matter being converted into more of their species, ships,
food, and fuel.

205,000 YAN
6317) Sirius is consumed.
630,000 YAN
106) Ten to the power 100 humans.
1,000,000,000 YAN
4685) All the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy belong to a globular cluster. The
Milky Way is now an elliptical galaxy.

Milky Way Galaxy  
25,000,000,000 YAN
4686) The star clusters in the outer areas are pulled closer to the center
making the galaxy more spherical, and the galaxy develops a massive propulsion
system in order to go get more matter to consume. The Milky Way is now a
spherical globular galaxy.

The galaxy may try to position itself behind another galaxy to consume its
emitted exhaust.

Milky Way Galaxy  
30,000,000,000 YAN
4687) The Milky Way Globular Galaxy integrates the matter of the two Magellanic
Cloud galaxies.

Milky Way Galaxy  
40,000,000,000 YAN
4688) The Andromeda and Milky Way globular galaxies may merge into a single
larger galaxy, which then resumes the search for a smaller galaxy to consume.
Natural selection must also create a large scale "eat or be eaten",
"predator-prey" existence for galaxies similar to that on Earth. The Milky Way
may seek to consume galaxies that are smaller, while trying to move away from
galaxies that are larger.

Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy  
"Universe, Life, Science, Future" is published under the GNU license, except where otherwise indicated or determined to be fair use, copyrighted, public domain, CC, GDFL or other license.
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