TIMEEVENT DESCRIPTIONLOCATIONIMAGES

UNIVERSE
1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe
that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

980,000,000,000 YBN
3) All matter is made of particles of
light. Light particles are the base
unit of all matter from the tiniest
particles to the largest galaxies. In
this sense light particles are the most
basic atoms.

The basic order of matter from smaller
to larger is light particles, electrons
and positrons, muons, protons and
antiprotons, atoms, molecules, living
objects, planets, stars, globular
clusters, galaxies, and then galactic
clusters.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end.
The same light particles that have
always been, continue to move in the
space that has always been.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be
created or destroyed. Matter can never
be converted into motion, and motion
can never be converted into matter.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with
each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets,
stars, galaxies, and clusters of
galaxies.

This accumulation of light particles
into atoms may be the result of
particle collision, gravitation, or a
combination of both.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we
see are only a tiny part of the
universe. We will never see most of the
universe because no light particles
from there can ever reach us.

Most galaxies are too far away for even
one particle of light they emit to be
going in the exact direction of our
tiny location, and all the light
particles they emit are captured by
atoms in between there and here.

As telescopes grow larger, the number
of galaxies and the distance we can see
will increase.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe.
Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less
density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form
atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which
exist as gas clouds (like the
Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula).
These gas clouds, called nebulae
continue to accumulate trapped light
particles. At points of high density
planets and stars form and the cloud is
eventually dense enough to become a
galaxy of stars. The stars emit light
particles back out to the rest of the
universe, where the light again becomes
trapped and forms new clouds. Around
each star are many planets and pieces
of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects
evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more
of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant
emitting of light particles (decay).
Like bacteria, these living objects
grow in number, with the most
successful organisms occupying and
moving around many stars. These
advanced organisms then move the groups
of stars they control, as a globular
cluster, away from the plane of the
spiral galaxy. As time continues, all
of the stars of a galaxy are occupied
by living objects who have organized
their stars into globular clusters.
These globular clusters together form
an elliptical galaxy, and then finally
a globular galaxy. The globular galaxy
may then exist for a long time living
off the matter in stars, in addition to
matter from external sources.

So free light particles are trapped
into volumes of space that grow in
density first forming atoms, then gas
clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, an
elliptical galaxy, and finally a
globular galaxy.

Globular galaxies at our scale may be
light particles at a much larger scale,
just as light particles at our scale
may be globular galaxies at a much
smaller scale. This system may go on
infinitely in both larger and smaller
scale.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg


[2] LDN 1622: Dark Nebula in
Orion Data: Digitized Sky Survey
(POSS-II), Color Composite: Noel
Carboni Explanation: The silhouette
of an intriguing dark nebula inhabits
this cosmic scene, based on images from
the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey.
Lynds' Dark Nebula (LDN) 1622 appears
against a faint background of glowing
hydrogen gas only easily seen in long
telescopic exposures of the region. LDN
1622 lies near the plane of our Milky
Way Galaxy, close on the sky to
Barnard's Loop - a large cloud
surrounding the rich complex of
emission nebulae found in the Belt and
Sword of Orion. But the obscuring dust
of LDN 1622 is thought to be much
closer than Orion's more famous
nebulae, perhaps only 500 light-years
away. At that distance, this 1 degree
wide field of view would span less than
10 light-years. PD
source: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/
0705/ldn1622_carboni.jpg

930,000,000,000 YBN
8) An expanding universe seems unlikely
to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken
observation, for one reason because
spectrum size changes the position of
spectral lines (as clearly shown in the
1936 Humason photo), and because the
distance of a light source changes the
position, but not the frequency of
spectral lines.

 
[1] Image of a spectral line shift from
a close and distant fluorescent
lamp. GNU
source: Ted Huntington


[2] The simple trigonometry that shows
that two light sources at different
distances cannot achieve the same angle
at the same location on a horizontal
diffraction grating. GNU
source: Ted Huntington


LIFE
165,000,000,000 YBN
13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to
form.

Galaxies may form from accumulation of
light particles and from the collision
of two or more galaxies.

If a galaxy is viewed as an exponential
accumulation of light particles
starting from a single light particle
up until 500 billion stars, only in the
last 16% of that time would a galaxy
have enough matter for even a single
star.

 
[1] Description This image is
mosaic of multiple shots on
large-format film. It comprises all 360
degrees of the galaxy from our vantage.
Photography was done in Ft. Davis,
Texas for the Northern hemisphere shots
and from Broken Hill, New South Wales,
Australia, for the southern portions.
Note the dust lanes, which obscure our
view of some features beyond them.
Infrared imaging reaches into these
regions, and radio astronomy can look
all the way through with less detail.
The very center, however, shows a
window to the farther side. In the
center, stars are mostly very old and
this causes the more yellow color. The
final file is 1.5GB, and resolves
details of less than one arcminute.
Faintest stars are magnitude 11. There
are 21 pixels of horizontal overlap at
the ends, with the right end slightly
brighter than the corresponding pixels
on the left. Date Source
http://www.digitalskyllc.com (The
image was uploaded to en.wiki at 17:16,
21 September 2006 by Twtunes. Author
Digital Sky LLC CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0a/Milkyway_pan1.jpg


[2] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way
Galaxy forms.

Stars may form from the accumulation of
matter or from collisions of two or
more large bodies. As time goes by,
less collisions occur around a star,
because most smaller objects are
absorbed by the star and planets.

Stars and planets may have centers of
densely packed unmoving light
particles. The less dense and colder
area near the surface of planets and
stars may allow atoms and molecules to
form and stay together. Many light
particles must move through the
internal maze of matter inside planets
and stars to eventually reach the
surface and escape into empty space.

 
[1] Description English: M8 Lagoon
Nebula in Sagittarius Date 26 June
2009 Source Own
work Author Hewholooks CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2f/M8HunterWilson.jpg


[2] NGC 7023: The Iris Nebula Credit
& Copyright: Daniel López,
IAC Explanation: Like delicate cosmic
petals, these clouds of interstellar
dust and gas have blossomed 1,300
light-years away in the fertile star
fields of the constellation Cepheus.
Sometimes called the Iris Nebula and
dutifully cataloged as NGC 7023, this
is not the only nebula in the sky to
evoke the imagery of flowers. Still,
this beautiful digital image shows off
the Iris Nebula's range of colors and
symmetries in impressive detail. Within
the Iris, dusty nebular material
surrounds a hot, young star. The
dominant color of the brighter
reflection nebula is blue,
characteristic of dust grains
reflecting starlight. Central filaments
of the dusty clouds glow with a faint
reddish photoluminesence as some dust
grains effectively convert the star's
invisible ultraviolet radiation to
visible red light. Infrared
observations indicate that this nebula
may contain complex carbon molecules
known as PAHs. As shown here, the
bright blue portion of the Iris Nebula
is about six light-years across. PD
source: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/
1011/IRIS_IAC80_DLopez900c.jpg

22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way
Galaxy reach another star using a ship,
perhaps 5 billion years after the first
stars formed.

 
[1] close up
of: Description English: M8 Lagoon
Nebula in Sagittarius Date 26 June
2009 Source Own
work Author Hewholooks CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2f/M8HunterWilson.jpg


[2] Description The photograph,
taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope,
captures a small region within M17, a
hotbed of star formation. M17, also
known as the Omega or Swan Nebula, is
located about 5500 light-years away in
the constellation Sagittarius. The
wave-like patterns of gas have been
sculpted and illuminated by a torrent
of ultraviolet radiation from young,
massive stars, which lie outside the
picture to the upper left. The glow of
these patterns accentuates the
three-dimensional structure of the
gases. The ultraviolet radiation is
carving and heating the surfaces of
cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed
surfaces glow orange and red in this
photograph. The intense heat and
pressure cause some material to stream
away from those surfaces, creating the
glowing veil of even hotter greenish
gas that masks background structures.
The pressure on the tips of the waves
may trigger new star formation within
them. The image, roughly 3
light-years across, was taken May
29-30, 1999, with the Wide Field
Planetary Camera 2. The colors in the
image represent various gases. Red
represents sulfur; green, hydrogen; and
blue, oxygen. Date 24 April
2003 Source
http://spacetelescope.org/images/html/he
ic0305a.html (direct link)
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive
/releases/2003/13/image/a/ Author
NASA, ESA and J. Hester (ASU) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/72/Omega_Nebula.jpg

10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of
100,000 stars forms in the Milky Way
Galaxy.

 
[1] Description The globular
cluster Omega Centauri — with as many
as ten million stars — is seen in all
its splendour in this image captured
with the WFI camera from ESO's La Silla
Observatory. The image shows only the
central part of the cluster — about
the size of the full moon on the sky
(half a degree). North is up, East is
to the left. This colour image is a
composite of B, V and I filtered
images. Note that because WFI is
equipped with a mosaic detector, there
are two small gaps in the image which
were filled with lower quality data
from the Digitized Sky Survey. Date
2008 Source
http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/
press-rel/pr-2008/phot-44-08.html Autho
r ESO CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Omega_Centauri_
by_ESO.jpg/638px-Omega_Centauri_by_ESO.j
pg


[2] Description This image is
mosaic of multiple shots on
large-format film. It comprises all 360
degrees of the galaxy from our vantage.
Photography was done in Ft. Davis,
Texas for the Northern hemisphere shots
and from Broken Hill, New South Wales,
Australia, for the southern portions.
Note the dust lanes, which obscure our
view of some features beyond them.
Infrared imaging reaches into these
regions, and radio astronomy can look
all the way through with less detail.
The very center, however, shows a
window to the farther side. In the
center, stars are mostly very old and
this causes the more yellow color. The
final file is 1.5GB, and resolves
details of less than one arcminute.
Faintest stars are magnitude 11. There
are 21 pixels of horizontal overlap at
the ends, with the right end slightly
brighter than the corresponding pixels
on the left. Date Source
http://www.digitalskyllc.com (The
image was uploaded to en.wiki at 17:16,
21 September 2006 by Twtunes. Author
Digital Sky LLC CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0a/Milkyway_pan1.jpg

5,500,000,000 YBN
16) The star the Earth orbits forms.
 
[1] Description English: The Sun
photographed by the Atmospheric Imaging
Assembly (AIA 304) of NASA's Solar
Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This is
a false color image of the sun observed
in the extreme ultraviolet region of
the spectrum. For example,similar
image Français : Le soleil,
photographié depuis le Solar Dynamics
Observatory de la NASA. Date
2010-08-19T00:32:21Z (ISO
8601) Source NASA/SDO
(AIA). Author NASA/SDO (AIA). PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/The_Sun_by_the_
Atmospheric_Imaging_Assembly_of_NASAs_So
lar_Dynamics_Observatory_-_20100819.jpg/
628px-The_Sun_by_the_Atmospheric_Imaging
_Assembly_of_NASAs_Solar_Dynamics_Observ
atory_-_20100819.jpg


[2] Summary Description The star
formation region N11B in the LMC taken
by WFPC2 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space
Telescope. Date Source
http://www.spacetelescope.org/image
s/html/heic0411a.html Author
NASA/ESA and the Hubble Heritage
Team
(AURA/STScI)/HEIC Permission (Reusing
this file) ESA Public Domain, as
per
http://www.spacetelescope.org/copyright.
html PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6c/Heic0411a.jpg

5,500,000,000 YBN
17) Planets form around our star from
many collisions. Like the star, they
are red hot with liquid rock and metals
on the surface. Lighter atoms move to
the surface of the planets. Larger
planets are surrounded by gas.

As the number of collisions decreases,
and smaller objects are absorbed by the
star and planets, the average
temperature of the star system is
lowered. As the temperature of the
planets and moons decreases, their
surfaces solidify, and water and other
molecules condense at the surface.

Perhaps most outer planets are larger,
because their orbit covers a larger
space which includes more matter.

 
[1] an 19, 2005 � For the past five
days, forecasters at the NOAA Space
Environment Center in Boulder, Colo.,
have observed all types of space
weather: radio blackouts, solar
radiation storms and geomagnetic
storms. Currently, space weather
forecasters are observing a moderate
geomagnetic storm (G-2 on the NOAA
Space Weather Scales) and a minor (S-1)
solar radiation storm. Earlier
Wednesday an X-class flare produced a
strong (R-3) radio blackout. (Click
image for larger view of the sun taken
on Jan. 19, 2005, at 2:19 p.m. EST.
Click here for high resolution version,
which is a large file. Please credit
European Space Agency-NASA.) PD
source: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/sto
ries2005/images/sun-soho011905-1919z.jpg


[2] This artist’s impression shows
the disk of gas and cosmic dust around
the young star HD 142527. Astronomers
using the Atacama Large
Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)
telescope have seen vast streams of gas
flowing across the gap in the disc
UNKNOWN
source: http://l2.yimg.com/bt/api/res/1.
2/kB0xEBWbOe3fUGcRF7Y3RA--/YXBwaWQ9eW5ld
3M7Zmk9aW5zZXQ7aD00MDg7cT03OTt3PTU3NQ--/
http://media.zenfs.com/en_US/News/SPACE.
com/Never-Before-Seen_Stage_of_Planet_Bi
rth-893372caafae611ec5e71458c2f79fb8

4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.

The moon of Earth may form as a planet
that is captured by the Earth, or a
planet that collides with the Earth and
then reforms from the remaining matter
of the collision, or forms in orbit of
the Earth at the same time the Earth
forms.

 
[1] Image of moon superimposed on
Venus PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dd/Full_Moon_Luc_Viatour
.jpg


[2] an 19, 2005 � For the past five
days, forecasters at the NOAA Space
Environment Center in Boulder, Colo.,
have observed all types of space
weather: radio blackouts, solar
radiation storms and geomagnetic
storms. Currently, space weather
forecasters are observing a moderate
geomagnetic storm (G-2 on the NOAA
Space Weather Scales) and a minor (S-1)
solar radiation storm. Earlier
Wednesday an X-class flare produced a
strong (R-3) radio blackout. (Click
image for larger view of the sun taken
on Jan. 19, 2005, at 2:19 p.m. EST.
Click here for high resolution version,
which is a large file. Please credit
European Space Agency-NASA.) PD
source: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/sto
ries2005/images/sun-soho011905-1919z.jpg

4,600,000,000 YBN
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid
rock turns into a solid thin crust.
Water condenses and falls to the
surface, filling the lowest parts of
the land to make the first Earth
oceans, lakes, and rivers.

 
[1] USGS Photo by Tim Orr Pahoehoe
lava breaks out of the crust along a
flow margin PD
source: http://www.nps.gov/havo/parkmgmt
/upload/havo_manage_usgs_20080304_tro381
7_x800.jpg


[2] English: Ultraviolet image of
Venus' clouds as seen by the Pioneer
Venus Orbiter (February 26, 1979). The
immense C- or Y-shaped features which
are visible only in these wavelengths
are individually short lived, but
reform often enough to be considered a
permanent feature of Venus' clouds. The
mechanism by which Venus' clouds absorb
ultraviolet is not well understood. PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Venuspioneeruv.
jpg/953px-Venuspioneeruv.jpg

4,600,000,000 YBN
50) The start of the "Precambrian" and
the Hadean {HA DEen} Eon.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

4,571,000,000 YBN
31) The oldest meteorite yet found on
Earth: 4.57 billion years old.

 
[1] The ''Zag'' meteorite fell to Earth
in 1988 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/t
ech/783048.stm

4,530,000,000 YBN
33) The oldest Moon rock returned from
the Moon (4.53 billions old).

 
[1]
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/
atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/
nojs/wl.br.1.html
source:

4,404,000,000 YBN
34) The oldest "terrestrial" zircon;
evidence that the crust and liquid
water are on the surface of Earth. A
terrestrial zircon is not from a
meteorite.

 
[1]
http://www.geology.wisc.edu/zircon/Earli
est%20Piece/Images/8.jpg
source:

4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth,
like amino acids, phosphates, and
sugars, the components of living
objects.

These molecules are made in the oceans,
fresh water, and atmosphere of Earth
(and other planets) by lightning, light
particles with high frequency from the
Sun, and from ocean floor volcanoes.

The initial building blocks of living
objects are easily formed, but
assembling them into longer-chain
molecules, or polymers, is more
difficult. Amino acids link up to form
polymers called proteins, simple fatty
acids plus alcohols link up to form
lipids (oils and fats), simple sugars
like glucose and sucrose link together
to form complex carbohydrates and
starches, and finally, the nucleotide
bases (plus phosphates and sugars) link
up to form nucleic acids, the genetic
code of organisms, known as RNA and
DNA.

Perhaps all proteins, carbohydrates,
lipids and DNA are strictly the
products of living objects, while RNA
can assemble without the help of any
living objects.

 
[1] The two optical isomers of alanine,
D-Alanine and
L-Alanine D-glucose BOTH PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/65/D%2BL-Alanine.gif
and http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped
ia/commons/thumb/5/5a/D-glucose-chain-3D
-balls.png/640px-D-glucose-chain-3D-ball
s.png

4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA
molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.

 
[1] Ribonucleic acid (English
pronunciation:
/raɪbɵ.njuːˌkleɪ.ɨk ˈæsɪd/),
or RNA, is one of the three major
macromolecules (along with DNA and
proteins) that are essential for all
known forms of life. UNKNOWN
source: http://dna-rna.net/wp-content/up
loads/2011/07/rna.jpg

4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth.
Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA),
and link amimo acids into proteins
using other RNA molecules ("messenger"
or mRNA molecules), as a template.

This protein assembly system is the
main system responsible for all the
proteins on Earth.

Part of each tRNA molecule bonds with a
specific amino acid, while another part
has a 3 nucleotide sequence that bonds
with an opposite matching 3 nucleotide
sequence on an mRNA molecule.

Perhaps this system, where tRNA
molecules build proteins directly from
free floating RNA strands, evolves
before the first ribosome and the first
cell.

 
[1] Description English:
Illustration of tRNA building peptide
chain Date 1 March 2009 Source
Own work Author
Boumphreyfr CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Peptide_syn.png


[2] Source : ''Role of the
Ribosome'' University of Texas Medical
Branch UNKNOWN
source: http://ead.univ-angers.fr/~jaspa
rd/Page2/COURS/7RelStructFonction/2Bioch
imie/1SyntheseProteines/3Figures/4Organi
tes/2Ribosomes/6Polysome.gif

4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA. This
protein is called an RNA polymerase
{PoL-u-mu-rAS}.

For the first time, a nucleic acid
functions both as a template for
building proteins (with the help of
tRNA molecules) and also as a template
for building other nucleic acid
molecules.

An RNA polymerase must be one of the
first useful proteins to be assembled
by the early (presumably) precellular
protein production system. Eventually
an RNA strand that codes for the RNA
polymerase and the tRNA needed to make
the polymerase may be copied many
times.

 
[1] RNA is a versatile molecule. In its
most familiar role, RNA acts as an
intermediary, carrying genetic
information from the DNA to the
machinery of protein synthesis. RNA
also plays more active roles,
performing many of the catalytic and
recognition functions normally reserved
for proteins. In fact, most of the RNA
in cells is found in ribosomes--our
protein-synthesizing machines--and the
transfer RNA molecules used to add each
new amino acid to growing proteins. In
addition, countless small RNA molecules
are involved in regulating, processing
and disposing of the constant traffic
of messenger RNA. The enzyme RNA
polymerase carries the weighty
responsibility of creating all of these
different RNA molecules. The RNA
Factory RNA polymerase is a huge
factory with many moving parts. The one
shown here, from PDB entry 1i6h, is
from yeast cells. It is composed of a
dozen different proteins. Together,
they form a machine that surrounds DNA
strands, unwinds them, and builds an
RNA strand based on the information
held inside the DNA. Once the enzyme
gets started, RNA polymerase marches
confidently along the DNA copying RNA
strands thousands of nucleotides
long. Accuracy As you might expect,
RNA polymerase needs to be accurate in
its copying of genetic information. To
improve its accuracy, it performs a
simple proofreading step as it builds
an RNA strand. The active site is
designed to be able to remove
nucleotides as well as add them to the
growing strand. The enzyme tends to
hover around mismatched nucleotides
longer than properly added ones, giving
the enzyme time to remove them. This
process is somewhat wasteful, since
proper nucleotides are also
occasionally removed, but this is a
small price to pay for creating better
RNA transcripts. Overall, RNA
polymerase makes an error about once in
10,000 nucleotides added, or about once
per RNA strand created. Poisoning
Polymerase Since RNA polymerase is
absolutely essential for the life of
the cell, it is a sensitive target for
poisons and toxins. The most powerful
of these poisons is alpha-amanitin, a
small circular peptide created by the
death cap mushroom. Eating even one of
these mushrooms will lead to coma and
death in a manner of days, as the
poison attacks RNA polymerase
throughout the body. Surprisingly, it
binds on the back side of RNA
polymerase, away from the active site
and away from the binding site for the
DNA and RNA. It does not physically
block the active site, like most
inhibitors, but instead jams the
mechanism of the enzyme. RNA polymerase
is a highly mobile enzyme, that flexes
and changes shape as it performs the
sequential steps of binding to DNA,
unwinding it, and then building the RNA
strand. As seen in PDB entry 1k83, the
poison binds between two subunits of
the protein, gluing them together and
blocking these essential motions. PD
source: http://www.pdb.org/pdb/education
_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/images
/1i6h-composite.gif


[2] [t Notice that many RNA molecules
are being produced all in sequence,
with each RNA molecule getting longer
as each protein reaches the end of the
DNA molecule.] Micrograph of gene
transcription of ribosomal RNA
illustrating the growing primary
transcripts. ''Begin'' indicates the 5'
end of the coding strand of DNA, where
new RNA synthesis begins; ''end''
indicates the 3' end, where the primary
transcripts are almost
complete. This is an alternate
version of
Image:RibosomaleTranskriptionsEinheit.jp
g, original author identified as Dr.
Hans-Heinrich Trepte, labeled in
German. This version with English
labels is from en:Image:Transcription
label fromcommons.jpg, by
en:UserOpabinia regalis, licensed under
GFDL. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/43/Transcription_label_e
n.jpg

4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. The first
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a
protocell, providing a platform for
more efficient protein production. A
single RNA may contain all the
instructions needed to make more
polymerase, tRNA, and ribosomes.
Alternatively the first ribosome may
not evolve until after the first cell.

All cells contain ribosomes. Ribosomes
are the cellular organelles that carry
out protein synthesis, through a
process called translation. These
molecular machines are responsible for
accurately translating the linear
genetic code on the messenger RNA
(mRNA), into a linear sequence of amino
acids to produce a protein.

 
[1] Description English:
Illustration of tRNA building peptide
chain Date 1 March 2009 Source
Own work Author
Boumphreyfr CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Peptide_syn.png


[2] Source : ''Role of the
Ribosome'' University of Texas Medical
Branch UNKNOWN
source: http://ead.univ-angers.fr/~jaspa
rd/Page2/COURS/7RelStructFonction/2Bioch
imie/1SyntheseProteines/3Figures/4Organi
tes/2Ribosomes/6Polysome.gif

4,365,000,000 YBN
166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that
allows the assembly of DNA from RNA; a
ribonucleotide reductase.

This protein changes ribonucleotides
into deoxyribonucleotides, which can
then be assembled into the first DNA
molecules on Earth.

DNA has the advantage of being more
stable than RNA and can hold together
in longer strands. Longer strands allow
for a more complex organism.

 
[1] Description Crystallographic
structure of the ribonucleotide
reductase protein R1E from Salmonella
typhimurium. The protein is rainbow
colored (N-terminus = blue, C-terminus
= red) while deoxyadenosine
triphosphate is show as sticks and a
complexed magnesium ion as a grey
sphere.[1] ↑ PDB 1PEU; Uppsten M,
Färnegårdh M, Jordan A, Eliasson R,
Eklund H, Uhlin U (June 2003).
''Structure of the large subunit of
class Ib ribonucleotide reductase from
Salmonella typhimurium and its
complexes with allosteric effectors''.
J. Mol. Biol. 330 (1): 87–97. PMID
12818204. Date 28 February
2008 Source Own
work Author Boghog2 PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/1PEU_R1E.png/10
24px-1PEU_R1E.png


[2] Description English: The
reaction mechanism of ribonucleotide
reductase Date 14 January 2006
(original upload
date) Source Transferred from
en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by
User:Michał Sobkowski using
CommonsHelper. Author Original
uploader was BorisTM at
en.wikipedia PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2c/RNR_reaction.png

4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules,
a DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS}.

 
[1] A look at DNA replication, with the
inset showing a larger and general
view. ''Pol'' stands for polymerase, a
key enzyme. Note how each enzyme works
in a 'biochemical team' to complete the
process efficiently COPYRIGHTED
source: http://genmed.yolasite.com/resou
rces/DNA20replication.jpg


[2] Description Diagram of DNA
polymerase extending a DNA strand and
proof-reading. Date Source Own
work Author Madprime GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6f/DNA_polymerase.svg

4,360,000,000 YBN
6409) Transcription evolves. A protein
(an RNA polymerase) assembles RNA from
DNA.

 
[1] Transcription: DNA-> RNA In E. coli
it is possible to see the strands of
RNA transcripts under the electron
microscope. Relate the image seen under
an electron microscope with the drawing
in your book in Figure 13-3. Why do you
not see any protein strands coming from
the mRNA in the electron microscope
image? UNKNOWN
source: http://www.utexas.edu/courses/zo
o325/13-4.gif


[2] RNA is a versatile molecule. In
its most familiar role, RNA acts as an
intermediary, carrying genetic
information from the DNA to the
machinery of protein synthesis. RNA
also plays more active roles,
performing many of the catalytic and
recognition functions normally reserved
for proteins. In fact, most of the RNA
in cells is found in ribosomes--our
protein-synthesizing machines--and the
transfer RNA molecules used to add each
new amino acid to growing proteins. In
addition, countless small RNA molecules
are involved in regulating, processing
and disposing of the constant traffic
of messenger RNA. The enzyme RNA
polymerase carries the weighty
responsibility of creating all of these
different RNA molecules. The RNA
Factory RNA polymerase is a huge
factory with many moving parts. The one
shown here, from PDB entry 1i6h, is
from yeast cells. It is composed of a
dozen different proteins. Together,
they form a machine that surrounds DNA
strands, unwinds them, and builds an
RNA strand based on the information
held inside the DNA. Once the enzyme
gets started, RNA polymerase marches
confidently along the DNA copying RNA
strands thousands of nucleotides
long. Accuracy As you might expect,
RNA polymerase needs to be accurate in
its copying of genetic information. To
improve its accuracy, it performs a
simple proofreading step as it builds
an RNA strand. The active site is
designed to be able to remove
nucleotides as well as add them to the
growing strand. The enzyme tends to
hover around mismatched nucleotides
longer than properly added ones, giving
the enzyme time to remove them. This
process is somewhat wasteful, since
proper nucleotides are also
occasionally removed, but this is a
small price to pay for creating better
RNA transcripts. Overall, RNA
polymerase makes an error about once in
10,000 nucleotides added, or about once
per RNA strand created. Poisoning
Polymerase Since RNA polymerase is
absolutely essential for the life of
the cell, it is a sensitive target for
poisons and toxins. The most powerful
of these poisons is alpha-amanitin, a
small circular peptide created by the
death cap mushroom. Eating even one of
these mushrooms will lead to coma and
death in a manner of days, as the
poison attacks RNA polymerase
throughout the body. Surprisingly, it
binds on the back side of RNA
polymerase, away from the active site
and away from the binding site for the
DNA and RNA. It does not physically
block the active site, like most
inhibitors, but instead jams the
mechanism of the enzyme. RNA polymerase
is a highly mobile enzyme, that flexes
and changes shape as it performs the
sequential steps of binding to DNA,
unwinding it, and then building the RNA
strand. As seen in PDB entry 1k83, the
poison binds between two subunits of
the protein, gluing them together and
blocking these essential motions. PD
source: http://www.pdb.org/pdb/education
_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/images
/1i6h-composite.gif

4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth evolves.
This is the first prokaryotic cell and
first bacterium. DNA is surrounded by a
membrane of proteins made by ribosomes;
the first cytoplasm.

This cell may form in either fresh or
salt water, near the sunlit water
surface or near underwater volcanoes on
the ocean floor.

The DNA of this cell is a template
containing the code for a copying
molecule (DNA polymerase
{PoL-u-mu-rAS}), and the necessary
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA molecules needed
to build the cytoplasm. For the first
time, ribosomes and DNA build cell
structure. DNA protected by cytoplasm
is more likely to survive and be
copied.

This is the start of binary cell
division. DNA polymerase duplicates DNA
within the cell and then the cell
divides into two parts. A system of
division may evolve in which the
original and the newly synthesized copy
of DNA are each attached to the
cytoplasm, so that as the cell grows,
the two copies of DNA can be separated,
and the growing mass can eventually
divide into two cells.

This is also the start of passive
transport. Amino acids, nucleotides,
water, and other molecules enter and
exit the cytoplasm only because of a
difference in concentration from inside
and outside the cell. This represents
the beginnings of the first digestive
system.

This cell structure forms the basis of
all future cells of every living object
on Earth. These first cells are
probably anaerobic (or anoxygenic- do
not require free oxygen) and are
heterotrophic, meaning that they do not
make their own food (amino acids,
nucleotides, phosphates, and sugars)
but instead depend on obtaining these
molecules from external sources.

 
[1] Deutsch: Bild über den Reitenden
Urzwerg English: Image of Nanoarchaeum
equitans Date 2005-09-10 (original
upload date) Source Originally
from de.wikipedia; description page
is/was here. Author Original
uploader was Eber-Jimmy at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) This image is in the
public domain due to its
age. Licensing According to this
article, ''Es wurde von dem
Mikrobiologen Karl O. Stetter entdeckt.
Bildrechte: Public domain.'' PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dc/Urzwerg.jpg


[2] Hydrogenobacter thermophilus
(strain TK-6) is an obligately
chemolithoautotrophic, extremely (and
strictly) thermophilic
hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium whose
optimal growth temperature is around 70
to 75°C and was isolated from hot
springs. UNKNOWN
source: http://standardsingenomics.org/i
ndex.php/sigen/article/viewFile/146/534/
4368

4,350,000,000 YBN
183) Cells make the first lipids on
Earth; (fats, oils, and waxes) by
making proteins that can assemble
lipids.

 
[1] Figure1: Lipid accumulation in
differentiating 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte
cell line (days in culture) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.emsdiasum.com/microsc
opy/products/sem/wet/images/lipid_accumu
lation.jpg


[2] Lipid Structures under the
microscope. Image by Alison North, The
Rockefeller University. UNKNOWN
source: http://selections.rockefeller.ed
u/cms/images/stories/2010/may/lipid.gif

4,345,000,000 YBN
27) A phospholipid bilayer evolves
around the cell, providing added
protection from the external
environment. All extant cells have this
phospholipid bilayer.

When phospholipids are added to water,
they self-assemble into double-layered
aggregates, or bilayers, with the
phosphate part of the molecule on the
outside and the fatty acid tail part on
the inside.

 
[1] Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p77. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p77.


[2] Gram negative cell
wall http://www.arches.uga.edu/~kristen
c/cellwall.html COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.arches.uga.edu/~krist
enc/cellwall.html

4,340,000,000 YBN
26) Possibly DNA that is connected in a
circle allows the DNA polymerase to
make continuous copies of the cell,
which may increase the speed of cell
growth, duplication, and division.

As far as is known bacteria do not die
of old age, but if a mutation stops
them from dividing, then they die.
Bacteria can also die from physical
destruction in addition to lack of food
and water.

 
[1] PLATE IV. Autoradiographs showing
examples of the replicated portion of
both symmetrically aud asymmetrically
reinitiated chromosomes. Spores of B.
subtilis 168 thy-trp- were
germinated in t,he absence of thymine
and allowed to incorporate
[methyZ-3H]thymine as follows: (a) and
(b), 160 to 190 min; (d), (e) and (f),
160 to 200 min; (c) and (g), 150 to 200
min. Autoradiographs were prepared in
the usual manner. The scale shows 100
pm. See Materials and Methods for
other details. Wake, R.G.
“Visualization of Reinitiated
Chromosomes in Bacillus Subtilis.”
Journal of Molecular Biology 68.3
(1972):
501–509. http://www.sciencedirect.com
/science/article/pii/0022283672901027 C
OPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence/article/pii/0022283672901027


[2] Electron Micrograph of RecA
protein-coated DNA trefoil knot
generated by E.coli DNA topoisomerase 1
acting on nicked circular DNA.
Micrograph courtesy of A. Stasiak,
University of Lausanne. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.cabinetmagazine.org/i
ssues/20/assets/images/wertheim1.jpg

4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons evolve. An operon is a
sequence of DNA which a protein binds
with in order to block RNA polymerase
from building an mRNA molecule, from
part of the sequence, which would be
translated into a protein. Operons
allow a bacterium to produce certain
proteins only when necessary. Bacteria
before now can only build a constant
stream of all proteins encoded in their
DNA.

 
[1] Figure 6 from: Jacob, F. & Monod,
J. Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the
synthesis of proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 3,
318–356 (1961)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_
ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B&_user
=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_alid=17
23143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&
_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi
=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&
_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlVe
rsion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c7c5bee
4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a {Jacob_F
rancois_19601228.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B
&_user=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_a
lid=1723143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=s
earch&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_ite
m&_cdi=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&v
iew=c&_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&
_urlVersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c
7c5bee4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a


[2] Figure 3 from: Jacob, F. & Monod,
J. Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the
synthesis of proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 3,
318–356 (1961)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_
ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B&_user
=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_alid=17
23143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&
_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi
=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&
_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlVe
rsion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c7c5bee
4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a {Jacob_F
rancois_19601228.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B
&_user=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_a
lid=1723143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=s
earch&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_ite
m&_cdi=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&v
iew=c&_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&
_urlVersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c
7c5bee4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a

4,340,000,000 YBN
6340) Facilitated diffusion evolves.
Proteins in the cell membrane allow
only certain molecules to enter the
cell.

"Facilitated diffusion" is passive
transport aided by proteins.

 
[1] Figure 7.15 from: Campbell, Reece,
et al., ''Biology'', 8th Edition, 2008,
P135. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P135.


[2] Figure 7.18 from: Campbell,
Reece, et al., ''Biology'', 8th
Edition, 2008, P137. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P137.

4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis
evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can now
make ATP (adenosine {oDeNoSEN}
triphosphate) by converting glucose
into pyruvate {PIrUVAT}. This is the
beginning of cellular respiration, how
cells convert food into ATP and waste
products.

ATP is the molecule that drives most
cellular work.

That glycolysis is the most widespread
metabolic pathway, that it occurs in
the cytoplasm, not in an organelle, and
that it is the first stage in
fermentation all imply an ancient
origin.

 
[1] Description English: Glycolysis
pathway overview. Date 3
September 2009 Source Own
work Author
WYassineMrabetTalk✉ Inkscape
Logo.svg This vector image was
created with
Inkscape. Permission (Reusing this
file) GFDL license (see below). GFDL
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Glycolysis.svg/
1024px-Glycolysis.svg.png


[2] Figure 9.6 from: Campbell, Reece,
et al, ''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p166. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p166.

4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves in the cell
cytoplasm. Cells can make lactic acid.

These
cells, which are anaerobic, can now
convert pyruvate, the final product of
glycolysis, into lactate (an ionized
form of lactic acid), and in the
process refuel glycolysis and the
production of ATP molecules.

 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p178. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p178.


[2] IUPAC
name[hide] 2-Hydroxypropanoic
acid Other names[hide] Milk
acid Description de: Struktur
von Milchsäure; en: Structure of
lactic acid Date 12 February
2007 Source Own work Author
NEUROtiker Permission (Reusing
this file) Own work, all rights
released (Public domain) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/59/Lactic-acid-3D-balls.
pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia
/commons/thumb/d/d3/Lactic-acid-skeletal
.svg/1000px-Lactic-acid-skeletal.svg.png

4,325,000,000 YBN
213) A second kind of fermentation
evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells (all
anaerobic) can now convert pyruvate
(the final product of glycolysis) into
ethanol.

 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p178. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p178.


[2] Ethanol Full structural
formula, Ball and Stick Model, and
Space-Filling Model of Ethanol PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/37/Ethanol-2D-flat.pnght
tp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm
ons/b/b0/Ethanol-3D-balls.pnghttp://uplo
ad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/
Ethanol-3D-vdW.png

4,315,000,000 YBN
196) Active transport evolves. Proteins
and ATP are used to transport molecules
into and out of the cytoplasm.

Active transport enables a cell to
maintain internal concentrations of
small molecules that differ from the
cell's surroundings.

 
[1] Figure 7.18 from: Campbell, Reece,
et al., ''Biology'', 8th Edition, 2008,
P137. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P137.


[2] Figure 7.15 from: Campbell,
Reece, et al., ''Biology'', 8th
Edition, 2008, P135. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, P135.

4,200,000,000 YBN
292) The prokaryote flagellum evolves.


Prokaryotic cells now have more
mobility, and can make more choices
about their location.

 
[1] Aquifex pyrophilus (platinum
shadowed). © K.O. Stetter & Reinhard
Rachel, University of Regensburg.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/aquifex/aquifex.ht
m


[2] Description English: A
Gram-negative bacterial flagellum. A
flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long,
slender projection from the cell body,
whose function is to propel a
unicellular or small multicellular
organism. The depicted type of
flagellum is found in bacteria such as
E. coli and Salmonella, and rotates
like a propeller when the bacterium
swims. The bacterial movement can be
divided in 2 kinds: run, resulting from
a counterclockwise rotation of the
flagellum, and tumbling, from a
clockwise rotation of the
flagellum. Français : Flagelle de
bactérie Gram-négative. Le flagelle
est une projection longue et fine hors
du corps cellulaire, dont la fonction
est de propulser l'organisme. Ce type
de flagelle est présent dans des
bactéries comme Escherichia coli et
Salmonella, et tourne comme une hélice
quand la bactérie se déplace. Le
flagelle peut provoquer deux types de
déplacement selon son sens de
rotation. Date November 2007 Source
self-made References: [1],[2], [3]
(main 3), [4], [5] (propeller
rotation), PMID 17142059
(bend). Author LadyofHats PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Flagellum_base_
diagram_en.svg/1000px-Flagellum_base_dia
gram_en.svg.png

4,193,000,000 YBN
77) The Archaea (also called
archaebacteria) evolve according to
genetic comparison. The Phylum
Nanoarcheota.

Eubacteria and Archaea are the two
major lines of Prokaryotes.

Archaea have a variety of shapes,
including spherical, rodlike, and
spiral forms.

 
[1] Deutsch: Bild über den Reitenden
Urzwerg English: Image of Nanoarchaeum
equitans Date 2005-09-10 (original
upload date) Source Originally
from de.wikipedia; description page
is/was here. Author Original
uploader was Eber-Jimmy at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) This image is in the
public domain due to its
age. Licensing According to this
article, ''Es wurde von dem
Mikrobiologen Karl O. Stetter entdeckt.
Bildrechte: Public domain.'' PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dc/Urzwerg.jpg


[2] Figure 1) Changing views of the
tree and timescale of life. a) An
early-1990s view, with the tree
determined mostly from ribosomal RNA
(rRNA) sequence analysis. This tree
emphasizes vertical (as opposed to
horizontal) evolution and the close
relationship between eukaryotes and the
Archaebacteria. The deep branching
(>3.5 Giga (109) years ago, Gya) of
CYANOBACTERIA (Cy) and other Eubacteria
(purple), the shallow branching
(approx1 Gya) of plants (Pl), animals
(An) and fungi (Fu), and the early
origin of mitochondria (Mi), were based
on interpretations of the geochemical
and fossil record7, 8. Some deeply
branching amitochondriate (Am) species
were believed to have arisen before the
origin of mitochondria44. Major
symbiotic events (black dots) were
introduced to explain the origin of
eukaryotic organelles42, but were not
assumed to be associated with large
transfers of genes to the host nucleus.
They were: Eu, joining of an
archaebacterium host with a eubacterium
(presumably a SPIROCHAETE) to produce
an amitochondriate eukaryote; Mi,
joining of a eukaryote host with an
alpha-proteobacterium (Ap) symbiont,
leading to the origin of mitochondria,
and plastids (Ps), joining of a
eukaryote host with a cyanobacterium
symbiont, forming the origin of
plastids on the plant lineage and
possibly on other lineages. b) The
present view, based on extensive
genomic analysis. Eukaryotes are no
longer considered to be close relatives
of Archaebacteria, but are genomic
hybrids of Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria, owing to the transfer of
large numbers of genes from the
symbiont genome to the nucleus of the
host (indicated by coloured arrows).
Other new features, largely derived
from molecular-clock studies16, 39 (Box
1), include a relatively recent origin
of Cyanobacteria (approx2.6 Gya) and
mitochondria (approx1.8 Gya), an early
origin (approx1.5 Gya) of plants,
animals and fungi, and a close
relationship between animals and fungi.
Coloured dashed lines indicate
controversial aspects of the present
view: the existence of a
premitochondrial symbiotic event and of
living amitochondriate eukaryotes,
ancestors of which never had
mitochondria. c) The times of
divergence of selected model organisms
from humans, based on molecular clocks.
For the prokaryotes (red), because of
different possible origins through
symbiotic events, divergence times
depend on the gene of interest.
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/full/nrg929_fs.html

4,189,000,000 YBN
193) The Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles"
evolve (the ancestor of Aquifex and
Thermotoga).

Aquifex and Thermotoga are the only two
major genera {JeN-R-u} of eubacteria
that are hyperthermophiles. They grow
best in a environment that is around 80
degrees Celsius (176 degrees
Fahrenheit).

 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] Aquifex pyrophilus (platinum
shadowed). © K.O. Stetter & Reinhard
Rachel, University of Regensburg.
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/aquifex/aquifex.ht
m

4,187,000,000 YBN
180) The Archaea Phylum: Crenarchaeota
evolves (the ancestor of Sulfolobus).

The Crenarchaea include many organisms
that are extremely thermophilic
{tR-mu-FiL-iK} (heat-loving) and
cryophilic {KrI-e-FiL-iK}
(cold-loving).

 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] tree of archaea ?
source: http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gf126
5/GROUPS/KLUG/Stammbaum.html

4,187,000,000 YBN
181) The Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota
{YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} evolves (the ancestor
of methanogens and halobacteria
{HaL-O-BaK-TER-E-u}).

The earliest cell response to light.

The Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} are
composed of two classes: methanogens,
which produce methane and are often
found in intestines and sewage, and the
halobacteria, which survive in high
concentrations of salt.

Some halobacteria use sensory rhodopsin
{rO-DoP-SiN} (a pigment sensitive to
red light) for phototaxis (positive or
negative movement along a light
gradient or vector).

 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] tree of archaebacteria (archaea)
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gf126
5/GROUPS/KLUG/Stammbaum.html

4,112,000,000 YBN
58) The first autotrophic cells; cells
that can produce some of their own
food.

Autotrophs produce their own sugars,
lipids, and amino acids.

There are only two kinds of autotrophs:
chemoautotrophs and photoautotrophs.

Chemoautotrophs use chemical nutrients
to synthesize carbohydrates, while
photoautotrophs use light to synthesize
carbohydrates.

This is a chemoautotrophic cell: genes
and metabolic sequences suggest that
chemoautotrophs evolve before
photoautotrophs.

 
[1] Description Methanopyrus
kandleri Date July
2006 Source ms:Imej:Arkea.jpg Auth
or ms:User:PM Poon GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/aa/Arkea.jpg

4,100,000,000 YBN
49) Photosynthesis evolves.

Anaerobic bacteria use light particles
to convert carbon dioxide gas and an
electron donor (also called a
reductant) like Hydrogen sulfide into
glucose, water, and sulfur. This
process of moving carbon from carbon
dioxide gas to the hydrocarbon molecule
glucose is called carbon fixation.

This is the ancestor of Photosystem I.

This system of photosynthesis does not
liberate oxygen.

 
[1] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_1.gif


[2] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_2.gif

4,000,000,000 YBN
43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II
evolves. Cells with this system emit
free Oxygen.

Anaerobic bacteria use light particles
to convert carbon dioxide gas and water
into glucose, releasing oxygen gas in
the process.

This is the main system
responsible for producing the Oxygen
now in the air of Earth.

 
[1] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_1.gif


[2] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_2.gif

4,000,000,000 YBN
51) The end of the Hadean {HADEiN} and
start of the Archean {oRKEiN} Eon.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

3,950,000,000 YBN
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity
evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments. Cells stay
fastened together after cell division.

Multicellularity appears to have
evolved independently multiple times in
the history of life on Earth.

With multicellularity comes the
evolution of differentiation, cells
with different functions.

 
[1] Microgram of filamentous bacteria
from flexible setae. (Courtesy
Zoosystema © 2005) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s
2009/decker_rour/images/yeti-crab-filame
ntous-bacteria.JPG


[2] Filamentous Bacteria Microthrix
Parvicella UNKNOWN
source: http://ebsbiowizard.com/wp-conte
nt/gallery/filamentous-bacteria-microthr
ix-parvicella/filamentous-bacteria-micro
thrix-parvicella.jpg

3,950,000,000 YBN
316) Cell differentiation evolves in
filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of
cells.

One early cell differentiation is that
only the cell at the tip of the
filament can divide while the older
cells below the tip do not divide.

Multicellular organisms can die from
aging, a series of cell
differentiations that ultimately result
in the inability for the multicellular
body to continue functioning and to
decay.

 
[1] Adapted from: Anabaena smitthi
COPYRIGHTED FRANCE
source: http://www.ac-rennes.fr/pedagogi
e/svt/photo/microalg/anabaena.jpg


[2] Anabaena COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://home.manhattan.edu/~franc
es.cardillo/plants/monera/anabaena.gif

3,950,000,000 YBN
322) Nitrogen fixation evolves. Cells
can make nitrogen compounds like
ammonia from Nitrogen gas in the air.

West Africa 
[1] Fig. 2. Modern cyanobacterial
akinetes and Archaeoellipsoides
fossils. (A) Three-month-old culture of
living A. cylindrica grown in a medium
without combined nitrogen. A, akinete;
H, heterocyst; V, vegetative cells.
(B–D) Shown are Archaeoellipsoides
fossils from 1,500-Ma Billyakh Group,
northern Siberia (B); 1,650-Ma McArthur
Group, northern Australia (C); and
2,100-Ma Franceville Group, Gabon (D).
(Scale bars, 10 μm.) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/
14/5442/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Modern cyanobacterial
akinetes and Archaeoellipsoides
fossils. (A) Three-month-old culture of
living A. cylindrica grown in a medium
without combined nitrogen. A, akinete;
H, heterocyst; V, vegetative cells.
(B–D) Shown are Archaeoellipsoides
fossils from 1,500-Ma Billyakh Group,
northern Siberia (B); 1,650-Ma McArthur
Group, northern Australia (C); and
2,100-Ma Franceville Group, Gabon (D).
(Scale bars, 10 μm.) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/
14/5442/F2.large.jpg

3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration
evolves. The first aerobic (or
"oxygenic") cell. These cells use
oxygen to convert glucose into carbon
dioxide, water, and ATP.

Aerobic cellular respiration evolves as
an alternative to fermentation by using
oxygen to break down the product of
glycolysis, pyruvate, into carbon
dioxide and water, producing up to 38
ATP molecules in the process.

 
[1] purple aerobic bacteria UNKNOWN
source: http://endosymbiotichypothesis.f
iles.wordpress.com/2010/09/rain-bacteria
.jpg


[2] Organisms of Rickettsia conorii
(r), a close relative of R. rickettsii,
in a cultured human endothelial cell
are located free in the cytosol. One
rickettsia is dividing by binary
fission (arrowhead). (B) These
rickettsiae can move inside the
cytoplasm of the host cell because of
the propulsive force created by the
''tail'' of host cell actin filaments
(arrow). Bars = 0.5 µm. Photo and
text courtesy of David H. Walker -
http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch038.htm
UNKNOWN AND Rickettsia prowazekii
(image with Rickettsia outside of
cell) COPYRIGHTED [1] Rickettsia
prowazekii COPYRIGHTED FAIR USE
source: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/peop
le/sosarafova/Assets/Bio307/liwoeste/Pic
tures/Walker%203%5B1%5D.jpghttp://web.ms
t.edu/~microbio/bio221_2001/Image9.jpg

3,850,000,000 YBN
36) The oldest physical evidence for
life: the ratio of carbon-13 to
carbon-12 in grains of ancient apetite
{aPeTIT} (which are calcium phosphate
minerals).

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12 isotope
and so the ratio of carbon-12 to
carbon-13 is different from a nonliving
source (such as calcium carbonate or
limestone).

Akilia Island, Western Greenland 
[1] Figure 1 from: Mojzsis, S. J. et
al. ''Evidence for Life on Earth Before
3,800 Million Years Ago.'' Nature
384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf


[2] Figure 1 from: Mojzsis, S. J. et
al. ''Evidence for Life on Earth Before
3,800 Million Years Ago.'' Nature
384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

3,850,000,000 YBN
45) The oldest sediment, the Banded
Iron Formation begins.
Banded Iron
Formation is sedimentary rock that
spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years
ago, made of iron-rich silicates (like
silicon dioxide SiO2) with alternating
layers of black colored ferrous
(reduced) iron and red colored ferric
(oxidized) iron. These alternating
layers represent a seasonal cycle
where the quantity of free oxygen in
the ocean rises and falls, possibly
linked to photosynthetic organisms.

The atmosphere of Earth still has only
small amounts of oxygen at this time.

Akilia Island, Western Greenland 
[1] image of BIF from Akilia from
Nature COPYRIGHTED
source: nature 11/7/96


[2] portion taken
from: Description English: This
image shows a 2.1 billion years old
rock containing black-banded ironstone,
which has a weight of about 8.5 tons.
The approximately two meter high, three
meter wide, and one meter thick block
of stone was found in North America and
belongs to the National Museum of
Mineralogy and Geology in Dresden,
Germany. The rock is located at
+51°2'34.84''
+13°45'26.67''. Deutsch: Dieses Bild
zeigt einen etwa 8,5 Tonnen schweren
und 2,1 Milliarden Jahre alten Block
mit Bändereisenerzen. Der etwa zwei
Meter hohe, drei Meter breite und einen
Meter tiefe Gesteinsblock wurde in
Nordamerika gefunden und gehört dem
Staatlichen Museum für Mineralogie und
Geologie Dresden. Der Block befindet
sich bei den Koordinaten +51°2'34.84''
+13°45'26.67''. Camera
data Camera Nikon D70 Lens Tamron
SP AF 90mm/2.8 Di Macro 1:1 Focal
length 90 mm Aperture f/2.8 Exposure
time 1/250 s Sensivity ISO 200 Please
help translating the description into
more languages. Thanks a lot! If
you want a license with the conditions
of your choice, please email me to
negotiate terms. best new
image Date 26 August
2005 Source Own
work Author André Karwath aka
Aka CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Black-band_iron
stone_%28aka%29.jpg/1280px-Black-band_ir
onstone_%28aka%29.jpg

3,500,000,000 YBN
39) The oldest fossil evidence of life:
stromatolites. Stromatolites made by
photosynthetic bacteria are found in
both Western Australia, and South
Africa.

Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig
Tree Group, South Africa 

[1] image on left is from swaziland
source: nature feb 6


[2]
source: 1986

3,500,000,000 YBN
287) The oldest fossils of an organism,
and the oldest prokaryote and bacteria
fossils. The organism is similar to
cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u}, and
is found in the 3,500 million year old
chert (sedimentary rock made of silica)
in Australia and South Africa.

2.8 billion years will pass before the
first animal evolves.

Warrawoona, northwestern Western
Australia and Onverwacht Group,
Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa 

[1] Figure 1 Optical photomicrographs
showing carbonaceous (kerogenous)
filamentous microbial fossils in
petrographic thin sections of
Precambrian cherts. Scale in a
represents images in a and c-i; scale
in b represents image in b. All parts
show photomontages, which is
necessitated by the three-dimensional
preservation of the cylindrical sinuous
permineralized microbes. Squares in
each part indicate the areas for which
chemical data are presented in Figs 2
and 3. a, An unnamed cylindrical
prokaryotic filament, probably the
degraded cellular trichome or tubular
sheath of an oscillatoriacean
cyanobacterium, from the 770-Myr
Skillogalee Dolomite of South
Australia12. b, Gunflintia grandis, a
cellular probably oscillatoriacean
trichome, from the 2,100-Myr Gunflint
Formation of Ontario, Canada13. c, d,
Unnamed highly carbonized filamentous
prokaryotes from the 3,375-Myr Kromberg
Formation of South Africa14: the poorly
preserved cylindrical trichome of a
noncyanobacterial or oscillatoriacean
prokaryote (c); the disrupted,
originally cellular trichomic remnants
possibly of an Oscillatoria- or
Lyngbya-like cyanobacterium (d). e-i,
Cellular microbial filaments from the
3,465-Myr Apex chert of northwestern
Western Australia: Primaevifilum
amoenum4,5, from the collections of The
Natural History Museum (TNHM), London,
specimen V.63164[6] (e); P. amoenum4
(f); the holotype of P.
delicatulum4,5,15, TNHM V.63165[2] (g);
P. conicoterminatum5, TNHM V63164[9]
(h); the holotype of Eoleptonema apex5,
TNHM V.63729[1] (i).
source: Nature416


[2] Fig. 3 Filamentous microfossils:
a, cylindrical microfossil from
Hooggenoeg sample; b, threadlike and
tubular filaments extending between
laminae, Kromberg sample; c,d,e,
tubular filamnets oriented subparallel
to bedding, Kromberg sample; f,
threadlike filament flattened parallel
to bedding, Kromberg sample.
source: 73 - 76 (07 Mar 2002) Letters
to Nature
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v41
6/n6876/fig_tab/416073a_F1.html

3,400,000,000 YBN
190) The earliest fossils of coccoid
{KoKOED} (spherical) bacteria.

Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System,
South Africa 

[1] Fig. 3. from: Hans D. Pflug,
Earliest organic evolution. Essay to
the memory of Bartholomew Nagy,
Precambrian Research, Volume 106,
Issues 1–2, 1 February 2001, Pages
79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261 (a,b) Organic
microstructures from Kromberg
Formation, Swaziland System, South
Africa (ca 3.4 Ga). TEM-micrographs of
demineralized specimens. (c) Portion of
organic microstructure from Bulawaya
stromatolite (see Fig. 2). (d) Portion
of the mucilagenous sheath of recent
Anabaena sp., cyanobacteria (Fig. d
after Leak, 1967). For magnification of
Fig. c see scale of Fig.
a. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence/article/pii/S0301926800001261


[2] Fig. 3. from: Hans D. Pflug,
Earliest organic evolution. Essay to
the memory of Bartholomew Nagy,
Precambrian Research, Volume 106,
Issues 1–2, 1 February 2001, Pages
79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261 (a,b) Organic
microstructures from Kromberg
Formation, Swaziland System, South
Africa (ca 3.4 Ga). TEM-micrographs of
demineralized specimens. (c) Portion of
organic microstructure from Bulawaya
stromatolite (see Fig. 2). (d) Portion
of the mucilagenous sheath of recent
Anabaena sp., cyanobacteria (Fig. d
after Leak, 1967). For magnification of
Fig. c see scale of Fig.
a. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=MiamiCaptionURL&_method=retriev
e&_udi=B6VBP-42G6M5T-7&_image=fig9&_ba=9
&_user=4422&_coverDate=02%2F01%2F2001&_f
mt=full&_orig=browse&_cdi=5932&view=c&_a
cct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&
_userid=4422&md5=27a45a0804747bb4b74eaac
305df2905

3,260,000,000 YBN
71) The earliest fossil evidence of
prokaryote reproduction by budding.

Like binary division, budding is a form
of asexual reproduction. However, with
budding a new individual develops from
a certain point of the parent organism.
The new individual may separate to
exist independently, or the buds may
remain attached, forming colonies.

Swartkoppie, South Africa 
[1] Evolutionary relationships of model
organisms and bacteria that show
unusual reproductive strategies. This
phylogenetic tree (a) illustrates the
diversity of organisms that use the
alternative reproductive strategies
shown in (b). Bold type indicates
complete or ongoing genome projects.
Intracellular offspring are produced by
several low-GC Gram-positive bacteria
such as Metabacterium polyspora,
Epulopiscium spp. and the segmented
filamentous bacteria (SFB). Budding and
multiple fission are found in the
proteobacterial genera Hyphomonas and
Bdellovibrio, respectively. In the case
of the Cyanobacteria, Stanieria
produces baeocytes and Chamaesiphon
produces offspring by budding.
Actinoplanes produce dispersible
offspring by multiple fission of
filaments within the sporangium.
source: http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/jo
urnal/v3/n3/full/nrmicro1096_fs.html
(Nature Reviews Microbiology 3


[2] Electron micrograph of a Pirellula
bacterium from giant tiger prawn tissue
(Penaeus monodon). Notice the large
crateriform structures (C) on the cell
surface and flagella. From Fuerst et
al.
source: 214-224 (2005);
doi:10.1038/nrmicro1096)

3,235,000,000 YBN
68) The earliest Archaea fossils.
(Sulphur Springs Deposit) Pilbara
Craton of Australia 

[1] Photomicrographs of filaments from
the Sulphur Springs VMS deposit. Scale
bar, 10 µm. a-f, Straight, sinuous and
curved morphologies, some densely
intertwined. g, Filaments parallel to
the concentric layering. h, Filaments
oriented sub-perpendicular to
banding. Figure 3 from: Rasmussen,
Birger. ''Filamentous Microfossils in a
3,235-million-year-old Volcanogenic
Massive Sulphide Deposit.'' Nature
405.6787 (2000):
676–679. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v405/n6787/abs/405676a0.html C
OPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v405/n6787/abs/405676a0.html


[2] Photomicrographs of filaments from
the Sulphur Springs VMS deposit. Scale
bar, 10 µm. a-f, Straight, sinuous and
curved morphologies, some densely
intertwined. g, Filaments parallel to
the concentric layering. h, Filaments
oriented sub-perpendicular to
banding. Figure 3 from: Rasmussen,
Birger. ''Filamentous Microfossils in a
3,235-million-year-old Volcanogenic
Massive Sulphide Deposit.'' Nature
405.6787 (2000):
676–679. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v405/n6787/abs/405676a0.html C
OPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v405/n6787/abs/405676a0.html

3,200,000,000 YBN
66) The earliest acritarch fossils
(unicellular microfossils with
uncertain affinity). These acritarchs
are also the earliest possible
eukaryote fossils.

Acritarchs appear to be phytoplankton
{FITO-PlaNK-TeN} (freely floating
microscopic algae) that grow thick
coverings during a resting stage in
their life cycle. Some resemble the
resting stage of modern marine algae
known as dinoflagellates.

(Moodies Group) South Africa 
[1] Figure from: Javaux, Emmanuelle
J., Craig P. Marshall, and Andrey
Bekker. “Organic-walled microfossils
in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature
463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html


[2] Figure from: Javaux, Emmanuelle
J., Andrew H. Knoll, and Malcolm R.
Walter. “Morphological and ecological
complexity in early eukaryotic
ecosystems.” Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html Figur
e 1 Protistan microfossils from the
Roper Group. a, c, Tappania plana,
showing asymmetrically distributed
processes and bulbous protrusions
(arrow in a). b, detail of a, showing
dichotomously branching process. d,
Valeria lophostriata. e, Dictyosphaera
sp. f, Satka favosa. The scale bar in a
is 35 µm for a and c; 10 µm for b;
100 µm for d; 15 µm for e; and 40 µm
for f.
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html

2,923,000,000 YBN
178) The Eubacteria Phylum Firmicutes
(FiRmiKYUTEZ) evolves (Gram positive
bacteria: the cause of botulism,
tetanus, and anthrax).

Firmicutes is a phylum of
nonphotosynthetic, mainly gram-positive
bacteria. Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes
are the two main groups of bacteria
found in the intestine.

Firmicutes includes rods and cocci
{KoKSE} forms, and some form
endospores.

An endospore is a tough reduced dry
form of a bacterium, triggered by a
lack of nutrients, that protects the
bacterium, and allows it to be revived
after long periods of time.

 
[1] Listeria monocytogenes is a
Gram-positive bacterium, in the
division Firmicutes, named for Joseph
Lister. It is motile by means of
flagella. Some studies suggest that 1
to 10% of humans may carry L.
monocytogenes in their
intestines. Researchers have found L.
monocytogenes in at least 37 mammalian
species, both domesticated and feral,
as well as in at least 17 species of
birds and possibly in some species of
fish and shellfish. Laboratories can
isolate L. monocytogenes from soil,
silage, and other environmental
sources. L. monocytogenes is quite
hardy and resists the deleterious
effects of freezing, drying, and heat
remarkably well for a bacterium that
does not form spores. Most L.
monocytogenes are pathogenic to some
degree.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Listeria.jpg


[2] These are bacteria (about 0.3 µm
in diameter) that do not have outer
walls, only cytoplasmic membranes.
However, they do have cytoskeletal
elements that give them a distinct
non-spherical shape. They look like
schmoos that are pulled along by their
heads. How they are able to glide is a
mystery.
source: http://webmac.rowland.org/labs/b
acteria/projects_glide.html

2,800,000,000 YBN
76) The Eubacteria Phylum
Proteobacteria evolves (includes
Rickettsia {the ancestor of all
mitochondria}, gonorrhea, Salmonella,
and Escherichia coli {esRriKEo KOlI} or
E coli {E KOlI}).

The proteobacteria are the largest
group of bacteria by far in terms of
number of described species.

 
[1] Figure 1. Transmission electron
micrograph of the ELB agent in XTC-2
cells. The rickettsia are free in the
cytoplasm and surrounded by an electron
transparent halo. Original
magnification X 30,000. CDC PD
source: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/
eid/vol7no1/raoultG1.htm


[2] Caulobacter crescentus. From
http://sunflower.bio.indiana.edu/~ybrun/
L305.html COPYRIGHTED EDU was in wiki
but appears to be removed
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/4/42/Caulobacter.jpg

2,800,000,000 YBN
177) Gender and sex (conjugation)
evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo
KOlI} bacteria. Conjugation is the
exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor
{male} bacterium through a pilus to a
recipient {female} bacterium. This may
be the process that evolves into
eukaryote sexual reproduction.

In addition to pili and conjugation,
proteins that can cut DNA and other
proteins that can connect two strands
of DNA evolve.

 
[1] the fertility factor or F factor is
a very large (94,500 bp) circular dsDNA
plasmid; it is generally independent of
the host chromosome. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.mun.ca/biochem/course
s/3107/images/Fplasmidmap.gif


[2] conjugation (via pilus)
COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/16
0/conjugation.jpg

2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.

These cells depend on the DNA
duplicating and protein producing
systems of other cells to reproduce
themselves. The first viruses may be
made from bacteria, or may be bacteria
initially.

 
[1] Description Electron
micrograph of Bacteriophages Date
Source
en:Image:Phage.jpg Author
en:User:GrahamColm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/52/Phage.jpg

2,784,000,000 YBN
176) The Eubacteria Phylum,
Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS}
evolves (also known as
Planctobacteria).

Planctomycetes are a widely distributed
group of eubacteria that reproduce by
budding, have cell walls that do not
contain peptidoglycan like most
bacteria, and some have a
membrane-bound nucleoid, similar to the
eukaryotic nucleus.

 
[1] Electron micrographs of cells of
new Gemmata-like and Isosphaera-like
isolates. (A) Negatively stained cell
of the Gemmata-like strain JW11-2f5
showing crateriform structures
(arrowhead) and coccoid cell
morphology. Bar marker, 200 nm. (B)
Negatively stained budding cell of
Isosphaera-like strain CJuql1 showing
uniform crateriform structures
(arrowhead) on the mother cell and
coccoid cell morphology. Bar marker,
200 nm. (C) Thin section of
Gemmata-like cryosubstituted cell of
strain JW3-8s0 showing the
double-membrane-bounded nuclear body
(NB) and nucleoid (N) enclosed within
it. Bar marker, 200 nm. (D) Thin
section of Isosphaera-like strain C2-3
possessing a fibrillar nucleoid (N)
within a cytoplasmic compartment
bounded by a single membrane (M) only.
Bar marker, 200 nm. Appl Environ
Microbiol. 2002 January; 68(1):
417-422. doi:
10.1128/AEM.68.1.417-422.2002.
source: http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/art
iclerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=117
72655


[2] Evolutionary distance tree derived
from comparative analysis of 16S rDNAs
from freshwater and soil isolates and
reference strains of the order
Planctomycetales. Database accession
numbers are shown in parentheses after
species, strain, or clone names.
Bootstrap values of greater than 70%
from 100 bootstrap resamplings from the
distance analysis are presented at
nodes. Thermotoga maritima was used as
an outgroup. Isolates from this study
and representative named species of the
planctomycetes are indicated in bold.
The scale bar represents 0.1 nucleotide
substitution per nucleotide
position. Appl Environ Microbiol.
2002 January; 68(1): 417-422. doi:
10.1128/AEM.68.1.417-422.2002.
source: http://florey.biosci.uq.edu.au/m
ypa/images/fuerst2.gif

2,784,000,000 YBN
179) The Eubacteria Phylum,
Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu}
evolves (the source of streptomycin and
the cause of tuberculosis and
leprosy).

The Actinobacteria are a group of
Gram-positive bacteria, that are
rod-shaped or form branching filaments,
and include many soil bacteria.

 
[1] Aerial mycelium and spore of
Streptomyces coelicolor. The mycelium
and the oval spores are about 1µm
wide, typical for bacteria and much
smaller than fungal hyphae and spores.
(Scanning electron micrograph, Mark
Buttner, Kim Findlay, John Innes
Centre). COPYRIGHT UK
source: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects
/S_coelicolor/micro_image4.shtml


[2] Frankia is a genus of
nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, which
possesses a set of features that are
unique amongst symbiotic
nitrogen-fixing microorganisms,
including rhizobia, making it an
attractive taxon to study. These
heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria
which are able to induce symbiotic
nitrogen-fixing root nodules
(actinorhizas) in a wide range of
dicotyledonous species (actinorhizal
plants), have also the capacity to fix
atmospheric nitrogen in culture and
under aerobic conditions.
source: http://www.ibmc.up.pt/webpagesgr
upos/cam/Frankia.htm

2,775,000,000 YBN
174) The Eubacteria Phylum,
Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ) evolves (the
cause of Syphilis, and Lyme disease).

Spirochetes {SPIrOKETS} are helical
heterotrophs that spiral through their
environment by rotating, internal,
flagellum-like filaments.

 
[1] Syphilis is a complex, sexually
transmitted disease (STD) with a highly
variable clinical course. The disease
is caused by the bacterium, Treponema
pallidum. In the United States, 32,871
cases of syphilis, including 432 cases
of congenital syphilis, were detected
by public health officials in 2002.
Eight of the ten states with the
highest rates of syphilis are located
in the southern region of the United
States.
source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/tus
kegee/syphilis.htm


[2] unknown
source: http://uhavax.hartford.edu/bugl/
images/Treponema%20pallidum.jpg

2,775,000,000 YBN
175) The Eubacteria Phylum
Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ} evolves.

Bacteroidetes is composed of
Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, mostly
anaerobic, nonsporeforming bacteria
that are widely distributed in the
environment, including in soil, sea
water, and in the guts and on the skin
of animals.

 
[1] Description Bacteroides
biacutis—one of many en:commensal
anaerobic en:Bacteroides spp. in the
en:gastrointestinal tract—cultured in
blood agar medium for 48
hours. Obtained from the CDC Public
Health Image Library. Image credit:
CDC/Dr. V.R. Dowell, Jr. (PHIL #3087),
1972. Date 2006-03-11 (original
upload date) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader was
MarcoTolo at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) PD-USGOV-HHS-CDC. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/Bacteroides_bia
cutis_01.jpg/1280px-Bacteroides_biacutis
_01.jpg


[2] Bacteroides fragilis . From the
Zdravotni University
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/bacteroidete_chlor
ob_group/bacteroides/bacteroides.htm

2,775,000,000 YBN
217) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlamydiae
{Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E} evolves.

Chlamydiae are parasites that can
survive only within animal cells. One
species Chlamydia trachomatis
(TreKOmuTis} is the most common cause
of blindness on Earth, and also causes
a common sexually transmitted disease.

 
[1] cell infected with Chlamydia The
Bavoil laboratory studies the
pathogenesis of the obligate
intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia, and
its bacteriophages. Specific research
areas include the role of Chlamydia
type III secretion in pathogenesis and
development, the impact of Chlamydia
phage infection on disease, the role of
the polymorphic membrane protein family
of C. trachomatis in infection and
disease and comparative genomics within
the Chlamydiaceae. [1] Chlamydia
trachomatis wiki, is copyrighted
source: http://www.dental.umaryland.edu/
sebin/p/o/chlamydia_infected_cell2.jpg


[2] wiki, public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chl
amydia_trachomatis

2,775,000,000 YBN
6309) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlorobi
{KlOROBE} evolves (green sulphur
bacteria).

Chlorobi are obligately anoxygenic
(cannot survive in the presence of
oxygen), photosythesizing bacteria,
that fix carbon from carbon dioxide
into carbon compounds for cell growth,
by using sulfur compounds, hydrogen, or
ferrous iron as electron donors
(oxidizing them).

 
[1] Description Deutsch: Grüne
Schwefelbakterien (Chlorobiaceae) im
unteren Bereich einer
Winogradsky-Säule Date
20.03.2007 (20 March 2007
(original upload date)) Source
Transferred from de.wikipedia;
transfer was stated to be made by
User:Jacopo Werther. (Original text :
Mikrobiologie Praktikum Universität
Kassel März 2007) Author
kOchstudiO. Original uploader was
KOchstudiO at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) Released into the public
domain (by the author). (Original text
: uneingeschränkte Nutzung) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e7/Green_d_winogradsky.j
pg


[2] Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p194. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p194.

2,775,000,000 YBN
6310) The Eubacteria Phylum
Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo)
evolves.

Verrucomicrobia are found in soil,
fresh and marine waters, and hot
springs. Like Planctomycetes, some
members of Verrucomicrobia also have
intracellular membrane enclosed
compartments, including a membrane that
encloses the DNA.

 
[1] Figure 1 Transmission electron
micrographs of high-pressure frozen and
cryosubstituted Verrucomicrobium
spinosum. A. Cell prepared by
high-pressure freezing and
cryosubstitution showing prostheca
(PT), paryphoplasm (P), and an
intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM)
enclosing a pirellulosome region
containing a condensed fibrillar
nucleoid (N). Inset: enlarged view of
area of cell outlined in the white box
showing cytoplasmic membrane (CM),
paryphoplasm and ICM. B.
freeze-fracture replica of cell showing
cross-fractured paryphoplasm (P) and
fracture faces of ICM and CM. Bar –
500 nm Lee et al. BMC Microbiology
2009 9:5
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-5 CC
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2180-9-5-1-l.jpg


[2] Figure 2 Transmission electron
micrograph of high-pressure frozen and
cryosubstituted Verrucomicrobium
spinosum. Cell prepared by
high-pressure freezing and
cryosubstitution showing prostheca
(PT), ribosome-free paryphoplasm (P),
and an intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM)
enclosing a pirellulosome region
containing a condensed fibrillar
nucleoid (N). Membrane-bounded
vesicle-like compartments within some
prosthecae extensions are also present
(see arrowheads). Bar – 1 μm Lee
et al. BMC Microbiology 2009 9:5
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-5 CC
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2180-9-5-2-l.jpg

2,730,000,000 YBN
80) Endo and exocytosis evolve. Cells
can now eat other cells.

In endocytosis the plasma membrane
folds inward to bring substances into
the cell.

In Exocytosis substances contained in
vesicles are released from the cell.

 
[1] Endocytosis and Exocytosis: For
example, this electron micrograph is
showing the process of exocytosis . The
process begins by fusion of the
membranes at the peripheral pole of the
granule. Then an opening is created
which widens to look like an omicron
figure. This opening allows the
granular material to be released. The
membrane is now part of the plasma
membrane and any proteins carried with
it can be incorporated into the plasma
membrane. Note that there is no coating
on the membrane. This figure was taken
from Alberts et al, Molecular Biology
of the Cell, Garland Publishing Third
Edition, 1994 In contrast, this
micrograph shows a figure which looks
something like an omicron, however,
this view is showing receptor mediated
endocytosis of virus particles. In both
cases, the membrane is coated with
clathrin and these represent classical
receptor mediated endocytosis profiles.
Most ligands cannot be visualized by
themselves, like a virus particle.
Therefore, the cytochemist must attach
label to the ligand. Alternatively, the
cytochemist could immunocytochemically
detect the receptor with antibodies
that recognize the extracellular
domain. This figure was taken from
Endocytosis, Edited by Ira Pastan and
Mark C. Willingham, Plenum Press, N.Y.,
1985 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.cytochemistry.net/cel
l-biology/end7.jpg


[2] Pinocytosis In the process of
pinocytosis the plasma membrane froms
an invagination. What ever substance
is found within the area of
invagination is brought into the
cell. In general this material will
be dissolved in water and thus this
process is also refered to as
''cellular drinking'' to indicate that
liquids and material dissolved in
liquids are ingested by the
cell. This is opposed to the
ingestion of large particulate material
like bacteria or other cells or cell
debris. UNKNOWN
source: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.ed
u/biology/bio4fv/page/endocytb.htm

2,700,000,000 YBN
60) The eukaryotic cell evolves. The
first cell with a nucleus. The first
protist. The nucleus may develop from
the infolding of plasma membrane.

There are some differences between
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
In
prokaryotic cells the DNA is
concentrated in a region that is not
membrane enclosed called the "nucleoid"
while in eukaryotic cells most of the
DNA is contained in a nucleus that is
bounded by a double membrane.
Eukaryotic cells are generally much
larger than prokaryotic cells. Typical
bacteria are between 1-5 um in
diameter, while eukaryotic cells are
typically 10-100 um in diameter. Unlike
prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells
have a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton
enables eukaryotic cells to change
their shape and to surround and engulf
other cells. Eukaryotic cells also have
internal structures that prokaryotic
cells lack such as mitochondria and
plastids. DNA in prokaryotic cells is
usually in the form of a single
circular chromosome, while DNA in the
nucleus of eukaryotes contains linear
chromosomes. Some organelles in
eukaryotes also contain DNA; most
mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA is
also circular reflecting their
prokaryote origin.

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably
haploid (has a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets
of DNA).

All protist, fungi, animal and plant
cells descend from this common
eukaryotic cell.

 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 2008, p517. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p517.


[2]
http://www.regx.de/m_organisms.php#planc
to
source: http://www.regx.de/m_organisms.p
hp#plancto

2,700,000,000 YBN
62) The earliest molecular fossil
evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiR
AN molecules). Steranes are formed from
sterols {STeRoLZ}, molecules made by
mitochondria.

Northwestern Australia 
[1] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan,
Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons,
''Archean Molecular Fossils and the
Early Rise of Eukaryotes'', Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13 August 1999,
p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves
in a eukaryote cell. The endoplasmic
reticulum (or ER) is a membrane system
that extends from the nucleus,
important in the synthesis of proteins
and lipids.

 
[1] Figure 1 : Image of n, endoplasmic
reticulum and Golgi apparatus. (1)
Nucleus. (2) Nuclear pore. (3) Rough
endoplasmic reticulum (RER). (4) Smooth
endoplasmic reticulum (SER). (5)
Ribosome on the rough ER. (6) Proteins
that are transported. (7) Transport
vesicle. (8) Golgi apparatus. (9) Cis
face of the Golgi apparatus. (10) Trans
face of the Golgi apparatus. (11)
Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. I
am the copyright holder of that image
(I might even have the CorelDraw file
around somewhere:-), and I hereby place
the image and all partial images
created from it in the public domain.
So, you are free to use it any way you
like. In fact, I am delighted that one
of my drawings makes it into
print! I can mail you the .cdr file,
if you like (and if I can find it), if
you need a better resolution for
printing. Yours, Magnus
Manske Source: See also User:Magnus
Manske
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Nucleus_ER_golgi.jpg


[2] Description English: The
elongation and membrane targeting
stages of eukaryotic translation. The
ribosome is green and yellow, the tRNAs
are dark blue, and the other proteins
involved are light blue. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3c/Translation.gif

2,690,000,000 YBN
207) The cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN}
forms in the eukaryote cytoplasm.

 
[1] English: Endothelial cells under
the microscope. Nuclei are stained blue
with DAPI, microtubles are marked green
by an antibody bound to FITC and actin
filaments are labelled red with
phalloidin bound to TRITC. Bovine
pulmonary artery endothelial
cells http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/images
/ PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/09/FluorescentCells.jpg


[2] FIG. 7. In vitro polymerization
of cytoskeletal proteins of the
MinD/ParA superfamily. (A) Formation of
MinD filament bundles in the presence
of MinE, ATP, and phospholipid
vesicles. One end of the bundle is
markedly frayed because of the presence
of MinE. (Reprinted from reference 198
with permission of the publisher.
Copyright 2003 National Academy of
Sciences, U.S.A.) (B) Formation of a
ParApTP228(ParF) filament bundle in the
presence of ParBpTP228(ParG) and ATP.
ParBpTP228(ParG) stimulates formation
of the frayed end(s) of the
ParApTP228(ParF) bundle. (Reprinted
from reference 11 by permission from
Macmillan Publishers Ltd.) (C)
Formation of Soj filaments in the
presence of DNA and ATP. (Reprinted
from reference 116 by permission from
Macmillan Publishers Ltd.) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
articles/PMC1594594/bin/zmr0030621350007
.jpg

2,690,000,000 YBN
208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia
evolve.

The eukaryote flagellum and cilia are
structurally the same but are very
different from the prokaryote
flagellum. The eukaryote flagellum is
composed of a characteristic "9+2"
arrangement of microtubules
{mIKrO-TUB-YU-LZ} surrounded by a
sheath which is an extension of the
plasma membrane. Unlike the prokaryote
flagella that rotate, the flagella and
cilia of eukaryotic cells undulate in a
wave-like motion to propel the cell.

Some cilia are nonmotile and serve as
signal-receiving "antennae" for the
cell.

The sperm cells of algae, animals, and
some plants have flagella.

 
[1] Cilia and flagella are projections
from the cell. They are made up of
microtubules , as shown in this cartoon
and are covered by an extension of the
plasma membrane. They are motile and
designed either to move the cell itself
or to move substances over or around
the cell. The primary purpose of cilia
in mammalian cells is to move fluid,
mucous, or cells over their surface.
Cilia and flagella have the same
internal structure. The major
difference is in their length. This
figure shows a cross section of a
cilium next to a longitudinal section.
Below, we will see how the microtubules
are organized in the core (shown in the
cartoon in this figure). Also shown is
the centriole or basal body that
organizes the formation and direction
of the cilia. COPYRIGHTED
source: Description Transmission
electron microscope image, showing an
example of green algae
(Chlorophyta). Chlamydomanas
reinhardtii is a unicellular flagellate
used as a model system in molecular
genetics work and flagellar motility
studies. This image is a
longitudinal section through the
flagella area. In the cell apex is the
basal body that is the anchoring site
for a flagella. Basal bodies originate
from and have a substructure similar to
that of centrioles, with nine
peripheral microtubule triplets(see
structure at bottom center of image).
The two inner microtubules of each
triplet in a basal body become the two
outer doublets in the flagella. This
image also shows the transition region,
with its fibers of the stellate
structure. The top of the image shows
the flagella passing through the cell
wall. Date 20 September
2007 Source Source and public domain
notice at
http://remf.dartmouth.edu/imagesindex.ht
ml Author Dartmouth Electron
Microscope Facility, Dartmouth
College PD


[2] This figure shows an electron
micrograph of a cross section of a
cilium. Note that you can see the
dynein arms and the nexin links. The
dynein arms have ATPase activity. In
the presence of ATP, they can move from
one tubulin to another. They enable the
tubules to slide along one another so
the cilium can bend. The dynein
bridges are regulated so that sliding
leads to synchronized bending. Because
of the nexin and radial spokes, the
doublets are held in place so sliding
is limited lengthwise. If nexin and the
radial spokes are subjected to enzyme
digestion, and exposed to ATP, the
doublets will continue to slide and
telescope up to 9X their length.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Chlamydomonas_T
EM_09.jpg/1280px-Chlamydomonas_TEM_09.jp
g

2,680,000,000 YBN
65) The circular chromosome in the
eukaryote nucleus changes into linear
chromosomes.

Alternatively, the eukaryotic cell may
descend from a prokaryote that already
has linear DNA.

Some extant prokaryotes have a linear
chromosome.

 
[1] A DNA molecule is very long (a few
meters) but extremely thin (narrow;
measured in nanometers). Here is an
electron microscope photo of a DNA
strand: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
dna1.jpg


[2] [t Is this an accurate image? - Is
a chromosome made of a single wound
strand of DNA? update- no see image
8] Every cell in the human body
(except red blood cells) contains 23
pairs of chromosomes. (a) Each
chromosome is made up of a tightly
coiled strand of DNA. (b) DNA’s
uncoiled state reveals its familiar
double helix shape. If DNA is pictured
as a twisted ladder, its sides, made of
sugar and phosphate molecules, are
connected by (c) rungs made of
chemicals called bases. DNA has four
bases—adenine, thymine, guanine, and
cytosine—that form interlocking
pairs. The order of the bases along the
length of the ladder is the DNA
sequence. PD
source: https://www.llnl.gov/str/June03/
gifs/Stubbs1.gif

2,680,000,000 YBN
216) Histones evolve. Histones are
proteins found in all eukaryotic cell
nuclei that package and order a single
continuous DNA molecule into structural
units called nucleosomes {nUKlEuSOMZ}.
The nucleosomes are coiled into a 30
nanometer fiber called a chromatin, and
then looped again around a chromosome
scaffold into a larger 300 nanometer
fiber which forms one of the two
chromatids in a chromosome.

 
[1] Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats
Series. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series.


[2] Description Schematic
representation of the assembly of the
core histones into the nucleosome Date
15 November 2005 Source English
Wikipedia Author Richard Wheeler
(Zephyris) GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8a/Nucleosome_structure.
png

2,680,000,000 YBN
291) The eukaryote cell evolves two
intermediate stages between cell
division and DNA synthesis.

In prokaryotes, DNA synthesis can take
place uninterrupted between cell
divisions, but eukaryotes duplicate
their DNA exactly once during a
discrete period between cell divisions.

 
[1] Figure 14.1Phases of the cell
cycle The division cycle of most
eukaryotic cells is divided into four
discrete phases: M, G1, S, and G2. M
phase (mitosis) is usually followed by
cytokinesis. S phase is the period
during which DNA replication occurs.
The cell grows throughout interphase,
which includes G1, S, and G2. The
relative lengths of the cell cycle
phases shown here are typical of
rapidly replicating mammalian
cells. From: The Eukaryotic Cell
Cycle The Cell: A Molecular
Approach. 2nd edition. Cooper
GM. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer
Associates; 2000. Copyright © 2000,
Geoffrey M Cooper. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/book
s/NBK9876/bin/ch14f1.jpg


[2] The cell cycle. Image from Purves
et al., Life: The Science of Biology,
4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/cellcycle.gif

2,670,000,000 YBN
199) The Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus
evolves. The Golgi apparatus packages
proteins and lipids into vesicles for
delivery to targeted destinations.

 
[1] Figure 1: Image of nucleus,
endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi
apparatus: (1) Nucleus, (2) Nuclear
pore, (3) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
(RER), (4) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(SER), (5) Ribosome on the rough ER,
(6) Proteins that are transported, (7)
Transport vesicle, (8) Golgi apparatus,
(9) Cis face of the Golgi apparatus,
(10) Trans face of the Golgi apparatus,
(11) Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus,
(12) Secretory vesicle, (13) Plasma
membrane, (14) Exocytosis, (15)
Cytoplasm, (16) Extracellular space.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Nucleus_ER_golgi_ex.jpg


[2] no description UNKNOWN
source: http://sun.menloschool.org/~cwea
ver/cells/e/lysosomes/

2,670,000,000 YBN
290) The nucleolus evolves. The
nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus
that makes ribosomal RNA.

 
[1] Nucleolus, COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.eccentrix.com/members
/chempics/Slike/cell/Nucleolus.jpg


[2] With the combination of x-rays
from the Advanced Light Source and a
new protein-labeling technique,
scientists can see the distribution of
the nucleoli within the nucleus of a
mammary epithelial cell. USG PD
source: http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Artic
les/Archive/xray-inside-cells.html

2,660,000,000 YBN
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.


Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic
cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the
nucleus divides resulting in two new
nuclei, each of which contains an
identical copy of the parental
chromosomes. Mitosis is usually
immediately followed by cytokinesis,
the division of the cytoplasm.

Mitosis is thought to have evolved from
prokaryote binary fission and possible
intermediate stages can be seen in some
protists.

 
[1] Mitosis divides genetic information
during cell division Source:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer
/genetics_cell.html This image is
from the Science Primer, a work of the
National Center for Biotechnology
Information, part of the National
Institutes of Health. As a work of the
U.S. federal government, the image is
in the public domain.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mit
osis


[2] Prophase: The two round objects
above the nucleus are the centrosomes.
Note the condensed chromatin. from
Gray's Anatomy. Unless stated
otherwise, it is from the online
edition of the 20th U.S. edition of
Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body,
originally published in 1918. Online
editions can be found on Bartleby and
also on Yahoo!
source: UNKNOWN

2,640,000,000 YBN
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. This is the
first diploid cell and the first
zygote.

Because of sex, two cells with
different DNA can mix providing more
genetic variety. Having two chromosome
sets also provides a backup copy of
important genes.

Eukaryotic sexual reproduction, which
is initially the fusion of two cells
and their nuclei, may first occur in a
single cell protist that usually
reproduces asexually by mitosis. Two
haploid eukaryote cells (gametes, cells
with one set of chromosomes each) merge
and then their nuclei merge to form the
first diploid cell, a cell with two
sets of chromosomes, the first zygote.
"Syngamy" {SiNG-Gu-mE} refers to gamete
fusion and "karyogamy" {KaR-E-oG-e-mE}
to nucleus fusion. In most cases
syngamy is immediately followed by
karyogamy.

This fusion of two haploid cells
results in the first diploid
single-celled organism, which may then
immediately divide back to two haploid
cells.

Conjugation, the second major kind of
sexual phenomenon, which occurs in the
ciliates, involves the fusion of
gametic nuclei instead of independent
gamete cells.

Initially sex may be the fusion of two
indistinguishable cells (isogamy) with
gender (anisogamy) only evolving later.
Although possibly eukaryote cell fusion
and gender is directly descended from
prokaryote conjugation.

All sexual species alternate between
haploid and diploid. There are three
main different types of sexual life
cycles; haplontic, haplodiplontic, and
diplontic.
This begins the haplontic life cycle:
in the entire life cycle the only
diploid cell is the zygote and mitosis
only occurs in the haploid phase.

Most fungi and some protists including
some algae are "haplontic"; they have a
multicellular haploid stage and no
multicellular diploid stage. Plants and
some algae are "haplodiplontic"; they
make both a multicellular haploid and
multicellular diploid organism. Animals
are "diplontic"; they make a diploid
multicellular organism and no
multicellular haploid organism.

 
[1] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg


[2] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg

2,640,000,000 YBN
206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis:
a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).

Meiosis, which looks similar to
mitosis, is the process of cell
division in sexually reproducing
organisms that reduces the number of
chromosomes in reproductive cells from
diploid to haploid, leading to the
production of gametes in animals and
spores in plants.

Without the reduction back to haploid,
genomes would double in size with every
generation.

 
[1] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg


[2] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg

2,610,000,000 YBN
296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves.
Anisogamy {aNISoGomE}, sex (cell and
nucleus fusion) between two cells that
are different in size or shape.

 
[1] Combination of images: Description
English: Different types of
isogamy: A) Isogamy of motile
cells B) Isogamy of non-motile
cells C) Conjugation of
gametangia Date 30 July
2008 Source Vectorised SVG version of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Isoga
my.png Author Original bitmap version
by Tameeria, SVG version by Qef Other
versions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:
Isogamy.png PD AND Description
Different types of en:anisogamy:
A) Anisogamy of motile gametes B)
Oogamy (non-motile egg cell, motile
sperm cell) C) Anisogamy of
non-motile gametes Date 2008-06-30
02:07 (UTC) Source
Anisogamy.png Author This
SVG version by Qef (talk)
Anisogamy.png: Original uploader was
Tameeria at en.wikipedia Later
versions were uploaded by Helix84 at
en.wikipedia. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/d5/Isogamy.svghttp://upl
oad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7
/Anisogamy.svg


[2] Description Different types of
en:anisogamy: A) Anisogamy of motile
gametes B) Oogamy (non-motile egg
cell, motile sperm cell) C) Anisogamy
of non-motile
gametes Date 2008-06-30 02:07
(UTC) Source Anisogamy.png Author
This SVG version by Qef
(talk) Anisogamy.png: Original
uploader was Tameeria at
en.wikipedia Later versions were
uploaded by Helix84 at
en.wikipedia. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Anisogamy.svg/1
000px-Anisogamy.svg.png

2,590,000,000 YBN
298) Oogamy {O-oG-omE}, a form of
anisogamy, evolves in protists: sex
between a flagellated gamete and an
unflagellated gamete.

 
[1] Combination of images: Description
English: Different types of
isogamy: A) Isogamy of motile
cells B) Isogamy of non-motile
cells C) Conjugation of
gametangia Date 30 July
2008 Source Vectorised SVG version of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Isoga
my.png Author Original bitmap version
by Tameeria, SVG version by Qef Other
versions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:
Isogamy.png PD AND Description
Different types of en:anisogamy:
A) Anisogamy of motile gametes B)
Oogamy (non-motile egg cell, motile
sperm cell) C) Anisogamy of
non-motile gametes Date 2008-06-30
02:07 (UTC) Source
Anisogamy.png Author This
SVG version by Qef (talk)
Anisogamy.png: Original uploader was
Tameeria at en.wikipedia Later
versions were uploaded by Helix84 at
en.wikipedia. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/d5/Isogamy.svghttp://upl
oad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7
/Anisogamy.svg


[2] Description English: A sperm
cell fertilizing an egg cell Date
Source
http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm Autho
r Unknown Permission (Reusing this
file)
http://www.pdimages.com/web9.htm P
D
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/86/Sperm-egg.jpg

2,580,000,000 YBN
300) Diploid cell fusion evolves
(Gamontogamy).

 
[1] The Oxymonad, Notila (diploid
Pacific form) life cycle. COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfi
eld/clevelan/notila.GIF


[2] The Oxymonad, Notila (diploid
Pacific form) life cycle.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfi
eld/clevelan/notila.GIF

2,570,000,000 YBN
295) Two-step meiosis evolves (diploid
DNA copies and then the cell divides
twice into four haploid cells).

Most protists divide by two-step
meiosis, and one-step meiosis is rare.

Many of the steps of meiosis closely
resemble corresponding steps in
mitosis. Meiosis, like mitosis, is
preceded by the replication of
chromosomes, but this single
replication is followed not by one but
two consecutive cell divisions which
results in four child cells instead of
the two child cells of mitosis.

Mitosis produces child cells that are
genetically identical to their parent
cells and each other, while meiosis
produces cells that differ genetically
from their parent cell and from each
other.

 
[1] GametoGenesis. COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/10
4/gametogenesis.jpg


[2] Sexual cycle oxymonas, identical
to saccinobaculus, one step meiosis.
haploid. COPYRIGHTED CANADA
source: http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfi
eld/clevelan/oxymonas.GIF

2,558,000,000 YBN
171) The Eubacteria phylum
"Deinococcus-Thermus" evolves (includes
Thermus Aquaticus {used in PCR}, and
Deinococcus radiodurans {which can
survive long exposure to radiation}).

 
[1] D. radiodurans growing on a
nutrient agar plate. The red color is
due to carotenoid pigment. Links to
816x711-pixel, 351KB JPG. Credit: M.
Daly, Uniformed Services University of
the Health Sciences NASA
source: http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/
headlines/images/conan/D_rad_dish.jpg


[2] Photomicrograph of Deinococcus
radiodurans, from
www.ornl.gov/ORNLReview/ v34 The Oak
Ridge National Laboratory United
States Federal Government This work
is in the public domain because it is a
work of the United States Federal
Government. This applies worldwide. See
Copyright.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Deinococcus.jpg

2,558,000,000 YBN
172) The Eubacteria phylum,
Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u}
evolves.

Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes
with oxygen-producing photosynthesis,
and are the ancestor of all eukaryote
plastids (for example chloroplasts).

Fossil evidence suggests that
cyanobacteria existed as early as 3.8
billion years before now, but the
genetic evidence places the origin of
cyanobacteria here at 2.5 billion years
before now.

 
[1] Oscillatoria COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.stcsc.edu/ecology/alg
ae/oscillatoria.jpg


[2] Lyngbya COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.stanford.edu/~bohanna
n/Media/LYNGB5.jpg

2,558,000,000 YBN
315) The Eubacteria Phylum Chloroflexi
evolves; (Green Non-Sulphur bacteria).

The Chloroflexi are filamentous
bacteria that perform anoxygenic
photosynthesis.

 
[1] Chloroflexus photomicrograph from
Doe Joint Genome Institute of US Dept
Energy PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Chlorofl.jpg

2,500,000,000 YBN
52) The end of the Archean and start of
the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or
ProTReZOiK} Eon.

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542
million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

2,500,000,000 YBN
56) Banded Iron Formation starts to
appear in many places.

 
[1] portion taken
from: Description English: This
image shows a 2.1 billion years old
rock containing black-banded ironstone,
which has a weight of about 8.5 tons.
The approximately two meter high, three
meter wide, and one meter thick block
of stone was found in North America and
belongs to the National Museum of
Mineralogy and Geology in Dresden,
Germany. The rock is located at
+51°2'34.84''
+13°45'26.67''. Deutsch: Dieses Bild
zeigt einen etwa 8,5 Tonnen schweren
und 2,1 Milliarden Jahre alten Block
mit Bändereisenerzen. Der etwa zwei
Meter hohe, drei Meter breite und einen
Meter tiefe Gesteinsblock wurde in
Nordamerika gefunden und gehört dem
Staatlichen Museum für Mineralogie und
Geologie Dresden. Der Block befindet
sich bei den Koordinaten +51°2'34.84''
+13°45'26.67''. Camera
data Camera Nikon D70 Lens Tamron
SP AF 90mm/2.8 Di Macro 1:1 Focal
length 90 mm Aperture f/2.8 Exposure
time 1/250 s Sensivity ISO 200 Please
help translating the description into
more languages. Thanks a lot! If
you want a license with the conditions
of your choice, please email me to
negotiate terms. best new
image Date 26 August
2005 Source Own
work Author André Karwath aka
Aka CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Black-band_iron
stone_%28aka%29.jpg/1280px-Black-band_ir
onstone_%28aka%29.jpg


[2] This rock resulted from
accumulations of ferrous Iron (Fe+2) in
oceans and lakes (which were more green
in color than today; ferrous iron can
produce that color as, for example, in
a Coca-Cola glass bottle). The Iron
readily combined with any available
oxygen, so that the latter was always
destined to be caught up in the iron
precipitates (Fe2O3) and thus didn't
remain in the atmosphere. While BIF is
a hallmark of sedimentary rock
formations during this extended period,
other rocks also formed (shales;
sandstones) but carbonates (limestones)
were much less commmon. Starting about
2.3 billion years ago, oxygen levels
and other factors led to common
production of ferric oxides (Hematite)
that made prominent red beds
periodically to the present. One
variety includes alternating chert
layers, some rich in iron PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect19/
2929573315_7bb69aeebb.jpg

2,480,000,000 YBN
170) Bacteria live on land.

Chemoauthotrophs oxidize sulfur or
nitrogen to form sulfate or nitrate,
and therefore sulfuric or nitric acid,
which then dissolves rocks.

 
[1] Acidic waste water from a modern
mining site supports the same oxygen
using bacterial life that appeared on
Earth 2.48 billion years ago. UNKNOWN

source: http://media.news.ualberta.ca/~/
media/University%20of%20Alberta/Administ
ration/External%20Relations/ExpressNews/
Images/2011/10/111020-RocksBanner-cw.jpg


[2] Bacillus specie soil
bacteria. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.scharfphoto.com/fine_
art_prints/archives/199812-054-Soil-Bact
eria.jpg

2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of a 200 million year ice
age.

 
[1] snowball Earth UNKNOWN
source: http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/fi
les/imagecache/feature/files/features/pr
int/20090528_snowball_earth.jpg


[2] Snowball Earth Snowball Earth
describes a theory that for millions of
years the Earth was entirely smothered
in ice, stretching from the poles to
the tropics. This freezing happened
over 650 million years ago in the
Pre-Cambrian, though it's now thought
that there may have been more than one
of these global glaciations. They
varied in duration and extent but
during a full-on snowball event, life
could only cling on in ice-free
refuges, or where sunlight managed to
penetrate through the ice to allow
photosynthesis. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/imag
es/ic/credit/640x395/s/sn/snowball_earth
/snowball_earth_1.jpg

2,300,000,000 YBN
48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide
formed on land, begin here, and are
also evidence of more free oxygen in
the air of Earth.

 
[1]
http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Extension/redhi
lls/redhills.html
source: http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Extensi
on/redhills/redhills.html


[2] In Archean rocks, metals tend to
occur in low oxidation states (for
example, Fe2+ instead of Fe3+)
indicating a high metal:oxygen ratio in
the oceans and atmosphere. The
sediments are essentially rust-free.
After the late Proterozoic,
sedimentary deposits often have reddish
colors and are called red beds due to
the presence of iron-oxide coatings
between sand grains. From the later
Proterozoic onward, enough free oxygen
has been available to oxidize iron in
sediments. A sandstone butte outside
of Sedona, Arizona. Public domain
image by Jon Sullivan. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/38/Butte_pdphoto_roadtri
p_24_bg_021604.jpg

2,000,000,000 YBN
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely
related to Rickettsia prowazekii, an
aerobic proteobacteria, is engulfed by
an early eukaryote cell and over time a
symbiotic relationship evolves within
the eukaryote cell (an endosymbiosis)
where the Rickettsia becomes the
mitochondria.

Mitochondria are membrane-bound
organelles found in the cytoplasm of
almost all eukaryotic cells, and are
where cellular respiration occurs
producing most of the ATP in a
eukaryotic cell.

In eukaryotes the mitochondria perform
the Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative
phosphorylation using oxygen to
breakdown pyruvate from glycolysis into
carbon dioxide and water, and provide
up to 36 ATP molecules.

 
[1] Figure from: Michael W. Gray, et
al, ''Genome structure and gene content
in protist mitochondrial DNAs'',
Nucl. Acids Res. (1998) 26(4):
865-878 doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865
http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/
26/4/865.full Phylogenetic hypothesis
of the eukaryotic lineage based on
ultrastructural and molecular data.
Organisms are divided into three main
groups distinguished by mitochondrial
cristal shape (either discoidal,
flattened or tubular). Unbroken lines
indicate phylogenetic relationships
that are firmly supported by available
data; broken lines indicate
uncertainties in phylogenetic
placement, resolution of which will
require additional data. Color coding
of organismal genus names indicates
mitochondrial genomes that have been
completely (Table 1), almost completely
(Jakoba, Naegleria and
Thraustochytrium) or partially (*)
sequenced by the OGMP (red), the FMGP
(black) or other groups (green). Names
in blue indicate those species whose
mtDNAs are currently being sequenced by
the OGMP or are future candidates for
complete sequencing. Amitochondriate
retortamonads are positioned at the
base of the tree, with broken arrows
denoting the endosymbiotic origin(s) of
mitochondria from a Rickettsia-like
eubacterium. Macrophar.,
Macropharyngomonas.
source: http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/vol26/issue4/images/gkb18201.gif


[2] Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree of
eukaryotes based on ultrastructural and
molecular data. Organisms are
sub-divided into main groups as
discussed in the text. Only a few
representative species for which
complete (or almost complete) mtDNA
sequences are known are shown in each
lineage. In some cases, line drawings
or actual pictures of the organisms are
provided (Acanthamoeba, M. Nagata; URL:
http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/PCD3379
/htmls/21.html; Allomyces, Tom Volk;
URL:
http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/332/
Chytridiomycota/Allomyces_r_So_pa/A._arb
uscula_pit._sporangia_tjv.html;
Amoebidium, URL:
http://cgdc3.igmors.upsud.fr/microbiolog
ie/mesomycetozoaires.htm; Marchantia,
URL:
http://www.science.siu.edu/landplants/He
patophyta/images/March.female.JPEG
Scenedesmus, Entwisle et al.,
http://www.rbgsyd.gov.au/_data/page/1824
/Scenedesmus.gif). The color-coding of
the main groups (alternating between
dark and light blue) on the outer
circle corresponds to the color-coding
of the species names. Unbroken lines
indicate phylogenetic relationships
that are firmly supported by available
molecular data; broken lines indicate
uncertainties in phylogenetic
placement, resolution of which will
require additional sequence data. [t:
why not color code or add which type of
mito?]
source: http://arjournals.annualreviews.
org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.genet.37.11
0801.142526

1,874,000,000 YBN
61) The earliest large filamentous
fossil (Grypania). Grypania spiralis is
about 10 cm long, and is thought to be
either a green alga or a large
cyanobacterium. If eukaryote, Grypania
would be the earliest non-acritarch
eukaryote fossil.

Grypania may be like Acetabularia
{aS-i-TaB-YU-lAR-Eu}, a large
single-celled green algae.
The Grypania
fossils have no blade (analogous to a
leaf) or holdfast structures, but
stretching implies that Grypania was a
sessile organism connected to a
surface.

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan,
USA 

[1]
file:/root/web/Grypania_spiralis_wmel000
0.htm
source: file:/root/web/Grypania_spiralis
_wmel0000.htm


[2]
http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/paleontology
/lrgGrypaniaspiralis.jpg
source: http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/pale
ontology/lrgGrypaniaspiralis.jpg

1,800,000,000 YBN
46) The end of the Banded Iron
Formation.

 
[1] Ted Huntington PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/MichiganBIF.jpg


[2] Ted Huntington PD
source: Ted Huntington

1,570,000,000 YBN
99) The first homeobox genes evolve.
These genes regulate the building of
major body parts in algae, plants,
fungi and animals.

For example, when a homeobox gene
responsible for growing a mouse eye is
added to the cell of a fruit-fly embryo
that is destined to be a leg, an extra
fruit fly eye is built on the leg.

 
[1] {ULSF: Homeobox genes} Desajustes
en el modelo UNKNOWN
source: http://cnho.files.wordpress.com/
2010/07/hox_genes_illus.png


[2] {ULSF: Homeobox genes} UNKNOWN
source: http://cnho.files.wordpress.com/
2010/07/homeobox1.jpg

1,570,000,000 YBN
197) The ancestor of all living
eukaryotes divides into bikont and
unikont descendants. Bikonts lead to
all Chromalveolates, Excavates,
Rhizaria, and Plants. Unikonts lead to
all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.

 
[1] Figure 1: Figure 1. Eukaryote
phylogeny integrating ultrastructure,
sequence trees, gene fusions and
molecular cladistic markers. The
unikont topology is established, but
the branching order of the six bikont
groups remains uncertain. The single
enslavement [12] of a red alga (R) to
create chromalveolates is supported by
a plastid glyceraldehyde phosphate
dehydrogenase (GAPDH) replacement [13].
Whether there was a single enslavement
of a green alga (G) to form cabozoa or
two separate enslavements (asterisks)
to form Cercozoa and Excavata is
uncertain [12], as is the position of
Heliozoa [14]. Polyubiquitin [15] and
EF-1α[16] insertions strongly support
the clades core Rhizaria and
opisthokonts. The inset shows the BamHI
restriction fragment from H.
cantabrigiensis that was sequenced and
analysed in this study, spanning the
DHFR and the amino terminus of the TS
gene (red, introns are green). The
length of the noncoding regions
upstream and downstream of the DHFR
gene from one of the clones is
indicated. Figure 1 from: Stechmann
A, Cavalier-Smith T, ''The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.'', 2003,
Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http
://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=MiamiCaptionURL&_method=retriev
e&_eid=1-s2.0-S096098220300602X&_image=1
-s2.0-S096098220300602X-gr1_lrg.jpg&_ba=
&_fmt=full&_orig=na&_issn=09609822&_pii=
S096098220300602X&_isHiQual=Y&_acct=C000
059600&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=
4422&md5=cec46b2161caca87740f4ff34545ab6
9


[2] cavalier-smith diagram COPYRIGHTED

source: cavalier_jmolevol_2003_56_540-56
3.pdf

1,520,000,000 YBN
202) The Protist Phylum Amoebozoa
evolves (amoebas and slime molds); the
first feeding using pseudopods (a
temporary projection of the
cytoplasm).

The Amoebozoa include amoebas, both
naked and testate (partially enclosed
by a "test" or shell), and slime molds
and are characterized by pseudopods.
Slime molds will diverge into two main
branches, plasmodial slime molds and
cellular slime molds.

 
[1] SUBPHYLUM Lobosa CLASS Amoebaea
Chaos diffluens, an amoeba. Photo
released by Dr. Ralf Wagner.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Chaos_diffluens.jpg


[2] CLASS Amoebaea Mayorella (may-or
-ell-a) a medium sized free-living
naked amoeba with conical pseudopodia.
Central body is the nucleus. Phase
contrast. This picture was taken by
David Patterson of material from
Limulus-ridden sediments at Plum Island
(Massachusetts USA) in spring and
summer, 2001. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
515

1,520,000,000 YBN
203) Colonialism (where cells form a
colony) evolves for the first time in
Eukaryotes.

Many cells that form colonies are
apparently identical but because each
cell is exposed to a different
environment, they transcribe different
genes.

 
[1] [t Note that this Chrysophytes
{golden algae} do not evolve
genetically until much later - but I
can't find colonial euglinas or
kinetoplasts- dinobryon look very
similar to euglenas however, even with
a red eyespot- which implies a close
relation.] [1] Dinobryon, a colony of
Chrysophytes showing flagella and red
eyespots UNKNOWN
source: http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/
mag//imagsmall/Dinobryonb.jpg


[2] [t Note that this CHrysophytes
{golden algae} do not evolve
genetically until much later - but I
can't find colonial euglinas or
kinetoplasts] [2] golden algae colony
(synura) Scanning EM showing the
colony of cells covered with scales By
Joel Mancuso UNKNOWN
source: http://farm1.staticflickr.com/38
/110623789_7d189c795b_b.jpg

1,500,000,000 YBN
15) The first "plastids" evolve.
Cyanobacteria form plastids through
endosymbiosis within a eukaryotic cell.
Like mitochondria, these organelles
copy themselves and are not made by the
cell DNA.

Plastids provide the eukaryotic cell
with food from photosynthesis and gain
protection by living within the cell.

This is a primary plastid endosymbiosis
and so these plastids are surrounded by
a double membrane. The inner wall of
the plastid being that of the
bacterium, the outer wall being that of
the eukoaryote.

 
[1] Description Plagiomnium
affine, Laminazellen, Rostock Date
created 01.11.2006 Source
photographed by myself Author
Kristian Peters --
Fabelfroh Permission (Reusing this
file) GFDL
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Plagiomnium_affine_la
minazellen.jpeg

1,500,000,000 YBN
86) The first plant (ancestor of all
green and red algae and land plants).

This begins the plant kingdom. The
first plant is probably unicellular,
similar to the glaucophytes
{GlxKoFITS}.

 
[1] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
3/PCD3711/htmls/86.html


[2] (See Image) COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1500)

1,500,000,000 YBN
220) The Protists Opisthokonts evolve
(the ancestor of all Fungi,
Choanoflagellates and Animals).

 
[1] Parasite spore, SEM Z115/0073
Rights Managed Credit: EYE OF
SCIENCE/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Parasite spore.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM) of a microsporidian (Tubulinosema
ratisbonensis) spore cultured on human
lung fibroblast cells (brown).
Microsporidia are single-celled
parasites. T. ratisbonenesis is a
parasite of the fruit fly (Drosophila
melanogaster), but may also be able to
infect humans with weakened immune
systems. The spore is the infective
phase of the life cycle. It is excreted
by the old host and enters the gut of a
new host. The contents of the spore,
the sporoplasm, is injected into the
host's cell via the polar tubule. Once
in the cell the organism divides many
times with the resultant organisms
producing more spores. Magnification:
x10,000 at 10 centimetres
wide. Release details: Model and
property releases are not available
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/365473/large/Z1150073-Parasite_spore,_
SEM-SPL.jpg


[2] Parasite spore, SEM Z115/0073
Rights Managed Credit: EYE OF
SCIENCE/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Parasite spore.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM) of a microsporidian (Tubulinosema
ratisbonensis) spore cultured on human
lung fibroblast cells (brown).
Microsporidia are single-celled
parasites. T. ratisbonenesis is a
parasite of the fruit fly (Drosophila
melanogaster), but may also be able to
infect humans with weakened immune
systems. The spore is the infective
phase of the life cycle. It is excreted
by the old host and enters the gut of a
new host. The contents of the spore,
the sporoplasm, is injected into the
host's cell via the polar tubule. Once
in the cell the organism divides many
times with the resultant organisms
producing more spores. Magnification:
x10,000 at 10 centimetres
wide. Release details: Model and
property releases are not available
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/365473/large/Z1150073-Parasite_spore,_
SEM-SPL.jpg

1,400,000,000 YBN
209) The earliest extant plant:
Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu}.

Glaucophytes are unicellular algae
found in freshwater.

Glaucophyta probably branched off the
evolutionary tree before the divergence
of red and green algae from one
another.

 
[1] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
3/PCD3711/htmls/86.html


[2] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
/Images/Others/Glaucocystis/

1,300,000,000 YBN
188) The Plant Phylum Chlorophyta
{KlORoFiTu} evolves, Green Algae:
(ancestor of Volvox, Sea lettuce,
Spirogyra, and Stoneworts).

The green algae are the most diverse
group of algae on Earth today in terms
of number of species (having at least
7000 species).

The first land plants most likely
evolve from green algae.

 
[1] Description Flagellar pit of
Pyramimonas sp. / from Nigaku-Ike of
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
Pref., Japan / SEM:JEOL JSM-6330F /
scale bar = 1.0μm Date 2009-05-04
18:30 (UTC) Source
Pyramimonas_sp.jpg Author
Pyramimonas_sp.jpg: ja:User:NEON /
User:NEON_ja derivative work:
Addicted04 (talk) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cb/Pyramimonas_sp_color.
jpg


[2] Micrograph of Volvox aureus.
Copyright held by Dr. Ralf Wagner,
uploaded to German Wikipedia under
GFDL. Permission is granted to copy,
distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation; with no Invariant
Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no
Back-Cover Texts. Subject to
disclaimers.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vol
vox

1,300,000,000 YBN
219) The plant Phylum Rhodophyta
{rODOFITu} evolves (Red Algae).

Rhodophyta are common and widespread,
unicellular and multicellular algae
(reaching up to 1 m {or 3 feet} in
length), and are mostly free-living but
some are parasitic or symbiotic.

 
[1] Close-up of a red alga (Genus?
Laurencia), Class Florideophyceae,
Order=? a marine seaweed from Hawaii.
GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Laurencia.jpg


[2] Bangia atropurpurea Profile:
unbranched filaments in tufts. Often
forming dense fringes in the spalsh
zone. Uniseriate at base, multiseriate
above with protoplasts separate in a
firm gelatinous sheath. Stellate
chloroplasts. US NOAA PD
source: http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagra
nt/GLWL/Algae/Rhodophyta/Cards/Bangia.ht
ml

1,300,000,000 YBN
323) The Protists Excavates evolve: the
ancestor of the Parabasalids
{PaRu-BAS-a-liDS}, and the Diplomonads
{DiP-lO-mO-naDZ} {which includes
Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u}).

Most of these species have an excavated
ventral feeding groove, and all lack
mitochondria which are thought to be
lost secondarily.

 
[1] A timescale of eukaryote evolution.
The times for each node are taken from
the summary times in Table 1, except
for nodes 1 (310 Ma), 2 (360 Ma), 3
(450 Ma), and 4 (520 Ma), which are
from the fossil record [25]; nodes 8
(1450 Ma) and 16 (1587 Ma) are
phylogenetically constrained and are
the midpoints between adjacent nodes.
Nodes 12–14 were similar in time and
therefore shown as a multifurcation at
1000 Ma; likewise, nodes 21–22 are
shown as a multifurcation at 1967 Ma.
The star indicates the occurrence of
red algae in the fossil record at 1200
Ma, the oldest taxonomically
identifiable eukaryote [12]. Hedges
et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004
4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-2-2.jpg


[2] Giardia lamblia, a parasitic
flagellate that causes giardiasis.
Image from public domain source at
http://www.nigms.nih.gov/news/releases/i
mages/para.jpg
source: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/news/re
leases/images/para.jpg

1,280,000,000 YBN
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in
Eukaryotes evolves.

In this organism, unlike single cell
eukaryotes, cells stay fastened
together after cell division.

Multicellularity seems to have arisen
multiple times independently in
eukaryotes: in fungi, animals, slime
molds, and algae.

(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting
Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
Canada 

[1] Bodanella (bow-dan-ell-a)
lauterbornii, a branching filamentous
brown alga. Nearly all brown algae are
marine organisms, but this species is
found in the bottoms of freshwater
lakes. Bright field. data on this
strain. This image is of material
from Provasoli-Guillard National Center
for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton,
images taken by David Patterson and Bob
Andersen. Image copyright: Bob Andersen
and D. J. Patterson, image used under
license to MBL
(micro*scope). NONCOMMERCIAL USE ONLY
source: http://starcentral.mbl.edu/msr/r
awdata/files/bodonella_bgz.zip


[2] Bodanella (bow-dan-ell-a)
lauterbornii, a branching filamentous
brown alga. Nearly all brown algae are
marine organisms, but this species is
found in the bottoms of freshwater
lakes. Bright field. data on this
strain. This image is of material
from Provasoli-Guillard National Center
for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton,
images taken by David Patterson and Bob
Andersen. Image copyright: Bob Andersen
and D. J. Patterson, image used under
license to MBL
(micro*scope). NONCOMMERCIAL USE ONLY
source: http://starcentral.mbl.edu/msr/r
awdata/viewable/bodonella_bgw.jpg

1,280,000,000 YBN
85) Differentiation in a multicellular
eukaryote evolves. In addition to
gamete (or spore) cells, there are
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells,
somatic cells are asexual
(non-fusing).

All cells of an organism are somatic
cells, except the sperm and egg cells,
the cells from which they arise
(gametocytes), and undifferentiated
stem cells.

Cell differentiation is how cells in a
multicellular organism become
specialized to perform specific
functions in a variety of tissues and
organs.

 
[1] Volvoxcell differentiation. The
pathways leading to germ cells or
somatic cells are controlled by genes
that cause cells to follow one or the
other fate. Mutations can prevent the
formation of one of these lineages.
http://www.devbio.com/chap02/link0204.sh
tml Although all the volvocaceans,
like their unicellular relative
Chlamydomonas, reproduce predominantly
by asexual means, they are also capable
of sexual reproduction, which involves
the production and fusion of haploid
gametes. In many species of
Chlamydomonas, including the one
illustrated in Figure 2.10, sexual
reproduction is isogamous (“the same
gametes”), since the haploid gametes
that meet are similar in size,
structure, and motility. However, in
other species of Chlamydomonas—as
well as many species of colonial
volvocaceans—swimming gametes of very
different sizes are produced by the
different mating types. This pattern is
called heterogamy (“different
gametes”). But the larger
volvocaceans have evolved a specialized
form of heterogamy, called oogamy,
which involves the production of large,
relatively immotile eggs by one mating
type and small, motile sperm by the
other (see Sidelights and
Speculations) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/book
s/NBK10031/bin/ch2f12.jpg


[2] Description English: Four
Different Species of Volvocales Algae.
(A) Gonium pectorale, (B) Eudorina
elegans, (C) Pleodorina californica,
and (D) Volvox carteri. These are
unicellular organisms that live in
colonies and have both large and small
gametes. Date Published: June 15,
2004 Source Whitfield J:
Everything You Always Wanted to Know
about Sexes. PLoS Biol 2/6/2004: e183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0
020183 Author Photo courtesy of
Aurora M. Nedelcu, from the Volvocales
Information Project
(http://www.unbf.ca/vip/index.htm). Per
mission (Reusing this file) See
below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c5/Volvocales.png

1,280,000,000 YBN
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves.
 
[1] Mitosis divides genetic information
during cell division Source:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer
/genetics_cell.html This image is
from the Science Primer, a work of the
National Center for Biotechnology
Information, part of the National
Institutes of Health. As a work of the
U.S. federal government, the image is
in the public domain.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mit
osis


[2] Prophase: The two round objects
above the nucleus are the centrosomes.
Note the condensed chromatin. from
Gray's Anatomy. Unless stated
otherwise, it is from the online
edition of the 20th U.S. edition of
Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body,
originally published in 1918. Online
editions can be found on Bartleby and
also on Yahoo!
source: UNKNOWN

1,280,000,000 YBN
301) The haplodiplontic life cycle
evolves in algae (mitosis occurs in
both haploid and diploid life stages).


This is also known as the "alternation
of generations".

Some algae and plants have a
haplodiplontic life cycle; a life cycle
where both diploid and haploid stages
are multicellular. The multicellular
haploid stage is called the gametophyte
and the multicellular diploid stage is
called the sporophyte.

 
[1] Drawn by self for Biological life
cycle Based on Freeman & Worth's
Biology of Plants (p. 171). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Sporic_meiosis.png


[2] Drawn by self for Biological life
cycle Based on Freeman & Worth's
Biology of Plants (p. 171). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Sporic_meiosis.png

1,274,000,000 YBN
187) A captured red alga, through
endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid in the
ancestor of all chromalveolates.

This is a secondary plastid
endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is
captured instead of a cyanobacterium
which results in a plastid with more
than two membranes.

 
[1] Fig. 2. The tree of life based
on molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae—a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red). COPYRIGHTED
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/95/1/147/F2.large.jpg


[2] Figure 3: Fig. 3. Schematic
representation of the evolutionary
relationships and divergence times for
the red, green, glaucophyte, and
chromist algae. These photosynthetic
groups are outgroup-rooted with the
Opisthokonta which putatively
ancestrally lacked a plastid. The
branches on which the cyanobacterial
(CB) primary and red algal chromist
secondary endosymbioses occurred are
shown Figure 3 from: Yoon, Hwan Su
et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.”
Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5
(2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract COPYRIGHTED
source: http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809/F3.large.jpg

1,250,000,000 YBN
88) The Protists "Chromalveolates"
{KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS} evolve (the ancestor
of the Chromista {Cryptophytes,
Haptophytes, and Stramenopiles
{STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ}} and Alveolates
{aL-VEO-leTS}).

 
[1] S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
''The TimeTree of Life'', 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.timetree.org/book.php


[2] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
''Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.'', in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
''Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.'', Elsevier; 2007, p120.
COPYRIGHTED
source: Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120.

1,250,000,000 YBN
201) The earliest certain eukaryote
fossils and earliest certain fossils of
eukaryote filamentous multicellularity:
a bangiophyte {BoNJEuFIT} red alga
fossil.

These are also the earliest fossils of
a eukaryote that can reproduce sexually
and that have differentiated cells (a
basal holdfast).

(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island,
arctic Canada 

[1] Figure 4 from: Science 1990 vol
250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from
the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.
Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877
905


[2] Figure 2 from: Science 1990 vol
250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from
the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.
Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877
905

1,200,000,000 YBN
221) The first fungi. This begins the
Fungi Kingdom.

Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic
(unable to build structural materials
by photosynthesis) and so must feed on
other living things.

Fungi live on organic material and are
therefore generally parasitic (live or
feed on another organism to the
detriment of the host organism) or are
saprophytic (live on dead or decaying
organic matter). Some types of fungi,
however, form symbioses with plants.

Fungi may reproduce sexually or
asexually and like plants show
alternations in their life cycle.

 
[1] Microsporidia. Image from Sterling
Parasitology Microsporidia
Research. UNKNOWN
source: http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/im
ages/3/37/Micro2.jpg


[2] Penicillium [t Note: Penecillium
is a multicellular fungi.] UNKNOWN
source: http://www.mold-help.org/pages/i
mages/Penicillium.jpg

1,180,000,000 YBN
6280) The Protists Alveolates
{aL-VEO-leTS} (the ancestor of all
Ciliates, Apicomplexans, and
Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS}).

These three protist phyla all have an
alveolar {aL-VE-e-lR} membrane system,
made of flattened membrane-bound sacs
called "alveoli" {aL-VE-e-lI}.

 
[1]
Unknown http://www.genome.gov/Images/pr
ess_photos/highres/85-300.jpg PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Oxytricha_trifa
llax.jpg/1024px-Oxytricha_trifallax.jpg


[2] Description English: Unknown
species of cilliate in the last stages
of mitosis (cytokinesis), with cleavage
furrow visible. Date Source
Own work Author
TheAlphaWolf CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/55/Unk.cilliate.jpg

1,100,000,000 YBN
75) The oldest extant fungi phylum
"Microsporidia" evolves.

Microsporidia are obligate (survive
only as) intracellular parasites of
eukaryotes; commonly infecting insects,
crustaceans, and fishes.

 
[1] Sporoblast of the Microsporidium
Fibrillanosema crangonycis. Electron
micrograph taken by Leon White. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Fibrillanosema_spore.jpg


[2] Spironema
multiciliatum Spironema:
Octosporoblastic sporogony producing
horseshoe-shaped monokaryotic spores in
sporophorous vesicles; monomorphic,
diplokaryotic and monokaryotic;
merogony - last generation merozoites
are diplokaryotic; sporogony - initial
division of the sporont nuclei is
meiotic as indicated by the occurrence
of synaptonemal complexes; spores are
horse-shoe-shaped, with swollen ends in
T. variabilis and have one elongate
nucleus; exospore with three layers,
endospore is of medium thickness;
polaroplast composed of two lamellar
parts, an anterior part of closely
packed lamellae and a posterior part of
wider compartments; polar tube is
isofilar and forms, in the posterior
quarter of the spore, 3-4 coils in a
single rank (T. variabilis) or 8-10
coils in a single rank (T. chironomi);
type species Toxoglugea vibrio in
adipose tissue of larvae of Ceratopogon
sp. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).
Spironema (spire-oh-knee-ma)
multiciliatum Klebs, 1893. Cells are
lanceolate, relatively flattened and
flexible. The cells have a spiral
groove, long kinetics and a tail, which
tapers posteriorly, and are about 15 -
21 microns without the tail. The
nucleus is located anteriorly or near
the centre of the cell. When the cells
are squashed, the cells are more
flexible. Food materials are seen under
the cell surface. Rarely observed.
This picture was taken by Won Je Lee
using conventional photographic film
using a Zeiss Axiophot microscope of
material collected in marine sediments
of Botany Bay (Sydney, Australia). The
image description refers to material
from Botany Bay. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
3928

1,100,000,000 YBN
313) The Protist Phylum
"Dinoflagellata" evolves.

Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS} are
single-celled, aquatic organisms that
have two dissimilar flagella. Most are
microscopic and marine. An important
link in the food chain, Dinoflagellates
also "bloom" which can produce
luminescence seen in the sea.

 
[1] Dinoflagellate Ceratium
sp. Phylum Dinoflagellata Upper
Newport Bay, Orange County, CA.
9/22/12. © Peter J.
Bryant COPYRIGHTED
source: http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/Din
oflagellates/DSC_6886b.jpg


[2] Model of Pyrodinium bahamense, a
dinoflagellate species, in the American
Museum of Natural History Credit:
Life’s Little Mysteries Fire
water Have you ever seen glowing ocean
water, like the bright blue surf
pictured in the intro slide? The neon
water is brimming with dinoflagellates,
single-celled plankton with tails that
slosh around together in vast numbers.
These creatures have been highlighting
Earth’s coastlines for 1.2 billion
years, and for the past few millennia,
they’ve puzzled humans, who used to
attribute the glow of some ocean water
to magic or the gods.Dinoflagellates
still puzzle us; we know how they glow,
but not why. They might have evolved
bioluminescence as a way of frightening
predators, or to reveal those
predators’ locations by flashing when
touched. Alternatively, their
bioluminescence may just be a fancy way
of ridding themselves of oxygen
radicals (because the chemical reaction
requires oxygen). Whatever the answer,
they certainly make for a nice holiday
in the Bahamas. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.
com/images/i/1651/original/dinoflagellat
e.jpg

1,080,000,000 YBN
87) The Excavates Discicristates
{DiSKIKriSTATS}; the ancestor of
protists which have mitochondria with
discoidal (shaped like a disk) cristae
(the folded inner membrane of a
mitochondrion) (the ancestor of
euglenids, leishmanias {lEsmaNEuZ},
trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ}, and acrasid
{oKrASiD} slime molds).

 
[1] euglena
source: http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/Stratf
ordLandingES/Ecology/mpages/euglena.htm


[2] euglena
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
/Images/Mastigophora/Euglena/genus1L.jpg

1,080,000,000 YBN
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first
three-dimensional response to light.

The earliest eye is a light sensitive
area in a unicellular eukaryote that
probably evolved from a plastid.

Eukaryotes are the first organisms to
evolve the ability to follow light
direction in three dimensions in open
water.

 
[1] Adapted from: Euglena is a
photosynthetic euglenoid with at least
150 described species. The cells are
cylindrical with a rounded anterior and
tapered posterior. The chloroplasts are
well-developed, bright green, and
sometimes have pyrenoids. ... Euglena
is a photosynthetic euglenoid with at
least 150 described species. The cells
are cylindrical with a rounded anterior
and tapered posterior. The chloroplasts
are well-developed, bright green, and
sometimes have pyrenoids. They are
often discoidal in shape but can also
be ovate, lobate, elongate, U-shaped,
or ribbon-shaped. Some researchers use
the structure and position of the
chloroplasts to divide the group into
three subgenera. Even though they are
able to photosynthesize, Euglena cells
also have a phagotrophic ingestion
apparatus. Euglena has one long,
protruding flagellum and a shorter
flagellum that is not usually
visible. The euglenoids can glide
and swim using their flagella, or can
ooze along a substrate with an
undulating, shape-changing, contraction
motion called metaboly. The cytoplasm
of Euglena and other euglenoids
contains many paramylon starch storage
granules. The euglenoid cells are
covered by a pellicle composed of
ribbonlike, woven strips of
proteinaceous material that cover the
cell in a helical arrangement from apex
to posterior. Freshwater euglenoids
have a contractile vacuole. Euglenoids
sense light using a red pigmented
eyespot or stigma and the paraflagellar
body located at the base of the
emergent flagella. The cytoplasm of
Euglena and other euglenoids contains
many paramylon starch storage granules.
The euglenoid cells are covered by a
pellicle composed of ribbonlike, woven
strips of proteinaceous material that
cover the cell in a helical arrangement
from apex to posterior. Freshwater
euglenoids have a contractile vacuole.
Euglenoids sense light using a red
pigmented eyespot or stigma and the
paraflagellar body located at the base
of the emergent flagella. UNKNOWN
source: http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll
.edu/Pics/Other%20Algae/Other_jpegs/Eugl
ena_Key225.jpg


[2] Figure 1. The distribution of
three-dimensional phototaxis in the
tree of eukaryotes. Red arrows indicate
the likely point of origin of
phototaxis in a given group. Question
marks indicate uncertainties regarding
independent or common origin. Figure
1 from: Jékely, Gáspár. ''Evolution
of phototaxis.'' Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/364/1531/2795/F1.large.jp
g

1,050,000,000 YBN
169) The Protists Stramenopiles
{STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ} (also called
Heterokonts) evolve (ancestor of all
brown algae, golden algae, diatoms, and
oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu)).

Almost all Stramenopiles have unique
three-part hairs on the flagella at
some stage in the life cycle.

 
[1] Phylum Stramenopiles COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.


[2] S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
''The TimeTree of Life'', 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.timetree.org/book.php

1,000,000,000 YBN
324) The Protists Mesomycetozoea
{me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u} evolve (also
called DRIPS).

Mesomycetozoea are in the protist
Phylum Choanozoa (which includes the
Choanoflagellates
{KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS}, thought to be
the ancestor of sponges).

 
[1] Ichthyophonus, a fungus-like
protistan that occurs in high
prevalence in Pacific Ocean perch
(Sebastes aultus) and yellowtail
rockfish (Sebastes flavedus). Note the
parasite forms branching hyphae-like
structures. Ichthyophonus hoferi has
caused massive mortalities in herring
in the Atlantic ocean, and has recently
been reported to cause disease in wild
Pacific herring from Washington through
Alaska. COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://oregonstate.edu/dept/salm
on/projects/images/16Ichthyophonus.jpg


[2] Microscopic appearence of the
organism is dependent on its stage of
development. The stages include (1)
spore at ''resting'' stage, (2)
germinating spore, (3) hyphal
stage. It is believed that there are
two forms of Ichthyophonus, both
belonging to one genus. One of them is
known as the ''salmon'' form, occuring
in freshwater and cold-preferring sea
fishes: this form is characterized by
its ability to produce long tubulose
germ hyphae. The other is called the
''aquarium fish'' form, typical of the
tropical freshwater fishes. This form
is completely devoid of hyphae.
Developmental cycle of Ichthyophonus
hoferi: 1-5 - development of
''daughter'' spores, 7-11 - development
of resting spore from the ''daughter''
spore, 12-19 - development of resting
spore by fragmentation. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/
003/AC160E/AC160E02.htm

985,000,000 YBN
309) The Protist Phylum Oomycota
{Ou-mI-KO-Tu} evolves (ancestor of the
Oomycetes; water molds).

 
[1] Figure 2 from: Sandra L. Baldauf,
A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, ''A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data'', Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full Figure 2 Single-gene
phylogenies support subsets of the
combined protein tree. (A) A summary of
the tree in Fig. 1is shown with
supergroups indicated beside brackets
to the right. Multi-taxon represented
clusters are given as triangles, with
height proportional to number of taxa
and width proportional to averaged
overall branch length (1) compensated
for missing data (47). (B) Published
support for the numbered nodes in (A)
is shown for commonly used molecular
phylogenetic markers grouped as (a)
ribosomal RNAs, (b) proteins not used
in the current analysis, (c) proteins
used in the current analysis, and (d)
the combined data (Fig. 1). These
markers are, from left to right, SSU
[SSU rRNA (1–4)], LSU [LSU rRNA
(19)], LSU+SSU [combined LSU and SSU
rRNA (48)], EF-2 (10), V/A-ATPases
[vacuolar ATPases (49)], HSP70-cy
[cytosolic 70-kD heat shock protein
(50)], mito [combined mitochondrial
proteins (51)], RPB1 (52), actin (8,
16, 53), α-tubulin (8, 54), β-tubulin
(8, 54), EF-1α (15, 20), and combined
(Fig. 1). Rejected nodes are indicated
in pink and accepted nodes in green,
with checked circles indicating BP < 70% and solid circles indicating BP >
70%. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/290/5493/972/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

900,000,000 YBN
6281) The protists Rhizaria
{rI-ZaR-E-u} evolve (ancestor of all
Radiolaria, Foraminifera and Cercozoa).

 
[1] Figure : Maximum likelihood
phylogeny of Rhizaria inferred from SSU
rRNA gene sequences using the GTR+G+I
model of evolution. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.unige.ch/sciences/bio
logie/biani/msg/Amoeboids/Rhizaria_large
.jpg


[2] Figure 1 from: Keeling, Patrick
J. et al. “The tree of eukaryotes.”
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20.12
(2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/s
cience/article/pii/S0169534705003046
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/1-s2.0-S016953470500304
6-gr1.jpg/0?wchp=dGLbVBA-zSkWz

850,000,000 YBN
224) The Fungi "Zygomycota" evolves
(ancestor of bread molds, and pin
molds).

 
[1] Figure 2. Zygomycota A: sporangia
of Mucor sp. B: whorl of sporangia of
Absidia sp. C: zygospore of
Zygorhynchus sp. D: sporangiophore and
sporangiola of Cunninghamella sp.
source: http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/Re
searchLabs/MallochLab/Malloch/Moulds/Cla
ssification.html


[2] Figure 3. Syncephalis, a member of
the Zygomycota parasitic on other
Zygomycota
source: http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/Re
searchLabs/MallochLab/Malloch/Moulds/Cla
ssification.html

767,000,000 YBN
312) The Protist Phylum "Ciliophora"
{SiL-E-oF-R-u} evolves (the "Ciliates")
(ancestor of the paramecium).

The Ciliophora are characterized by
having numerous cilia which they use to
move themselves. Most ciliates are
unicellular.

 
[1] Paramecium protozoan,
SEM C001/0068 Rights Managed Credit:
STEVE GSCHMEISSNER/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Paramecium protozoan,
coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM). Paramecia are a group of
unicellular ciliate protozoa. They
inhabit fresh water, and feed mainly on
bacteria and smaller protozoa.
Paramecia range from about 50 to 350
micrometres in length, depending on
species. Simple cilia, which cover the
body, are moved in a synchronous motion
to allow the cell to move.
Magnification: x825 when printed at 10
centimetres wide. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nonlocal.com/hbar/par
amecium.gif


[2] Summary Description English:
Scanning electron microscope view of
Oxytricha trifallax Español: Imagen
de microscopía electrónica de barrido
de Oxytricha trifallax Date Unknown
date Source http://www.genome.gov/I
mages/press_photos/highres/85-300.jpg
Author Unknown Permission (Reusin
g this file) See below. PD [1] Fig.
1. A consensus phylogeny of eukaryotes.
The vast majority of characterized
eukaryotes, with the notable exception
of major subgroups of amoebae, can now
be assigned to one of eight major
groups. Opisthokonts (basal flagellum)
have a single basal flagellum on
reproductive cells and flat
mitochondrial cristae (most eukaryotes
have tubular ones). Eukaryotic
photosynthesis originated in Plants;
theirs are the only plastids with just
two outer membranes. Heterokonts
(different flagellae) have a unique
flagellum decorated with hollow
tripartite hairs (stramenopiles) and,
usually, a second plain one. Cercozoans
are amoebae with filose pseudopodia,
often living with in tests (hard outer
shells), some very elaborate
(foraminiferans). Amoebozoa are mostly
naked amoebae (lacking tests), often
with lobose pseudopodia for at least
part of their life cycle. Alveolates
have systems of cortical alveoli
directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Oxytricha_trifa
llax.jpg/1024px-Oxytricha_trifallax.jpg

767,000,000 YBN
314) The Protist Phylum "Apicomplexa"
{a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su} evolves (includes
Malaria and Toxoplasmosis).

Apicomplexans have a special cell
organelle called the apical complex
which helps to invade the host cell.

 
[1] Description A thin-film Giemsa
stained micrograph of ring-forms, and
gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum.
From
http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/home.asp Date
2006-11-16 (original upload
date) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader was
TimVickers at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3c/Plasmodium.jpg


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

680,000,000 YBN
326) The Protists "Choanoflagellates"
{KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS} evolve.
Choanoflag
ellates are the closest relatives to
the animals and may be direct ancestors
of sponges.

There are about 140 species of
choanoflagellates. Some are
free-swimming, propelling themselves
with a flagellum. Others are attached
by a stalk, sometimes with several
together in a colony. Choanoflagellates
use their flagellum to drive water into
the funnel where food particles like
bacteria are trapped and engulfed.

 
[1] Choanoflagellate single cell
(thecate) UNKNOWN
source: http://behance.vo.llnwd.net/prof
iles22/483113/projects/1558429/6ea555ab5
457e21432def0f2e6b83fe3.jpg


[2] Salpingoeca: Cells solitary or
colonial with a distinct and firm
sheath or theca usually as a cup either
sessile or with a pedicel; theca
colourless or amber; contractile
vacuoles posterior in freshwater
specie; in freshwater, brackish, and
marine habitats. Record information:
Salpingoeca (sal-ping-go-eek-a), a
collar flagellate (choanoflagellate) -
all of which have a single anterior
flagellum surrounded by a collar of
very fine pseudopodia (in cross-section
the collar seems like two arms, one on
either side of the flagellum). The
flagellum beats drawing water through
the collar and bacteria and other small
particles are trapped and then
ingested. Believed to be the source
group of the sponges and the metazoa.
Salpingoeca has an organic lorica.
Phase contrast. This picture was
taken by David Patterson, Linda Amaral
Zettler and Virginia Edgcomb of
material from the salt marsh at Little
Sippewissett (Massachusetts, USA) in
Autumn, 2000 and in Spring and summer,
2001. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
746

670,000,000 YBN
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free
moving Protist. This allows larger free
moving organisms to evolve.

This multicellularity is thought to be
independently evolved, and not related
to the earlier filamentous
multicellularity of prokaryotes like
cyanobacteria, and eukaryotes like
algae.

 
[1] Sponge showing several choanocyte
chambers UNKNOWN
source: http://behance.vo.llnwd.net/prof
iles22/483113/projects/1558429/43a2a4c7e
127f66b7090ed679a8da30a.jpg


[2] Combination of: Saepicula and
Sphaeroeca NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
3229

670,000,000 YBN
297) The diplontic life cycle evolves;
this organism is predominantly diploid,
mitosis in the haploid phase does not
occur.

All animals are diplontic, and descend
from this multicellular organism.

 
[1] Gametic Meiosis. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Gametic_meiosis.png


[2] Gametic Meiosis. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Gametic_meiosis.png

660,000,000 YBN
81) The first animal and first
metazoan, the sponge evolves. This
begins the Animal Kingdom, and the
Phylum Porifera; the sponges. There are
only three major kinds of metazoans:
sponges, cnidarians, and bilaterians.


The word "porifera" means "pore
bearing" in Latin, and water
continuously flows through the pores in
sponges.

Metazoans are multicellular and have
differentiation (their cells perform
different functions). Sponges have
cells that form a body wall, cells that
secrete the skeleton, contractile
{KunTraKTL} cells, cells that digest
food, and other kinds of cell types.

All sponge cells are totipotent and so
are capable of regrowing a new sponge.
In sponges there is no distinction
between germ line and soma. Some
sponges can live for over 1000 years.

Sponges have two layers, each a single
cell thick. The outer surface is called
the pinacoderm {PiN-o-KO-DRM} and is
made of cells called pinacocytes
{PiN-o-KO-SITS}. On the inner surface
is the choanoderm {KOenO-DRM or
KO-aNo-DRM} which is made of
flagellated cells called choanocytes
{KOenO-SITS or KO-aNo-SITS}. Between
these two thin cellular sheets is the
jellylike mesohyl {mASuHIL}, which may
vary in thickness and plays vital roles
in digestion, gamete production,
secretion of skeleton, and transport of
nutrients and waste products by special
amoeboid cells.

 
[1] Summary Description English:
Marine sponge. Color adjusted (but not
color accurate) underwater photograph
taken by Dlloyd using a digital camera
at a depth of approximately 100 feet in
Cayman. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/SpongeColorCorrect.jp
g


[2]
source: http://www.museums.org.za/bio/me
tazoa.htm

660,000,000 YBN
517) The male gonad (testis {TeSTiS} or
testicle) evolves in a sponge. In
sponges sperm are contained in
spermatic cysts, which are choanocyte
chambers transformed by the formation
of sperm (spermatogenesis), but ova are
distributed throughout the mesohyl
{mASuHIL} (or middle layer).

 
[1] Oocyte (female egg) release from
sponge, sperm release from sponge,
FIgure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Combination of image from: Brusca
and Brusca, ''Invertebrates'', Second
Edition, 2003,
http://www.oceanicresearch.org/sponges
.html and D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.museums.org.za/bio/me
tazoa.htm

650,000,000 YBN
41) The start of the 60 million year
(Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).

 
[1] Snowball Earth 600 to 750 million
years ago Earth was incased in ice for
prolong periods of time and each global
glacial event ended under severe
greenhouse conditions. This late
Precambrian planet-wide glaciation is
known as “Snowball Earth” and is an
extension on Sturtian- Varangian
glaciation. UNKNOWN
source: http://geology.fullerton.edu/whe
nderson/Fal201L2005/snowballearth/images
/snoballearth.jpg


[2] Snowball Earth Begins UNKNOWN
source: http://www.gambassa.com/gambassa
files/images/images/1310/20090528_snowba
ll_earth_v1.jpg

650,000,000 YBN
69) Cells that group as tissues that
are arranged in layers evolve in
metazoans.

Unlike the Porifera, in the Placozoa
and all later metazoans, cells group as
tissues.

 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

650,000,000 YBN
79) The Metazoan Phylum "Placozoa"
evolves.

Placozoans look like amoebas but are
multicellular. The only known species
is Trichoplax adhaerens {TriKOPlaKS
aDHEReNZ}. Trichoplax lives in the sea
and feeds on single celled organisms,
mostly algae. There are only 4 cell
types in Trichoplax compared to the
more than 200 cell types in humans.
Trichoplax has two main cell layers,
like a cnidarian or ctenophore. Between
these two layers are a few contractile
cells that are similar to muscle cells,
however placozoans have no muscle or
nerve cells.

Trichoplax has the lowest content of
DNA of any metazoan, about two-thirds
that in sponges, and only 10 times that
of bacteria.

 
[1] Description Trichoplax sp.
from Australia in light
microscopy Date February
2006 Source Oliver Voigt Author
Oliver Voigt CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c3/Trichoplax_mic.jpg


[2] from ediacara of australia
source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ven
dian/dickinsonia.html

650,000,000 YBN
223) The Fungi "Chytridiomycota"
{KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) evolves (includes
all Chytridiomycetes
{KI-TriDEO-mI-SE-TEZ})).

The chytrids are primitive fungi and
are mostly saprobic (feed on dead
species, decomposing chitin and
keratin). Many chytrids are aquatic
(mostly found in freshwater) and some
species are unicellular.

Northern Russia 
[1] Chytrids (Chytridiomycota): The
Primitive Fungi These fungi are
mostly aquatic, are notable for having
a flagella on the cells (a flagella is
a tail, somewhat like a tail on a sperm
or a pollywog), and are thought to be
the most primitive type of
fungi. actual photo comes
from: http://www.csupomona.edu/~jcclark
/classes/bot125/resource/graphics/chy_al
l_sph.html
source: http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazad
ero/Fungi.htm


[2] Chytridiomycota - Blastocladiales
- zoospore of Allomyces (phase contrast
illumination) X 2000
source: http://www.mycolog.com/chapter2b
.htm

640,000,000 YBN
83) The first nerve cell (neuron), and
nervous system evolves in the ancestor
of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. This
leads to the first ganglion and brain.
This is the earliest touch and sound
detection, and memory.

As time continues in the evolution of
the metazoans, the number of neurons
increases while the size of neurons
decreases, showing that more neurons
and smaller neurons, similar to
transistors in a computer, give an
organism more memory and as a result a
selective advantage in survival.

 
[1] English: Drawing of Purkinje cells
(A) and granule cells (B) from pigeon
cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal,
1899; Instituto Santiago Ramón y
Cajal, Madrid, Spain. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/15/PurkinjeCell.jpg


[2] figure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p39. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p39.

640,000,000 YBN
96) Muscle cells evolve in the ancestor
of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. Both
the earliest known muscle and nerve
cells are found in Ctenophores and
Cnidarians.

 
[1] Figure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p39. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p39.


[2] Derek E. G. Briggs and Richard A.
Fortey, ''Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the
Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation'', Paleobiology , Vol. 31,
No. 2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency:
Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp.
94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2548
2671 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2548
2671

640,000,000 YBN
225) A closeable mouth evolves for the
first time, in the ancestor of all
ctenophores and cnidarians.

 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

640,000,000 YBN
414) The female gonad (the first ovary)
evolves in the ancestor of Ctenophores
and Cnidarians.

 
[1] From: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', Second Edition,
2003. COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003


[2] Figure 3.8 Anthozoa. (a) Anemone
(Actiniaria), showing the pharynx,
mesenteries, mesenterial filamnets and
acontia. (b) Structure of a mesenterial
filament in transverse section. (c)
Scleractinian coral, showing calcareous
skeleton and coenenchyme. (d)
Gorgonian, showing skeleton made up of
a horny axial rod and spicules in the
mesogloea (after Pearse et al 1987).
(e) Alcyonarian soft coral, showing
spicular skeleton in the
mesogloea. From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.

640,000,000 YBN
523) The animal Phylum Ctenophora
{Ti-noF-R-u} evolves (comb jellies).

Like the Cnidarians, the Ctenophores
are diploblastic; they have two
embryonic germ layers- the ectoderm
{EKTeDRM} and the endoderm {eNDeDRM}
which become the adult epidermis and
gastrodermis, respectively. The middle
mesenchyme {meSeNKIM}, a watery
gelatinous fluid, never produces the
complex organs seen in triploblastic
Metazoa.

The main body cavity of the ctenophores
is also the digestive chamber, and they
have a simple nerve net.

Unlike cnidarians, ctenophores lack
stinging cells, there is no alternation
of generations in the life cycle, and
ctenophores are never colonial.

On the surface of the body are eight
equally spaced comb plates, called
ctenes {TENZ}. Each ctene is composed
of a band of cilia. The ctenes provide
most of the movement for the
ctenophores.

Ctenophores are hermaphroditic. Ovaries
and testies differentiate from the
endoderm. The gametes are released
through temporary gonopores
{GoN-o-PORZ}, and fertilization is
external.

 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

635,000,000 YBN
6413) The start of the Ediacaran
Period.

A large increase in the evolutionary
turnover rate of acritarchs is thought
to be the result of the evolution of
the nervous system and gut in the
eumetazoa (all ctenophora, cnidaria,
and bilateria).

 
[1] Description English: The 'golden
spike' marking the Global Boundary
Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) at
the base of the Ediacaran Period Date
16 August 2008 Source Own work
Original filename =
DSC07914.JPG Author Bahudhara CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6f/Ediacaran_GSSP_
-_closeup.JPG/1280px-Ediacaran_GSSP_-_cl
oseup.JPG


[2] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

630,000,000 YBN
82) The Animal Phylum Cnidaria
{NIDAREeo} evolves (the ancestor of sea
anemones, sea pens, corals, and
jellyfish). Cnidaria also evolve the
earliest animal eye.

Cnidaria are primarily radially
symmetrical animals with tentacles,
have a single body cavity with only one
opening to take in food and to release
wastes, and have specialized stinging
cells.

Cnidarians have two alternate body
plans, the polyp and the medusa
{miDUSe}. A sea anemone or Hydra is a
typical polyp: fixed to the ground with
mouth on top. Corals are colonial
marine polyps that secrete calcareous
{KaL-KAR-E-uS} (calcium carbonate)
skeletons which they live inside of.
The medusa form is upside down compared
to the polyp form, and is free
swimming. A jellyfish has a typical
medusa form, swimming through the open
sea. Many cnidarians have both polyp
and medusa forms in a single life
cycle.

Polyps often reproduce by budding; a
new baby polyp clone grows on the side
of the parent. When cnidaria reproduce
sexually, sperm are released into the
water and fertilization is usually
external.

Digestion in Cnidarians starts in the
gastrovascular cavity, but once the
food is reduced to particles small
enough to enter the digestive cells of
the gastrodermis, digestion is
completed inside the cell
(intracellularly).

Cnidarians have a nervous system which
is a network without a centralized
structure. They also have muscles which
are contracted to propel them.

Cnidarians see in black or white,
because their eyes have only one
pigment; for color vision the eye must
have more than one pigment.

 
[1] Octocorals Stylatula elongata –
White Sea Pen UNKNOWN
source: http://pt-lobos.com/cnidarianimg
/white_sea_pens.jpg


[2] Sea nettles, Chrysaora
quinquecirrha CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/36/Sea_nettles.jpg

600,000,000 YBN
91) The start of the Ediacaran
{EDEoKRiN} soft-bodied invertebrate
fossils.

The sudden appearance of Ediacaran
fossils may relate to the accumulation
of free oxygen in the atmosphere and
sea, which may permit an oxidative
metabolism.


Because the Ediacaran animals are
soft-bodied, they are infrequently
preserved.

Sonora, Mexico|Adelaide, Australia|
Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
Kazakhsta 

[1] A general view of the life in the
time frame from about 605 to 542
million years ago (the Vendian), is
found at this New Zealand site which
concentrates on the Ediacaran epoch; it
mentions Australian and other
geographic localities where the
assemblages have been found. The fossil
life is represented entirely by
creatures with soft parts only. It is
suggested that these may be ancestral
to later phylla observed at the
beginning of the Paleozoic. Below is a
chart presenting typical Ediacaran
fauna, followed by an artist's
depiction of life on the sea floor at
that time, and beneath that is a layout
of some actual fossils: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
800pxlife_in_the_ediacaran_sea.jpg


[2] A more general view of the life in
the time frame from about 600+ to 542
million years ago (end of Proterozoic
and Precambrian into the oldest
Cambrian), known as the Ediacaran or
Vendian, is found at this New Zealand
site; it mentions Australian and other
geographic localities where the
assemblages have been found. The fossil
life represents entirely creatures with
soft parts only and suggestions that
these may be ancestral to later phylla
observed at the beginning of the
Paleozoic. Below is an artist's sketch
of some of these creatures: UNKNOWN
source: http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/doc
s/rst/Sect20/vendintro.jpg

600,000,000 YBN
107) The Animals Bilaterians evolve
(metazoans with two sided symmetry).
Thi
s is the first triploblastic animal; an
animal with a third embryonic layer,
the mesoderm {meZuDRM}. This is also
the earliest animal brain.

In most bilaterians food enters in one
end (the mouth) and waste exits at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an
advantage for sense organs like light,
sound, touch, smell, and taste
detection to be located on the head
near the mouth to help with getting
food.

Unlike the diploblastic Cnidaria and
Ctenophora, bilaterians are
triploblastic. A third embryonic layer,
the mesoderm, lies between the ectoderm
and endoderm. This layer increases the
options for the development of organs
with specific functions.

This begins the Animal Subkingdom
"Bilateria".

 
[1] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

600,000,000 YBN
403) The earliest extant bilaterian:
Acoelomorpha (the ancestor of acoela
flat worms and nemertodermatida).

The Acoelomorpha lack a digestive
track, anus and coelom.

Flatworms have no lungs or gills and
breathe through their skin. Flatworms
also have no circulating blood and so
their branched gut presumably
transports nutrients to all parts of
the body.

 
[1] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

600,000,000 YBN
459) An intestine evolves in a
bilaterian. Since the gut of this
organism has no anus, undigested food
must be regurgitated through the mouth.
The intestine is lined with a single
layer of endodermal cells that perform
some or all of the processes of
digestion and absorption.

 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
532) A cylindrical gut, anus, and
through-put of food evolves in a
bilaterian.

All bilaterally symmetrical metazoans
except the Phyla Acoelomorpha and
Platyhelminthes, have a tubular gut
with an anus, mouth, and through-put of
food. The Phyla Nemertea and Entoprocta
are the earliest bilaterians with an
anus.

 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
593) The genital pore, vagina, and
uterus evolve in a bilaterian.

 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.
 
[1] From: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', Second Edition,
2003 COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003


[2] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.

590,000,000 YBN
70) The end of the Varanger Ice Age
(650-590 mybn).

 
[1] Precambrian Earth from the South
Pole 600MYBN UNKNOWN
source: http://cpgeosystems.com/gallery.
html

590,000,000 YBN
95) The coelom (SEleM) evolves in a
bilaterian.

The coelem is a fluid filled cavity
that forms within the mesoderm and
exists between the gut and body wall in
most triploblastic animals.

The advantage of a coelem is that it
allows the body wall and gut wall to
act independently, and also that other
organ systems can be developed in the
fluid-filled space. In addition, the
fluid in the cavity can act as a
deformable skeleton.

 
[1] Example of the coleom's from 3
organisms UNKNOWN
source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_5DLPaU
qdg2g/TBBz3rcLDOI/AAAAAAAAAGA/Z34_-_usSc
w/s1600/3927715.jpg


[2] From NATURAL HISTORY
COLLECTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
EDINBURGH Formation of the coelom or
body cavity Acoelomates lack a
body cavity. In pseudocoelomates,
the coelom is formed from a persistent
embryonic cavity. In schizocoelous
coelomates, the coelom is formed by
splits in the embryonic mesoderm, the
middle layer of the body. In
enterocoelous coelomates, the coelom
forms within pouches of the gut
wall. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/images/c
ollections/invertebrates/intros/LgCoelom
.jpg

590,000,000 YBN
98) The first circulatory system
evolves; blood vessels, and blood
evolve in a bilaterian. The first blood
cells. Cnidarians and flatworms are at
most two sheets of tissue thick and so
allow gas exchange and nutrient
distribution by diffusion, but larger
animals with thicker tissues require a
circulatory system to distribute
materials.

The circulatory system transports
molecules like gases, food, and waste
to and from individual cells.

In bilaterians with circulatory systems
blood may be distributed by contractile
vessels in the blood vessel walls,
and/or by hearts.

 
[1] D. T. Anderson, ''Invertebrate
Zoology'', Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001 AND Fig 11.1G
from: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', 2003,
p320. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p320.


[2] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001 COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001

580,000,000 YBN
93) The Bilaterians Protostomes evolve.
Protostomes are divided into two major
groups: the Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu}
and the Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu}.


The difference between protostomes and
deutrostomes arises during embryonic
development. In protostomes, the first
indentation of the gastrula (an early
stage of the embryo) develops into the
mouth and the second indentation
develops into the anus. The reverse is
true for the deuterostomes.

 
[1] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png


[2] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png

580,000,000 YBN
105) The Bilaterians Deuterostomes
evolve; the ancestor of all Echinoderms
(iKIniDRMS }, Hemichordates, and
Chordates.

 
[1] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png


[2] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png

580,000,000 YBN
131) The first shell (or skeleton)
evolves. The first known shell belongs
to a group of ciliates called
tintinnids. Skeletons evolve
independently in different groups of
organisms.

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan,
Guizhou Province, South China 

[1] Figure 1 from: Li, C.-W.; et al.
(2007). ''Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China''. Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP286.
11


[2] Figure 1 from: Li, C.-W.; et al.
(2007). ''Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China''. Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP286.
11

570,000,000 YBN
311) The Bilaterians Chaetognatha
{KE-ToG-nutu} evolve (Arrow Worms).

The earliest teeth evolve. Animals
start to eat other animals.

The evolution of teeth and animal
predation starts an "arms race" that
rapidly transforms ecosystems around
the Earth. Teeth and shells evolve as
advantages to survival.

 
[1] Chaetognatha UNKNOWN
source: http://content5.eol.org/content/
2010/08/09/03/74200_large.jpg


[2] Description Chatognath
Spadella cephaloptera Date
Unkown Source Own
work Author
Zatelmar Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8e/Chaetoblack.png

565,000,000 YBN
345) The Deuterostome Phylum
Hemichordata evolves; The
"Hemichordates", the ancestor of
pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS} and acorn
worms).

Adult Pterobrachs are sessile,
fastening to solid structures, but the
younger (or larval) form is free
swimming, and is thought to have
retained this form before evolving into
tunicates and then the first fish.

 
[1] Description Eichelwurm, Exemplar
aus der Sammlung des Institutes für
Zoologie, FU Berlin. GNU
FDL Date Source Foto:
de:Benutzer:Necrophorus Author User
Necrophorus on
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) Released under the GNU Free
Documentation License. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Eichelwurm.jpg/
1024px-Eichelwurm.jpg


[2] Pterobranchs Resembling slugs
with hairy, branching tentacles,
Pterobranchs filter food from the water
and form colonies of “clones,” much
like coral polyps, often secreting a
network of hard tubing. Individual
zooids can crawl about freely within
the colony, but are connected to one
another by thin “cables,” quickly
retracting if disturbed. What makes the
Pterobranchs even stranger than corals
is that these slimy, slithering weirdos
are “hemichordates,” closer to us
vertebrates than to invertebrates like
worms and jellyfish. Read more:
http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-colonial-o
rganisms.php#ixzz1lJRtH61S COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.toptenz.net/wp-conten
t/uploads/2011/10/Pterobranch-colonial-o
rganisms.jpg

565,000,000 YBN
347) The Deuterostome Phylum Chordata
evolves. Chordates are a very large
group that include all tunicates
{TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians,
reptiles, mammals, and birds. Chordates
get their name from the notochord
{nOTe-KORD}, the cartilage rod that
runs along the back of the animal, in
the embryo if not in the adult.

The ancestor of all chordates evolves
"upside-down": unlike earlier
invertebrates who have a ventral nerve
cord (near the belly) and a dorsal
heart (near the back), this ancestor
and all later vertebrates have a dorsal
nerve cord and a ventral heart.

Chordates have four key characters: a
notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve
chord; gill slits (also called
pharyngeal {Fu-riN-JE-uL} slits); and a
muscular, post-anal tail. The notochord
provides skeletal support throughout
most of the length of the chordate and
provides a firm but flexible structure
from which attached muscles can
contract.

In the higher fishes the notochord is
surrounded and gradually replaced by
segmental vertebrae.

 
[1] from adelaide, australia UNKNOWN
source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/t
ech/3208583.stm


[2] [t Note that this is a vertebrate
- not a pre-vertebrate
chordate] Portion of figure
from: D.-G. Shu, S. Conway Morris, J.
Han, Z.-F. Zhang, K. Yasui, P. Janvier,
L. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, J.-N. Liu, Y. Li
and H.-Q. Liu, ''Head and backbone of
the Early Cambrian vertebrate
Haikouichthys'', Nature 421,
526-529(30 January
2003) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v421/n6922/full/nature01264.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: https://nature.com/journal/v421/
n6922/images/nature01264-f1.2.jpg

565,000,000 YBN
348) The earliest extant chordate:
Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (also
called sea squirts).

 
[1] Description Clavelina
moluccensis, the bluebell
tunicate English: Tunicate colony.
(Clavelina moluccensis) Date
04/17/05 Source Own
work Author Nhobgood CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/98/Bluebell_tunicates_Ni
ck_Hobgood.jpg


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
117) The earliest animal shell (or
skeleton) evolves.
This is the earliest evidence
of animals eating other animals
(predation).
This begins the appearance of small
shelly fossils and deep burrows
correlated with a decline in
stromatolites, possibly from feeding.

The earliest animal shells are made by
tiny organisms with simple tubelike
skeletons, such as Cloudina and
Sinotubulites in addition to sponge
skeleton fossils.

The shell of Cloudina is made of
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and is
possibly made by some kind of worm.

Predatory bore holes have been found in
Cloudina shells. This is the oldest
evidence of predation known.

When animals begin to develop hard
parts, their probability of
preservation greatly improves.

(Ara Formation) Oman|Lijiagou,
Ningqiang County, Shaanxi
Province 

[1] Cloudina COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/n
eoproterozoic/ediacaran/images/Cloudina.
jpg


[2] Cloudina from: HONG HUA, BRIAN R.
PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, ''Borings in
Cloudina Shells: Complex Predator-Prey
Dynamics in the Terminal
Neoproterozoic'', PALAIOS, October
2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2
http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaios.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/vol18/issue4-5/images/large/i
0883-1351-018-04-0454-f03.jpeg

560,000,000 YBN
318) The Protostomes Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu} evolve. Ecdysozoa are
animals that molt (lose their outer
skin) as they grow. This is the
ancestor of round worms, and arthropods
(which includes insects and crustaceans
{also known as "shell-fish"}).

 
[1] Description English: Life
restoration of Ottoia in natural
environment with nearby
Haplophrentis. Date 11-29-08 Source
Own work Author Smokeybjb GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/10/Ottoia_burrowing.jpg


[2] Description
en:category:Caenorhabditis
elegans Date 2006-09-06 (original
upload date) (Original text :
09/05/2006) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. (Original text : Donated by
Zeynep F. Altun) Author Original
uploader was Kbradnam at
en.wikipedia (Original text : Zeynep
F. Altun, Editor of
www.wormatlas.org) Permission (Reusing
this file) CC-BY-SA-2.5. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Adult_Caenorhab
ditis_elegans.jpg/1280px-Adult_Caenorhab
ditis_elegans.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
331) The Protostomes Lophotrochozoa
{Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} evolve, the
ancestor of all rotifers, phoronids,
brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ}, entoprocts
{eNTuProKS}, bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ},
platyhelminthes, gastrotrichs,
nemertea, molluscs and annelids.

 
[1] A rotifer. The cilia around
this rotifer's mouth are unusually
long; they reach as far as the strand
of spirogyra to the right. 10×
objective, 15× eyepiece. The numbered
ticks on the scale are 122 µM apart.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/121893/530wm/C0058380-Rotifer_SEM-SPL.
jpg


[2] Description Clams Date
Source Own work Author
Marlith CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8f/Clams.JPG

560,000,000 YBN
349) The first fish evolves.
 
[1] Lancelet (Branchiostoma
lanceolatum) Description
Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas,
1774) English: Amphioxus from course
sandy sediments (600µm) on the Belgian
continental shelf. Length: ~22
mm. Geo-location not applicable as the
picture was taken in the
lab. Français : Branchiostoma
lanceolatum, un céphalochordé,
récolté dans des sédiments de sable
grossier (600µm) sur le Plateau
continental belge. Longueur totale: 22
mm environ. Date 1997 Source
Own work Author (Hans
Hillewaert) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/47/Branchiostoma_lanceol
atum.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
6290) The earliest extant fish, the
Chordates Lancelets {laNSleTS} (also
called amphioxus {aMFEoKSiS}). This is
also the first liver and kidney.

The Lancelet is different from a worm
in not being cylindrical, and swims
like a fish using its muscles with
side-to-side undulations.

Lancelets are not vertebrates. They
have only a nerve tube on the notochord
and no brain other than a small
swelling at the front end of the nerve
tube. They also have an eye-spot.

The gill slits of Lancelets are
primarily for filter feeding. Gas
exchange (the absorption of oxygen and
emission of carbon dioxide), mostly
occurs across the external body
surface.

Lancelets have no heart and blood is
pumped around the body by contractions
of the blood vessels.

 
[1] Lancelet (Branchiostoma
lanceolatum) Description
Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas,
1774) English: Amphioxus from course
sandy sediments (600µm) on the Belgian
continental shelf. Length: ~22
mm. Geo-location not applicable as the
picture was taken in the
lab. Français : Branchiostoma
lanceolatum, un céphalochordé,
récolté dans des sédiments de sable
grossier (600µm) sur le Plateau
continental belge. Longueur totale: 22
mm environ. Date 1997 Source
Own work Author (Hans
Hillewaert) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/47/Branchiostoma_lanceol
atum.jpg


[2] Lancelet COPYRIGHTED
source: http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/
16cm05/1116/34-04b-Lancelet.jpg

550,000,000 YBN
328) The Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes
{aSKHeLmiNtEZ} evolves; the ancestor of
the worms nematodes and priapulids.

 
[1] Description English: Priapulid
worm Priapulus caudatus in a Petry
dish. The specimen was found in the
intertidal of the Russian coast of the
Barents Sea. Русский:
Приапулида Priapulus caudatus
в чашке Петри. Особь
найдена в
приливно-отливной
зоне на российском
побережье Баренцева
моря. Date between 2005 and
2007 Source kindly granted by the
author Author Dmitry
Aristov Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/Priapulus_caudatus.jp
g


[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the
lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

547,000,000 YBN
334) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum
Brachiopoda {BrAKEoPiDu} evolves (the
brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}).

The Brachiopods are marine
invertebrates that have bivalve dorsal
and ventral shells enclosing a pair of
tentacled, armlike structures that are
used to sweep minute food particles
into their mouth.

 
[1] Brachiopod UNKNOWN
source: http://paleo.cortland.edu/tutori
al/Brachiopods/Brachiopod%20Images/lingu
la.GIF


[2] Brachiopods (Glottidia
Albida) Photographic Print by Richard
Herrmann item #: 357011759A UNKNOWN
source: http://cache2.artprintimages.com
/lrg/38/3813/HHRIF00Z.jpg

543,000,000 YBN
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts
are repeated serially, for example
vertebrae).

Some think that segmentation evolved
independently in annelid worms,
arthropods, and vertebrates. But the
universality of Homeobox genes, evolved
over a billion years earlier, implies
that all segmented species may share a
common segmented ancestor.

 
[1] Dikinsonia grew to a length of as
much as two feet (60 cm), which made it
one of the larger complex organisms of
the Vendian. It's body is segmented
with midline symmetry dividing it's
body. Its body may have been denser
than modern jellyfish or worms. [Atlas
of Prehistoric World, Discovery
Books Reconstruction of Dickinsonia,
based on images from Atlas of the
Prehistoric World, Discovery Channel
Books and Kingfisher Illustrated
Dinosaur Encyclopedia UNKNOWN
source: http://paleontology.edwardtbabin
ski.us/vendian/dickinsonia.jpg


[2] Spriggina Spriggina was
definitely a predator of the seas of
that time. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.museum.toulouse.fr/IM
G/jpg/spriginna_72dpi_680.jpg

542,000,000 YBN
53) The end of the "Precambrian". The
end of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK} Eon. The end
of the Neoproterozoic and start of the
Paleozoic {PAlEuZOiK} Era, and the end
of the Ediacaran and start of the
Cambrian Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] Description English: Global
pareconstruction of the Earth in the
early Cambrian period 540 million years
ago. Deutsch: Globale
paläogeografische Rekonstruktion der
Erde während des frühen Kambriums vor
540 Millionen Jahren. русский:
Глобальная
палеогеографическая
реконструкция Земли
в начале
Кембрийского периода
540 миллионов лет тому
назад. українська:
Глобальная
палеогеографічна
реконструкція Землі
на початку
Кембрійського
періоду 540 мільйонів
років тому назад. Date
23 April 2008 Source
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/mollglobe.
html Author Dr. Ron Blakey -
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/ CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/d6/EarlyCambrianGlobal.j
pg

542,000,000 YBN
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or
"Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular
animals between 542 and 530 million
years ago that results in the
appearance of many (between 20 and 35)
of the major phyla of animals. An
increase of animals with shells.

The Cambrian metazoan radiation may be
the result of a major increase in
atmospheric oxygen, and animal
predation.

 
[1] Artist drawing of the bottom of the
Cambrian shallow sea floor, showing
trilobites (imagine these crawling
around on the Cambrian sea floor at
Devil's Lake state park 550 m.y. ago!)
(above). UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geology.wisc.edu/home
pages/g100s2/public_html/Geologic_Time/L
3_Cambrian_Life_More.jpg


[2] Description English: Fossil
specimen of Opabinia regalis from the
Burgess shale on display at the
Smithsonian in Washington, DC. This
appears to be the exact specimen
pictured in Fig. 42 of 'The Crucible of
Creation: The Burgess Shale and the
Rise of Animals', by Simon Conway
Morris, Oxford University Press,
1998. Date 12 April 2009 (original
upload date) Source Transferred
from en.wikipedia; transferred to
Commons by User:FunkMonk using
CommonsHelper. Author Original
uploader was Jstuby at en.wikipedia PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/50/Opabinia_smithsonian.
JPG

540,000,000 YBN
104) The Lophotrochozoa
{Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} Phylum
Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ}
evolves (flatworms).

Platyhelminthes, which is Greek for
flat worms, include free-living and
parasitic acoelomate worms (worms with
no coelum). They can reproduce
sexually, and also asexually by
transverse fission (splitting in half).

 
[1] Description English: The
flatworm Pseudoceros dimidiatus. North
Horn, Osprey Reef, Coral Sea. Date
August 9, 2005 Source
Flickr Author Richard
Ling CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1e/Pseudoceros_dimidiatu
s.jpg


[2] Two turbellarians mating by penis
fencing. Each has two penises, the
white spikes on the undersides of their
heads. Description English: Two
Individuals of Pseudobiceros bedfordi
about to have a Sperm Battle. –
Species of the flatworm genus
Pseudobiceros are hermaphroditic and
have two penises that are used to
inject sperm into the partner. P.
bedfordi is exceptional in that it
applies sperm onto the partner's skin
rather than injecting it. Deutsch:
Zwei Plattwürmer (Pseudobiceros
bedfordi) vor der Begattung. Der
doppelte Penis ist bei beiden
Individuen gut sichtbar. Date
Published: 2004-06-15 Source
Whitfield J: Everything You Always
Wanted to Know about Sexes. PLoS Biol
2/6/2004: e183.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020183.g001,
photo page Author Photo courtesy
of Nico Michiels. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/38/Flatworm_sex.png

540,000,000 YBN
319) The Protist Phylum "Radiolaria"
{rADEOlaREo} evolves.

Radiolarians are protists found in the
upper layers of all oceans, are mostly
spherically symmetrical, and known for
their complex and beautiful tiny
skeletons, called "tests" which are
usually made of silica (SiO2).

Radiolarian skeletons are used to
analyze the layers of the sedimentary
record.

 
[1] FIG. 2. The tree of life based on
molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae-a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red).
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cg
i/content/full/95/1/147/FIG2


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group.
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

540,000,000 YBN
321) The Protist Phylum "Foraminifera"
{FOraMiniFRu} evolves.

Foraminifera are unicellular protists
characterized by long, fine pseudopods
that extend from a cytoplasmic body
encased within a test, or shell.

 
[1] FIG. 2. The tree of life based on
molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae-a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red).
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cg
i/content/full/95/1/147/FIG2


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group.
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

540,000,000 YBN
340) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Nemertea
{ne-mR-TEu} evolves (ribbon worms).

Nemertea are unsegmented worms with a
coelem that live in marine, freshwater
and terrestrial environments.

 
[1] Description English: Basiodiscus
mexicanus was photographed at Los
Arcos, near Puerto Vallarta,
Mexico Date Source University
of California Museum of Paleology:
Introduction to the Nemertini Author
Chris Meyer and Allen
Collins Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Nemertea_Basiodiscus_
mexicanus.png


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

540,000,000 YBN
341) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Tardigrada
{ToRDiGRiDe} evolves (tardigrades).

Tardigrades are slow-moving,
microscopic invertebrates that live in
water or damp moss, with four body
segments and eight legs.

 
[1] Description Willow Gabriel and
Bob Goldstein,
http://tardigrades.bio.unc.edu/ Date
2007-05-20 (original upload
date) CC
source: http://28.media.tumblr.com/tumbl
r_limfh2NXtC1qc6j5yo1_400.jpg


[2] from Giribet 2007
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/65/Hypsibiusdujardini.jp
g

540,000,000 YBN
342) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Onychophora
evolves. Onychophorans are a transition
between worms and arthropods: they have
segmented worm-like bodies but they
also have jointed appendages, antennae,
and shed their cuticle like arthropods
do.

 
[1] Euperipatoides kanangrensis on a
eucalyptus log, in which it normally
resides. Description English:
Cropped version of File:Euperipatoides
kanangrensis.jpg Date 13 October
2009 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/67/Euperipatoides_kanang
rensis_crop.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

535,000,000 YBN
114) The first heart evolves in
bilaterians.

Muscles for pumping blood and for
maintaining adequate blood pressure can
be divided into three groups:
contractile blood vessels (found in
nemerteans and annelids), ostiate
{oSTEAT} hearts (found in arthropods),
and chambered hearts (found in molluscs
and vertebrates).

 
[1] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.


[2] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.

533,000,000 YBN
343) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Mollusca
evolves; Mollusks.

The phylum Mollusca is the second
largest animal phylum after the
arthropods, and is divided into seven
classes, three of which (Gastropoda
{GaSTroPeDu} (snails), Bivalvia (clams
and muscles), and Cephalopoda
{SeFeloPeDu} (squids and octupuses) are
of major importance.

Early Cambrian mollusk fossils show the
segmentation of the mollusk worm-like
ancestor, and have individual plates
which imply that the mollusk shell
fused together over the course of
millions of years.

 
[1] From: Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S.,
and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate
Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp.
284–291. ISBN 0030259827. PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mol
lusca


[2] Description Clams Date
Source Own work Author
Marlith CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8f/Clams.JPG

530,000,000 YBN
338) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Annelida
(segmented worms) evolves.

Annelids are various worms or wormlike
animals, characterized by an elongated,
cylindrical, segmented body and
includes the earthworm and leech.

 
[1] An earthworm's clitellum they have
a unique reproductive organ, the
ring-shaped clitellum (''pack saddle'')
round their bodies, which produces a
cocoon that stores and nourishes
fertilized eggs until they
hatch Description Regenwurm mit
Clitellum - (sattelförmige Verdickung
im vorderen Drittel).Das Sekret der
Clitellum-Drüsen dient u. a. zur
Bildung dieses Ei-Kokons. Français :
Ver de terre (Oligochaeta,
Lumbricina) Svenska: Daggmask
(Lumbricus spec.) Русский:
Дождевой червь (род
Лумбрикус) Date Source
first upload in de wikipedia on
09:58, 16. Feb 2005 by Michael
Linnenbach Author Michael
Linnenbach GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/30/Regenwurm1.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

530,000,000 YBN
339) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Arthropoda
evolves; the "Arthropods".

Arthropods can be compared to a
segmented worm encased in a rigid
exoskeleton.

The phylum Arthropoda is the largest
phylum in the animal kingdom.
Arthropods include the trilobites, the
crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, and
lobsters), the Myriapoda (centipedes
and millipedes), the Chelicerata
(arachnids and horseshoe crabs) and the
insects. All arthropods have a
segmented body covered by an
exoskeleton containing chitin, which
serves as both armor and as a surface
for muscle attachment.

 
[1] Extinct and modern
arthropods English: Arthropoda
collage. From left to right and from
top to bottom: Kolihapeltis,
Stylonurus, Scorpion, Crab, Centipede,
Butterfly CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/80/Arthropoda.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsociorg/content
/363/1496/1513

530,000,000 YBN
350) The Chordata Vertebrates evolve.
This Subphylum, Vertebrata, contains
most fishes, and all amphibians,
reptiles, mammals, and birds.

The characteristic features of the
Vertebrata are a vertebral column, or
backbone, and a cranium, which protects
the central nervous system (brain and
spinal cord) and major sense organs.
This earliest vertebrate skeleton is
made completely of cartilage.

 
[1] Description Lampetra
fluviatilis from the german
northsea Date 2004 Source
Germany Author
M.Buschmann Permission (Reusing
this file) Author is owner CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3f/Lampetra_fluviatilis.
jpg


[2] Description Clockwise,
starting from top left: 1. Fire
Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) 2.
Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus
porosus) 3. Southern Cassowary
(Casusarius casuarius) 4.
Black-and-rufus Giant Elephant Shrew
(Rhynchocyon petersi) 5. Ocean Sunfish
(Mola mola) Date CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/ec/Vertebrates.png

530,000,000 YBN
351) The extinct Vertebrates the
Conodonts {KO-nu-DoNTS} evolve.

Conodonts have no lower jaw, but have
calcified teeth positioned under
well-developed eyes.

 
[1] Kardong, ''Vertebrates'', 2002,
p86. COPYRIGHTED
source: Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p86.


[2] From the Englich
Wikipedia Mateus Zica draw it with
macromedia flash 28 oct
2005 mateus zica 18:25, 28
October 2005
(UTC) PD AND Description English:
The inclusion of euconodonts in the
vertebrates, or even craniates, is
still controversial. Admittedly, the
tissue structure of the ''conodonts''
(i.e; the denticles situated in their
mouth; left) is at odds with
conventional vertebrate hard tissues.
Nevertheless, the eyes, body shape, and
tail stucture of the euconodonta are
strikingly vertebrate-like. After
Purnell et al. 1995 Date 30 November
2012, 03:32:10 Source Tree of Life
Web Project Author Philippe Janvier,
1997 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2d/ConodontZICA.pnghttp:
//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons
/3/33/Euconodonta.gif

530,000,000 YBN
6637) The Vertebrates Jawless fishes
evolve (agnatha).

The earliest extant jawless fishes, the
hagfishes evolve now. Hagfishes are
eel-like scavengers.

 
[1] Description English: Pacific
hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) in a hole
at 150 meters depth. Latitude 37 58 N.,
Longitude 123 27 W. Location:
California, Cordell Bank National
Marine Sanctuary. Date Last Updated:
September 30, 2009. Source
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/sanc
1692.htm
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/bigs/sanc16
92.jpg Author Linda Snook, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) / Cordell Bank National Marine
Sanctuary (CBNMS) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Eptatretus_stou
tii.jpg/1280px-Eptatretus_stoutii.jpg


[2] Description Lampetra
fluviatilis from the german
northsea Date 2004 Source
Germany Author
M.Buschmann Permission (Reusing
this file) Author is owner CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3f/Lampetra_fluviatilis.
jpg

520,000,000 YBN
133) The Arthropod subphylum
Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo) evolves (eight
legs, ancestor of the horseshoe crabs,
sea spiders, and the Arachnids: mites,
spiders, and scorpions).

earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten,
Sweden 

[1] Description English: Horseshoe
crab dorsal and ventral Italiano:
Limulus polyphemus dorsale e
ventrale Date 10 April 2009 Source
Own work Author Ricce PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Limulo_dorsale_
e_ventrale.jpg/1280px-Limulo_dorsale_e_v
entrale.jpg


[2] taken from en:Image:Horseshoe crab
female.jpg Dead female horseshoe crab
from NOAA Photo Library: Image ID:
line2632, America's Coastlines
Collection Location: Patuxent River,
Maryland Photo Date: 2002 August
17 Photographer: Mary Hollinger,
NESDIS/NODC biologist, NOAA PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1b/Horseshoe_crab_female
.jpg

520,000,000 YBN
148) The earliest color vision evolves
in arthropods.

Vertebrates with color vision include:
some fishes and amphibians, many
reptiles and all birds, but only a few
mammals, humans and some other higher
primates, can see in color.

 
[1] Microphotograph of the multiple eye
of the trilobite Phacops, showing the
calcite lenses in the eye. PD
source: http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/ed
ucation-and-outreach/additional/science-
focus/images/phacops_eye.jpg


[2] Description English: A
schizochroal [eye] of the trilobite
Phacops rana, eye dimensions 8mm across
by 5.5mm high, found near Sylvania,
Ohio, USA, from the Devonian Date 15
October 2011 Source Own work Author
Dwergenpaartje CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Phacops_rana_crassitu
berculata_eye_3.jpg

520,000,000 YBN
346) The Deuterostome Phylum
Echinodermata evolves; the
"Echinoderms" (iKIniDRMS }, the
ancestor of the sea cucumbers, sea
urchins, sand dollars, and star fishes.

 
[1] Kachemak Bay National Estuarine
Research Reserve. A beautiful array of
starfish , sea urchins and mussel
shells in the rocky intertidal zone of
Kachemak Bay. Image ID: nerr0878,
NOAA National Estuarine Research
Reserve Collection from NOAA:
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/nerr/nerr08
78.htm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Nerr0878.jpg/10
24px-Nerr0878.jpg


[2] Description English: The first
in a sequence of three photos that show
a brittle star flipping itself
rightside-up. Date 1 May
2011 Source Own work Author
Alexcooper1 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/A_brittle_star_
flipping_itself_rightside-up.jpg/1024px-
A_brittle_star_flipping_itself_rightside
-up.jpg

520,000,000 YBN
6349) The arthropods trilobites
evolve.

Trilobites have a segmented body that
is divided by into three vertical
lobes.

There is a transition from soft-bodied
organisms, to the clam-like shell
organisms, to the segmented calcite and
chitin shells of the trilobites.

Horseshoe crabs may be descended from
trilobites.

 
[1] example of earliest trilobites
(e.g., Fallotaspis longa) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.trilobites.info/biost
ratfallon.jpg


[2] Niles Eldredge, ''Trilobites and
Evolutionary Patterns'', p305-332 in
Anthony Hallam, ''Patterns of evolution
as illustrated by the fossil record,
Volume 5'', 1977,
p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=
q7GjDIyyWegC COPYRIGHTED
source: http://books.google.com/books?id
=q7GjDIyyWegC

513,000,000 YBN
6351) The Arthropods Crustaceans evolve
(the ancestor of all shrimps, crabs,
lobsters, and barnicles).

earliest fossils: Shropshire,
England 

[1] Canadaspis perfecta (ROM 61119) –
Part and counterpart. Complete specimen
showing phosphatized gut diverticulae
and posterior dark stain (probably
representing decay fluids), lateral
view. Left images, complete slab (part)
showing associated species; Yohoia
tenuis (bottom right), Waptia
fieldensis (left, partially covered by
a disarticulated carapace of
Canadaspis), Burgessia bella (far
left). Right images, details of the
counterpart. Specimen length = 72 mm.
Specimen dry – direct light (top
row), dry – polarized light (bottom
left), wet – polarized light (bottom
right). Walcott Quarry. © Royal
Ontario Museum. Photos: Jean-Bernard
Caron COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.burgess-shale.rom.on.
ca/images/zoomify/canadaspis-rom-61119.j
pg


[2] 3D model of Canadaspis
perfecta. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://burgess-shale.rom.on.ca/v
ideo/fossil-gallery/0b1-canadaspis-turnt
able.jpg

501,000,000 YBN
6348) The Arthropods Myriapoda
{mEREaPeDu} evolve; the ancestor of all
centipedes and millipedes.

earliest possible fossils: (Marine
deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA
and (Ust-Majan formation) East
Siberia|(earliest fossils) Shropshire,
England 

[1] Description Lithobius
forficatus Deutsch: Steinläufer Date
9 August 2005 Source Own
work Author Darkone CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/79/Steinl%C3%A4ufer_%28L
ithobius_forficatus%29_3.jpg


[2] Description Tachypodoiulus
niger Date 2007-06-28 Source Own
work Author Stemonitis CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/8/86/Tachypodoiulus_
niger_1.jpg/1280px-Tachypodoiulus_niger_
1.jpg

488,300,000 YBN
121) The end of the Cambrian (542-488.3
mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN} (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 500 Ma - Late Cambrian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/500
_Camb_2globes.jpg

488,000,000 YBN
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN}
radiation. During the Ordovician the
number of genera {JeN-R-u} will
quadruple.

 
[1] Recreation of life during the
Ordovician UNKNOWN
source: http://ferrebeekeeper.files.word
press.com/2010/11/ordovician.jpg


[2] A second peak time in the
abundance of shell-surviving life forms
was in the Upper Ordovician (by this
time also, the first larger
vertebrates, fossil fish, had
appeared). Below are two illustrations:
the first, an artist' conception of
marine invertebrate life in the late
Ordovician; the second, a typical slab
of Ordovician limestone (from Indiana)
containing the fossil types listed in
its caption: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
ordovicsea.jpg

488,000,000 YBN
6635) The extinct Jawless fishes
Ostracoderms {oS-Tru-KO-DRM} evolve.

The Ostracoderms are the first
vertebrates to have paired appendages,
an inner ear with two semicircular
canals, and bone, although almost
exclusively in the outer exoskeleton.

 
[1] Kardong, ''Vertebrates'', 2002,
p86. COPYRIGHTED
source: Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p86.


[2] Description English:
Arandaspis Date 10 October
2010 Source Own work Author Nobu
Tamura
(http://spinops.blogspot.com) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/58/Arandaspis_NT.jpg

475,000,000 YBN
244) The non-vascular plants evolve,
Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo}, (the ancestor of
the Liverworts, Hornworts, and
Mosses).

The Bryophytes are the simplest land
plants, and reproduce with spores.

Most are 2-5 cm (or 1-2 in.) tall and
extremely tolerant of dry and freezing
conditions.

 
[1] Phaeoceros laevis (L.) Prosk. gnu
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Anthoceros_levis.jpg


[2] English: A closeup shot of moss on
a rock in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria,
Canada. Sony Alpha A100 Date 25
March 2007 Source Own
work Author KirinX at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) CC-BY-SA-2.5. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1c/Moss_closeup.jpg

475,000,000 YBN
398) Plants live on land. The earliest
fossil spores belonging to land
plants.

Plants conquer land before animals do,
and like animals may move to land not
by sea but by freshwater.

earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya 
[1] Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A.
J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10
(4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org/
content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-c
fd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_1
98204xx.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://geology.gsapubs.org/conte
nt/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4
eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4


[2] Phaeoceros laevis (L.) Prosk. gnu

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Anthoceros_levis.jpg

472,000,000 YBN
402) The first animals live on land,
the arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes
and millipedes).

earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston,
Ontario, Canada 

[1] Figure 4. Field photographs of
representative trackways. Scale bars
represent 5 cm. A: Trackway with
central drag and well-defined appendage
marks. Bottom surface. B: Trackway with
central drag and poorly defined
appendage marks. Top surface. Surface
dips to top of photograph; note downdip
offset of central drag. C: Robust
trackway with well-developed appendage
marks and no central drag. Note
push-ups of sand (arrows) associated
with appendage impressions. Figure 4
from: MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391 COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391


[2] Figure 2 from: Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, ''Morphology and
Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda)
from Scotland'', Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan.,
2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf} COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094
847?&Search=yes&searchText=MILLIPEDES&se
archText=TAXONOMY&searchText=MORPHOLOGY&
searchText=PALEOZOIC&list=hide&searchUri
=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DMOR
PHOLOGY%2BAND%2BTAXONOMY%2BOF%2BPALEOZOI
C%2BMILLIPEDES%26acc%3Don%26wc%3Don&prev
Search=&item=2&ttl=43&returnArticleServi
ce=showFullText

470,000,000 YBN
234) The non-vascular plants Hornworts
evolve.

 
[1] Phaeoceros laevis (L.) Prosk. gnu
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Anthoceros_levis.jpg


[2] Image of Phaeoceros (hornwort)
spores taken by J. Ziffer. public
domain
source: wiki

465,000,000 YBN
6636) The Jawless fishes lamprays
evolve.

 
[1] Description Lampetra
fluviatilis from the german
northsea Date 2004 Source
Germany Author
M.Buschmann Permission (Reusing
this file) Author is owner CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3f/Lampetra_fluviatilis.
jpg


[2] Fossil Ostracoderms.
Representatives of three extinct
groups. The head armor is especially
well developed in Hemicyclaspis, an
ostracoderm of the ''Cephalapsis''
type, in which the head is flattened
and expanded into a large
filter-feeding basket. Ostracoderms
lacked the paired (pectoral and pelvic)
fins of more advanced fish. In some
cases, small spines were present at the
points where paired fins develop in
higher fishes. In Hemicyclaspis, one
sees a pair of anterior, flipper-like
structures in lieu of pectoral fins.
From Romer, A. S. 1964. The Vertebrate
Body. W. B. Saunders.
Philadelphia. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.blc.arizona.edu/cours
es/schaffer/182/Vertebrates/Ostracoderms
.jpg

460,000,000 YBN
235) The non-vasular plants Mosses
evolve.

 
[1] A moss covered log. Photo by sannse
at Mistley, England. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mos
s


[2] life cycle of
moss ladyofhats public domain
source: same

460,000,000 YBN
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve,
Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo}. This
large group includes all jawed fishes,
amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and
birds.

Jawed fishes have a skeleton made
completely of cartilage. Only the teeth
become ossified when mineral crystals,
mostly calcium phosphate, become
integrated into them.

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill
skeleton.

Oceans 
[1] Image from: Palmer, D. The
Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Animals: A
Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500
Species. New Line Books,
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Palmer, D. The Marshall
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive
Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New
Line Books, 2002.


[2] Kardong, ''Vertebrates'', Third
Edition, 2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Kardong, "Vertebrates", Third
Edition, 2002.

460,000,000 YBN
404) The Jawed fishes Class
Chondrichthyes {KoN-DriK-tE-EZ} evolves
(Cartilaginous fishes: ancestor of all
sharks, rays, skates, and sawfishes).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.


[2] Miller, Randall F., Richard
Cloutier, and Susan Turner. “The
Oldest Articulated Chondrichthyan from
the Early Devonian Period.” Nature
425.6957 (2003): 501–504. Web. 23 May
2012. http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html {M
iller_Chondrichthyans_2003.pdf} COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html

460,000,000 YBN
458) The earliest fungi on land. The
ancestor of all terrestrial fungi (the
Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and
Basidiomycota).

 
[1] Earliest Glomerales fossil fig 1
from: Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). ''Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician''. Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077
684


[2] Phylogenetic tree from: Richard
Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's Tale'',
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p511. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p511.

460,000,000 YBN
6414) The Fungi Phylum "Glomeromycota"
{GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu} evolves
(arbuscular {oRBuSKYUlR} mycorrhizal
{MIKerIZL} fungi).

The Glomeromycota are mutualistic
symbionts that form a close association
intracellularly between the fungus and
the roots of plants.

earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA 
[1] Gigaspora margarita in association
with Lotus corniculatus Description
Lotus corniculatus var. japonicus
kolonisiert durch Gigaspora
margarita Date 18 September
2007 Source Own work Author
Mike Guether GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Gigaspora_marga
rita.JPG/1024px-Gigaspora_margarita.JPG


[2] germinating Gigaspora decipiens
source: http://pages.unibas.ch/bothebel/
people/redecker/ff/glomero.htm

445,000,000 YBN
90) The end-Ordovician mass extinction.
This is caused by an ice age. 60% of
all genera are observed extinct.

This is the first of five mass
extinctions in the Phanerozoic.

 
[1] NOAA Photo Library Image -
corp1440 Flying over a huge glacier
on the way to McMurdo Station
Image ID: corp1440, NOAA At The Ends of
the Earth Collection Location:
Antarctica Photographer: Mr. Fred
Walton, NOAA Category:
Antarctica/McMurdo/Glacier/ PD
source: http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/big
s/corp1440.jpg


[2] Image of object impact with
Earth UNKNOWN
source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-u1aaDd
JP2M0/Tj0QtfwPQQI/AAAAAAAAAbk/3SpkL8NCec
w/s1600/asteroid-impact.jpg

443,700,000 YBN
122) The end of the Ordovician
(488.3-443.7 mybn), and the start of
the Silurian (443.7-416) Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 450 Ma - Late Ordovician UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/450
_Ord_3globes.jpg

440,000,000 YBN
236) The Vascular plants evolve, the
Phylum Tracheophyta {TrAKEoFiTu}.

Vascular plants have a specialized
conducting system consisting mostly of
phloem (food-conducting tissue) and
xylem (water-conducting tissue),
collectively called vascular tissue.
The phloem transports sugar and the
xylem transports water and salts.
Ferns, gymnosperms, and flowering
plants are all vascular plants. In
contrast to the nonvascular bryophytes,
where the gametophyte is the dominant
phase, the dominant phase among
vascular plants is the sporophyte.
Because they have vascular tissues,
these plants have true stems, leaves,
and roots.

 
[1] Description Equisetum telmateia
(Equisetopsida) at Cambridge Botanic
Garden Date 18 May 2008 Source Own
work Author Rror Other versions
Derivative works of this file:
species on earth.jpg GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/7c/Equisetopsida.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

440,000,000 YBN
360) The Jawed fishes Class
Osteichthyes {oS TE iK tE EZ}) evolves;
Bony fishes, the ancestor of the
ray-finned, lobe-fin, and lung fishes.

Bony-fishes have a skeleton that is at
least partly ossified or made of bone.

The bony fishes are the ancestors of
the tetrapods who will ultimately move
onto land.

The earliest bony fishes are the
ray-finned fishes. The name ray is
because their fins have a skeleton
similar to a handheld fan.

Most of the ray-finned fishes are known
as teleosts, a very successful
evolutionary line that exist in both
salt and freshwater.

Ocean and fresh water 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] A sturgeon
(pt:esturjāo). esturgeon noir
d'Amérique (Acipenser oxyrinchus
oxyrinchus) http://images.fws.gov/ PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c2/Sturgeon2.jpg

440,000,000 YBN
6172) The first lung evolves from the
swim bladder in ray-finned fishes. Some
teleosts still use their swim bladder
for breathing out of water. Fishes that
breathe with a lung evolve breathing
through a completely different route
than fishes that breathe air through
their gill chamber.

Ocean (presumably) 
[1] Image from: Palmer, D. The
Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Animals: A
Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500
Species. New Line Books,
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Palmer, D. The Marshall
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive
Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New
Line Books, 2002.


[2] Earliest fish with lung in
existance?[t] Nile Bichir (Polypterus
bichir bichir) from Günther, A.C.L.G.,
1880. An introduction to the study of
fishes. Today & Tomorrow's Book Agency,
New Delhi. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e8/Nile_bichir.png

425,000,000 YBN
377) The Jawed fishes, Lobe-fin fishes
evolve. Lobe-fin fishes have a fleshy
lobe at the base of each fin. The
earliest extant Lobe-fin fishes, the
coelacanths evolve now.

 
[1] Description Preserved
specimen of chalumnae (Also known as
Coelacanth [1]) in the Natural History
Museum, Vienna, Austria. Believed
to have been extinct for 70 million
years, this specimen was caught the 18
October of 1974, next to
Salimani/Selimani (Grande Comore,
Comoros Islands) 11°48′40.7″S
43°16′3.3″E Length: 170 cm -
Weight: 60 kg Obtained by stiching
3 HiRes images and removing the
background with image
post-processing. Date August
2007 Source Own work Author
Alberto Fernandez Fernandez GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/fa/Latimeria_Chalumnae_-
_Coelacanth_-_NHMW.jpg

420,000,000 YBN
6350) The Arthropod superclass Hexapoda
{HeKSu-PODu or HeKSoPuDu} evolves
(arthropods with six legs {3 pairs},
the ancestor of all insects).

The closest relative of the Hexapods is
most likely the Branchiopoda; the brine
shrimps.

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert)
Scotland 

[1] Description Protura specimen,
taken under stereo microscope (40x).
Acerentomon sp. Date 7 December 2008,
03:13 Source Protura Uploaded
by Richard001 Author Gregor
?nidar CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/bc/Protura_specimen_(Ace
rentomon_species)_micrograph.jpg


[2] Description English: Campodea
staphylinus, a dipluran. Photo by
Michel Vuijlsteke. Taken on May 9, 2006
at 4.09pm CEST in Gent, Belgium. Date
2007-07-08 (original upload
date) Source Transferred from
en.wikipedia Author Original uploader
was Mvuijlst at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2e/Diplura.jpg

418,000,000 YBN
6431) The Chelicerata Class Arachnida
{araK-niDe} evolves (the Arachnids: the
ancestor of all scorpions, spiders,
mites and ticks).

earliest fossils: ("Bertie Waterlime"
of) NY, USA 

[1] Description Proscorpius osborni
fossil. The Eurypterida of New York.
Volume 2. New York State Museum Memoir
14, plate 88 Date 1912 Source
California/Google Books Author John
Mason Clarke (1857-1925) and Rudolf
Ruedemann (1864-1956) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/15/The_Eurypterida_of_Ne
w_York_plate_88.jpg


[2] Description The Eurypterida of
New York. Volume 1. New York State
Museum Memoir 14, figure 81-83 Date
1912 Source Google Books Author
John Mason Clarke (1857-1925) and
Rudolf Ruedemann (1864-1956) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/ef/The_Eurypterida_of_Ne
w_York_figure_81-83.jpg

417,000,000 YBN
378) The Lobefin fishes, Lungfishes
evolve.

 
[1] Description English: Australian
lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri) Date
Source Picure taken by Tannin
(from English wikipedia) Author
User:Tannin GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/61/Australian-Lungfish.j
pg


[2] Description English: Lateral
view of lungs of a dissected
Protopterus dolloi Date
2007ish (15 February 2009
(original upload date)) Source
Transferred from
en.wikipedia (Original text : Photo
from lab dissection at U. of
Cincinnati) Author Mokele (talk).
Original uploader was Mokele at
en.wikipedia GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/ae/Lungs_of_Protopterus_
dolloi.JPG

416,000,000 YBN
123) The end of the Silurian (443.7-416
mybn), and start of the Devonian
{DiVONEiN} (416-359.2 mybn) Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 430 Ma - Early Silurian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/430
_Silurian_2globes.jpg

416,000,000 YBN
6352) The Hexapod Class Insecta
evolves: the insects.

The insects are the most diverse
organisms known, having nearly one
million named species, which is over
half of all named species on Earth.

The most primitive living insect Order
Archaeognatha, the Bristletails evolves
now.

 
[1] Description Français : Groupe
de Petrobius maritimus sur falaise
supralittorale, Toull ar C'Hrabanoù,
Goulien, Finistère, Bretagne,
France Date 2 June 2010 Source Own
work Author Jymm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a4/Petrobius_maritimus_2
010-06-02.jpg


[2] Description Archaeognatha:
Machilidae, collected from Anglesey,
UK Date 2006-12-28 Source Own work
(own photo) Author
User:Stemonitis Permission (Reusing
this file) CC Attribution
ShareAlike 2.5 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/Archaeognatha.jpg

410,000,000 YBN
6363) The Insect Order Zygentoma
{ZIGeNTOmu} evolves: Silverfish.

 
[1] Thysanura is an order of insects,
encompassing silverfish and
firebrats, Description
Silberfischchen, Lepisma
saccharina Date Source from the
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bild:Silber
fischchen.jpg German wiki; taken with
Canon EOS 300D Author Sebastian
Stabinger GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/54/Silberfischchen.jpg


[2] Image from: David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, ''Evolution of the
Insects'', 2005, p144. COPYRIGHTED
source: David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p146

400,000,000 YBN
227) The largest Fungi phylum
"Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu} evolves
(the ancestor of yeasts, truffles,
Penicillium, and morels {mu-reLZ}).

The Ascomycota account for
approximately 75% of all described
fungi.

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert)
Aberdeenshire, Scotland 

[1] white truffle
cutted photographed by
myself GNU head Permission is
granted to copy, distribute and/or
modify this document under the terms of
the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or any later version
published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections,
no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts. A copy of the license is
included in the section entitled ''Text
of the GNU Free Documentation
License.''
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/fd/Truffle_washed_and_cu
tted.jpg


[2] EColi-Scerevisiae.jpg (50KB, MIME
type: image/jpeg) Wikimedia Commons
logo This is a file from the Wikimedia
Commons. The description on its
description page there is shown
below. Escherichia coli (little
forms) & Saccharomyces cerevisiae (big
forms) by MEB Public domain This file
has been released into the public
domain by the copyright holder, its
copyright has expired, or it is
ineligible for copyright. This applies
worldwide. brewer's yeast/baker's
yeast
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:EColi-Scerevisiae.jpg

400,000,000 YBN
237) The Vascular plants ferns evolve
(the ancestor of club mosses, ferns and
horsetails).

Ferns are flowerless, seedless vascular
plants that have roots, stems, and
fronds (the leaf-like part of a fern),
and reproduce by spores.

 
[1] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

400,000,000 YBN
436) The Cartilaginous fishes Subclass:
"Elasmobranchii" {elaZmOBrANKEE or I}
evolve, (the ancestor of sharks,
dogfishes, skates and rays).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p361. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p361.


[2] Grey reef shark (Carcharhinus
amblyrhynchos) Description Un
gran tiburón surcando aguas
oceánicas. Date 14 March
2004 Source Original image:
Carcharhinus-amblyrynchos.jpg by
Fbattail at fr.wikipedia, March 14,
2004 cropped image:
Greyreefsharksmall.jpg by Chris huh at
en.wikipedia, August 29. 2006
Transfered to Commons by Harryemi,
September 21, 2008 Author
original author is Fbattail , the
image is cropped by Chris huh GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/bb/Tibur%C3%B3n.jpg

395,000,000 YBN
6429) The Green Algae Charophytes
evolve (Stoneworts).

 
[1] Description English: The
stoneworts alga Chara globularis (Syn.:
Chara fragilis; Characeae). Deutsch:
Habitus der Zerbrechlichen
Armleuchteralge (Chara globularis;
Syn.: Chara fragilis). Bild mit
Flachbettscanner angefertigt. Date
October 2005 Source Own work.
Location: North-eastern Lower Saxony,
Germany. Author Christian Fischer CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cf/CharaFragilis.jpg


[2] Description English: The
stoneworts alga Chara globularis (Syn.:
Chara fragilis; Characeae). Deutsch:
Habitus der Zerbrechlichen
Armleuchteralge (Chara globularis;
Syn.: Chara fragilis); drapiert in
einem mit Wasser gefüllten Teller und
senkrecht von oben fotografiert. Diese
Art ist die wohl häufigste
Armleuchteralge in Deutschland (bei
regionalen Unterschieden) – die
meisten anderen Arten stehen auf der
Roten Liste, einige sind extrem
selten. Date 2 July 2011 Source Own
work. Location: North-eastern Lower
Saxony, Germany. Author Christian
Fischer CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/f8/CharaGlobularis
.jpg/833px-CharaGlobularis.jpg

395,000,000 YBN
6430) The earliest fungi lichen
{lIKiN}.

A lichen is a fungus, usually of the
class Ascomycetes {aSKOmISETS}, that
grows symbiotically with algae and
cyanobacteria, resulting in a composite
organism that characteristically forms
a crustlike or branching growth on
rocks or tree trunks.

Lichens have a planet-wide distribution
and thrive in some of the Earth's
harshest environments, such as polar
regions, deserts, and high mountains.

 
[1] Xanthoparmelia cf. lavicola, a
foliose lichen, on basalt.
Photograph of lichen on basalt taken at
Ulupo, Kailua, O'ahu, Hawai'i by Eric
Guinther (Marshman at en.wikipedia) and
released under the GNU Free
Documentation License. first
upload en.wikipedia 23:52, 23 September
2003 . . Marshman (185124 bytes)
(Lichen photograph) GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2c/Lichen_squamulose.jpg


[2] Fig 1 from: Taylor, T. N. et al.
“The Oldest Fossil Lichen.” Nature
378.6554 (1995):
244–244. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v378/n6554/abs/378244a0.html C
OPYRIGHTED
source: Taylor, T. N. et al. “The
Oldest Fossil Lichen.” Nature
378.6554 (1995):
244–244. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v378/n6554/abs/378244a0.html

392,000,000 YBN
359) The Cartilaginous fishes
Infraclass: "Selachii" {SelAKEE or I}
evolves, (the ancestor of all sharks:
includes great white, hammerhead, mako,
tiger and nurse sharks).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p361. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p361.


[2] Grey reef shark (Carcharhinus
amblyrhynchos) Description Un
gran tiburón surcando aguas
oceánicas. Date 14 March
2004 Source Original image:
Carcharhinus-amblyrynchos.jpg by
Fbattail at fr.wikipedia, March 14,
2004 cropped image:
Greyreefsharksmall.jpg by Chris huh at
en.wikipedia, August 29. 2006
Transfered to Commons by Harryemi,
September 21, 2008 Author
original author is Fbattail , the
image is cropped by Chris huh GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/bb/Tibur%C3%B3n.jpg

392,000,000 YBN
437) The Cartilaginous fishes Subclass:
"Holocephali" {HoloSeFolE or I}
evolves, (the ancestor of the chimaeras
{KiMERoZ} also called rabbit-fishes or
ratfishes).

 
[1] Description Spotted ratfish
(Hydrolagus colliei) observed off Pt
Pinos during a sanctuary seafloor
monitoring survey using the Delta
submersible. Date 13 August
2004 Source
http://www.mbnms-simon.org/other/photos
/photo_info.php?photoID=1307 Author
Linda Snook /
MBNMS Permission (Reusing this file)
All SIMoN photos and video are in
the public domain and CANNOT be
copyrighted. Although at present, no
fee is charged for using the media.
Credit MUST be given to the
photographer or other source as stated
with the photo metadata. [1] PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f9/Hydrolagus_colliei.jp
g


[2] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p361. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p361.

386,000,000 YBN
406) The Arachnids Spiders evolve.
earliest fossils: (Givetian of) Gilboa,
New York, USA 

[1] Fig. 1. Attercopus fimbriunguis,
Devonian of New York (localities: G,
Gilboa; SM, South Mountain), macerated
from matrix with HF and slide-mounted.
(A) First-described “spinneret,” G
334.1b.34; darkness of cuticle reflects
number of layers, so this fragment is
folded over twice. (B) Palpal femur, SM
1.11.12; arrow indicates patch of
distinctive spinules. (C) Piece of
cuticle from corner of opisthosomal
ventral plate showing setae, spigots,
and possible silk strand, SM 1.11.4.
(D) Close-up of E showing possible silk
strand emerging from spigot shaft, SM
1.11.4. (E) Flagellar structure with 12
segments (including possible
distalmost) from original Gilboa
locality; segments show distal collars
and setae, G 334.1a.4. (F) Close-up of
cheliceral fang showing a number of
holes (arrowed), the most distal of
which had been interpreted as a
venom-gland opening, G 329.22.9. (Scale
bars: 0.5 mm, except F, 0.25 mm.)
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/105/
52/20781/F1.large.jpg


[2] Permarachne novokshonovi, Permian
of Russia, from the Kungurian
c276mybn UNKNOWN
source: http://media.tumblr.com/tumblr_l
y6ahnZoxc1qgxyxw.jpg

385,000,000 YBN
405) The first forests. The earliest
large tree fossils.

The first progymnosperms (treelike
plants), like Archaeopteris.

earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York,
USA 

[1] a, General view of the crown
portion, showing longitudinal ranks of
branch bases on the trunk proximally,
and attached branches with digitate
ramification and speckled surface
pattern distally. Scale bar, 20 cm. b,
Line drawing of the specimen as
recovered including trunk and crown;
the box shows the portion in a, and the
arrow indicates the branch in c. Scale
bar, 10 cm. c, Close-up of a distal
branch showing speckled texture and
lateral appendages. Scale bar, 20
mm. figure 1 from: William E. Stein1,
Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller
Hernick2, Ed Landing2 & Christopher M.
Berry3, ''Giant cladoxylopsid trees
resolve the enigma of the Earth's
earliest forest stumps at Gilboa'',
Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v446/n7138/images/nature05705-f1.2.
jpg


[2] a, Composite image of large trunk
specimen, a cast with upper and lower
counterparts, NYSM 17040. Arrows at the
distal end (top) correspond to the
region in Fig. 3a; arrows at the
proximal end (bottom) correspond to the
region in Fig. 3b. b, Line drawing
showing the architecture of Wattieza
attached to Eospermatopteris. The
length of the trunk is not firmly
established, so the minimum tree height
is shown. Light branches right, also in
Fig. 1a right, appear in life position
but are not definitively attached.
Scale bar, 1 m for both panels. figure
2 from: William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
''Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa'', Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v446/n7138/images/nature05705-f2.2.
jpg

385,000,000 YBN
411) The first flying animal, an
arthropod insect, the ancestor of all
winged insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu}).
The earliest extant winged insects are
the Orders Ephemeroptera {eFeMeroPTRo}:
Mayflies, and the Odonata {ODenoDo}:
Dragonflies and Damselflies.

Insect wings evolve only once, and all
winged insects descend from the first
winged insect.

The development of wings may have
helped early insects to escape
predators and to move over larger
distances to find new habitats.

earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation)
southeastern Massachusetts and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic 

[1] English: A female subimago of March
Brown (Rhithrogena germanica) of family
Heptageniidae. Mayflies are insects
which belong to the Order Ephemeroptera
(from the Greek ephemeros, short-lived
and pteron, wing, referring to the
short life span of adults). They have
been placed into an ancient group of
insects termed the Paleoptera, which
also contains the dragonflies and
damselflies. They are aquatic insects
whose immature stage (called naiad or,
colloquially, nymph) usually lasts one
year in fresh water. The rests on Rough
Horsetail or Scouringrush Horsetail
(Equisetum hyemale) Date 8 January
2008 Source Own work Author Richard
Bartz, Munich aka Makro Freak
Image:MFB.jpg CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Rhithrogena_germanica
_subimago_on_Equisetum_hyemale.jpg


[2] FIGURE 2—Preliminary hypothesis
of phylogenetic relationships among
major and interesting groups of living
and extinct hexapods and
basal pterygote Insecta. Numbers refer
to synapomorphies (see Table 1); empty
boxes are homoplasious synapomorphies.
Some significant fossils
are-CSCO-3h--F3.large denoted by
circled letters (see Table 2), but many
fossils are not listed for most groups.
Thick lines indicate the approximate
chronology of lineages. The number of
lineages depicted for paraphyletic
lineages
(‘‘Protodonata,’’‘‘Protortho
ptera,’’ Blattaria [Blattoptera])
are arbitrary, and simply indicate
multiple, unresolved lineages. The
names of orders with freshwater aquatic
larvae are shaded (a presumed ancestral
habit). Relationships are based on
Kristensen (1975, 1991, 1999), Willmann
(1997, 1999), Grimaldi (1997, for
Dictyoptera), Engel and Grimaldi (2000,
Zoraptera and related orders), and
others. Figure 2 from: Grimaldi, D.
2001. Insect evolutionary history from
Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond.
Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf COPYRIGHTED
source: www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2
000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_hist
ory.pdf

375,000,000 YBN
380) The Jawed fishes superclass
Tetrapoda {TeTC-ru-PoDu} evolves. The
first tetrapods (vertebrates with four
feet) evolve in fresh water. These are
the first vertebrate limbs (arms and
legs) and fingers. This is also the
first amphibian, the ancestor of
caecillians, frogs, toads, and
salamanders.

Fresh water, Greenland (on the
equator) 

[1] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg


[2] Reconstructions of (a)
Acanthostega and (b) Ichthyostega, from
Benton, 1997. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Pal
aeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/amphibpic
s/ichthyostega.jpg

367,000,000 YBN
408) The late Devonian mass extinction
caused by an ice age.

70% of all species go extinct. This
includes 3 of 5 trilobite orders, 90%
of brachiopod genera, and major loss of
reefs.

 
[1] Description English: Antarctica:
The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in
the Transantarctic Mountains, comes
from glacial meltwater from the Canada
Glacier and other smaller glaciers. The
freshwater stays on top of the lake and
freezes, sealing in briny water
below. http://photolibrary.usap.gov/Por
tscripts/PortWeb.dll?query&field1=Filena
me&op1=matches&value=LakeFryxell.jpg&cat
alog=Antarctica&template=ShowMidThumbs
Français : Antarctique: La glace bleue
couvrant le Lac Fryxell, dans la
Chaîne Transantarctique, vient des
eaux de fonte du Glacier Canada et
d'autres glaciers plus petits. L'eau
fraîche se trouve au sommet du lac et
gèle, scellant une eau saumâtre
située en-dessous. Date 10 December
2002 Source From Antarctic Photo
Library: LAKEFRYXELL.JPG Author Joe
Mastroianni, National Science
Foundation PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/8/8f/Fryxellsee_Opt.
jpg/1280px-Fryxellsee_Opt.jpg


[2] Description Deutsch: Der Vulkan
Mount Erebus, Antarktika. English:
Mount Erebus, Ross Island,
Antarctica. Español: Monte Erebus,
Isla Ross,Antártida Français : Le
mont Erebus, île de Ross,
Antarctique. Türkçe: Erebus Dağı,
Antarktika Русский:
Вулкан Эребус,
Антарктида Date
1972 Source U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) Author Richard Waitt, U.S.
Geological Survey Permission (Reusing
this file) PD-US Other versions
Image:Mt Erebus (original).jpg PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/4e/Mt_erebus.jpg

363,000,000 YBN
379) The first vertebrates live on land
(an amphibian).

Fresh water, Greenland (on the
equator) 

[1] Yes, it's time for the Palaeozoic
scenes of Life before Man. Or some of
them, anyway - if you really want to
see a load of trilobites, you're
probably Richard Fortey, and I will
ignore any comments that claim
otherwise. (Also, I can't include
everything - otherwise we'd have to
rename this blog Love in the Time of
Burian, which sounds a bit rubbish.) My
bias is most definitely towards
vertebrates and, in particular,
tetrapods, and the below scene -
featuring Ichthyostega - marks their
first appearance in the book. This
painting is perhaps unique in this book
as it combines the elements of the
animal-free landscapes with, well, some
animals. Burian's skill is in making
this scene, filled as it is with flora
so utterly different to what we are
accustomed to seeing today, look as if
he just took a casual stroll out into
the country to paint it. UNKNOWN
source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Zdvegv
1Fny4/UCk-Z929irI/AAAAAAAABM8/_7c21BO7T1
s/s1600/Ichthyostega.jpg


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg

360,000,000 YBN
226) The second largest Fungi phylum,
"Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu}
evolves (the ancestor of many
mushrooms: button, chanterelle
{saNTRreL}, cremini {KremENE}, enoki
{inoKE}, fly agaric {uGaRiK}, oyster,
porcino {PORCEnO }, portabella,
psilocybe, puffball, shiitake {sEToKE},
woodear, rusts, and club fungi).

The Basidiomycota phylum contains 37%
of the described species of Fungi and
all produce basidia, which are the
cells on which sexual spores are
produced.

earliest fossils: Indiana 
[1] Amanita muscaria
(Homobasidiomycetes)
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Agaricales.jpg


[2] Basidiomycete Life Cycle tjv
source: http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/ima
ges/332/Basidiomycota/General_basidio/Ba
sidiomycete_Life_Cycle_tjv.php?highres=t
rue

360,000,000 YBN
6353) The Neoptera, folding wing
insects evolve.

A mechanism to fold the wings against
the body after landing has a selective
advantage by making the wings less
conspicuous, awkward, and susceptible
to breakage.

The Neoptera are a very successful
lineage and are the ancestors of all
"higher" orders of insects.

earliest fossils: (Archimylacris
eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK 

[1] Stonefly in the genus Dinotoperla.
Taken in Swifts Creek, Victoria in
November 2007 GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e6/Stonefly_-_dinotoperl
a.jpg


[2] Nymph of unidentified
stonefly Description Deutsch:
Steinfliegenlarve Date 16 June
2006 Source Own work Author
böhringer friedrich CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/SteinfliegenLar
ve2.JPG/1280px-SteinfliegenLarve2.JPG

359,200,000 YBN
124) The end of the Devonian (416-359.2
mybn), and start of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn) Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 370 Ma Middle Devonian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/370
_Devonian_2globes.jpg

359,000,000 YBN
243) The first plant seed evolves; the
ancestor of all seed plants.

The earliest fossil seed is from a seed
fern (Pteridosperm {TARiDOSPRM}).
Pteridosperms are a group of extinct
seed plants with fernlike leaves and
naked seeds.

Fossils indicate that the first seed
evolves from an enclosing ring of
vegetative lobes that fuse together.

A seed can be described as an
"integumented megasporangium". In the
most primitive vascular plants, the
spores are all the same size, but
eventually gender evolves, producing
small male "microspores" and larger
female "megaspores". Then individual
female megaspores are enclosed by a
ring of vegetative lobes which form an
integument or cover.

earliest fossils: Scotland 
[1] Henry N. Andrews, ''Early Seed
Plants'', Science, New Series, Vol.
142, No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/17
11577 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711
577


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

355,000,000 YBN
6410) Hearing in Amphibians adapts to
sounds transmitted through the air.
This is the beginning of vertebrates
making vocal sounds.

 
[1] Figure 6.2 from: Peter M. Narins,
Albert S. Feng, Richard R. Fay and
Arthur N. Popper, ''Hearing and Sound
Communication in Amphibians'', Springer
Handbook of Auditory Research, Volume
28, 2006, DOI:
10.1007/978-0-387-47796-1 http://www.sp
ringerlink.com/content/l637813537l70704/
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.springerlink.com/cont
ent/l637813537l70704/


[2] Description Eocaecilia
micropodia, an early caecilian from the
Lower Jurassic of Arizona, pencil
drawing Date 22 August
2007 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com Permission (Reusi
ng this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/27/Eocaecilia_BW.jpg

350,000,000 YBN
361) The Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons
and Paddlefish evolve.

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.

350,000,000 YBN
6355) The Neoptera: Dictyoptera
{DiKTEoPTRu} evolve (the ancestor of
Cockroaches, Termites, and Mantises).

 
[1] Description English: Juvenile,
Madagascar hissing cockroach at the
Atlanta Botanical Garden. Taken
9/23/2007. Date 25 September 2007
(original upload date) Source
Transferred from en.wikipedia;
transferred to Commons by
User:Sreejithk2000 using
CommonsHelper. Author Original
uploader was Almabes at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) Released into the public
domain (by the author). Other versions
Derivative works of this file:
Female Madagascar hissing
cockroach2.jpg PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/46/Female_Madagascar_his
sing_cockroach.JPG


[2] Figure 4.11. German Cockroaches,
Various Stages and Ages PD
source: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publicat
ions/books/housing/Graphics/chapter_04/F
igure4.11.jpg

340,000,000 YBN
384) The first hard-shell egg. The
Tetrapods Amniota {aMnEOtu} evolve; the
ancestor of all reptiles, mammals and
birds and the first hard-shell egg.
The hard-shell egg is waterproof. This
is the start of vertebrate internal
fertilization, because on land the egg
cannot be fertilized as most fishes and
amphibians do, by a male swimming near
the eggs and spraying them with sperm.
Amniote males and females must copulate
{KoPYelAT} so that the sperm can reach
the eggs inside the female.

Amniotes (reptiles, mammals, and birds)
are distinguished from non-amniote
tetrapods (amphibians) by the presence
of complex embryonic membranes. One of
these, the amnion, gives its name to
the group.

All living amniotes lay hard-shelled
eggs, except most mammals and some
snakes and lizards, where egg laying
has been replaced by live birth.

The egg shell of amniotes may be
flexible (like the eggs of many turtles
and lizards) or mineralized and hard
(like the eggs of birds, crocodiles and
many tortoises).

earliest fossils: Bathgate, West
Lothian, Scotland 

[1] Figure 2 from: [t Note that this
egg is only of Permian age: 299-251
mybn] Karl F. Hirsch, ''The Oldest
Vertebrate Egg?'', Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 53, No. 5 (Sep.,
1979), pp.
1068-1084. http://www.jstor.org/stable/
1304086 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1304
086


[2] Prothero, ''Bringing Fossils To
Life'', 2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Prothero, "Bringing Fossils To
Life", 2004. COPYRIGHTED

335,000,000 YBN
6331) The Amniota divide into the
Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu} and the
Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du}.

The Sauropsida have two major lineages:
the Parareptilia (turtles) and the
Eureptilia (dinosaurs, crocodiles and
birds). The Synapsids also have two
major lineages: the pelycosaurs (which
are sail-backed amniotes) and the
therapsids (which are mammal-like
amniotes).

earliest possible Synapsid fossils:
(Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada 

[1] Prothero, ''Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters'', 2007,
p232. COPYRIGHTED
source: Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.


[2] Prothero, ''Bringing Fossils To
Life'', 2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Prothero, "Bringing Fossils To
Life", 2004. COPYRIGHTED

330,000,000 YBN
6307) The Synapsids Pelycosauria
{PeLiKuSOREu} evolve (the ancestor of
Edaphosaurus {eDaFoSORuS} and
Dimetrodon).

The most notable feature in some
species of Pelycosaur is a broad "sail"
along the back.

 
[1] Description This just might be
a depiction of Edaphosaurus pogonias,
to make a guess from the title. If you
know more about this image, please
place a good description here. Date
2007-04-30 (original upload
date) Source Originally from
ru.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader
was ДиБгд at
ru.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) This image is in the public
domain; PD-ART. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/7d/Edaphosaurus_pogonias
.jpg


[2] Kardong, ''Vertebrates'',
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Kardong, "Vertebrates",
2002. COPYRIGHTED

325,000,000 YBN
381) The earliest extant Amphibians:
Caecilians evolve.

 
[1] Description Eocaecilia
micropodia, an early caecilian from the
Lower Jurassic of Arizona, pencil
drawing Date 22 August
2007 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com Permission (Reusi
ng this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/27/Eocaecilia_BW.jpg


[2] Figure 1 from: Roelants, K.,
Gower, D. J., Wilkinson, M., Loader, S.
P., Biju, S. D., Guillaume, K., Moriau,
L., & Bossuyt, F. (2007). Global
patterns of diversification in the
history of modern amphibians.
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences , 104 (3), 887-892. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.060837810
4 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0
608378104

320,000,000 YBN
238) The seed plants: Gymnosperms
evolve. Gymnosperms are the earliest
surviving seed plants, and ancestor of
all Cycads, Ginkgos and the Conifers).


The most primitive extant Gymnosperms,
the Cycads evolve now.

Gymnosperm is Greek for "Naked Seed". A
gymnosperm reproduces by a seed that is
in direct contact with the environment,
as opposed to an angiosperm (a
flowering plant) whose seeds are
enclosed by mature ovaries, or fruits.

 
[1] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

320,000,000 YBN
6356) The Neoptera Order: Orthoptera
evolves (the ancestor of crickets,
grasshoppers, locusts, and walking
sticks).

 
[1] African Field cricket Gryllus
bimaculatus at Bristol Zoo, Bristol,
England. Photographed by Adrian
Pingstone in February 2005 and released
to the public domain. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/2/27/African.field.c
ricket.arp.jpg/1200px-African.field.cric
ket.arp.jpg


[2] Description
grasshopper Source self
made Date unknown Author
Stephen Friedt PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/thumb/3/3c/Grasshopper_%2827%29
.JPG/1280px-Grasshopper_%2827%29.JPG

317,000,000 YBN
385) The Sauropsid Class Reptilia
{reP-TiL-E-u} evolves, the Reptiles;
the ancestor of all turtles,
crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs and
birds.

The class Reptilia is a group of
air-breathing vertebrates that have
internal fertilization, and scales
covering part or all of their body. All
reptiles are cold-blooded, except for
birds, and possibly some or all
pterosaurs and dinosaurs.

earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation)
Nova Scotia, Canada 

[1] from: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.
COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Description English: Reptilia
(reptiles), based on:
File:Buberel cayman 3.jpg
File:Crotalus adamanteus (5).jpg
File:Karettschildkroete 01.jpg
File:Henry at Invercargill.jpg All
of them are either under a free licence
already in Wikicommons or in the public
domain Date 3/2/09 Source
Compilation made by myself Author
see respective profiles of
photos PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/67/Reptiles.jpg

314,000,000 YBN
240) The Gymnosperms Pinophyta
{PInoFiTu} evolve (the ancestor of the
Conifers: includes Pine, Fir, Spruce,
Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, Hemlock,
Larch, Yew, and Cypress.).

The oldest known living plants are
found among the conifers, some
estimated to be around 5000 years old.

earliest fossils: Wakefield, Yorkshire,
England 

[1] Closeup shot of a stem of needles
(perhaps Norway spruce?) by USFWS and
obtained from the GIMP photo
library. United States Federal
Government This work is in the
public domain because it is a work of
the United States Federal Government.
This applies worldwide. See
Copyright Close-up of pinophyte leaves
(needles): Norway Spruce (Picea abies)

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pin
ophyta


[2] Native Pinus sylvestris forest,
Scotland: Deeside, Mar Lodge, April
2005 GNU 1.2
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pin
aceae

310,000,000 YBN
6357) The Neoptera: Paraneoptera evolve
(the ancestor of bark lice, true lice,
thrips, and the Hemiptera {HemiPTRu}.
The Hemiptera have mouthparts adapted
for piercing and sucking and include:
Cicadas, Aphids, and "true bugs": such
as Bed bugs, and Stink bugs).

 
[1] Description Tibicen
linnei English: Annual cicada. Date
22 June 2003 Source Own work
http://www.cirrusimage.com/homoptera_cic
ada_T_linnei.htm Author Bruce
Marlin CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/Tibicen_linnei.
jpg/1142px-Tibicen_linnei.jpg


[2] Description English: Pea aphids
extracting sap from the stem and leaves
of garden peas. Date February
2010 Source PLoS Biology, February
2010 direct link to the image
description Author Shipher Wu
(photograph) and Gee-way Lin (aphid
provision), National Taiwan
University CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/20/Acyrthosiphon_pisum_%
28pea_aphid%29-PLoS.jpg

310,000,000 YBN
6359) The Neoptera Holometabola
{HoLomeTaBolu or HOlOmeTABolu} evolve:
Holometabolous insects: (insects that
undergo complete metamorphosis, the
ancestor of beetles, bees, true flies,
and butterflies).

The holometabolous insects account for
nearly 85% of all insects.

The Holometabola are insects that have
complete metamorphosis (or
holometabolous development). Unlike
hemimetabolous insects in which the
immature structures (legs, eyes,
antennae, etc.) must also serve the
adults, holometabolous insects have a
morphologically reduced larval stage
and acquire a completely new body
during the pupal stage.

 
[1] Description wespenpoppen in
verschillende ontwikkelstadia Eigen
foto's Date 2005-06-13 (original
upload date) Source Originally from
nl.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader was
Asaf at
nl.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) SELF2 GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/79/Ontwikkelstadia_wespe
npoppen.jpg


[2] Miomoptera- viewed by many as
stem-group Holometabola. UNKNOWN
source: http://wdict.net/img/miomoptera,
2.jpg

305,000,000 YBN
242) The Amphibians: Anura {unRu}
evolve (the ancestor of all Frogs and
Toads).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 303. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 303.


[2] Description English: A green
frog on a palm frond. Date 18
October 2003 Source Burning
Well Author Leon Brooks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8d/Frog_on_palm_frond.jp
g

300,000,000 YBN
1310) The Stramenopiles Chrysophyta
{KriSoFiTu} evolve (Golden algae).

 
[1] Description Dinobryon sp. / from
Shishitsuka Pond, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki
Pref., Japan / Microscope:Leica DMRD
(DIC) Date 20 May 2007 Source Own
work Author ja:User:NEON /
commons:User:NEON_ja CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/68/Dinobryon_sp.jpg


[2] Dinobryon, a colony of
Chrysophytes showing flagella and red
eyespots UNKNOWN
source: http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/
mag//imagsmall/Dinobryonb.jpg

299,000,000 YBN
125) The end of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn), and start of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 300 Ma Late
Pennsylvanian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/300
_Penn_2globes.jpg

299,000,000 YBN
6360) The Holometabola Order:
Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu} evolves (the
ancestor of the Beetles).

Coleoptera is the largest order of all
organisms known containing 350,000
named species; 40% of all the insects.

Well known beetles include: Ladybugs,
Fireflies, Dung beetles, Japanese
beetles, weevils, and scarabs.

earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian
deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois,
USA 

[1] Figure 1. 1–7, Adiphlebia lacoana
Scudder, 1885. 1, 2, holotype specimen
(USNM 38143), reconstruction of the
wing venation (1), and photograph
(negative imprint, light-mirrored,
composite; 2); 3, specimen USNM 38140,
photograph (negative imprint,
light-mirrored, composite); 4,5,
specimen FMNH PE 3416, reconstruction
of the wing venation (forewings
separated; 4) and photograph (negative
imprint, composite; 5); 6, 7, specimen
FMNH PE 60291, reconstruction of the
wing venation (6) and photograph
(positive imprint; 7); 8, 9, details of
forewing main and intercalary veins
(black and white arrows, respectively)
in Adiphlabia lacoana (specimen FMNH PE
3416, right forewing; 8) and
Tetraphalerus bruchi Heller, 1913 (♀,
ventral view; 9). Abbreviations: LFW,
left forewing; RFW, right forewing;
ScP, posterior Subcosta; R, Radius; RA,
anterior Radius; RP, posterior Radius;
M, Media; CuA, anterior Cubitus; CuP,
posterior Cubitus; AA: anterior anal
vein. Color-coding: Subcosta, yellow;
Radius, blue; Media, red; Cubitus,
green; Analis, yellow. from Béthoux,
Olivier. “The Earliest Beetle
Identified.” Journal of Paleontology
83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/ab
s/10.1666/08-158.1 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworl
d.org/content/vol83/issue6/images/large/
i0022-3360-83-6-931-f01.jpeg


[2] {ULSF: Early Permian fossil
beetles see {Kukalová (1969), in
particular pl. 1; Ponomarenko (1969),
in particular figs. 16, 31, 32, 36, 40
41, 43, 44} and representatives of the
beetle sub-order Archostemata,
represented nowadays, exhibit
intercalary veins (Fig. 1.9) similar to
those exhibited by A.
lacoana} Archostemata is the smallest
suborder of beetles, consisting of
fewer than fifty known species
organized into five families.
Archostemata is an ancient lineage with
a number of primitive characteristics.
They are similar in morphology to the
first beetles, which appear in the
fossil record approximately 250 million
years ag Description
Tenomerga mucida (Chevrolat, 1829)
(Coleoptera: Cupedidae) - female.
Loc: Yokohama, kanagawa, japan.
ja: ナガヒラタムシ(鞘翅目:
ナガヒラタムシ科)のメス。
浜市内。産卵管をさかんに
し入れし、朽木の割れ目に挿
し込もうとしていたことから
産卵に来ていたものと思わ
る。 Date 13 July 2005 Source
my own file Author me PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/68/Tenomerga_mucida01.jp
g

290,000,000 YBN
239) The Gymnosperms: Ginkgophyta
evolve (Ginkgos).

 
[1] * Description: Leaves of Ginkgo
biloba. * Source: picure taken by
Reinhard Kraasch in his own garden in
August 2003 (from German wikipedia)
* Licence: released per the GNU Free
Documentation License by the
photographer
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gin
kgo


[2] Name Ginkgo biloba Family
Ginkgoaceae Image no. 1 Permission
granted to use under GFDL by Kurt
Stueber GNU Ginkgo fruit and leaves
source: same

290,000,000 YBN
6358) The Holometabola Order:
Hymenoptera evolves (the ancestor of
all bees, ants, and wasps).

 
[1] {ULSF: Xyelidae saw flies are the
most primitive of the
hymenoptera} Hymenoptera, Xyelidae,
dorsal - Macroxyela ferruginea -
Female Ames - Tullamore, Story County,
Iowa, USA April 30, 2008 Size: 11
mm It's a big one. (11 mm includes the
ovipositor) Oak hickory maple basswood
woodland malaise, April 23-30,
2008. Photo - still floating in
alcohol. Copyright © 2008 MJ
Hatfield COPYRIGHTED Fig. 2
Placement of fossil evidence for the
earliest Holometabola within a
phylogenetic context. Geologic time
line at left is after Ogg, et al.
(2008); note that the Mississippian is
equivalent to the Early Carboniferous
and Pennsylvanian equivalent to the
Late Carboniferous. Earliest reliable
occurrences of taxa (solid dots,
followed by a thick black line) are
after various sources mentioned in the
text; major localities for the initial
diversification of the Holometabola
are: Elmo, Kansas, the “insect bed”
of the Wellington Formation from the
Artinskian Stage of the Early Permian;
Calhoun, the Calhoun Coal Member of the
Mattoon Formation, from the Kasimovian
Stage of the Late Pennsylvanian; Mazon
Creek of the Francis Creek Shale Member
of the Carbondale Formation, from the
Moscovian Stage of the Middle
Pennsylvanian; and the Terril Shale at
Pas-de-Calais, Bruay-la-Bussière,
France, from the Bashkirian Stage of
the Early Pennsylvanian. The horizontal
stippled bar at bottom represents the
initial diversification and the
earliest fossil occurrences of
holometabolan insects in the fossil
record. Labandeira, Conrad C.
“Evidence for an Earliest Late
Carboniferous Divergence Time and the
Early Larval Ecology and
Diversification of Major Holometabola
Lineages.” Entomologica Americana
117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/1
0.1664/10-RA-011.1 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://bugguide.net/images/raw/S
H8RHHPR0H7RDZHZULYLULRZ2LLZTLSZBLQZKH4RH
H7ZVL4RVL0ZALSZBLXZKH8RVLXZHHPRLHQRLH.jp
g


[2] Macroxyela ferruginea
Trusted Creative Commons Attribution
Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC
BY-NC-SA 3.0) ©
SusanneSchulmeister Source:
Morphbank Image Repository
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.bioone.org/na101/home
/literatum/publisher/bioone/journals/con
tent/nynt.1/2011/19475144-117.1/10-ra-01
1.1/production/images/large/i1947-5144-1
17-1-9-f02.jpeg

287,000,000 YBN
6308) The Synapsid Therapsids evolve
(Cynodonts).

The Therapsids evolve from Pelycosaurs
and largely replace them for a time as
the dominant terrestrial vertebrates.
The legs of Therapsids are more
directly positioned under the weight of
their body, which results in a more
efficient mode of movement.

 
[1] Kardong, ''Vertebrates'',
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Description English:
Moschops capensis - Middle Permian of
South Africa. Based on skeleton from
AMNH. Русский: Moschops
capensis - средняя пермь
Южной Африки.
Основано на скелете
из Американского
музея Естественной
истории. Date 2008 Source
dmitrchel@mail.ru Author
Creator:Dmitry Bogdanov GNU


[2] Kardong, ''Vertebrates'',
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/a4/Moschops11DB.jp
g/1024px-Moschops11DB.jpg

274,000,000 YBN
307) The Stramenopiles: Phaeophyta
{FEoFiTu} evolve (the ancestor of all
Brown Algae, includes many seaweeds
like the giant kelps).

Note that brown algae are not plants
but are protists.

 
[1] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703


[2] Pacific Rockweed (Fucus distichus)
in Olympic National Park Cropped from
PhotoCD image, from Kodak ISO 800 film,
taken by k.lee June 2004, hereby
released under GFDL.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Pacific_rockweed%2C_Olympic_National_
Park%2C_USA.jpg

266,000,000 YBN
308) The Stramenopiles: Diatoms
evolve.

Diatoms are microscopic unicellular or
colonial algae, having cell walls of
silica consisting of two interlocking
symmetrical valves.

 
[1] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703


[2] Figure 1. Phylogenetic hypothesis
of the eukaryotic lineage based on
ultrastructural and molecular data.
Organisms are divided into three main
groups distinguished by mitochondrial
cristal shape (either discoidal,
flattened or tubular). Unbroken lines
indicate phylogenetic relationships
that are firmly supported by available
data; broken lines indicate
uncertainties in phylogenetic
placement, resolution of which will
require additional data. Color coding
of organismal genus names indicates
mitochondrial genomes that have been
completely (Table 1), almost completely
(Jakoba, Naegleria and
Thraustochytrium) or partially (*)
sequenced by the OGMP (red), the FMGP
(black) or other groups (green). Names
in blue indicate those species whose
mtDNAs are currently being sequenced by
the OGMP or are future candidates for
complete sequencing. Amitochondriate
retortamonads are positioned at the
base of the tree, with broken arrows
denoting the endosymbiotic origin(s) of
mitochondria from a Rickettsia-like
eubacterium. Macrophar.,
Macropharyngomonas. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/cg
i/content/full/26/4/865

260,000,000 YBN
232) The earliest endothermic (or
"warm-blooded") and hair growing
animal, a therapsid.

Endothermy is the physiological
maintenance, by a body, of a constant
temperature independent of the external
environmental temperature. Hair for
insulation is correlated to endothermy.


Both birds and mammals are endothermic
(also called "warm blooded") as opposed
to other vertebrates (like amphibians
and crocodiles) which are ectothermic
(or "cold blooded) and cannot
internally generate heat.

Endothermy allows birds and mammals to
maintain a high and relatively constant
body temperature, even at rest, during
a wide range of external environmental
conditions.

 
[1] Description English: Life
restoration of Purlovia maxima. Based
on figures 8-10 of ''Permian and
Triassic therocephals (Eutherapsida) of
Eastern Europe'' by M. F. Ivakhnenko
(Paleontological Journal 45 (9):
981-1144). Date 8 January
2012 Source Own
work Author Smokeybjb CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a5/Purlovia_maxima.jpg


[2] Description Bauria , a
therocephalian therapsid from the early
Middle Triassic of South Africa, pencil
drawing Date 20 February
2007 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c0/Bauria_BW.jpg

256,000,000 YBN
6362) The Holometabola Order: Diptera
{DiPTRe} evolves, true flies, having a
single pair of wings: the ancestor of
the mosquito, gnat, deer fly, horse
fly, fruit fly, drosophila
{DrO-SoF-u_lu}, and house fly).

 
[1] Nymphomyia alba adult UNKNOWN
source: http://whyevolutionistrue.files.
wordpress.com/2011/03/nymphomyia-alba.jp
g


[2] Nymphomyia alba larva UNKNOWN
source: http://whyevolutionistrue.files.
wordpress.com/2011/03/nymphomyia.jpg

251,400,000 YBN
102) The largest mass extinction of
history, the End-Permian mass
extinction. 82% of all genera are
observed extinct.

The Permian–Triassic extinction event
is the Earth's most severe extinction
event, with up to 96% of all marine
species and 70% of terrestrial
vertebrate species becoming extinct. It
is the only known mass extinction of
insects.

 
[1] Description English:
Description: Illustration of an
en:impact event. Source Made by
Fredrik. Cloud texture from public
domain NASA image. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cb/Impact_event.jpg


[2] Timeline of mass extinctions.
COPYRIGHTED Benjamin
Cummings. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/
16cm05/1116/16macro.htm

251,000,000 YBN
54) The end of the Paleozoic and start
of the Mesozoic Era, and the end of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) and start of the
Triassic (251-201.6 mybn) period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 260 Ma Late Permian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/260
_Permian_2globes.jpg

251,000,000 YBN
452) The supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe)
forms.

 
[1] 260 Ma Late Permian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/260
_Permian_2globes.jpg


[2] In geologic terms, a plate is a
large, rigid slab of solid rock. The
word tectonics comes from the Greek
root ''to build.'' Putting these two
words together, we get the term plate
tectonics, which refers to how the
Earth's surface is built of plates. The
theory of plate tectonics states that
the Earth's outermost layer is
fragmented into a dozen or more large
and small plates that are moving
relative to one another as they ride
atop hotter, more mobile material.
Before the advent of plate tectonics,
however, some people already believed
that the present-day continents were
the fragmented pieces of preexisting
larger landmasses
(''supercontinents''). The diagrams
below show the break-up of the
supercontinent Pangaea (meaning ''all
lands'' in Greek), which figured
prominently in the theory of
continental drift -- the forerunner to
the theory of plate tectonics. PD
source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic
/graphics/Fig2-5globes.gif

250,000,000 YBN
241) The gymnosperms "Gnetales"
{ne-TA-lEZ} evolve; thought to be the
closest living gymnosperm relatives of
the angiosperms.

 
[1] Description English: Ephedra
fragilis growing at Cap de Formentor,
peninsula of Formentor, Pollença,
Mallorca Date created 18. Dec.
2009 Source Own work Author Frank
Vincentz Permission (Reusing this
file) GFDL (self made) GFDL
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Pollen%C3%A7a_-
_Ma-2210_-_Cap_de_Formentor_-_Ephedra_fr
agilis_05_ies.jpg/1280px-Pollen%C3%A7a_-
_Ma-2210_-_Cap_de_Formentor_-_Ephedra_fr
agilis_05_ies.jpg


[2] Ephedra viridis in western
Nevada Ephedra_viridis_1.jpg (59KB,
MIME type:
image/jpeg) GFDL Permission is
granted to copy, distribute and/or
modify this document under the terms of
the GNU Ephedra viridis ('Green
Mormon Tea'), photo taken near Reno,
Nevada GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eph
edra

235,000,000 YBN
304) The Protist Phlyum "Haptophyta"
{HaPTuFITu} evolves, the
Coccolithophores {KoK-o-lit-u-FORZ}.

Most haptophytes are coccolithophores,
unicellular (flagellated) marine
protists with calcified plates (or
coccoliths) embedded in their cell
walls.

Some haptophytes turn parts of the
ocean bright turquoise during their
blooms.

 
[1] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703


[2] Emiliania huxleyi, a
coccolithophore. Photo courtesy Dr.
Markus Geisen - photographer, and The
Natural History Museum. PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Emiliania_huxleyi_3.jpg

228,000,000 YBN
412) The Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto
Formation) Valley of the Moon,
Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina 

[1] Figure 2 from: Sereno, Paul C. et
al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from
Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html COPYR
IGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html


[2] Eoraptor was a genus of small,
slender theropod native to northwest
Argentina. It was quite possibly the
earliest theropod genus and has not
been classified in any family.
UNKNOWN
source: http://images.wikia.com/deadtime
s/images/a/a2/Eoraptor.jpg

228,000,000 YBN
6282) Dinosaurs divide into two major
lines: the Ornithischians
{ORnitiSKEiNZ} (Bird-hipped dinosaurs)
and the Saurischians {SoriSKEiNZ}
(Lizard-hipped dinosaurs).

 
[1] Harold Levine, ''The Earth Through
Time'', 2006, p417. COPYRIGHTED
source: Harold Levine, "The Earth
Through Time", 2006, p417.


[2] Harold Levine, ''The Earth Through
Time'', 2006, p418. COPYRIGHTED
source: Harold Levine, "The Earth
Through Time", 2006, p418.

228,000,000 YBN
6283) The Saurischian {SoriSKEiN}
Dinosaurs split into two major lines:
The Sauropodomorpha (SoroPiDimORFu} and
the Therapoda {tiRoPiDu}.

The Sauropodomorphs are divided into
prosauropods and sauropods, are mostly
plant-eating, and include the large,
long-necked dinosaurs like
Apatosaurus.

The Theropod {tERePoD} dinosaurs are
bipedal and carnivorous and include
Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and
Velociraptor. All birds descend from a
Therapod ancestor.

earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto
Formation) Valley of the Moon,
Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina 

[1] Fig 3.38 from Kardong,
''Vertebrates'', p116,
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Kardong, "Vertebrates", p116,
2002.


[2] Figure 2 from: Sereno, Paul C. et
al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from
Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html COPYR
IGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html

225,000,000 YBN
126) The Synapsids Mammals evolve. The
first mammary gland.

Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates
that have four limbs (except for some
aquatic species).
The female has mammary glands,
which secrete milk for the nourishment
of the young after birth. In the
majority of mammals the body is
partially or entirely covered with
hair.

earliest fossils: (Dockum Formation)
Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas,
USA 

[1] Figure 6 from: Spencer G. Lucas
and Zhexi Luo, ''Adelobasileus from the
Upper Triassic of West Texas: The
Oldest Mammal'', Journal of Vertebrate
Paleontology, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23,
1993), pp. 309-334 Published by:
Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of The
Society of Vertebrate
Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523
514


[2] [t Note that this image is not
clearly from a scholarly
source] Description English:
Adelobasileus cromptoni, a mammaliaform
from the Late Triassic of Texas.
Digital. Date 9 September
2008 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com Permission (Reusi
ng this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2f/Adelobasileus_BW.jpg

225,000,000 YBN
369) The Ray-Finned Fishes Teleost
(TeLEoST) fishes evolve.

Teleosts are a large group of fishes
with bony skeletons, including most
common fishes.

 
[1] Fig. 2. The single
most-parsimonious (MP) tree derived
from unweighted analysis of mitogenomic
data comprising concatenated nucleotide
sequences from 12 protein-coding
(excluding the ND6 gene and third codon
positions) and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)
genes (stem regions only) from all 28
species examined. Tree length, 12,709
steps; consistency index, 0.355;
retention index, 0.471; and rescaled
consistency index, 0.167. Numbers above
and below internal branches indicate
jackknife values obtained for 500
replicates using the heuristic search
option in PAUP*4.0b10 (Swofford, 2002)
with 20 random-addition sequences being
performed in each replication and decay
indices, respectively. The scale
indicates 100 changes. from: Inoue,
JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M
(2003) ''Basal actinopterygian
relationships: A mitogenomic
perspective on the phylogeny of the
ldquoancient fish.rdquo'' Mol
Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S1055790302003317 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/B6WNH-475B9D7-6-1K/0?wc
hp=dGLbVlz-zSkzk


[2] Arapaima gigas at the Smithsonian
Zoo. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/b1/Arapaima_gigas.jpg

220,000,000 YBN
387) The most primitive extant
reptiles, the Testudines {TeSTUDinEZ}
evolve: the ancestor of all Turtles,
Tortoises and Terrapins.

The turtle shell evolves from broadened
ribs.

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 262.


[2] English: Odontochelys
semitestacea, from the Late Triassic of
China, the oldest known turtle.
Digital. ‪中文(简体)‬:
半甲齿龟,已知最为古老的乌
,于2007年在中国贵州境内发
。(三维模拟图) Date 4
December 2008 Source Own
work Author Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/39/Odontochelys_BW.jpg

220,000,000 YBN
389) The reptiles: Tuataras {TUeToRoZ}
evolve.

(Islands of) New Zealand 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] A male tuatara named Henry, living
at the Southland Museum and Art
Gallery, is still reproductively active
at 111 years of age. 111-Year-Old
Reptile Becomes a Dad After Tumor
Surgery Discover Magazine, 26 January
2009. Retrieved 20 March
2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disc
over_Magazine Description English:
Henry, the world's oldest Tuatara in
captivity at Invercargill, New
Zealand Date 22 November
2007 Source Own work Author
KeresH CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/96/Henry_at_Invercargill
.jpg

220,000,000 YBN
428) The first flying vertebrate, the
Reptiles Pterosaurs evolve.

Flight in pterosaurs, birds, and bats
evolves independently.

Pterosaurs actively fly (contracting
their wing muscles to flap), as opposed
to only glide.

That some pterosaurs had hair is
evidence that they may have been
warm-blooded.

 
[1] Eudimorphon and Peteinosaurus
from: Wellnhofer, ''Pterosaurs'',
1991, p60-61. COPYRIGHTED
source: Wellnhofer, "Pterosaurs", 1991,
p60-61.


[2] Eudimorphon and Peteinosaurus
from: Wellnhofer, ''Pterosaurs'',
1991, p60-61. COPYRIGHTED
source: Wellnhofer, "Pterosaurs", 1991,
p60-61.

210,000,000 YBN
390) The Reptiles Iguania evolve: (the
ancestor of iguanas, chameleons, and
spiny lizards).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 262.


[2] Description Iguana sp. Foto
tomada en el Zoo de Madrid. Date
Summer 2007 Source Own
work Author Manuel de Corselas
ARS SUMMUM, Centro para el Estudio y
Difusión Libres de la Historia del
Arte PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/57/AA_Iguana_Fot_Ars_Sum
mum.JPG

210,000,000 YBN
391) The Reptiles: Scleroglossa evolve
(the ancestor of snakes, skinks, and
geckos).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 262.


[2] Description Deutsch:
Versteinerung eines Archaeophis proavus
Massalongo - aus Monte Bolca. Museum
für Naturkunde (Berlin). English:
Fossil of a Archaeophis proavus
Massalongo, Monte Bolca. Museum für
Naturkunde (Berlin). Date 22 July
2007 Source Own work Author
Raymond - Raimond
Spekking Permission (Reusing this
file) See
below. Attribution (required by the
license) © Raimond Spekking /
CC-BY-SA-3.0 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f1/Naturkundemuseum_Berl
in_-_Archaeophis_proavus_Massalongo_-_Mo
nte_Bolca.jpg

210,000,000 YBN
6313) The earliest extant Teleosts:
Bonytongues evolve.

 
[1] Fig. 2. The single
most-parsimonious (MP) tree derived
from unweighted analysis of mitogenomic
data comprising concatenated nucleotide
sequences from 12 protein-coding
(excluding the ND6 gene and third codon
positions) and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)
genes (stem regions only) from all 28
species examined. Tree length, 12,709
steps; consistency index, 0.355;
retention index, 0.471; and rescaled
consistency index, 0.167. Numbers above
and below internal branches indicate
jackknife values obtained for 500
replicates using the heuristic search
option in PAUP*4.0b10 (Swofford, 2002)
with 20 random-addition sequences being
performed in each replication and decay
indices, respectively. The scale
indicates 100 changes. from: Inoue,
JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M
(2003) ''Basal actinopterygian
relationships: A mitogenomic
perspective on the phylogeny of the
ldquoancient fish.rdquo'' Mol
Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S1055790302003317 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/B6WNH-475B9D7-6-1K/0?wc
hp=dGLbVlz-zSkzk


[2] Arapaima gigas at the Smithsonian
Zoo. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/b1/Arapaima_gigas.jpg

201,600,000 YBN
127) The End-Triassic mass extinction.
53% of all genera are observed
extinct.

Many terrestrial vertebrates and large
amphibians go extinct.

 
[1] A modified version of
Image:Extinction
Intensity.svg. Changes: Time
runs from left to right Periods
are coloured as per the Paris system -
see w:Template:Period color for full
explanation Text removed so
wikilinks can be floated over. See
w:Template:Annotated image/Extinction
for implementation. Cubic
polynomial removed as this doesn't
convey any useful information and is
mainly an artefact. The caption on
the original file is: Marine Genus
Biodiversity: Extinction
Intensity GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/06/Extinction_intensity.
svg


[2] Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.
May 1954 eruption of Kilauea Volcano.
Halemaumau fountains. Photo by J.P.
Eaton, May 31, 1954. Image file:
/htmllib/batch37/batch37j/batch37z/batch
37/hvo00014.jpg PD
source: http://libraryphoto.cr.usgs.gov/
htmllib/batch37/batch37j/batch37z/batch3
7/hvo00014.jpg

201,600,000 YBN
228) The end of the Triassic (251-201.6
mybn), and start of the Jurassic
(201.6-145.5 mybn) Period.

 
[1] Description English: Global
paleogeographic reconstruction of the
Earth in the late Jurassic period 150
million years ago. Deutsch: Globale
paläogeografische Rekonstruktion der
Erde während des späten Jura vor 150
Millionen Jahren. Русский:
Глобальная
палеогеографическая
реконструкция Земли
в конце Юрского
периода, 150 миллионов
лет назад. Date 23 April
2008 Source
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/mollgl
obe.html Author Dr. Ron Blakey -
http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/ CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/76/LateJurassicGlobal.jp
g


[2] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

201,600,000 YBN
6372) The Ornithischians Thyreophora
{tIrEoFeru} evolve; the ancestor of the
armored ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} and
the plated stegosaurs {STeGeSORZ}.

(Kayenta Formation) Arizona, USA 
[1] Description Scutellosaurus
lawleri, an ornithischian from the
Early Jurassic of North America, pencil
drawing, digital coloring Date
November 30, 2006, modified October
11, 2007 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
(http://spinops.blogspot.com) GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/12/Scutellosaurus.jpg


[2] Description Scutellosaurus Date
Source Own Work by Pavel Riha (see
also the paleo-gallery by Pavel
Riha) Author Pavel Riha = user
Pavel.Riha.CB GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/b0/Scutellosaurus1.jpg

201,000,000 YBN
6652) Wasps evolve.
 
[1] David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, ''Evolution of the Insects'',
2005, p411. COPYRIGHTED
source: David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p411.


[2] Description English: Xiphydria
prolongata (Symphyta) Date Source
British Phytophagous
Hymenoptera Author Peter Cameron
(died 1912) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f6/Xiphydria_prolongata.
jpg

200,000,000 YBN
370) The Teleosts: eels and tarpons
evolve.

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.

200,000,000 YBN
392) The Reptiles: Crocodilia
{KroKoDiLEu} evolve (the ancestor of
Crocodiles, allegators, and caimans
{KAmeNS}).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Nile crocodile, taken at the Le
Bonheur Crocodile Farm near
Stellenbosch, South Africa. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/81/NileCrocodile.jpg

195,000,000 YBN
246) The Saurischian {SoriSKEiN}
Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ} evolve; the
ancestor of the large, long-necked
dinosaurs like Apatosaurus
{uPaTuSORuS}, Brachiosaurus
{BrAKEuSORuS}, and Diplodocus
{DiPloDiKuS}.

western USA 
[1] [t may not be
scholarly] Description
Brachiosaurus altithorax Date
2007 Source Own work Author
Богданов
dmitrchel@mail.ru PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/d9/Brachiosaurus_DB.jpg


[2] Description English: Bronze
Brachiosaurus mount outside of the
Field Museum of Natural History,
Chicago, IL. Date
10/12/2009 Source Own
work Author
AStrangerintheAlps CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/4b/FMNH_Brachiosaurus.JP
G

195,000,000 YBN
6373) The Ornithischian Ornithopoda
{ORnitoPiDu} evolve; the duck-billed
dinosaurs, ancestor of the Hadrosaurs.

 
[1] Heterodontosaurus UNKNOWN
source: http://www.wikidino.com/wp-conte
nt/uploads/Heterodontosaurus-Jan-Sovak.j
pg


[2] Harold Levine, ''The Earth Through
Time'', 2006, p417. COPYRIGHTED
source: Harold Levine, "The Earth
Through Time", 2006, p417.

190,000,000 YBN
371) The Teleosts: herrings and
anchovies evolve.

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Description Northern
anchovies are important prey for marine
mammals and game fish Image ID:
nur00009, National Undersearch Research
Program (NURP) Collection Location:
Pacific Ocean. Credit: OAR/National
Undersea Research Program
(NURP) Downloaded from:
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/nur00
009.htm Note: Another image from this
collection had fish described as
northern anchovies, with the scientific
name Engraulis mordax, or Californian
anchovy. The species may be
misidentified. Date 2006-12-08
(original upload date) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Anchovy_closeup.jpg

190,000,000 YBN
6289) The Supercontinent Pangea splits
into Laurasia and Gondwana. The
northern part, Laurasia will form North
America and Europe. The southern part,
Gondwana will form South America and
Africa.

Pangea 
[1] 200 Ma Early Jurassic UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/200
_Jurassic_2globes.jpg


[2] In geologic terms, a plate is a
large, rigid slab of solid rock. The
word tectonics comes from the Greek
root ''to build.'' Putting these two
words together, we get the term plate
tectonics, which refers to how the
Earth's surface is built of plates. The
theory of plate tectonics states that
the Earth's outermost layer is
fragmented into a dozen or more large
and small plates that are moving
relative to one another as they ride
atop hotter, more mobile material.
Before the advent of plate tectonics,
however, some people already believed
that the present-day continents were
the fragmented pieces of preexisting
larger landmasses
(''supercontinents''). The diagrams
below show the break-up of the
supercontinent Pangaea (meaning ''all
lands'' in Greek), which figured
prominently in the theory of
continental drift -- the forerunner to
the theory of plate tectonics. PD
source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic
/graphics/Fig2-5globes.gif

190,000,000 YBN
6347) The Holometabola Order
Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu} evolves (the
ancestor of moths, butterflies, and
caterpillars).

earliest fossils: Dorset, England 
[1] Description Photograph of a male
Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus en
). This butterfly was stationary on a
leaf with his wings outstretched in an
attempt to show off and attract a mate.
The picture was taken in the butterfly
house at the Tyler Arboretum. Camera
and Exposure Details: Camera: Nikon
D50 Lens: Nikon Nikkor ED AF-S DX
18-55mm f/3.5-5.6G Exposure: 55mm
(82.5mm in 35mm equivalent) f/9 @ 1/125
s. Date 9 September 2006 Source Own
work (Own Picture) Author Photo
(c)2006 Derek Ramsey
(Ram-Man) Permission (Reusing this
file) You may NOT use this image
on your own web site or anywhere else
unless you release this image and any
derivative works (which may include the
web page or other medium where this
image is used, if it is not considered
a ''collective work'') by following the
terms of the following license. Any
other use will be considered a breach
of copyright law. Please do not copy
this image illegally by ignoring the
terms of the license, as it is not in
the public domain. If you would like
special permission to use, license, or
purchase the image or prints of the
image, or for use in any other fashion
or would simply like a copy of the
original file, please contact me or
email me first to ask. Please see the
non-legalese usage guide for more
information. Note: While you are not
required to do so by the license,
please consider letting me know when
you reuse one of my photograph images,
as a courtesy. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Monarch_Butterf
ly_Showy_Male_3000px.jpg/1280px-Monarch_
Butterfly_Showy_Male_3000px.jpg


[2] Description Photograph of a
female Monarch Butterflyen (Danaus
plexippus en ) laying an egg on a
Mexican Milkweeden (Asclepias
curassavica en 'Silky Gold'). The
picture was taken in Aston Township,
Pennsylvania. Camera and Exposure
Details: Camera: Nikon D50 Lens:
Sigma 70mm f/2.8 EX DG Macro Exposure:
70mm (105mm in 35mm equivalent) f/8 @
1/160 s. (200 ISO) Date Friday,
August 8, 2008 Source Own
Picture. Author Photo by and (c)2009
Derek Ramsey
(Ram-Man) Permission (Reusing this
file) You may NOT use this image
on your own web site or anywhere else
unless you release this image and any
derivative works (which may include the
web page or other medium where this
image is used, if it is not considered
a ''collective work'') by following the
terms of the following license. Any
other use will be considered a breach
of copyright law. Please do not copy
this image illegally by ignoring the
terms of the license, as it is not in
the public domain. If you would like
special permission to use, license, or
purchase the image or prints of the
image, or for use in any other fashion
or would simply like a copy of the
original file, please contact me or
email me first to ask. Please see the
non-legalese usage guide for more
information. Note: While you are not
required to do so by the license,
please consider letting me know when
you reuse one of my photograph images,
as a courtesy. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Monarch_Butterf
ly_Danaus_plexippus_Laying_Eggs.jpg/1096
px-Monarch_Butterfly_Danaus_plexippus_La
ying_Eggs.jpg

180,000,000 YBN
456) The earliest extant mammals, the
Mammal Order Monotremata
{moN-O-Tre-moD-e} evolves: the
Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ}.

Monotremes are an order of primitive
egg-laying mammals restricted to
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea. The
Monotremes consist of only the platypus
and two species of echidna.

Monotreme means "single hole" in Greek.
Like birds and reptiles, monotremes
have a single opening, the cloaca
{KlO-A-Ko}, for the passage of liquid
and solid wastes, the transfer of
sperm, and, in the female, the laying
of eggs.

After hatching, young cling to the
belly of the mother. Monotremes have no
nipples, but milk is secreted for the
young by mammary glands on the belly of
the mother through openings in the
mother's skin.

Monotremes are also the most primitive
extant warm blooded and hair growing
species.

Australia, Tasmania and New
Guinea 

[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
239. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 239.


[2] Description Photo: model of
Steropodon galmani at the Australian
Museum, Sydney. Date 20 April
2008 Source Own work Author
Matt Martyniuk
(Dinoguy2) Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. Other versions
Derivative works of this file:
Prototheria collage.png GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f8/Steropodon_model_aus.
jpg

170,000,000 YBN
372) The Teleosts: carp, minnows, and
piranhas evolve.

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Commo
n_carp.jpg Common carp (Cyprinus
carpio). Public domain image from USFWS
National Image Library. Created by
Duane Raver. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a8/Common_carp.jpg

170,000,000 YBN
373) The Teleosts: salmon, trout, and
pike evolve.

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Fig. 2. The single
most-parsimonious (MP) tree derived
from unweighted analysis of mitogenomic
data comprising concatenated nucleotide
sequences from 12 protein-coding
(excluding the ND6 gene and third codon
positions) and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)
genes (stem regions only) from all 28
species examined. Tree length, 12,709
steps; consistency index, 0.355;
retention index, 0.471; and rescaled
consistency index, 0.167. Numbers above
and below internal branches indicate
jackknife values obtained for 500
replicates using the heuristic search
option in PAUP*4.0b10 (Swofford, 2002)
with 20 random-addition sequences being
performed in each replication and decay
indices, respectively. The scale
indicates 100 changes. from: Inoue,
JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M
(2003) ''Basal actinopterygian
relationships: A mitogenomic
perspective on the phylogeny of the
ldquoancient fish.rdquo'' Mol
Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S1055790302003317 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/B6WNH-475B9D7-6-1K/0?wc
hp=dGLbVlz-zSkzk

170,000,000 YBN
383) The Amphibians: Salamanders
evolve.

Salamanders are able to regenerate a
lost limb or tail, by cells in the
damaged area changing back to slightly
less mature versions.

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 303. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 303.


[2] Description central
Pennsylvania Spotted Salamander
(Ambystoma maculatum) Source
self-made Date 25 March
2008 Author Camazine (talk) Scott
Camazine web.mac.com/camazine CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/b/b2/SpottedSalamander.jpg

165,000,000 YBN
358) The Cartilaginous fishes: batoidea
{BuTOEDEu} evolve, the ancestor of all
rays, skates, and sawfishes.

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p361. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p361.


[2] Description Manta Ray (Manta
birostris) at Hin Daeng,
Thailand. Date 30 November
2005 Source Flickr Author
jon hanson from london, UK CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/df/Manta_birostris-Thail
and4.jpg

150,000,000 YBN
330) Stegosaurus, an armored,
plant-eating Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereN}
dinosaur lives around this time.

western USA 
[1] [t may not be
scholarly] Description
Stegosaurus stenops, a stegosaur
from the Late Jurassic of North
America, pencil drawing Date 6
May 2007 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com Permission (Reusi
ng this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/70/Stegosaurus_BW.jpg


[2] Description Deutsch:
Rekonstruktion eines
Stegosaurus-Skeletts im Naturmuseum
Senckenberg in Frankfurt am
Main English: Reconstruction of a
Stegosaurus skeleton in the Senckenberg
Museum in Frankfurt am Main Date
2 September 2007 Source
EvaK Author EvaK GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6a/Stegosaurus_Senckenbe
rg.jpg

150,000,000 YBN
374) The Teleosts: Lightfish and
Dragonfish evolve.

Lightfish are characterized by
luminescent organs on the undersides of
their bodies.

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Description English: This
deep-sea fish, Photostomias guernei,
has a built-in bioluminescent
''flashlight'' it uses to help it see
in the dark. Date 1999 Source
Photostomias.jpg Author
derivative work: Una Smith
Photostomias.jpg: Edith
Widder/HBOI PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/63/Photostomias2.jpg

150,000,000 YBN
393) The Therapods {tERePoDZ} Birds
evolve. The first feather.

Fossils of therapod dinosaurs from
China indicate that feathers may have
originally evolved on non-flying
reptiles for insulation (or courting)
and not for flight.

At least one known feathered dinosaur
can probably glide, which suggests that
flapping flight evolves as an extension
of gliding from trees.

Birds have highly developed color
vision.

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Description English:
Archaeopteryx lithographica, specimen
displayed at the Museum für Naturkunde
in Berlin. (This image shows the
original fossil - not a
cast.) Deutsch: Archaeopteryx
lithographica, Exemplar im Museum für
Naturkunde in Berlin. (Dieses Bild
zeigt das Original-Fossil, keinen
Abguss.) Date 5 July 2009 Source
Own work Author H. Raab
(User:Vesta) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/9d/Archaeopteryx_lithogr
aphica_%28Berlin_specimen%29.jpg

145,000,000 YBN
245) The Seed plants angiosperms
evolve. The first flowering plant.

Almost all grains, beans, nuts, fruits,
vegetables, herbs and spices come from
plants with flowers. Much of our
clothing comes from flowering plants
too, for example: cotton and linen are
made from "fibers" of flowering plants,
as are rope and burlap. Many commercial
dyes and drugs also come from flowering
plants.

Angiosperms represent approximately 80
percent of all the known green plants
now living. The angiosperms are
vascular seed plants in which the ovule
(or egg) is fertilized and develops
into a seed in an enclosed hollow
ovary. The ovary is usually enclosed in
a flower, the part of the angiosperm
that contains the male or female
reproductive organs or both. The fruit
is the ovary of a plant which encloses
seeds.

Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly
China 

[1] Description
辽宁古果(Archaefructus
liaoningensis),为迄今发现的最
早的花(早白垩纪),于北京
然博物馆 Date 17:15, 18 October
2006 (UTC) Source Own work Author
Shizhao CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Archaefructus_l
iaoningensis.jpg/1280px-Archaefructus_li
aoningensis.jpg


[2] Figure 2 from: Sun, G. , Dilcher,
D. L. , Zheng, S.-L. & Zhou, Z.-K. In
search of the first flower: A Jurassic
angiosperm, Archaefructus, from
northeast China. Science 282,
1692–1695
(1998). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/282/5394/1692
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2896858
COPYRIGHTED
source: Sun, G. , Dilcher, D. L. ,
Zheng, S.-L. & Zhou, Z.-K. In search of
the first flower: A Jurassic
angiosperm, Archaefructus, from
northeast China. Science 282,
1692–1695
(1998). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/282/5394/1692http://www.jstor.org/sta
ble/2896858

144,000,000 YBN
128) The end of the Jurassic
(201.6-145.5 mybn), and start of the
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 mybn) Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 150 Ma Late Jurassic UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/150
_Jurassic_2globes.jpg

143,000,000 YBN
6288) The earliest extant Angiosperm
"Amborella".

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] Photo of Amborella trichopoda
(Amborellaceae; photo © Sangtae Kim).
source: http://tolweb.org/tree?group=ang
iosperms

140,000,000 YBN
247) The Angiosperms Nymphaeales
{niM-FE-A-lEZ} evolve, the Water
Lilies.

 
[1] Nymphaea alba Nymphaea alba -
image taken on 29 August 2004 in the
outdoor botanical garden of Technion -
Haifa, Israel public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nym
phaeaceae


[2] Nymphaea colorata from
Africa presume is gnu or pd
source: same

140,000,000 YBN
421) The Ornithiscian Ceratopsian
dinosaurs evolve (the ancestor of
Triceratops).

Ceratopsian dinosaurs are plant-eating
dinosaurs. Later ceratopsians have
massive heads armed with a sharp beak,
long horns and a large sheet of bone
that grows from the back of the skull.

Mongolia, China 
[1] Psittacosaurus Palmer, ''The
Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Animals'',
1999, p162-163. COPYRIGHTED
source: Palmer, "The Marshall
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals", 1999, p162-163.


[2] Description Protoceratops
andrewsi skeleton at Carnegie Museum of
Natural History. Date 28 November
2009, 14:07 Source
http://www.flickr.com/photos/139061
48@N00/4168549790/ Uploaded by
FunkMonk Author Tadek Kurpaski
from London, Poland CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/7c/Andrewsi.jpg

140,000,000 YBN
457) The Mammals Marsupials evolve. The
first nipple and breast.

Marsupium means pouch in Latin.
Marsupials are born as tiny embryos and
crawl through their mother's fur into
the pouch where they clamp their mouths
to a nipple. The other main group of
mammals are called placentals because
they feed their embryos using a
placenta which allows the baby to be
born much later. The pouch is like an
external womb.

China 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p231. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p231.


[2] Description English: Virginia
Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in a
juniper tree in northeastern
Ohio. Date 27 December
2008 Source Own work Author
Wilson44691 Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. Other versions
PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6a/Possum122708.JPG

136,000,000 YBN
460) The Birds Enantiornithes
{iNaNTEORNitEZ} evolve.

 
[1] Protopteryx fengningensis Name:
Protopteryx fengningensis Phylum:
Chordata; Subphylum Vertebrata; Class
Aves; Subclass
Enantiornithes Geological Time:
Early Cretaceous Size: 120 mm long
(tip of skull to tip of toes); Matrix:
85 mm by 141 mm Fossil Site: Yixian
Formation, Fengning County, Hebei
Province of China UNKNOWN
source: http://www.fossilmuseum.net/Foss
il-Pictures/Birds/Protopteryx/CF017A.jpg


[2] Sinornis santensis Artist: James
Reece COPYRIGHTED AUSTRALIA
source: http://www.amonline.net.au/chine
se_dinosaurs/feathered_dinosaurs/photo07
.htm

134,000,000 YBN
250) The Angiosperms: "Magnoliids"
{maGnOlEiDZ} evolve (the ancestor of
nutmeg, avocado, sassafras, cinnamon,
black and white pepper, camphor, bay
(or laurel) tree, and magnolia.).

 
[1] Magnolia This photo is a part of
the Wikipedia:Plant photo collection
I. Downloaded URL:
http://tencent.homestead.com/files/magno
lia.jpg Warning sign This image has
no source information. Source
information must be provided so that
the copyright status can be verified by
others. Unless the copyright status is
provided and a source is given, the
image will be deleted seven days after
this template was added (see page
history). If you just added this
template, please use {{no source
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mag
noliales


[2] ~~~~~}} (to include the date
here). Please consider using
source: same

133,000,000 YBN
253) The Angiosperms Eudicots
{YUDIKoTS} evolve (the largest lineage
of flowers).

The two main groups of the Eudicots are
the "rosids" and the "asterids".

Eudicots are also called "tricolpates"
which refers to the structure of the
pollen.

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, ''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract

132,000,000 YBN
462) The Birds Hesperornithiformes
{HeS-Pe-rOR-nit-e-FOR-mEZ} evolve.

 
[1] Hesperornis. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.savageancientseas.com
/images/labels/hesperornis.jpg


[2] Detail of a painting by Ely Kish,
Copyright © Ely Kish; used with
permission of Ely Kish (EMAIL)
Hesperornis regalis Hesperornis
(pronounced HES-per-OR-nis) means
''western bird''. Toothed marine birds
of the Late Cretaceous
seas COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.oceansofkansas.com/He
sperornis/kish-01.jpg

130,000,000 YBN
375) The Teleosts: Perch, seahorses,
flying fish, pufferfish, and barracuda
evolve.

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Seahorse - Hippocampus
sp. Image ID reef2027, The
Coral Kingdom Collection Location
Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea Photographer
Mr. Mohammed Al Momany, Aqaba,
Jordan Source
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/reef2
027.htm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/4b/Hippocampus.jpg

130,000,000 YBN
376) The Teleosts: cod and anglerfish
evolve.

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Fig. 2. The single
most-parsimonious (MP) tree derived
from unweighted analysis of mitogenomic
data comprising concatenated nucleotide
sequences from 12 protein-coding
(excluding the ND6 gene and third codon
positions) and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)
genes (stem regions only) from all 28
species examined. Tree length, 12,709
steps; consistency index, 0.355;
retention index, 0.471; and rescaled
consistency index, 0.167. Numbers above
and below internal branches indicate
jackknife values obtained for 500
replicates using the heuristic search
option in PAUP*4.0b10 (Swofford, 2002)
with 20 random-addition sequences being
performed in each replication and decay
indices, respectively. The scale
indicates 100 changes. from: Inoue,
JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M
(2003) ''Basal actinopterygian
relationships: A mitogenomic
perspective on the phylogeny of the
ldquoancient fish.rdquo'' Mol
Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S1055790302003317 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cf/Gadus_morhua-Cod-2-At
lanterhavsparken-Norway.JPG

125,000,000 YBN
163) The Mammals Eutheria evolve:
Placental mammals.

The Eutheria are mammals that have a
placenta. The placenta is an organ that
forms in the uterus to aid in the
exchange of food and wastes between the
blood of the mother and fetus through
an umbilical cord.

Placental mammals include all living
mammals except marsupials and
monotremes. The placenta allows for a
longer developmental period within the
protection of the womb which may give
the placentals a selective advantage.

earliest fossils: (Daxigou) Jianchang
County, Liaoning Province, China 

[1] Description English:
Juramaia Date 30 April 2012 Source
Own work Author Nobu Tamura
http://paleoexhibit.blogspot.com/
http://spinops.blogspot.com/
http://www.palaeocritti.com CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/15/Juramaia_NT.jpg


[2] Figure 1 from: Luo Z, Yuan C,
Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), ''A Jurassic
eutherian mammal and divergence of
marsupials and placentals'', Nature
476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://nature.com/nature/journal
/v476/n7361/carousel/nature10291-f1.2.jp
g

125,000,000 YBN
395) The bird beak evolves.
earliest fossils: (Yixian Formation)
Liaoning Province, northeastern
China 

[1] Confuciusornis
source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/dia
psids/birds/confuciusornislg.jpg


[2] Description Confuciusornis
sanctus skeleton displayed in Hong Kong
Science Museum Date 30 June
2007 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/78/Confuchisornis_sanctu
s.JPG

120,000,000 YBN
463) The birds Neornithes {nEORnitEZ}
evolve (modern birds: the most recent
common ancestor of all extant birds).

 
[1] aepyornis The same image appears
in: Palmer, The Marshall Illustrated
Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and
Prehistoric Animals, 1999,
p176. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://photo.starnet.ru/Thematic
_Wallpapers/Zhizn/Dikie_zhivotnye/dinosa
urs_fossils/images/aepyornis.jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.

120,000,000 YBN
6361) Bees evolve.
(possibly) Africa 
[1] Fig. 1. Melittosphex burmensis.
(A) Ventral view of fossil with key
features labeled. (B) Photograph of
fossil as seen in ventral view. (C)
Reconstruction of head based on details
visible in fossil and information from
modern bees. (D) Morphology of branched
hairs on the hind femur. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/314/5799/614/F1.large.jpg

120,000,000 YBN
6653) Ants evolve.
 
[1] Description Atta cephalotes. Left
most 7 are workers of various castes,
right 2 are queens (rightmost: winged
form). Date 2008-06-08 10:32
(UTC) Source
Atta.cephalotes.gamut.jpg Author
derivative work: GameKeeper
Atta.cephalotes.gamut.jpg:
Sarefo CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Atta.cephalotes
.gamut.selection.jpg/1280px-Atta.cephalo
tes.gamut.selection.jpg


[2] David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, ''Evolution of the Insects'',
2005, p431. COPYRIGHTED
source: David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p431.

112,000,000 YBN
252) The Angiosperms Monocotyledons (or
"Monocots") evolve: Flowering plants
that have a single cotyledon (or seed
leaf) in the embryo.

Monocots are the second largest lineage
of flowers after the Eudicots, and
include lilies, palms, orchids, and
grasses.

The two main orders of Monocots are
"Base Monocots" and "Commelinids".

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, ''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract

108,000,000 YBN
254) The Basal Eudicots evolve (the
ancestor of the buttercup, clematis,
poppy, macadamia, lotus, and sycamore).

 
[1] Creeping butercup (Ranunculus
repens). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Creeping_butercup_close_800.jpg


[2] Clematis hybrid from
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/phot
os/ public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cle
matis

106,000,000 YBN
267) The "Core Eudicots" evolve (the
ancestor of the cactus, caper,
buckwheat, rhubarb, venus flytrap, old
world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa,
spinach, and grape plants).

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, ''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract

105,000,000 YBN
491) The Eutheria Superorder Afrotheria
evolves (the ancestor of all elephants,
manatees, and aardvarks).

Afrotheres originate in Africa and are
the earliest extant placental mammals.

Africa 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p225. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p225.


[2] Description Afrotheria Date
18 December 2007 Source
self-made, based on:
Image:Orycteropus afer.jpg
Image:Dugong.jpg Image:Elephant
Shrew.jpg Image:Manatee Looking at
the Camera.jpg Image:Taupe
doree.jpg Image:Klippschliefer
Suedafrika Hermanus.jpg
Image:Elefante Lake Manyara Park.jpg
Image:Tanrek.jpg Author
Esculapio GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f0/Afrotheria.jpg

100,000,000 YBN
465) The Birds "Ratites" evolve (the
ancestor of the ostrich, rhea {rEe},
emu, cassowary {KaSOwaRE}, and kiwi).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Description Various Ratite
birds (clockwise from top left): Brown
kiwi Apteryx mantelli, Greater rhea,
double-wattled cassowary Casuarius
casuarius, Haast's eagle attacking New
Zealand moa, Masai ostrich
(photographed in Nairobi National Park,
Kenya). Date 19 June 2007 Source
self-made from
Image:Brown_kiwi.jpg,
Image:Nandu-Portrait 2.jpg,
Image:Casuarius_casuarius_-_double-wattl
ed_cassowary.jpg,
Image:Giant_Haasts_eagle_attacking_New_Z
ealand_moa.jpg, Image:Masai ostrich.jpg
(see original images for copyright
information). Author
Richard001 GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/31/Ratites.PNG

95,000,000 YBN
498) The Eutheria Superorder
"Xenarthra" {ZeN-oR-tro} evolves in
South America, the Xenarthrans
{ZeNoRtreNZ} (the ancestor of Sloths,
Anteaters, and Armadillos).

South America 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p220. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p220.


[2] Description Hoffmann's Two-toed
Sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) in
Milwaukee County Zoological
Gardens Date 8 January
2006 Source Flickr Author
Woodsm CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/b5/Choloepus_hoffmanni.j
pg

93,000,000 YBN
256) The Angiosperms: "Rosids" evolve
(Basal Rosids include: the pomegranate,
clove, guava, allspice, and
eucalyptus).

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] A photo of the tree Staphylea
colchica taken by me in Århus, Denmark
GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cro
ssosomatales

93,000,000 YBN
261) The Rosids Order "Fabales"
{FoBAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
beans, pea, peanut, soy, and lentil).

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] Abrus precatorius (Black-eyed
Susan) USGS public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abr
us

93,000,000 YBN
265) The Monocots "Base Monocots"
evolve (the ancestor of vanilla,
orchid, asparagus, onion, garlic,
agave, aloe, and lily).

 
[1] Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus) -
spadix Spadix of Sweet Flag. usgs
public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aco
rus


[2] Ivy Duckweed (Lemna
trisulca) Name Lemna
trisulca Family Lemnaceae
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali
smatales

93,000,000 YBN
266) The Monocots "Commelinids"
{KomelIniDZ} evolve (the ancestor of
palms, coconut, corn, rice, barley,
oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo,
grass, pineapple, papyrus, turmeric
{TRmRiK}, banana, and ginger).

 
[1] Manila dwarf coconut palm from
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/phot
os/ Manila dwarf coconut palm
thumbnail A Manila dwarf coconut palm
on the grounds of the Tropical
Agriculture Research Station in
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. dept of
ag public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Are
cales


[2] coconut GOV public domain
source: http://www.nps.gov/kaho/KAHOckLs
/KAHOplnt/images/IMG_03957.jpg

93,000,000 YBN
275) The Basal Asterids Order
"Ericales" {AReKAlEZ} evolves (the
ancestor of the kiwifruit, ebony,
persimmon, blueberry, cranberry, brazil
nut, new world pitcher plant, and tea).

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] Actinidia fruit. kiwifruit. public
domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Aethionema_grandiflora0.jpg

93,000,000 YBN
283) The Asterids Order "Apiales"
{APEAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
dill, celery, cilantro, carrot,
parsnip, fennel, parsley, and ivy).

 
[1] Variegated Ground-elder (Aegopodium
podagraria L.) in flower. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Ground-elder_bloom.jpg


[2] An established spread of
variegated Ground-elder (Aegopodium
podagraria L.). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Ground-elder.jpg

93,000,000 YBN
285) The Asterids Order "Asterales"
{aSTRAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
tarragon, daisy, artichoke, sunflower,
lettuce, and dandelion).

 
[1] Ray floret, typical for flowers of
the family Asteraceae. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Ray.floret01.jpg


[2] disc floret, typical part of a
flower of the family Asteraceae. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Disc_floret01.jpg

91,000,000 YBN
259) The Rosids Order "Malpighiales"
{maLPiGEAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
coca, rubber tree, cassava, poinsettia,
willow, poplar, and aspen).

 
[1] mangosteen public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gar
cinia


[2] Mangosteen fruit public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man
gosteen

90,000,000 YBN
270) The Rosids Order "Brassicales"
{BraSiKAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
horseradish, mustard, cabbage,
broccoli, radish, and papaya).

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] Aethionema grandiflora, GFDL by
Kurt Stueber
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Aethionema_grandiflora0.jpg

89,000,000 YBN
262) The Rosids Order "Rosales"
{ROZAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
hemp, hop, jackfruit, fig, strawberry,
rose, raspberry, apple, pear, plum,
cherry, peach, and almond).

 
[1] Filipendula ulmaria, GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fil
ipendula


[2] A display of different apples,
We've even worked on bashless
bagging-packaging systems that are used
by wholesalers to bring you apples
without bruises. US ARS public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/App
le

89,000,000 YBN
279) The Asterids Order "Gentianales"
{JeNsinAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
oleander, and coffee).

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] Anthocleista grandiflora. PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Anthocleista_grandiflora.jpg

86,000,000 YBN
278) The Asterids Order "Solanales"
{SOlanAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
bell pepper, tomato, tobacco, potato,
and eggplant).

Americas 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] Atropa belladonna. Deadly
nightshade. GFDL by Kurt Stueber
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Atropa_bella-donna1.jpg

85,000,000 YBN
263) The Rosids Order "Cucurbitales"
(KYUKRBiTAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
melon, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, and
zucchini).

Americas 
[1] White bryony (Bryonia dioica). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:White_bryony_male_800.jpg


[2] watermelon public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Vampire_watermelon.jpg

85,000,000 YBN
264) The Rosids Order "Fagales"
{FaGAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of many
flowers that produce edible nuts: for
example Birch, Hazel {nut}, Chestnut,
Beech {nut}, Oak, Walnut, Pecan
{PEKoN}, and Hickory).

 
[1] Alnus serrulata (Tag Alder) Male
catkins on right, mature female catkins
left Johnsonville, South Carolina GFDL
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Tagalder8139.jpg


[2] Speckled Alder (Alnus incana
subsp. rugosa) - leaves GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Alnus_incana_rugosa_leaves.jpg

85,000,000 YBN
466) The Bird Order "Galliformes"
{GaLliFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
the Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peacock,
and Quail).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Description English: Meleagris
gallopavo (Wild Turkey) Date 30
July 2006 Source Own work Author
MONGO PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/69/Meleagris_gallopavo_W
ild_Turkey.jpg

85,000,000 YBN
467) The Bird Order "Anseriformes"
{aNSRiFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
ducks, geese, and swans).

 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Description English: Pair of
Wood Ducks Date 18 April
2007 Source
http://flickr.com/photos/sherseydc/
1623995158/ Author
http://www.flickr.com/people/sherse
ydc/ CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/08/Pair_of_Wood_Ducks.jp
g

85,000,000 YBN
499) The Eutheria Superorder
"Laurasiatheres" evolves. The
Laurasiatheres are a major line of
placental mammals that originate in the
northern continent Laurasia.

Laurasia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.


[2] Description Mamíferos
(mammals), based on:
Image:Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis
(head).jpg Image:Golden crowned
fruit bat.jpg
Image:Hedgehog-en.jpg Image:Lion
waiting in Nambia.jpg All of them
under a free licence already in
Wikicommons Date
11-01-2008 Source
Compilation made by myself,
Authors of the photos see
below. Author Hans Hillewaert
(Giraffe); (Bat) Original uploader was
Latorilla at en.wikipedia;
(Hedgehog-en) John Mittler at
777Life.com Free Image Archive; (Lion)
yaaaay CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a5/Mam%C3%ADferos.jpg

85,000,000 YBN
6654) The Eutheria Superorder
Euarchontoglires {YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ}
evolves (the ancestor of all Rabbits,
rodents, tree shrews, colugos, and the
primates).

 
[1] Description English: American
pika (Ochotona princeps) ''haying'' in
rocks (carrying back a mouthful of
grass it has dried for winter food). At
2,340 m (7,700 ft) in streamside
campsite below Black Rock Pass, Sequoia
National Park, California. Date 6
August 2006 Source Own work Author
Dcrjsr CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/0/01/Ochotona_prince
ps_pika_haying_in_rocks.jpg/1280px-Ochot
ona_princeps_pika_haying_in_rocks.jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.

84,000,000 YBN
454) The Rocky mountains start to form.
 
[1] 90 Ma Late Cretaceous UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/090
_Cretaceous_3globes.jpg


[2] A satellite image of Canada taken
in Summer. Snow cover is still
prominent in the Artic and on the Rocky
Mountains. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.virtualamericas.net/c
anada/maps/canada-satellite.jpg

82,000,000 YBN
271) The Rosids Order "Malvales"
{moLVAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
okra, marsh mallow {malO}, durian
{DUREiN}, cotton, balsa, and cacao
{KoKoU}.

Americas 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] Bixa orellana L., floro en Lavras,
Minas Gerais, Brazilo, GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Aethionema_grandiflora0.jpg

82,000,000 YBN
272) The Rosids Order "Sapindales"
{SaPiNDAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
the maple, lychee, mahogany, cashew,
mango, pistachio, and the citrus trees:
orange, lemon, and grapefruit).

Americas 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Aethionema_grandiflora0.jpg


[2] Field Maple foliage and flowers,
Acer campestre. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Acer-campestre.JPG

82,000,000 YBN
420) The Ornithopods {ORnitePoDZ}
Hadrosaurs evolve; the duck-billed
dinosaurs.

 
[1] Description Parasaurolophus
cyrtocristatus skeleton, Field
Museum. Date 1 October 2006,
00:00 Source Field Museum
Dinosaur Author Lisa Andres from
Riverside, USA Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/14/Parasaurolophus_cyrto
cristatus.jpg


[2] Description English: A
clickable image of the
en:Hadrosauroidea. Illustration by
en:User:Debivort. The
en:Hadrosaurids comprise the dinosaurs
commonly known as ''duck-billed''
dinosaurs. They were common herbivores
during the en:Cretaceous period, and
prey to en:therapods such as
en:Tyrannosaurus. Spectacular fossils
of hadrosaurs have been found,
including mummified specimens in which
soft tissue was preserved, skin
impressions, tracks of footprints, and
nest sites that demonstrate the animals
had parental care of offspring. Animals
are shown to scale. A crisp diagram
showing the evolutionary relationships
between the tribes of the
Hadrosauroidea, with representative
individuals shown to scale. Conveys the
diversity of the group. Every dinosaur
shown has passed review for scientific
accuracy at en:Wikipedia:WikiProject
Dinosaurs/Image review. The
individual drawings are genera, and the
branches of the tree go down to tribe.
All these groups were alive in the late
Cretaceous, and are generally known
only from a single fossil
site en:Category:Approved
dinosaur images en:Category:Approved
dinosaur scale diagrams Date
2007-06-21 (first version);
2007-10-14 (last version) Source
Originally from en.wikipedia;
description page is/was here. Author
Original uploader was Debivort at
en.wikipedia GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/14/Hadrosaur-tree-v4.jpg

82,000,000 YBN
500) The Laurasiatheres Order
Insectivora evolves (the ancestor of
shrews, moles, and hedgehogs).

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.

80,000,000 YBN
422) The Therapods {tERePoDZ}
Dromaeosaurs {DrOmEoSORZ} evolve:
Raptors.

 
[1] Buitreraptor (foreground) and
Deinonychus (background) skeletons on
display at the Field Museum of Natural
History in Chicago, Illinois. Taken
August 2006 by my girlfriend, C.
Horwitz, and uploaded with permission
under the GFDL. —Steven G.
Johnson GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/29/Buitreraptor-Deinonyc
hus.jpg


[2] Description Digital +
graphite drawing of Velociraptor
mongoliensis Date 4 August
2006 Source image from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Veloc
iraptor_dinoguy2.jpg Author Matt
Martyniuk GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cd/Velociraptor_dinoguy2
.jpg

80,000,000 YBN
482) The earliest extant Marsupials,
the Order "Didelphimorphia" evolve (New
World opossums).

Americas 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p231. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p231.


[2] Description English: North
American Opossum with winter
coat. Français : Opossum de Virginie
en livrée d'hiver. Deutsch: Ein
Nordopossum (Didelphis virginiana) im
Winterfell Date 21 February
2007 Source
Wikipedia:User:Cody.pope Author
Cody Pope CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/27/Opossum_2.jpg

75,000,000 YBN
492) The Afrotheres: Aardvarks evolve.
Africa 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p225. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p225.


[2] Description An aardvark at
Detroit Zoo Date 15 April
2008 Source Cropped from
File:Porcs formiguers (Orycteropus
afer).jpg Author MontageMan is
the author of the original image, I did
the crop Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8a/Porc_formiguer.JPG

74,000,000 YBN
280) The Asterids Order "Lamiales"
{lAmEAlEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
many spices: mint, basil, marjoram
{moRJ uruM}, oregano, rosemary, sage,
savory, thyme, teak, sesame, olive,
ash, lilac and jasmine).

 
[1] Common Bugle (Ajuga reptans) GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Ajuga-reptans01.jpg


[2] Calamintha grandiflora. GFDL by
Kurt Stueber
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Calamintha_grandiflora2.jpg

73,000,000 YBN
484) The Marsupials: Bandicoots and
Bilbies {BiLBEZ} evolve; in Australia.

Australia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p231. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p231.


[2] Description Eastern Barred
Bandicoot (Perameles gunnii), Poimena
Reserve, Austin's Ferry, Tasmania,
Australia. The photo taken at night
with off camera flashes. Date 31
July 2010 Source Own work Author
Noodle snacks
(http://www.noodlesnacks.com/) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8b/Perameles_gunni.jpg

70,000,000 YBN
424) Two of the largest meat-eating
dinosaurs known are common (both
Therapods {tERePoDZ}): Tyrannosaurus
rex {TiraNiSORuS reKS} is the top
predator in North America and
Giganotosaurus {JiGuNOTuSORuS} is the
top predator in South America.

Americas 
[1] Description English: View of the
fossil/cast Tyranausaurus Rex at the
Royal Tyrell Museum in Alberta, Canada.
The image has been modified to remove
background persons and
objects. Français : Le fossile du
Tyranausaurus Rex dans le Royal Tyrell
Museum en Alberta au Canada. L'image a
été modifié pour enlever les
personnes et objets en arrière
plan. Date 27 June 2010 Source
Own work Author Pierre
Camateros CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a8/Fossil_Tyranausaurus_
Rex_at_the_Royal_Tyrell_Museum%2C_Albert
a%2C_Canada.jpg


[2] Description English: The
Wonderful Paleo Art of Heinrich Harder
- Illustrations for Die Wunder der
Urwelt 1912 Date 1912 Source
http://www.copyrightexpired.com/Hei
nrich_Harder/gigantosaurus_dwdu_1912.htm
l Author Heinrich Harder
(1858-1935) Permission (Reusing this
file) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/92/500_gigantosaurus_dwd
u1912cropped.jpg

70,000,000 YBN
425) The Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereNZ}
Ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} evolve (the
shield back and/or clubbed tail
dinosaurs); the most heavily armored
land-animals known.

 
[1] Description the image shows an
edmontonia. a sort of dinosaur Date
5 July 2006 Source the image
i did myself based on the images found
here: [1], [2],[3] and [4] Author
Mariana Ruiz (aka:LadyofHats) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/92/Edmontonia_dinosaur.p
ng


[2] Description the image shows
an edmontonia. a sort of dinosaur Date
5 July 2006 Source the image
i did myself based on the images found
here: [1], [2],[3] and [4] Author
Mariana Ruiz (aka:LadyofHats) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/92/Edmontonia_dinosaur.p
ng

70,000,000 YBN
426) The Marine reptiles Mosasaurs
{mOSeSORZ} evolve.

 
[1] Description English: Mosasaurus
skeleton; Maastricht Natural History
Museum, The Netherlands. Date 9
August 2010 Source Own
work Author
Wilson44691 Permission (Reusing
this file) See
below. Photograph taken by Mark A.
Wilson (Department of Geology, The
College of Wooster). PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/06/MosasaurMaastricht080
910.JPG


[2] Restoration of Aigialosaurus
bucchichi, a basal
mosasaur Description Aigialosaurus
bucchichi Date 2009 Source Own
work Author FunkMonk (Michael B.
H.) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/0/06/Aigialosaurus_b
ucchichi.jpg/1280px-Aigialosaurus_bucchi
chi.jpg

70,000,000 YBN
469) The Bird Order "Podicipediformes"
{PoDiSiPeDeFORmEZ} evolves (grebes
{GreBS}).

 
[1] Fig. 4. Our phylogeny differs from
and agrees with previous
classifications. We merged
well-supported (>70% bootstrap values)
monophyletic clades at the tips with
the same ordinal designation across all
three classifications (e.g., 24 species
called Passerines). Only higher
relationships supported by bootstrap
values >50% are shown. Colors are as in
Fig. 2. Color bars to the right of the
tree show membership in three different
classifications: Peters' (25) (left),
Sibley and Monroe's (30) (middle), and
Livezey and Zusi's (13) (right). Black
text within the bars indicates
monophyletic orders in our phylogeny,
whereas white text within the bars
indicates nonmonophyletic orders.
Ordinal name codes: ANS (Anseriformes),
APO (Apodiformes), APT
(Apterygiformes), ARD (Ardeiformes),
BAL (Balaenicipitiformes), BUC
(Bucerotiformes), CAP
(Caprimulgiformes), CAS
(Casuariiformes), CHA
(Charadriiformes), CIC (Ciconiiformes),
CLM (Columbiformes), COL (Coliiformes),
COR (Coraciiformes), CRA (Craciformes),
CUC (Cuculiformes), FAL
(Falconiformes), GAL (Galliformes), GAV
(Gaviiformes), GLB (Galbuliformes), GRU
(Gruiformes), MUS (Musophagiformes),
OPI (Opisthocomiformes), PAS
(Passeriformes), PEL (Pelecaniformes),
PIC (Piciformes), POD
(Podicipediformes), PRO
(Procellariiformes), PSI
(Psittaciformes), RAL (Ralliformes),
RHE (Rheiformes), SPH
(Sphenisciformes), STH
(Struthioniformes), STR (Strigiformes),
TIN (Tinamiformes), TRC
(Trochiliformes), TRO (Trogoniformes),
TUR (Turniciformes), and UPU
(Upupiformes). Figure 4
from: Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763/F4.large.jpg


[2] Description Podiceps
nigricollis English: Black-necked
Grebe, Jan. 2007, Ibaraki
JAPAN 日本語:
ハジロカイツブリ 2007年1月
茨城県神栖市波崎
(投稿者自身による撮影) Date
5 January 2007 Source photo
taken by Maga-chan Author
Maga-chan CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/66/Podiceps_nigricollis_
001.jpg

70,000,000 YBN
507) The Euarchontoglires
{YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} Order
"Lagomorpha" {loGomORFo} evolves: the
ancestor of Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas
{PIKuZ}.

Rabbits, like Rodents also have very
prominent gnawing teeth at the front.

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.

70,000,000 YBN
516) The Euarchontoglires
{YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} Tree Shrews and
Colugos {KolUGOZ} evolve.

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p182. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p182.


[2] Description English: Indian
Tree-shrew (Anathana ellioti) in
Yercaud, India. Date Taken on
film in the 1990s - scanned on
2005-09-26 (according to EXIF
data) Source Photographed by S.
Karthikeyan ( palmfly at gmail . com )
Please contact author for usage of any
higher resolution images. Author
S. Karthikeyan CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/78/Anathana_ellioti.jpg

66,000,000 YBN
120) The largest Pterosaur and largest
flying animal ever known,
Quetzalcoatlus {KeTZLKWoTLuS} evolves.
Quetzalcoa
tlus has a wing span of 12 meters (or
40 feet).

 
[1] Description English: fossil of
Quetzalcoatlus, an extinct
pterosaur Date June 2009 Source
Own work Author
Ghedoghedo GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/ab/Quetzalcoatlus_1.JPG


[2] Description Size comparison
of the azhdarchid pterosaurs
Quetzalcoatlus northropi and
Quetzalcoatlus unnamed species, with a
human. Modified from a diagram featured
in Witton and Naish (2008). Date
29 May 2008 Source Own
work Author Matt Martyniuk
(Dinoguy2), Mark Witton and Darren
Naish CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e5/Quetzscale1.png

65,500,000 YBN
129) The End-Cretaceous mass
extinction. 47% of all genera are
observed extinct.

Made extinct are: 60% of plant species,
and all dinosaurs, mosasaurs,
pterosaurs, plesiosaurs {PlESEoSORZ}
and pliosaurs {PlIoSORZ}.

A comet or meteor collides with the
Earth in what is now the Yucatan
{YUKoTaN} Peninsula of Mexico and huge
amounts of lava erupt from India. No
large animals survive on land, in the
air, or in the sea.

 
[1] Cretaceous meteor impact. Benjamin
Cummings. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/
16cm05/1116/16macro.htm


[2] Cretaceous meteor impact. Benjamin
Cummings. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/
16cm05/1116/16macro.htm

65,500,000 YBN
397) The end of the Mesozoic and start
of the Cenozoic Era, and the end of the
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 mybn), and start
of the Tertiary (65.5-1.8 mybn) Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 65 Ma K-T Boundary -
Tertiary/Cretaceous UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/065
_K_Tboundary_3globes.jpg

65,000,000 YBN
429) The start of the rapid
diversification of mammals.

 
[1] UNKNOWN
source: http://bp0.blogger.com/_AejGb2Gc
r_o/SIlTsz-2RrI/AAAAAAAAAAY/8b_-LPsmDbc/
s1600/mammal3.jpg


[2] Fig 3.46 from: Kardong,
''Vertebrates'', 2002,
p123. COPYRIGHTED
source: from: Kardong, "Vertebrates",
2002, p123.

65,000,000 YBN
468) The Bird Order "Gruiformes"
{GrUiFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
cranes, rails, and bustards {BuSTRDZ}).

 
[1] Fig. 4. Our phylogeny differs from
and agrees with previous
classifications. We merged
well-supported (>70% bootstrap values)
monophyletic clades at the tips with
the same ordinal designation across all
three classifications (e.g., 24 species
called Passerines). Only higher
relationships supported by bootstrap
values >50% are shown. Colors are as in
Fig. 2. Color bars to the right of the
tree show membership in three different
classifications: Peters' (25) (left),
Sibley and Monroe's (30) (middle), and
Livezey and Zusi's (13) (right). Black
text within the bars indicates
monophyletic orders in our phylogeny,
whereas white text within the bars
indicates nonmonophyletic orders.
Ordinal name codes: ANS (Anseriformes),
APO (Apodiformes), APT
(Apterygiformes), ARD (Ardeiformes),
BAL (Balaenicipitiformes), BUC
(Bucerotiformes), CAP
(Caprimulgiformes), CAS
(Casuariiformes), CHA
(Charadriiformes), CIC (Ciconiiformes),
CLM (Columbiformes), COL (Coliiformes),
COR (Coraciiformes), CRA (Craciformes),
CUC (Cuculiformes), FAL
(Falconiformes), GAL (Galliformes), GAV
(Gaviiformes), GLB (Galbuliformes), GRU
(Gruiformes), MUS (Musophagiformes),
OPI (Opisthocomiformes), PAS
(Passeriformes), PEL (Pelecaniformes),
PIC (Piciformes), POD
(Podicipediformes), PRO
(Procellariiformes), PSI
(Psittaciformes), RAL (Ralliformes),
RHE (Rheiformes), SPH
(Sphenisciformes), STH
(Struthioniformes), STR (Strigiformes),
TIN (Tinamiformes), TRC
(Trochiliformes), TRO (Trogoniformes),
TUR (Turniciformes), and UPU
(Upupiformes). Figure 4
from: Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763/F4.large.jpg


[2] By Aaron Logan, from
http://www.lightmatter.net/gallery/album
s.php w:en:Creative
Commons attribution CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8d/Grey_Crowned_Crane.jp
g

65,000,000 YBN
485) Marsupial moles evolve.
Australia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p231. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p231.


[2] English: The southern marsupial
mole (Notoryctes typhlops). Date
Originally uploaded to
pl.wikipedia on 10 May 2006. Source
Own work; originally from
pl.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Bartus.malec at
pl.wikipedia. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/4b/Notoryctes_typhlops.j
pg

65,000,000 YBN
486) The Marsupials Tasmanian Devil and
Numbat {nuMBaT} evolve.

Australia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p231. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p231.


[2] Description English: Quoll
imaged at a rescue park, Tasmania,
Austrailia, probably Tiger Quoll
(Dasyurus maculatus), indicated by
spots on tail Photographer's note.
This is a lucky through-the-fence shot
using an old Sony camera as the animal
was quite active. The small size of the
lens is a distinct advantage in this
case (my Canon xTi would not have been
able to get the
shot). Category:Dasyurus
maculatus Date Taken November 18,
2008, uploaded December 28, 2008 (28
December 2008 (original upload
date)) Source Transferred from
en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by
User:Berichard using CommonsHelper. PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f6/Dasyurus_maculatus.jp
g

65,000,000 YBN
488) The Marsupial Order
"Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu} evolves
(the ancestor of Wombats, Kangeroos,
Possums, and Koalas).

Australia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p231. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p231.


[2] Eastern Grey Kangaroo with
joey PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Kangaroo_and_joey03.j
pg

65,000,000 YBN
508) The Euarchontoglires
{YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} Order "Rodentia"
evolves; rodents.
The Rodents: "Myomorpha"
{MIemORFu} evolve (the ancestor of
rats, mice, gerbils, voles {VOLZ},
lemmings, and hamsters).

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.

63,000,000 YBN
587) The Euarchontoglires
{YU-oR-KoNT-u-GlI-rEZ} Order Primates
evolve, most likely in Africa or the
Indian subcontinent. The first
opposable thumb.

The primates contain more than 300
species, including monkeys, apes, and
humans.

Africa or India 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p168. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p168.


[2] Description English: Gray
slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus)
photographed at Dindigal in Tamil
Nadu. Date 27 June 2008 Source
Own work Author Kalyan Varma
(Kalyanvarma) GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8f/Slender_Loris.jpg

60,000,000 YBN
470) The Bird Order "Strigiformes"
{STriJiFORmEZ} evolve (owls).

 
[1] Fig. 4. Our phylogeny differs from
and agrees with previous
classifications. We merged
well-supported (>70% bootstrap values)
monophyletic clades at the tips with
the same ordinal designation across all
three classifications (e.g., 24 species
called Passerines). Only higher
relationships supported by bootstrap
values >50% are shown. Colors are as in
Fig. 2. Color bars to the right of the
tree show membership in three different
classifications: Peters' (25) (left),
Sibley and Monroe's (30) (middle), and
Livezey and Zusi's (13) (right). Black
text within the bars indicates
monophyletic orders in our phylogeny,
whereas white text within the bars
indicates nonmonophyletic orders.
Ordinal name codes: ANS (Anseriformes),
APO (Apodiformes), APT
(Apterygiformes), ARD (Ardeiformes),
BAL (Balaenicipitiformes), BUC
(Bucerotiformes), CAP
(Caprimulgiformes), CAS
(Casuariiformes), CHA
(Charadriiformes), CIC (Ciconiiformes),
CLM (Columbiformes), COL (Coliiformes),
COR (Coraciiformes), CRA (Craciformes),
CUC (Cuculiformes), FAL
(Falconiformes), GAL (Galliformes), GAV
(Gaviiformes), GLB (Galbuliformes), GRU
(Gruiformes), MUS (Musophagiformes),
OPI (Opisthocomiformes), PAS
(Passeriformes), PEL (Pelecaniformes),
PIC (Piciformes), POD
(Podicipediformes), PRO
(Procellariiformes), PSI
(Psittaciformes), RAL (Ralliformes),
RHE (Rheiformes), SPH
(Sphenisciformes), STH
(Struthioniformes), STR (Strigiformes),
TIN (Tinamiformes), TRC
(Trochiliformes), TRO (Trogoniformes),
TUR (Turniciformes), and UPU
(Upupiformes). Figure 4
from: Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763/F4.large.jpg


[2] Description Athene
noctua English: Little owl Español:
Mochuelo Date 2011-02-27 07:27
(UTC) Source
Athene_noctua_(portrait).jpg Author
Athene_noctua_(portrait).jpg:
Trebol-a derivative work:
Stemonitis (talk) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/39/Athene_noctua_%28crop
ped%29.jpg

60,000,000 YBN
504) The Laurasiatheres Order
"Carnivora" evolves (the ancestor of
Cats, Dogs, Bears, Weasels, Hyenas,
Seals, and Walruses).

Laurasia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.


[2] Description English:
Two-spotted palm civet Nandinia
binotata mounted specimen in Manchester
Museum Date 2008-07-28 (original
upload date) (Original text : July
2008) GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/5a/14-nandinia_binotata.
JPG

58,000,000 YBN
524) The Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ}
evolve.

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p164. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p164.


[2] Description Tarsius syrichta
(Philippine Tarsier) Date
- Source
http://www.sxc.hu/photo/490924 Aut
hor Jasper Greek Golangco PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1d/Tarsius_Syrichta-GG.j
pg

55,000,000 YBN
471) The Bird Order "Apodiformes"
{oPoD-i-FORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor
of hummingbirds, and swifts).

 
[1] Fig. 4. Our phylogeny differs from
and agrees with previous
classifications. We merged
well-supported (>70% bootstrap values)
monophyletic clades at the tips with
the same ordinal designation across all
three classifications (e.g., 24 species
called Passerines). Only higher
relationships supported by bootstrap
values >50% are shown. Colors are as in
Fig. 2. Color bars to the right of the
tree show membership in three different
classifications: Peters' (25) (left),
Sibley and Monroe's (30) (middle), and
Livezey and Zusi's (13) (right). Black
text within the bars indicates
monophyletic orders in our phylogeny,
whereas white text within the bars
indicates nonmonophyletic orders.
Ordinal name codes: ANS (Anseriformes),
APO (Apodiformes), APT
(Apterygiformes), ARD (Ardeiformes),
BAL (Balaenicipitiformes), BUC
(Bucerotiformes), CAP
(Caprimulgiformes), CAS
(Casuariiformes), CHA
(Charadriiformes), CIC (Ciconiiformes),
CLM (Columbiformes), COL (Coliiformes),
COR (Coraciiformes), CRA (Craciformes),
CUC (Cuculiformes), FAL
(Falconiformes), GAL (Galliformes), GAV
(Gaviiformes), GLB (Galbuliformes), GRU
(Gruiformes), MUS (Musophagiformes),
OPI (Opisthocomiformes), PAS
(Passeriformes), PEL (Pelecaniformes),
PIC (Piciformes), POD
(Podicipediformes), PRO
(Procellariiformes), PSI
(Psittaciformes), RAL (Ralliformes),
RHE (Rheiformes), SPH
(Sphenisciformes), STH
(Struthioniformes), STR (Strigiformes),
TIN (Tinamiformes), TRC
(Trochiliformes), TRO (Trogoniformes),
TUR (Turniciformes), and UPU
(Upupiformes). Figure 4
from: Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763/F4.large.jpg


[2] Description Ruby-throated
hummingbird public domain USFWA Date
11 February 2003 Source
Cropped from U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service Digital Library
System Author Steve Maslowski PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/87/Rubythroathummer65.jp
g

55,000,000 YBN
476) The Bird Order "Piciformes"
{PESiFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
woodpeckers, and toucans).

 
[1] Fig. 4. Our phylogeny differs from
and agrees with previous
classifications. We merged
well-supported (>70% bootstrap values)
monophyletic clades at the tips with
the same ordinal designation across all
three classifications (e.g., 24 species
called Passerines). Only higher
relationships supported by bootstrap
values >50% are shown. Colors are as in
Fig. 2. Color bars to the right of the
tree show membership in three different
classifications: Peters' (25) (left),
Sibley and Monroe's (30) (middle), and
Livezey and Zusi's (13) (right). Black
text within the bars indicates
monophyletic orders in our phylogeny,
whereas white text within the bars
indicates nonmonophyletic orders.
Ordinal name codes: ANS (Anseriformes),
APO (Apodiformes), APT
(Apterygiformes), ARD (Ardeiformes),
BAL (Balaenicipitiformes), BUC
(Bucerotiformes), CAP
(Caprimulgiformes), CAS
(Casuariiformes), CHA
(Charadriiformes), CIC (Ciconiiformes),
CLM (Columbiformes), COL (Coliiformes),
COR (Coraciiformes), CRA (Craciformes),
CUC (Cuculiformes), FAL
(Falconiformes), GAL (Galliformes), GAV
(Gaviiformes), GLB (Galbuliformes), GRU
(Gruiformes), MUS (Musophagiformes),
OPI (Opisthocomiformes), PAS
(Passeriformes), PEL (Pelecaniformes),
PIC (Piciformes), POD
(Podicipediformes), PRO
(Procellariiformes), PSI
(Psittaciformes), RAL (Ralliformes),
RHE (Rheiformes), SPH
(Sphenisciformes), STH
(Struthioniformes), STR (Strigiformes),
TIN (Tinamiformes), TRC
(Trochiliformes), TRO (Trogoniformes),
TUR (Turniciformes), and UPU
(Upupiformes). Figure 4
from: Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763/F4.large.jpg


[2] Description Hispaniolan
Woodpecker / Melanerpes striatus Date
20 January 2004 Source
http://www.pbase.com/wwcsig/image/4
1280575 Author Wolfgang
Wander GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1b/Melanerpes_striatus00
1.jpg

55,000,000 YBN
477) The Bird Order "Passeriformes"
{PaSRiFORmEZ} evolves (perching
songbirds). This order includes many
common birds: for example crows, jays,
sparrows, warblers, mockingbirds,
wrens, robins, orioles, bluebirds,
vireos {VEREOZ}, larks, swallows, and
finches.

More than half of all species of birds
are passerines.

earliest fossils:
Australia|Gondwana 

[1] Fig. 4. Our phylogeny differs from
and agrees with previous
classifications. We merged
well-supported (>70% bootstrap values)
monophyletic clades at the tips with
the same ordinal designation across all
three classifications (e.g., 24 species
called Passerines). Only higher
relationships supported by bootstrap
values >50% are shown. Colors are as in
Fig. 2. Color bars to the right of the
tree show membership in three different
classifications: Peters' (25) (left),
Sibley and Monroe's (30) (middle), and
Livezey and Zusi's (13) (right). Black
text within the bars indicates
monophyletic orders in our phylogeny,
whereas white text within the bars
indicates nonmonophyletic orders.
Ordinal name codes: ANS (Anseriformes),
APO (Apodiformes), APT
(Apterygiformes), ARD (Ardeiformes),
BAL (Balaenicipitiformes), BUC
(Bucerotiformes), CAP
(Caprimulgiformes), CAS
(Casuariiformes), CHA
(Charadriiformes), CIC (Ciconiiformes),
CLM (Columbiformes), COL (Coliiformes),
COR (Coraciiformes), CRA (Craciformes),
CUC (Cuculiformes), FAL
(Falconiformes), GAL (Galliformes), GAV
(Gaviiformes), GLB (Galbuliformes), GRU
(Gruiformes), MUS (Musophagiformes),
OPI (Opisthocomiformes), PAS
(Passeriformes), PEL (Pelecaniformes),
PIC (Piciformes), POD
(Podicipediformes), PRO
(Procellariiformes), PSI
(Psittaciformes), RAL (Ralliformes),
RHE (Rheiformes), SPH
(Sphenisciformes), STH
(Struthioniformes), STR (Strigiformes),
TIN (Tinamiformes), TRC
(Trochiliformes), TRO (Trogoniformes),
TUR (Turniciformes), and UPU
(Upupiformes). Figure 4
from: Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763/F4.large.jpg


[2] Western Bluebirds (female on
left) Irvine, CA PD
source: http://tedhuntington.com/bluebir
ds.jpg

55,000,000 YBN
495) The Afrotheres Order Proboscidea
{PrO-Be-SiD-E-e} evolves (the ancestor
of Mammoths, Mastodons, and Elephants).

Algeria, Africa|Africa 
[1] Description Moeritherium Date
1920 (probably) Source The Wonderful
Paleo Art of Heinrich Harder Author
Heinrich Harder (1858-1935) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/97/Moeritherium.jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p225. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p225.

55,000,000 YBN
497) The Afrotheres: Manatee and Dugong
evolve.

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p225. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p225.


[2] Description Trichechus
manatus English: This group of three
West Indian manatees (Trichechus
manatus) was photographed while feeding
on seagrass. Date Source from
http://www.csc.noaa.gov/benthic/resource
s/gallery/life/manatee.htm Author
PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/81/Manatee.jpg

55,000,000 YBN
502) The Laurasiatheres
"Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu}
evolve (the ancestor of all
Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu}: camels,
pigs, ruminants, hippos, and all
Cetacea {SiTASEu or SiTAsEu}: Whales,
and Dolphins).

Hippos are the closest living land
relative of the whales and dolphins.

Laurasia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.


[2] [t may or may not be
accurate] Description Pakicetus
inachus, a whale ancestor from the
Early Eocene of Pakistan, after
Nummelai et al., (2006), pencil
drawing, digital coloring Date 29
November 2007 Source Own
work Author Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/34/Pakicetus_BW.jpg

55,000,000 YBN
503) The Laurasiatheres
"Perissodactyla" {PeriSODaKTilu} evolve
(also called "odd-toed ungulates")
{uNGYUlATS or uNGYUliTS} (the ancestor
of all Horses, Tapirs {TAPRZ }, and
Rhinos).

Laurasia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.


[2] Description Two young Nokota
mares Date 2010-02-11 22:34
(UTC) Source
Nokota_Horses.jpg Author
Nokota_Horses.jpg: François Marchal
derivative work: Dana boomer
(talk) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/de/Nokota_Horses_cropped
.jpg

55,000,000 YBN
509) The Rodents: Beavers.
 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.


[2] Description he was happily
sitting back and munching on something.
and munching, and munching... Date
4 July 2007, 12:55 Source
American Beaver Author Steve
from washington, dc,
usa Permission (Reusing this file)
See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6b/American_Beaver.jpg

55,000,000 YBN
511) The Rodents: Dormouse, Mountain
Beaver, Squirrel and Marmot {moRmuT}
evolve.

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.


[2] Description Membres de la
famille des Suridés Date Source
Own work Author Chicoutimi
(montage) Montage 9 pictures.jpg
Karakal AndiW National Park
Service en:User:Markus Krötzsch
The Lilac Breasted Roller Nico
Conradie from Centurion, South Africa
Hans Hillewaert Sylvouille
National Park Service GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/68/Sciuridae.jpg

55,000,000 YBN
585) The Bird Order Psittaciformes
{SiTaS-iFORmEZ} evolves (Parrots).

 
[1] Brown, Joseph, Joshua Rest, Jaime
G. Moreno, Michael Sorenson, and David
Mindell. ''Strong mitochondrial DNA
support for a Cretaceous origin of
modern avian lineages.'' BMC Biology 6
(January 2008):
6:6. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-
7007/6/6 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/174
1-7007/6/6


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.

55,000,000 YBN
6381) Horses evolve.
 
[1] Description English: This
reproduction of a painting of an
undetermined species of Hyracotherium
was made to illustrate one card of a
set of 30 collector cards from ''Tiere
der Urwelt'' (Animals of the
Prehistoric World). From the Series
III. Deutsch: Diese Reproduktion eines
Gemäldes einer nicht näher
bezeichneten Art von Hyracotherium
wurde zur Illustration einer Karte aus
einem Set von 30 Sammelkarten mit dem
Titel „Tiere der Urwelt“
angefertigt. Aus der Serie III. Date
1920 (probably) Source The Wonderful
Paleo Art of Heinrich Harder Author
Heinrich Harder (1858-1935) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6e/Hyracotherium_Eohippu
s_hharder.jpg


[2] The artwork depicting horse
evolution is from Professor Donald
Levin's course in BioEvolution at the
University of Texas in Austin. This is
a brief, highly illustrated course with
many examples given of macroevolution.
Notice that the generalized branching
diagram in this illustration is less
twiggy than the more bushy branching
depicted at other resources mentioned
here. UNKNOWN
source: http://darwiniana.org/equid2t.gi
f

55,000,000 YBN
6387) The Ruminants Giraffes evolve.
 
[1] Description Adult male Reticulated
giraffe feeding high up on an acacia,
in central Kenya Date 8 July 2010,
10:25 Source High-rise living Author
Steve Garvie from Dunfermline, Fife,
Scotland CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f4/Flickr_-_Rainbirder_-
_High-rise_living.jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.

54,000,000 YBN
810) The last common ancestor between
hippos with dolphins and whales.

 
[1] Fig. 2. Molecular time scale for
the orders of placental mammals based
on the 16,397-bp data set and maximum
likelihood tree of ref. 14 with an
opossum outgroup (data not shown), 13
fossil constraints (Materials and
Methods), and a mean prior of 105 mya
for the placental root. Ordinal
designations are listed above the
branches. Orange and green lines denote
orders with basal diversification
before or after the K/T boundary,
respectively. Black lines depict orders
for which only one taxon was available.
Asterisks denote placental taxa
included in the ''K/T body size'' taxon
set. The composition of chimeric taxa,
including caniform, caviomorph,
strepsirrhine, and sirenian, is
indicated elsewhere (14). Numbers for
internal nodes are cross-referenced in
the supporting information.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/vol1
00/issue3/images/large/pq0334222002.jpeg


[2] Description Deutsch: Eine
Gruppe Flußpferde im Luangwa-Tal,
Sambia. English: Pod of Hippos
(Hippopotamus amphibius) in Luangwa
Valley, Zambia Français : Groupe
d'hippopotames (Hippopotamus amphibius)
dans la vallée du Luangua, en
Zambie Date 2005 Source Own
work Author Paul Maritz GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a3/Hippo_pod_edit.jpg

53,500,000 YBN
812) The earliest marine mammal (and
earliest whale) "Himalayacetus".

earliest fossils: (Subathu Formation)
Northern India 

[1] The evolution of whales The
first thing to notice on this evogram
is that hippos are the closest living
relatives of whales, but they are not
the ancestors of whales. In fact, none
of the individual animals on the
evogram is the direct ancestor of any
other, as far as we know. That's why
each of them gets its own branch on the
family tree. UNKNOWN
source: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/ev
olibrary/images/evograms/whale_evo.jpg


[2] Description Pakicetus inachus, a
whale ancestor from the Early Eocene of
Pakistan, after Nummelai et al.,
(2006), pencil drawing, digital
coloring Date 29 November
2007 Source Own work Author Nobu
Tamura
(http://spinops.blogspot.com) GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/34/Pakicetus_BW.jpg

52,000,000 YBN
501) The Laurasiatheres Order
"Chiroptera" {KIroPTRu} evolves (the
ancestor of fruit bats, and
echolocating bats).

Laurasia 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.

51,000,000 YBN
513) The Rodents: Old World Porcupines
evolve.

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.


[2] Photograph of a brush-tailed
porcupine in Berlin Zoologischer
Garten. Taken by Eloquence in July 2005
and released into the public
domain. Public domain PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Brush_tailed_porcupin
e_Berlin_Zoo.jpg

50,000,000 YBN
438) The Himalayan {HiMolAYeN}
mountains start to form.

Himalyia Mountains, India 
[1] 50 Ma Eocene NONCOMMERCIAL
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/050
_Eocene_3globes.jpg


[2] Himalayas as pictured by NASA
Landsat 7 Satellite. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/2/25/Himalayas_landsat_7.png

50,000,000 YBN
816) The early whale Ambulocetus
evolves.

 
[1] Ambulocetus natans in action. A
reconstruction of an early close cousin
of whales. by artist Carl
Buell. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/
images/whal.amb.jpeg


[2] Ambulocetus The name Ambulocetus
gives away its early ancestry. It means
'walking whale'. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.abc.net.au/beasts/evi
dence/prog1/images/evi_amulocetus_large.
jpg

50,000,000 YBN
6382) The first camels.
Laurasia 
[1] Description English: Dromedary
camel in outback Australia, near
Silverton, NSW. Date 7 July
2007 Source Own work Author
Jjron Taken by John
O'Neill This image has been
released for use worldwide under the
licensing specified below. If you
require different licensing (e.g., for
commercial publishing), or a larger or
higher quality version of this image,
it may be available from the author.
You can contact the author by clicking
here and leaving a message, or by
sending me an email. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/43/07._Camel_Profile%2C_
near_Silverton%2C_NSW%2C_07.07.2007.jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.

50,000,000 YBN
6383) The first rhinos.
Laurasia 
[1] English: Male Diceros bicornis
(Black rhinoceros or Hook-lipped
rhinoceros) at the Saint Louis
Zoological Park in Missouri Date
4 March 2011 Source Own
work Author Jonathunder GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/63/Diceros_bicornis.jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.

49,000,000 YBN
474) The Bird Order "Falconiformes"
{FaLKoNiFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor
of falcons, hawks, eagles, and Old
World vultures).

 
[1] Fig. 4. Our phylogeny differs from
and agrees with previous
classifications. We merged
well-supported (>70% bootstrap values)
monophyletic clades at the tips with
the same ordinal designation across all
three classifications (e.g., 24 species
called Passerines). Only higher
relationships supported by bootstrap
values >50% are shown. Colors are as in
Fig. 2. Color bars to the right of the
tree show membership in three different
classifications: Peters' (25) (left),
Sibley and Monroe's (30) (middle), and
Livezey and Zusi's (13) (right). Black
text within the bars indicates
monophyletic orders in our phylogeny,
whereas white text within the bars
indicates nonmonophyletic orders.
Ordinal name codes: ANS (Anseriformes),
APO (Apodiformes), APT
(Apterygiformes), ARD (Ardeiformes),
BAL (Balaenicipitiformes), BUC
(Bucerotiformes), CAP
(Caprimulgiformes), CAS
(Casuariiformes), CHA
(Charadriiformes), CIC (Ciconiiformes),
CLM (Columbiformes), COL (Coliiformes),
COR (Coraciiformes), CRA (Craciformes),
CUC (Cuculiformes), FAL
(Falconiformes), GAL (Galliformes), GAV
(Gaviiformes), GLB (Galbuliformes), GRU
(Gruiformes), MUS (Musophagiformes),
OPI (Opisthocomiformes), PAS
(Passeriformes), PEL (Pelecaniformes),
PIC (Piciformes), POD
(Podicipediformes), PRO
(Procellariiformes), PSI
(Psittaciformes), RAL (Ralliformes),
RHE (Rheiformes), SPH
(Sphenisciformes), STH
(Struthioniformes), STR (Strigiformes),
TIN (Tinamiformes), TRC
(Trochiliformes), TRO (Trogoniformes),
TUR (Turniciformes), and UPU
(Upupiformes). Figure 4
from: Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763/F4.large.jpg


[2] Description English: Bald Eagle
(Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in
Tree Date July 2005 Source
U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service Author Hillebrand,
Steve PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/69/Haliaeetus_leucocepha
lus-tree-USFWS.jpg

49,000,000 YBN
515) The Rodents: New World porcupines,
guinea pigs, agoutis {uGUTEZ}, and
capybaras {KaPuBoRoZ} evolve.

 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p187. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p187.


[2] Description English: A North
American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum)
rests in a tree in Montreal's
BioDome. Date 20 July
2004 Source self-made with a
Nikon D70 Author J. Glover CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/83/Porcupine-BioDome.jpg

40,000,000 YBN
525) The Primates "New World Monkeys"
evolve (the ancestor of the Sakis,
Spider, Howler and Squirrel monkeys,
Capuchins {KaP YU CiNZ}, and
Tamarins).

The ancestor of all New World monkeys
probably originates in Africa, but all
surviving descendants now live in the
Americas, which suggests that a small
group of New World monkeys got across
the early Atlantic Ocean to South
America, perhaps by rafting on fallen
trees over a chain of islands.

Africa 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p149. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p149.


[2] Description English: A
critically endangered Brown Spider
Monkey, Ateles hybridus, with uncommon
blue eyes. Shot in captivity in
Barquisimeto,
Venezuela Русский:
Паукообразная
обезьяна Ateles hybridus с
редко встречающимися
голубыми глазами.
Сфотографирована в
неволе в
Венесуэле. Date
September 2008 Source
Image:BrownSpiderMonkey.jpg Author
http://www.birdphotos.com edit by
Fir0002 Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. Attribution must
appear on same page as photo. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dc/BrownSpiderMonkey_%28
edit2%29.jpg

37,000,000 YBN
442) Dogs evolve.
 
[1] Cynodictus from: A history of land
mammals in the western hemisphere By
William Berryman Scott PD
source: https://play.google.com/books/re
ader?id=HbAlAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover
&output=reader&authuser=0&hl=en&pg=GBS.P
A529


[2] Description Hesperocyon
gregarius 32 - 30 million years ago;
Early Oligocene; Oldest recognized
member of the dog family. Date 10
October 2008, 10:42 Source
Hesperocyon gregarius (Dog)
Uploaded by FunkMonk Author
Claire H. from New York City,
USA Permission (Reusing this file)
CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/5f/Hesperocyon_Gregarius
.jpg

37,000,000 YBN
475) The Bird Order Cuculiformes
{KUKUliFORmEZ} evolves (the ancestor of
cuckoos, and roadrunners).

 
[1] Fig. 4. Our phylogeny differs from
and agrees with previous
classifications. We merged
well-supported (>70% bootstrap values)
monophyletic clades at the tips with
the same ordinal designation across all
three classifications (e.g., 24 species
called Passerines). Only higher
relationships supported by bootstrap
values >50% are shown. Colors are as in
Fig. 2. Color bars to the right of the
tree show membership in three different
classifications: Peters' (25) (left),
Sibley and Monroe's (30) (middle), and
Livezey and Zusi's (13) (right). Black
text within the bars indicates
monophyletic orders in our phylogeny,
whereas white text within the bars
indicates nonmonophyletic orders.
Ordinal name codes: ANS (Anseriformes),
APO (Apodiformes), APT
(Apterygiformes), ARD (Ardeiformes),
BAL (Balaenicipitiformes), BUC
(Bucerotiformes), CAP
(Caprimulgiformes), CAS
(Casuariiformes), CHA
(Charadriiformes), CIC (Ciconiiformes),
CLM (Columbiformes), COL (Coliiformes),
COR (Coraciiformes), CRA (Craciformes),
CUC (Cuculiformes), FAL
(Falconiformes), GAL (Galliformes), GAV
(Gaviiformes), GLB (Galbuliformes), GRU
(Gruiformes), MUS (Musophagiformes),
OPI (Opisthocomiformes), PAS
(Passeriformes), PEL (Pelecaniformes),
PIC (Piciformes), POD
(Podicipediformes), PRO
(Procellariiformes), PSI
(Psittaciformes), RAL (Ralliformes),
RHE (Rheiformes), SPH
(Sphenisciformes), STH
(Struthioniformes), STR (Strigiformes),
TIN (Tinamiformes), TRC
(Trochiliformes), TRO (Trogoniformes),
TUR (Turniciformes), and UPU
(Upupiformes). Figure 4
from: Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763/F4.large.jpg


[2] Description English: Common
cuckoo Deutsch: Kuckuck Date
Source Own work Author
Vogelartinfo GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/b0/Cuculus_canorus_vogel
artinfo_chris_romeiks_CHR0791.jpg

35,000,000 YBN
6384) The Xenarthrans Ground sloths
evolve.

 
[1] Description English: (Rusty, the
giant ground sloth, at the Iowa Museum
of Natural History, University of Iowa.
Based on Megalonyx jeffersonii.) Date
16 October 2008 (original upload
date) Source Uploader - Billwhittaker
(talk) Author Billwhittaker (talk) at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) Released into the public
domain (by the author). PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6a/Giant_ground_sl
oth_Iowa.JPG/768px-Giant_ground_sloth_Io
wa.JPG

34,000,000 YBN
813) Toothed and Baleen whale lines
split.

Toothed whales include dolphins, sperm,
and killer whales. Baleen whales
include blue, humpback, and gray
whales.

 
[1] Dorudon apparently from Walking
With Beasts UNKNOWN
source: http://www.makradafish.newmail.r
u/WalkingWithBeast/dorudon.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Molecular time scale
for the orders of placental mammals
based on the 16,397-bp data set and
maximum likelihood tree of ref. 14 with
an opossum outgroup (data not shown),
13 fossil constraints (Materials and
Methods), and a mean prior of 105 mya
for the placental root. Ordinal
designations are listed above the
branches. Orange and green lines denote
orders with basal diversification
before or after the K/T boundary,
respectively. Black lines depict orders
for which only one taxon was available.
Asterisks denote placental taxa
included in the ''K/T body size'' taxon
set. The composition of chimeric taxa,
including caniform, caviomorph,
strepsirrhine, and sirenian, is
indicated elsewhere (14). Numbers for
internal nodes are cross-referenced in
the supporting information.
. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/vol1
00/issue3/images/large/pq0334222002.jpeg

30,000,000 YBN
444) Cats evolve.
 
[1] Proailurus Wikimedia
Commons Proailurus may or may not have
been a true feline; some experts place
it in the Feloidea family, which
includes not only cats, but also hyenas
and mongooses. Whatever the case,
Proailurus was a relatively small
carnivore, only a little bit bigger
than a modern tabby. GNU
source: http://0.tqn.com/d/dinosaurs/1/0
/e/6/-/-/proailurus.jpg

30,000,000 YBN
520) The Primates: True Lemurs evolve.
 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p168. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p168.


[2] Description English:
Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) at
Berenty Private Reserve in
Madagascar Date 4 October
2009 Source Own work Author
Alex Dunkel
(Visionholder) Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f5/Lemur_catta_001.jpg

30,000,000 YBN
6385) The first pigs evolve.
 
[1] Description Wild pig (Sus scrofa)
stop near the Kennedy Space Center
Press Site in the Launch Complex 39
Area on their daily foraging
rounds. Not a native in the
environment, the pigs are believed to
be descendants from those brought to
Florida by the early Spanish explorers.
Without many predators other than
human, the pigs have flourished in the
surrounding environs. Date May
2002 Source
http://mediaarchive.ksc.nasa.gov/detail
.cfm?mediaid=9807 Author NASA or
National Aeronautics and Space
Administration PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/9b/Wild_Pig_KSC02pd0873.
jpg


[2] en:Pig: sow with
piglet de:Hausschwein: Sau mit
Ferkel Photo by Scott Bauer. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/59/Sow_with_piglet.jpg

25,000,000 YBN
531) The Primates "Old World Monkeys"
evolve (the ancestor of the Macaques,
Baboons, Mandrills, Proboscis and
Colobus {KoLiBeS} monkeys).

This is also the last common ancestor
of the Old World monkeys and the
hominoids, which includes apes and
humans.

(perhaps around Lake Victoria)
Africa 

[1] From: Stewart, Caro-Beth, and Todd
R Disotell. “Primate evolution - in
and out of Africa.” Current Biology
8.16 (1998) :
R582-R588. http://www.sciencedirect.com
/science/article/pii/S0960982207003673
Figure 2. A synthetic hypothesis of
catarrhine primate evolution. The
branching order shown for the living
species is well-supported by numerous
molecular phylogenetic studies (for
example [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 24
and 25]). We present the dates of
divergence calculated by Goodman and
colleagues [11], on the understanding
that these are still rough estimates
and more precise measurements are
needed, especially for the Old World
monkeys. The fossil species (genus
names in italics) were placed on this
tree by parsimony analyses of
relatively large morphological datasets
[4, 11, 14 and 15]. Known dates for
fossils [1, 2 and 21] are indicated by
the thicker lines; these lines are
attached to the tree as determined by
the parsimony analyses, although the
dates of the attachment points are our
best guesses. Species found in Africa
are in red and species found in Eurasia
are in black. The continental locations
of the ancestral lineages were inferred
by parsimony using the computer program
MacClade [30]. The intercontinental
dispersal events required, at a
minimum, to explain the distribution of
the living and fossil species are
indicated by the arrows. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e


[2] Description Colobus
angolensis monkey Date 13 June
2007, 13:13 Source Angola Colobus
Monkey #6 Author Ryan E.
Poplin CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/5a/Colobus_angolensis.jp
g

25,000,000 YBN
6386) The first deer evolves.
 
[1] White-tailed deer in Toronto,
Canada PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/c/c2/White-tail_deer.jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p200.

24,000,000 YBN
662) The ancestor of all Hominoids
(Gibbons and Hominids) loses its tail.

 
[1] From: Stewart, Caro-Beth, and Todd
R Disotell. “Primate evolution - in
and out of Africa.” Current Biology
8.16 (1998) :
R582-R588. http://www.sciencedirect.com
/science/article/pii/S0960982207003673
Figure 2. A synthetic hypothesis of
catarrhine primate evolution. The
branching order shown for the living
species is well-supported by numerous
molecular phylogenetic studies (for
example [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 24
and 25]). We present the dates of
divergence calculated by Goodman and
colleagues [11], on the understanding
that these are still rough estimates
and more precise measurements are
needed, especially for the Old World
monkeys. The fossil species (genus
names in italics) were placed on this
tree by parsimony analyses of
relatively large morphological datasets
[4, 11, 14 and 15]. Known dates for
fossils [1, 2 and 21] are indicated by
the thicker lines; these lines are
attached to the tree as determined by
the parsimony analyses, although the
dates of the attachment points are our
best guesses. Species found in Africa
are in red and species found in Eurasia
are in black. The continental locations
of the ancestral lineages were inferred
by parsimony using the computer program
MacClade [30]. The intercontinental
dispersal events required, at a
minimum, to explain the distribution of
the living and fossil species are
indicated by the arrows. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e


[2] Gregoire: 62-year-old
chimpanzee Description English:
Chimpanzee named ''Gregoire'' born in
1944 (Jane Goodall sanctuary of
Tchimpounga in Congo Brazzaville) -
Picture taken the 9th of December
2006 Français : Chimpanzé nommé
''Grégoire'' né en 1944 (sanctuaire
Jane Goodall de Tchimpounga au Congo
Brazzaville) - Photo prise le 9
décembre 2006 Date 9 December
2006 Source Own work Author
Delphine
Bruyère Permission (Reusing this
file) Attribution : Delphine
Bruyere GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/ba/2006-12-09_Chimpanzee
_Gregoire_D_Bruyere.JPG

23,000,000 YBN
478) The Monotreme: Echidna evolves.
Australia, Tasmania and New
Guinea 

[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
239. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 239.


[2] The echidna is one of a handful of
mammals to give birth to its offspring
by laying eggs. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3b/Long-beakedEchidna.jp
g

23,000,000 YBN
479) The Monotreme: Duck-Billed
Platypus evolves.

Australia and Tasmania 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
239. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 239.


[2] Description Description
Swiming Platypus * Photographer Peter
Scheunis * Source self-made Date
September 2004 Location Broken
River-Queensland-Australia Date
2010-01-18 03:46 (UTC) Source

Platypus_BrokenRiver_QLD_Australia.jpg
Author
Platypus_BrokenRiver_QLD_Australia.jpg:
Peterdvv derivative work: Bobisbob
(talk) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/12/Platypus_BrokenRiver_
QLD_Australia2.png

22,000,000 YBN
559) The Hominoid Proconsul evolves in
East Africa.

 
[1] Figure 2. A synthetic hypothesis of
catarrhine primate evolution. The
branching order shown for the living
species is well-supported by numerous
molecular phylogenetic studies (for
example [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 24
and 25]). We present the dates of
divergence calculated by Goodman and
colleagues [11], on the understanding
that these are still rough estimates
and more precise measurements are
needed, especially for the Old World
monkeys. The fossil species (genus
names in italics) were placed on this
tree by parsimony analyses of
relatively large morphological datasets
[4, 11, 14 and 15]. Known dates for
fossils [1, 2 and 21] are indicated by
the thicker lines; these lines are
attached to the tree as determined by
the parsimony analyses, although the
dates of the attachment points are our
best guesses. Species found in Africa
are in red and species found in Eurasia
are in black. The continental locations
of the ancestral lineages were inferred
by parsimony using the computer program
MacClade [30]. The intercontinental
dispersal events required, at a
minimum, to explain the distribution of
the living and fossil species are
indicated by the arrows. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e


[2] Proconsul COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.andromeda.rutgers.edu
/~biosci/RutgersHumanEcology/Proconsul.j
pg

20,000,000 YBN
549) The ancestor of all Homonids may
move (over land) from Africa into
Eurasia.

 
[1] Figure 2. A synthetic hypothesis of
catarrhine primate evolution. The
branching order shown for the living
species is well-supported by numerous
molecular phylogenetic studies (for
example [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 24
and 25]). We present the dates of
divergence calculated by Goodman and
colleagues [11], on the understanding
that these are still rough estimates
and more precise measurements are
needed, especially for the Old World
monkeys. The fossil species (genus
names in italics) were placed on this
tree by parsimony analyses of
relatively large morphological datasets
[4, 11, 14 and 15]. Known dates for
fossils [1, 2 and 21] are indicated by
the thicker lines; these lines are
attached to the tree as determined by
the parsimony analyses, although the
dates of the attachment points are our
best guesses. Species found in Africa
are in red and species found in Eurasia
are in black. The continental locations
of the ancestral lineages were inferred
by parsimony using the computer program
MacClade [30]. The intercontinental
dispersal events required, at a
minimum, to explain the distribution of
the living and fossil species are
indicated by the arrows. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e


[2] Figure 1. Potential contacts
between Africa and Eurasia during the
past 40 million years, based upon
geological and faunal evidence (after
[28 and 29]). (a) Late Eocene,
approximately 40 million years ago. The
Tethys seaway prevents migration
between Africa and Eurasia. Uplifting
in the western region of the Arabian
peninsula coincides with the rifting of
the future Red Sea. (b) Early Miocene,
approximately 20 million years ago. The
Red Sea begins to form, while potential
land bridges exist between Africa and
Eurasia. (c) Late Miocene,
approximately 10 million years ago. The
Red Sea continues to grow, and
potential connections between Africa
and Eurasia exist along the Indian
Ocean margin. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e

18,000,000 YBN
537) The Hominoids: Gibbons evolve in
South-east Asia.

South-East Asia 
[1] Figure 2. A synthetic hypothesis of
catarrhine primate evolution. The
branching order shown for the living
species is well-supported by numerous
molecular phylogenetic studies (for
example [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 24
and 25]). We present the dates of
divergence calculated by Goodman and
colleagues [11], on the understanding
that these are still rough estimates
and more precise measurements are
needed, especially for the Old World
monkeys. The fossil species (genus
names in italics) were placed on this
tree by parsimony analyses of
relatively large morphological datasets
[4, 11, 14 and 15]. Known dates for
fossils [1, 2 and 21] are indicated by
the thicker lines; these lines are
attached to the tree as determined by
the parsimony analyses, although the
dates of the attachment points are our
best guesses. Species found in Africa
are in red and species found in Eurasia
are in black. The continental locations
of the ancestral lineages were inferred
by parsimony using the computer program
MacClade [30]. The intercontinental
dispersal events required, at a
minimum, to explain the distribution of
the living and fossil species are
indicated by the arrows. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e


[2] Description Deutsch:
Weißhandgibbons Date 25 May
2006 Source Own work Author
User:MatthiasKabel GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/38/Hylobates_lar_pair_of
_white_and_black_01.jpg

15,000,000 YBN
6388) The first Kangeroos evolve.
Australia 
[1] Description English: Agile
Wallaby Latina: Macropus
agilis Nederlands:
Zandwallabie Deutsch:
Flinkwallaby Date November
2004 Source Own work Author
User:Nino Barbieri GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/26/Macropus_agilis_-_02.
jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p231. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p231.

15,000,000 YBN
6389) The first bovids {BOViDZ} evolve
(hollow-horned ruminants: oxen,
antelopes, sheep, cattle, and goats).

 
[1] Description Slender-horned
gazelle, at the Cincinnati Zoo Date
10 November 2007 Source Own
work Author FisherQueen GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/fc/Slender-horned_
gazelle_%28Cincinnati_Zoo%29.jpg/1280px-
Slender-horned_gazelle_%28Cincinnati_Zoo
%29.jpg


[2] Español: Antílope sable Sable
Antelope (Bull), photo taken and
submitted by Paul Maritz (paulmaz).
Photo taken near Kafue River in Zambia,
2004 GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/bb/Sable_bull.jpg/
1186px-Sable_bull.jpg

14,000,000 YBN
542) The earliest extant Hominids:
Orangutans evolve in South-East Asia.

South-East Asia 
[1] From: Stewart, Caro-Beth, and Todd
R Disotell. “Primate evolution - in
and out of Africa.” Current Biology
8.16 (1998) :
R582-R588. http://www.sciencedirect.com
/science/article/pii/S0960982207003673
Figure 2. A synthetic hypothesis of
catarrhine primate evolution. The
branching order shown for the living
species is well-supported by numerous
molecular phylogenetic studies (for
example [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 24
and 25]). We present the dates of
divergence calculated by Goodman and
colleagues [11], on the understanding
that these are still rough estimates
and more precise measurements are
needed, especially for the Old World
monkeys. The fossil species (genus
names in italics) were placed on this
tree by parsimony analyses of
relatively large morphological datasets
[4, 11, 14 and 15]. Known dates for
fossils [1, 2 and 21] are indicated by
the thicker lines; these lines are
attached to the tree as determined by
the parsimony analyses, although the
dates of the attachment points are our
best guesses. Species found in Africa
are in red and species found in Eurasia
are in black. The continental locations
of the ancestral lineages were inferred
by parsimony using the computer program
MacClade [30]. The intercontinental
dispersal events required, at a
minimum, to explain the distribution of
the living and fossil species are
indicated by the arrows. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e


[2] Taken from Wikipedia. Same
name. ''Orangutan image taken by Tom
Low at Camp Leakey, Tanjung Puting,
Kalimantan, Indonesia (2003).'' PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0b/Orangutan.jpg

10,500,000 YBN
550) The ancestor of all Gorillas,
Chimpanzees, and archaic humans may
move over land from Eurasia back into
Africa.

 
[1] Figure 2. A synthetic hypothesis of
catarrhine primate evolution. The
branching order shown for the living
species is well-supported by numerous
molecular phylogenetic studies (for
example [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 24
and 25]). We present the dates of
divergence calculated by Goodman and
colleagues [11], on the understanding
that these are still rough estimates
and more precise measurements are
needed, especially for the Old World
monkeys. The fossil species (genus
names in italics) were placed on this
tree by parsimony analyses of
relatively large morphological datasets
[4, 11, 14 and 15]. Known dates for
fossils [1, 2 and 21] are indicated by
the thicker lines; these lines are
attached to the tree as determined by
the parsimony analyses, although the
dates of the attachment points are our
best guesses. Species found in Africa
are in red and species found in Eurasia
are in black. The continental locations
of the ancestral lineages were inferred
by parsimony using the computer program
MacClade [30]. The intercontinental
dispersal events required, at a
minimum, to explain the distribution of
the living and fossil species are
indicated by the arrows. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e


[2] Figure 1. Potential contacts
between Africa and Eurasia during the
past 40 million years, based upon
geological and faunal evidence (after
[28 and 29]). (a) Late Eocene,
approximately 40 million years ago. The
Tethys seaway prevents migration
between Africa and Eurasia. Uplifting
in the western region of the Arabian
peninsula coincides with the rifting of
the future Red Sea. (b) Early Miocene,
approximately 20 million years ago. The
Red Sea begins to form, while potential
land bridges exist between Africa and
Eurasia. (c) Late Miocene,
approximately 10 million years ago. The
Red Sea continues to grow, and
potential connections between Africa
and Eurasia exist along the Indian
Ocean margin. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e

10,000,000 YBN
543) The Hominids: Gorillas evolve in
Africa.

Africa 
[1] From: Stewart, Caro-Beth, and Todd
R Disotell. “Primate evolution - in
and out of Africa.” Current Biology
8.16 (1998) :
R582-R588. http://www.sciencedirect.com
/science/article/pii/S0960982207003673
Figure 2. A synthetic hypothesis of
catarrhine primate evolution. The
branching order shown for the living
species is well-supported by numerous
molecular phylogenetic studies (for
example [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 24
and 25]). We present the dates of
divergence calculated by Goodman and
colleagues [11], on the understanding
that these are still rough estimates
and more precise measurements are
needed, especially for the Old World
monkeys. The fossil species (genus
names in italics) were placed on this
tree by parsimony analyses of
relatively large morphological datasets
[4, 11, 14 and 15]. Known dates for
fossils [1, 2 and 21] are indicated by
the thicker lines; these lines are
attached to the tree as determined by
the parsimony analyses, although the
dates of the attachment points are our
best guesses. Species found in Africa
are in red and species found in Eurasia
are in black. The continental locations
of the ancestral lineages were inferred
by parsimony using the computer program
MacClade [30]. The intercontinental
dispersal events required, at a
minimum, to explain the distribution of
the living and fossil species are
indicated by the arrows. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4C4DVM4-D
&_user=4422&_handle=V-WA-A-W-WC-MsSAYVW-
UUW-U-AAVECYCCBC-AAVDAZZBBC-YCACYAZCV-WC
-U&_fmt=full&_coverDate=07%2F30%2F1998&_
rdoc=12&_orig=browse&_srch=%23toc%236243
%231998%23999919983%23494082!&_cdi=6243&
view=c&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlV
ersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=5558415c4ccd34
6c64e2e6be03c3865e


[2] Description English: Male
silverback w:Gorilla, Gorilla gorilla
in SF zoo Date Source Own
work Author Mila
Zinkova Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/50/Male_gorilla_in_SF_zo
o.jpg

6,000,000 YBN
544) The Hominids: Chimpanzees evolve
in Africa. This is the last common
ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

Africa 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p106. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p106.


[2] Gregoire: 62-year-old
chimpanzee Description English:
Chimpanzee named ''Gregoire'' born in
1944 (Jane Goodall sanctuary of
Tchimpounga in Congo Brazzaville) -
Picture taken the 9th of December
2006 Français : Chimpanzé nommé
''Grégoire'' né en 1944 (sanctuaire
Jane Goodall de Tchimpounga au Congo
Brazzaville) - Photo prise le 9
décembre 2006 Date 9 December
2006 Source Own work Author
Delphine
Bruyère Permission (Reusing this
file) Attribution : Delphine
Bruyere GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/ba/2006-12-09_Chimpanzee
_Gregoire_D_Bruyere.JPG

4,400,000 YBN
546) The Hominid: Ardipithecus evolves.
The earliest bipedal primate.

Bipedalism may evolve so that hands are
free to carry food for later use, and
to use weapons.

Hominids walking upright on two legs,
away from a life in the trees, may
signal that they have become the top of
the food chain on land as the result of
using weapons.

Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya,
Africa 

[1] Fig. 1. Orrorin tugenensis nov.
gen. nov. sp. A: BAR 1002′00, left
femur, posterior view; B: BAR
1002′00, left femur, anterior view;
C: BAR 1000′00, right mandibular
fragment with M3, buccal view; D: BAR
1000′00, left mandibular fragment
with M2–3, lingual view; E: BAR
1000′00, left mandibular fragment
with M2–3, occlusal view; F: BAR
1900′00, right M3, occlusal view; G:
BAR 1390′00, right P4, distal view;
H: BAR 1001′00, upper I1, labial
view; I: BAR 1425′00, right
Image , lingual view; J: BAR
1004′00, right distal humerus,
posterior view; K: BAR 1003′00,
proximal left femur, anterior view; L:
BAR 349′00, manual proximal phalanx,
superior view; M: BAR 1426′00, left
M3, distal view; N: BAR 1215′00,
fragmentary right proximal femur,
posterior view. Scale bars = 1
cm.Orrorin tugenensis nov. gen. nov.
sp. A : BAR 1002′00, fémur gauche,
vue postérieure ; B : BAR 1002′00,
fémur gauche, vue antérieure ; C :
BAR 1000′00, fragment mandibulaire
droit avec M3, vue buccale ; D : BAR
1000′00, fragment mandibulaire gauche
avec M2–3, vue linguale ; E : BAR
1000′00, fragment mandibulaire gauche
avec M2–3, vue occlusale ; F : BAR
1900′00, M3 droite, vue occlusale ; G
: BAR 1390′00, P4 droite, vue distale
; H : BAR 1001′00, I1, vue labiale ;
I : BAR 1425′00, Image droite, vue
linguale ; J : BAR 1004′00, humérus
distal droit, vue postérieure ; K :
BAR 1003′00, fémur proximal gauche,
vue antérieure ; L : BAR 349′00,
phalange proximale de la main, vue
supérieure ; M : BAR 1426′00, M3
gauche, vue distale ; N : BAR
1215′00, fémur proximal
fragmentaire, vue postérieure. Chaque
barre équivaut à 1 cm. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/B6VJ3-42FS9XV-9-1/0?wch
p=dGLzVlz-zSkzS


[2] Description Ardipithecus
ramidus specimen, nicknamed
?Ardi?. After Gen Suwa, Berhane
Asfaw, Reiko T. Kono, Daisuke Kubo, C.
Owen Lovejoy, Tim D. White (2009):
''The Ardipithecus ramidus Skull and
Its Implications for Hominid Origins.''
Science, 2 October 2009: Vol. 326. no.
5949, pp. 68e1-68e7, Fig. 2 Date
14 November 2009, 16:50 Source
Zanclean skull Uploaded by
FunkMonk Author T. Michael
Keesey Permission (Reusing this file)
CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e1/Ardi.jpg

4,000,000 YBN
547) The Hominid: Australopithecus
(x-STrA-lO-PitiKuS} evolves.

Sterkfontein, South Africa 
[1] Australopithecus squinted at the
blue African sky. He had never seen a
star in broad daylight before, but he
could see one today. White. Piercing.
Not as bright as the Sun, yet much more
than a full moon. Was it dangerous? He
stared for a long time, puzzled, but
nothing happened, and after a while he
strode across the savanna
unconcerned. Millions of years
later, we know better. ''That star
was a supernova, one of many that
exploded in our part of the galaxy
during the past 10 million years,''
says astronomer Mark Hurwitz of the
University of
California-Berkeley. Right: Human
ancestors, unconcerned by odd lights in
the daytime sky. This image is based on
a painting featured in The
Economist. PD
source: http://science.nasa.gov/headline
s/y2003/06jan_bubble.htm?list847478


[2] Image Source *
http://www.familie-rebmann.de/photo11.ht
m COPYRIGHTED CLAIMED FAIR USE
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Laetoliafar.jpg.jpg


SCIENCE
3,390,000 YBN
269) Hominids use stones as tools.

Some may view the use of stones as
tools by hominids as the start of
science on Earth.

Dikika, Ethiopia 
[1] a, The exterior surface of
DIK-55-2, and the location of each of
the surface marks. The rib is oriented
such that the rib head (broken off)
would be to the left. Dashed rule,
4 cm. b, Marks A1 and A2
(high-confidence stone-tool cut marks)
under low-power optical magnification;
the yellow rectangle demarcates c.
Scale bar, 5 mm. c, ESEM image
showing microstriations indicative of
cutting with a stone tool. Scale bar,
100 μm. d, Mark B (high-confidence
stone-tool-inflicted mark) under
low-power optical magnification,
indicative of a cutting and scraping
action or percussion; the yellow
rectangle demarcates e. Scale bar,
5 mm. e, ESEM image showing
microstriations indicative of stone
tool action. Scale bar, 500 μm.
b–e, The direction of the rib head is
indicated by the black arrows. See
Supplementary Information for the
details of mark C. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v466/n7308/images/nature09248-f2.2.
jpg

3,000,000 YBN
446) North and South America connect.
 
[1] Present Day NONCOMMERCIAL
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/000
_present_3globes.jpg

2,700,000 YBN
564) The Hominid: Paranthropus {Pa raN
tru PuS} evolves; a line of extinct
early bipedal hominids.

Africa 
[1] Description Deutsch: plastische
wissenschaftliche Rekonstruktion eines
Paranthropus boisei English:
scientiffic reconstruction of a
Paranthropus boisei Date 25 March
2007 Source Photographed at
Westfälisches Museum für
Archäologie, Herne Author
Photographed by
User:Lillyundfreya Permission (Reusing
this file) own work GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6c/Paranthropus_boisei.J
PG


[2] Skull of Paranthropus
boisei. From Smithsonian Institute
website. COPYRIGHTED CLAIMED FAIR USE
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zinj3.jpg

2,500,000 YBN
455) The oldest formed stone tools. The
start of the Paleolithic or "Old Stone
Age".

Gona, Ethiopia 
[1] Figure 3 from: Semaw, S. et al.
2.5-million-year-old stone tools from
Gona, Ethiopia. Nature 385, 333–336
(1997)
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
385/n6614/abs/385333a0.html COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v385/n6614/abs/385333a0.html


[2] Early man lived on elephant meat,
so much they died out in the Middle
East 400,000 years ago Submitted by
Anonymous on Wed Dec 14 2011 17:23:00
GMT-0800 (Pacific Standard Time) -
Source: dailymail.co.uk Docile,
lumbering elephants were so perfect for
Homo erectus, that they provided up to
60 per cent of their diet - until
constant hunting wiped out elephants in
the Middle East. The disappearance
of elephants helped kill off Homo
erectus, and paved the way for Homo
sapiens - modern humans - to take
over. Findings from the University
of Tel Aviv reveal how important the
huge animals were to the diet of early
humans - researchers that elephants
provided 60 per cent of the meat eaten
by Homo erectus. UNKNOWN
source: http://i4.asntown.net/Mastodon-t
vfm.jpg

2,200,000 YBN
447) The first humans. The Hominid:
Homo habilis evolves (the earliest
member of the genus "Homo").

This is when the human brain begins to
get bigger.

(Kenya and Tanzania) Africa 
[1] KNM ER 1813 Homo habilis This
image is from the website of the
Smithsonian Institution [1] and may be
copyrighted. The Smithsonian
Institution explicitly considers the
use of its content for non-commercial
educational purposes to qualify as fair
use under United States copyright law,
if: 1. The author and source of the
content is clearly cited. 2. Any
additional copyright information about
the photograph from the Smithsonian
Institution website is included. 3.
None of the content is modified or
altered.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:KNM_ER_1813.jpg


[2] red= Homo rudolfensis black=Homo
habilis COPYRIGHTED
source: http://sesha.net/eden/Eerste_men
sen.asp

2,000,000 YBN
545) The Hominids: Bonobos {BunOBOZ}
evolve.

Africa 
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p106. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p106.


[2] Gregoire: 62-year-old
chimpanzee Description English:
Chimpanzee named ''Gregoire'' born in
1944 (Jane Goodall sanctuary of
Tchimpounga in Congo Brazzaville) -
Picture taken the 9th of December
2006 Français : Chimpanzé nommé
''Grégoire'' né en 1944 (sanctuaire
Jane Goodall de Tchimpounga au Congo
Brazzaville) - Photo prise le 9
décembre 2006 Date 9 December
2006 Source Own work Author
Delphine
Bruyère Permission (Reusing this
file) Attribution : Delphine
Bruyere GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/ba/2006-12-09_Chimpanzee
_Gregoire_D_Bruyere.JPG

1,800,000 YBN
130) The end of the Tertiary {TRsEARE}
(65-1.8 mybn), and start of the
Quaternary {KWoTRnARE or KWoTRNRE} (1.8
mybn-now) Period.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf


[2] 000 Ma - Present Time UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/000
_present_3globes.jpg

1,800,000 YBN
563) Homo erectus {hOmO ireKTuS}
evolves in Africa.

Lake Turkana, East Africa 
[1] Homo ergaster. Capacité
crânienne de 800 à 950
cm3 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://ma.prehistoire.free.fr/er
gaster.htm


[2] Turkana Boy COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.anthropology.at/virta
nth/evo_links/turkana%20boy.jpg

1,700,000 YBN
449) Homo erectus moves into Eurasia
from Africa.

 
[1] G. Philip Rightmire, ''The
Dispersal of Homo erectus from Africa
and the Emergence of More Modern
Humans'', Journal of Anthropological
Research, Vol. 47, No. 2, A Quarter
Century of Paleoanthropology: Views
from the U.S.A. (Summer, 1991), pp.
177-191 Published by: University of
New Mexico Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3630324
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3630
324


[2] All statistically significant
inferences in Tables 1 and 2 are
incorporated into this single model.
Major expansions of human populations
are indicated by red arrows. Genetic
descent is indicated by vertical lines,
and gene flow by diagonal lines. The
timing of inferences lacking resolution
at the 5% level and/or not validated by
more than one locus are indicated by
question marks. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v416/n6876/images/416045a-f1.2.jpg

1,500,000 YBN
583) The controlled use of fire by
Hominids.

Controlled fires may be made first by
Australopithecus or Homo erectus.

(Swartkrans cave) Swartkrans, South
Africa 

[1] Description English: A fire lit
using twigs and pine cones. Date
2008-03-27 (original upload
date) (Original text : 10:58, 27 March
2008 (UTC)) Source Transferred
from en.wikipedia (Original text :
http://waxingnonsensical.blogspot.com)
Author Original uploader was
Emeldil at en.wikipedia (Original text
: Pavan Srinath) Permission (Reusing
this file) CC-BY-SA-3.0. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/0/0f/Campfire_Pineco
ne.png/450px-Campfire_Pinecone.png


[2] Swartkrans Caves For any
picture requests, please email:
marketing@maropeng.co.za All photos
should be credited (© Maropeng),
unless otherwise stated in the caption.
UNKNOWN
source: http://maropeng.flowcommunicatio
.netdna-cdn.com/images/sized/images/medi
agallery/IMG_7223-600x450.JPG

1,000,000 YBN
589) Homo erectus evolves far less body
hair, except on the head, face, airpit,
chest, and groin.

 
[1] escription English: A diorama in
National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta,
depicting the life size model of stone
equipped hunter, a Homo erectus family
living in Sangiran about 900,000 years
ago. Bahasa Indonesia: Sebuah diorama
di Museum Nasional Indonesia di Jakarta
menampilkan adegan pemburu dengan
alat-alat batu, sebuah keluarga Homo
erectus yang hidup di Sangiran sekitar
900.000 tahun yang lalu. Date 24
August 2010 Source Own
work Author Gunkarta Gunawan
Kartapranata CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/1/13/Sangiran_Homo_e
rectus_Diorama.jpg/1280px-Sangiran_Homo_
erectus_Diorama.jpg

1,000,000 YBN
6467) Homo erectus reaches China.
Gongwangling, Lantian County, Shaanxi
Province, China 

[1] Chang, P.K.C. et al. The Formation
of Chinese Civilization: An
Archaeological Perspective. Yale
University Press, 2005. The Culture and
Civilization of China Series.
p206. http://books.google.com/books?id=
sP-PN2StH2cC COPYRIGHTED
source: Chang, P.K.C. et al. The
Formation of Chinese Civilization: An
Archaeological Perspective. Yale
University Press, 2005. The Culture and
Civilization of China Series.
p206. http://books.google.com/books?id=
sP-PN2StH2cC


[2] Chang, P.K.C. et al. The Formation
of Chinese Civilization: An
Archaeological Perspective. Yale
University Press, 2005. The Culture and
Civilization of China Series.
p206. http://books.google.com/books?id=
sP-PN2StH2cC COPYRIGHTED
source: Chang, P.K.C. et al. The
Formation of Chinese Civilization: An
Archaeological Perspective. Yale
University Press, 2005. The Culture and
Civilization of China Series.
p206. http://books.google.com/books?id=
sP-PN2StH2cC

970,000 YBN
200) Humans wear clothing.
Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK 
[1] Homo erectus, artwork C010/4389
Rights Managed Credit: JOSE ANTONIO
PEÑAS/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Homo erectus.
Computer artwork of a Homo erectus man
standing in a prehistoric landscape.
Homo erectus is the most widespread and
longest-surviving of all the fossil
hominids. Its geographical spread
included north and east Africa, Europe,
Indonesia and China, where it lived
between 1 and 2 million years
ago. Release details: Model and
property releases are not available
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/417426/large/C0104389-Homo_erectus,_ar
twork-SPL.jpg


[2] Flint artefacts include
hard-hammer flakes, notches, retouched
flakes and cores (a–c, hard-hammer
flake; d, e, multiple notch; f,
hard-hammer flake; g, h, hard-hammer
flake, showing pronounced point of
percussion on plain butt).
Supplementary Information includes
micro-CT volume rendering of artefacts
(still example shown as a) with
three-dimensional animations (see
Supplementary Movies 1–10). i, Cone
of Pinus cf. sylvestris. j, Upper
second molar of Mammuthus cf.
meridionalis. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://nature.com/nature/journal
/v466/n7303/images/nature09117-f2.2.jpg

400,000 YBN
615) The earliest evidence of spears.
Kathu Pan 1, South Africa|(Schöningen,
Germany.) 

[1] (Photo : Jayne Wilkins) Replicas of
the 500,000-year-old stone points from
Kathu Pan 1 were hafted onto wooden
dowels with acacia resin and sinew, and
plunged into antelope carcasses Read
more at
http://www.latinospost.com/articles/6938
/20121115/oldest-stone-spear-tips-found-
came-200.htm#irhScS4kokLTYQJp.99 UNKNOW
N
source: http://images.latinospost.com/da
ta/images/full/8174/early-hafted-spears.
jpg?w=600


[2] Fig. 2 (A and B) Distal
step-terminating bending fractures on
ventral surfaces of complete
nonretouched convergent blades, banded
ironstone. (C) Distal impact burination
on ventral surface of a complete
nonretouched convergent flake, banded
ironstone. (D) Distal impact burination
on ventral surface of complete
nonretouched convergent blade, banded
ironstone. (E) Comparison of DIF
frequencies (95% confidence intervals)
at Holocene kill and habitation sites
with well-established weapon tips (11,
27, 28, 36), experimental weapon tip
studies (10, 27, 37–40), trampling
experiments (32, 41), and KP1.
Wilkins, Jayne et al. “Evidence for
Early Hafted Hunting Technology.”
Science 338.6109 (2012):
942–946. http://www.sciencemag.org/co
ntent/338/6109/942 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/338/6109/942

302,000 YBN
6517) There are 1 million humans on
Earth, all hunter-gathering people.

 
[1] Parker, G. Compact History of the
World. Barnes & Noble, 2001,
p17. COPYRIGHTED
source: Parker, G. Compact History of
the World. Barnes & Noble, 2001, p17.

200,000 YBN
548) Homo sapiens evolve in Africa.

The oldest Homo sapiens fossils are
from Ethiopia.

Ethiopia, Africa 
[1] Figure from: Day, M. H. ''Omo
human skeletal remains.'' Nature 222,
1135–1138 (1969)
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
222/n5199/pdf/2221135a0.pdf COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v222/n5199/pdf/2221135a0.pdf


[2] Figure 1 from: Tim D. White,
Berhane Asfaw, David DeGusta, Henry
Gilbert, Gary D. Richards, Gen Suwa &
F. Clark Howell, ''Pleistocene Homo
sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia'',
Nature 423, 742-747 (12 June
2003) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v423/n6941/full/nature01669.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v423/n6941/images/nature01669-f1.2.
jpg

200,000 YBN
590) The Human language of thirty short
sounds begins to develop. All words are
single syllable.

This is the beginning of the transition
from the verbal language of chimpanzees
and monkeys, to the language humans use
now, which has shorter sound duration
and a larger number of sounds.

The majority of the 40 or so basic
sounds in human language (A, B, K, D,
E, etc.) are probably learned before
humans leave Africa, because although
words vary, all humans use the same
base sounds.

Humans start to name objects and
actions.

 
[1] EARLY HUMANS SETTLED IN BRITAIN
800,000 YEARS AGO July 7, 2010 --
During the harsh winters, early humans
almost certainly relied on hunting
animals, as edible plants would have
been in very short supply, the study
says. UNKNOWN
source: http://news.discovery.com/archae
ology/2010/07/07/early-humans-zoom.jpg


[2] Phonetic Alphabet Symbols used by
Ted Huntington PD
source: http://tedhuntington.com/fonikal
f.jpg

130,000 YBN
450) Homo Neanderthalensis evolves in
Europe and Western Asia.

Europe and Western Asia 
[1] Description Deutsch:
Rekonstruierter Neandertaler im
Neanderthal-Museum Date 2007 Source
Own
work Author Ökologix Permission
(Reusing this file) See below. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/9/95/Neandertaler-im
-Museum.jpg/1024px-Neandertaler-im-Museu
m.jpg


[2] Description English: Homo
neanderthalensis. Skull discovered in
1908 at La Chapelle-aux-Saints
(France). Date October
2005 Source Own
work Author Luna04 GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e0/Homo_sapiens_neandert
halensis.jpg

120,000 YBN
572) The start of the Wurm glaciation,
which connects a land bridge between
Asia and America.

 
[1] Description English: Ice age
Earth at glacial maximum. Based on:
''Ice age terrestrial carbon changes
revisited'' by Thomas J. Crowley
(Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 9,
1995, pp. 377-389 Date 30 January
2010 Source Own work Author
Ittiz CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/IceAgeEarth.jpg
/1024px-IceAgeEarth.jpg

101,000 YBN
[99000 BC]
594) Homo sapiens move out of Africa
into Eurasia. This is the beginning of
differences in race within the human
species.

 
[1] The northern route (along the
Danube) is represented by the 'classic'
Aurignacian technologies, while the
southern (Mediterranean) route is
represented by the 'proto-Aurignacian'
bladelet technologies (Fig. 3)-with
their inferred origins in the preceding
early Upper Palaeolithic technologies
in the Near East and southeastern
Europe. Dates (in thousands of years
bp) indicate the earliest radiocarbon
dates for these technologies in
different areas, expressed in thousands
of radiocarbon years before present
(bp). (These are likely to
underestimate the true (calendar) ages
of the sites by between 2,000 and 4,000
yr; see ref. 32). Dashed lines indicate
uncertain routes. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v432/n7016/fig_tab/nature03103_F1.h
tml


[2] The figure shows the geographical
and temporal distribution of hominid
populations, based on fossil finds,
using different taxonomic schemes. The
new finds from Herto4, 5 (H) represent
early Homo sapiens. a, This reflects
the view that both Neanderthals and
modern humans derived from a widespread
ancestral species called H.
heidelbergensis2. b, However, evidence
is growing that Neanderthal features
have deep roots in Europe2, 8, so H.
neanderthalensis might extend back over
400,000 years. The roots of H. sapiens
might be similarly deep in Africa, but
this figure represents the alternative
view that the ancestor was a separate
African species called H. rhodesiensis.
Different views of early human
evolution are also shown. Some workers
prefer to lump the earlier records
together and recognize only one
widespread species, H. erectus2 (shown
in a). Others recognize several
species, with H. ergaster and H.
antecessor (or H. mauritanicus) in the
West, and H. erectus only in the Far
East8 (shown in b). Adapted with
permission from refs 8, 11. 8.
Hublin, J.-J in Human Roots: Africa
and Asia in the Middle Pleistocene (eds
Barham, L. & Robson-Brown, K.) 99-121
(Western Academic & Specialist Press,
Bristol, 2001). 11. Rightmire, G. P.
in Human Roots: Africa and Asia in the
Middle Pleistocene (eds Barham, L. &
Robson-Brown, K.) 123-133 (Western
Academic & Specialist Press, Bristol,
2001). COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v423/n6941/fig_tab/423692a_F1.html

100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
257) The oldest Homo sapiens skull
outside of Africa; in Israel.

(Skhul Cave) Mount Carmel, Israel 
[1] Индекс: Кафзех 9
(Qafzeh IX) Место
находки: Qafzeh Cave,
Israel Найден: B. Vandermeersch,
1969 Предполагаемый
возраст находки: 90–115
тыс. лет
Разновидность: Homo
sapiens Объем мозга: 1500
см3 Примечания:
Женщина была
захоронена вместе с
маленьким
ребенком. Автор: Sasha
на 15:13 UNKNOWN
source: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-atwty2
hbM9Y/TxIL8eshIkI/AAAAAAAAGG4/KNd7DfaWco
s/s1600/qafzeh_9_big.jpg


[2] Figure 2: Three-quarter view of
the Mousterian cranium Qafzeh 9 from
Jebel Qafzeh in Israel, about 92,000
years old. Photo: Tsila
Sagiv/IDAM. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.metmuseum.org/special
/Genesis/tattersall_lecture.asp?printFla
g=1&refPage=1

100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
597) The earliest human burial, Skhul
{SKuL?} cave in Israel.

(es-Skhul cave) Mount Carmel,
Israel 

[1] {ULSF: Skhul IV from Mugharet
Es-Skhul, corresponds to images in
pages between p112 and p113 Garrod,
''The Stone Age of Mount Carmel
excavations at the
Wady-el-Mughara'',1937} Reconstructio
n of the burial of Skhul 4 , a
strongly-built, ''early modern''
human. (photograph from Stringer C.S.
et al., 1994) UNKNOWN
source: http://indiaeng.com/Tsunami-2004
--Andaman%20fault/Toba%20Volcano,%20ch_5
%20-%20Human%20evolution_files/mht1055(1
).TMP


[2] [t Note that this may not be the
actual 100,000 year burial.] This is a
burial site of a Homo sapiens
neaderthalensis young adult male who
lived about 50,000 years ago. The
burial site was found in the Kebara
cave in Israel. UKNOWN
source: http://www.mitchellteachers.net/
WorldHistory/MrMEarlyHumansProject/Trans
parencies/NeanderthalensisTrans.jpg

100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
6333) The theory that the universe is
controlled by Gods.

The explanation that many phenomena in
the universe are controlled by objects
with human and animal bodies that have
supernatural powers is one of the
earliest theories that tries to explain
how the universe works.

(Es-Skhul) Mount Carmel, Israel 
[1] {ULSF: Skhul IV from Mugharet
Es-Skhul, corresponds to images in
pages between p112 and p113 Garrod,
''The Stone Age of Mount Carmel
excavations at the
Wady-el-Mughara'',1937} Reconstructio
n of the burial of Skhul 4 , a
strongly-built, ''early modern''
human. (photograph from Stringer C.S.
et al., 1994) UNKNOWN
source: http://indiaeng.com/Tsunami-2004
--Andaman%20fault/Toba%20Volcano,%20ch_5
%20-%20Human%20evolution_files/mht1055(1
).TMP


[2] The following is taken from James
Shreeve's book The Neandertal Enigma:
solving the mystery of modern human
origins (William Morrow and Company,
New York, 1995.) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.mesacc.edu/dept/d10/a
sb/origins/hominid_journey/pictures/buri
al.jpeg

61,000 YBN
[59000 BC]
614) Humans use a bow and arrows, and
poison arrow heads.

Sibudu Cave, South Africa 
[1] Lucinda Backwella, Francesco
d'Erricob and Lyn Wadley (june 2008).
''Middle Stone Age bone tools from the
Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave,
South Africa''. ScienceDirect.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a
rticle/pii/S0305440307002142
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence/article/pii/S0305440307002142


[2] Objects found in the
archaeological site called Border Cave
include a) a wooden digging stick; b) a
wooden poison applicator; c) a bone
arrow point decorated with a spiral
incision filled with red pigment; d) a
bone object with four sets of notches;
e) a lump of beeswax; and f) ostrich
eggshell beads and marine shell beads
used as personal ornaments. (Francesco
d'Errico and Lucinda Backwell / July
30, 2012) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.trbimg.com/img-5016e6
83/turbine/la-sci-sn-modern-culture-afri
ca-20120730-001/600

53,300 YBN
[51300 BC]
557) Homo Erectus goes extinct.
Ngandong, Indonesia 
[1] homo erectus cranium COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/a/ad/Ng6f.jpg


[2] [t Note that this skull is from
Junniushan and is 280,000 years
old] Chang, P.K.C. et al. The
Formation of Chinese Civilization: An
Archaeological Perspective. Yale
University Press, 2005. The Culture and
Civilization of China Series.
p206. http://books.google.com/books?id=
sP-PN2StH2cC COPYRIGHTED
source: Chang, P.K.C. et al. The
Formation of Chinese Civilization: An
Archaeological Perspective. Yale
University Press, 2005. The Culture and
Civilization of China Series.
p206. http://books.google.com/books?id=
sP-PN2StH2cC

50,000 YBN
[48000 BC]
6399) The start of the mass extinction
of large mammals due in part to human
impact.

 
[1] Description Glyptodon Date 1920
(probably) Source The Wonderful Paleo
Art of Heinrich Harder Author
Heinrich Harder (1858-1935) PD
AND Smilodon, Sabertooth
Tiger Source: Painting; Smilodon from
the American Museum of Natural
History. By: Charles R.
Knight Status: Public Domain in the
USA* PD AND Description Wooly
mammoths near the Somme River, AMNH
mural. Date 1916 Source
http://io9.com/5891441/celebrating-char
les-r-knight-the-artist-who-first-brough
t-dinosaurs-and-megafauna-to-life Autho
r Charles R. Knight PD
AND Description English: (Rusty,
the giant ground sloth, at the Iowa
Museum of Natural History, University
of Iowa. Based on Megalonyx
jeffersonii.) Date 16 October 2008
(original upload date) Source
Uploader - Billwhittaker
(talk) Author Billwhittaker (talk) at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) Released into the public
domain (by the author). PD AND Artist
[show]Roelant Savery (1576–1639)
Link back to Creator infobox
template Description One of the most
famous and often copied paintings of a
Dodo specimen, as painted by Roelant
Savery in 1626. The image came into the
posession of the ornithologist George
Edwards, who later gave it to the
British Museum, hence the name.[1][2]
The bird swallowing a frog in the lower
right may be the likewise extinct Red
Rail. Date 1626 Current location
[show]British MuseumLink back to
Institution infobox
template Source/Photographer
http://julianhume.co.uk/wp-content/uplo
ads/2010/07/History-of-the-dodo-Hume.pdf
PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a1/Glyptodon_old_drawing
.jpghttp://www.fantasy-workshop.com/faw/
image-files/smilodon-1.jpghttp://upload.
wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Woo
ly_Mammoths.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.o
rg/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Giant_ground_s
loth_Iowa.JPGhttp://upload.wikimedia.org
/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Edward%27s_Dodo.
jpg


[2] Koch, Paul L. and Anthony D.
Barnosky. ''Late Quaternary Extinctions
: State of the Debate.'' (2006):
215-252. http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/ba
rnosky/Koch%20%20and%20Barnosky%202006.p
df COPYRIGHTED
source: http://ib.berkeley.edu/labs/barn
osky/Koch%20%20and%20Barnosky%202006.pdf

46,000 YBN
[44000 BC]
577) The earliest water ship. Sapiens
from Southeast Asia reach Australia by
water ship.

 
[1] Palmer, et al, ''Prehistoric
Life'', 2009, p470-471. COPYRIGHTED
source: Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p470-471.


[2] World map of human migrations,
with the North Pole at center. Africa,
harboring the start of the migration,
is at the top left and South America at
the far right. Migration patterns are
based on studies of mitochondrial
(matrilinear) DNA. Numbers represent
thousand years before present. The
blue line represents area covered in
ice or tundra during the last great ice
age. The letters are the mitochondrial
DNA haplogroups (pure motherly
lineages); Haplogroups can be used to
define genetic populations and are
often geographically oriented. For
example, the following are common
divisions for mtDNA
haplogroups: African: L, L1, L2,
L3 Near Eastern: J, N Southern
European: J, K General European: H,
V Northern European: T, U, X Asian:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G (note: M is
composed of C, D, E, and G) Native
American: A, B, C, D, and sometimes
X [edit]Data
derivation Image:Northern icesheet
hg.png shows the region that was
covered by ice or tundra in the last
ice age All migration data based on
mitomap Geographic data from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Last_
glacial_vegetation_map.png and adding
the following data
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ice_A
ge_Temperature.png we get this
interesting result
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Human
-migration-temperature.jpg GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/37/Map-of-human-migratio
ns.jpg

43,000 YBN
[41000 BC]
1187) The earliest known mine: "Lion
Cave" in Swaziland, Africa; mined for
the iron mineral hematite which is
ground to produce the red pigment
ochre.

Swaziland, Africa 
[1] Oldest Mine in the World -
Swaziland The Lion Cavern at Ngwenya
Mountain, just north of the Swaziland
Capital Mbabane, is thought to be the
oldest evidence of human mining in the
world. Carbon-dating has shown mining
activity for red ocre (haematite)
within this cavity dating back to a
period between 41000 and 43000BC. The
site is preserved as an open-air museum
of visitors and is a popular tourism
attraction. (By Darron
Raw) www.swazi.travel CC
source: http://farm3.staticflickr.com/27
23/4303217549_a15d58e869_b.jpg


[2] Ngwenya Mountain Lion Cave in
Swaziland UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ancienttrenches.com/_
/rsrc/1328277651042/ancient-mines/bb92d5
f7-639a-42d2-aee1-daaaa87267b8.jpg?heigh
t=300&width=400

40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
598) The earliest sapiens fossils in
Europe (Romania).

Peştera cu Oase, Romania (and baby
tooth: Grotta del Cavallo, Italy, jaw:
Kent's Cavern, UK) 

[1] Oblique view of the Oase 1
mandible. Figure 1 from: Trinkaus,
Erik et al. “An Early Modern Human
from the Peştera Cu Oase, Romania.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 100.20 (2003):
11231–11236. http://www.pnas.org/cont
ent/100/20/11231 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/100/
20/11231/F1.large.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en
/3/36/Cromagf.jpg


[2] Front view of Cro-magnon 1
fossil COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.antikitera.net/images
/imgNews/4253-european-head_169813t.jpg

40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
604) The earliest oil lamp.
Southwest France 
[1] Figure from: Sophie A. de Beaune
and Randall White, ''Ice Age Lamps'',
Scientific American, March
1993. http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.f
r/docs/00/42/17/69/PDF/Sc.Amer.1993.pdf

source: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.
fr/docs/00/42/17/69/PDF/Sc.Amer.1993.pdf

40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
1262) The earliest known human-made
painting.; a cave painting made by
using a blowing technique in Spain.

(The Panel de las Manos) El Castillo
Cave, Spain|Southern France 

[1] Drawings of horses from Chauvet
Cave GNU
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/336/6087/F5.large.jpg


[2] Fig 3 from: Pike, A. W. G. et al.
“U-Series Dating of Paleolithic Art
in 11 Caves in Spain.” Science
336.6087 (2012): 1409 –1413.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/336/6087/1409.abstract A time line
of the cave art dated. A single arrow
represents a minimum age, but, where
two dates are indicated, both maximum
and minimum ages have been obtained.
The error bars for O-21 reflect the
variation resulting from the two
different methods of detrital
correction (11). Larger versions of
these images showing sample locations
are available in the supplementary
materials, figs. S2 to
S12. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Chauvethorses.jpg

40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
5871) The earliest musical instrument,
a flute, made from the wing bone of a
vulture.

Hohle Fels Cave, Germany 
[1] Prehistorian historian Nicholas
Conard presents the bone flute from
Hohle Fels to journalists COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.google.com/hostednews
/afp/media/ALeqM5hlF6Vh9FxCmW4OYCeiBOJqR
J3VgA?size=l


[2] Conard et al.1 have discovered the
oldest known flute, at Hohle Fels Cave
in Germany. The flute is made from bird
bone, and dates from the early
Aurignacian, 40,000 years ago. H.
JENSEN/UNIV. TÜBINGEN COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v460/n7256/images/460695a-f1.2.jpg

40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
6483) Humans catch fish.
Peçstera cu Oase, Romania 
[1] This is the lower mandible of the
40,000-year-old human skeleton, found
in the Tianyuan Cave near Beijing.
Analyses of collagen extracted from
this bone prove that this individual
was a regular consumer of fish. Credit:
Image: Hong Shang / Chinese Academy of
Sciences, Beijing Read more at:
http://phys.org/news166120605.html#jCp
UNKNOWN
source: http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gf
x/news/hires/2009/fishonthemen.jpg


[2] Translated from Italian with
translate.google.com Revealed the face
of the first
European PHOTOGALLERY reading time
provided for 4 min. about This is
the face of the first anatomically
modern man lived in Europe. Belonged to
a man - or woman - who inhabited the
ancient forests of the Carpathian
Mountains in Romania, about 35,000
years ago. The reconstruction of the
artist - a face that can be of a male
or of a female - is based on the parts
of the skull and jaw found in a cave in
which it was known that bears
hibernate. The facial features indicate
the close affinity of these first
Europeans with their immediate
ancestors Africans, even if it was not
yet possible to determine the sex of
the person. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.antikitera.net/images
/imgNews/4253-european-head_169813t.jpg

39,000 YBN
[37000 BC]
599) Sapiens reach China.
(Tianyuan Cave) Zhoukoudian, China
(Tongtianyan Cave, Liujiang County,
Guangxi Zhuang) 

[1] Fig. 1. Anterolateral oblique
view of the Tianyuan 1 mandible (lower
left), medial view of the right corpus
and ramus (upper left), and occlusal
view of the dentition and alveoli
(upper right). Views are not to the
same scale. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/104/
16/6573/F1.large.jpg


[2] Fossilized skull of the Liujiang
hominid, H. sapiens sapiens, found in a
cave in Liujiang County, Guangxi Zhuang
Autonomous Region Chang, P.K.C. et al.
The Formation of Chinese Civilization:
An Archaeological Perspective. Yale
University Press, 2005. The Culture and
Civilization of China Series.
p23. http://books.google.com/books?id=s
P-PN2StH2cC COPYRIGHTED
source: Chang, P.K.C. et al. The
Formation of Chinese Civilization: An
Archaeological Perspective. Yale
University Press, 2005. The Culture and
Civilization of China Series.
p23. http://books.google.com/books?id=s
P-PN2StH2cC

35,000 YBN
[33000 BC]
3943) The oldest known sculpture of the
human form, a statue made from
mammoth-ivory.

Hohle Fels Cave, Germany 
[1] Photos by H. Jensen; copyright,
University of Tübingen.
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v459/n7244/images/nature07995-f1.2.
jpg

32,000 YBN
[30000 BC]
602) Humans weave textiles from flax
and use coloring dyes.

Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia 
[1] Fig. 1 (1 to 7) Fibers from
Dzudzuana, Georgia, unit D. 1, twisted
flax fibers; 2 to 4, flax fibers; and 5
to 7, unraveled flax fibers. (8 to 12)
Fibers from Dzudzuana, unit C. 8 and 9,
twisted flax fibers; 10 and 12, flax
fibers; and 11, dyed flax fibers.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/325/5946/-CSCO-3h--1359/-CSCO-3h--F1.l
arge.jpg


[2] On a lump of fired clay from the
Dolní Věstonice / Pavlov area were
found the impressions of substances
from plant fibres. The whole process of
picking nettles, crushing the dried
stem, preparation of tow, spinning the
thread and then weaving was tested and
shown to be possible using tools of the
time by M. Bunatova. Urbanová (ca
1999) http://www.donsmaps.com/dolnivpot
tery.html Dexterity of the First
Weavers A decade ago, experts did
not dare to think about people living
in the last ice age making
fabric. However, on a lump of fired
clay from the Dolní Věstonice /
Pavlov area were found the impressions
of substances from plant fibres. The
whole process of picking nettles,
crushing the dried stem, preparation of
tow, spinning the thread and then
weaving was tested and shown to be
possible using tools of the time by M.
Bunatova. Urbanová (ca
1999) Source: Display, Dolní
Věstonice Museum From Buňatová
(1999) and Sosna (2000): Buňatová,
M., 1999: Textilní produkce v mladém
paleolitu, experiment pro
dokumentární film ''Úsvit géniů'',
in: AR LI, Praha, 104 - 111. Sosna,
D., 2000: Počátky textilnictví. PhD.
Dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, Masaryk University, Brno.
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/
Images/countries/Czech%20pics/dolnifabri
c.jpg

31,700 YBN
[29700 BC]
42) Humans raise dogs.
Goyet cave, Belgium 
[1] Description Deutsch:
Europäischer Grauwolf (Canis
lupus) English: grey wolf Date
February 2009 Source Own
work (own photo) Author Gunnar
Ries Amphibol Permission (Reusing
this file) You must give the
original author credit. If you use my
pictures outside the wiki projects,
please let me know. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/9/9d/Grauwolf_P11302
75.jpg/1024px-Grauwolf_P1130275.jpg


[2] Description Español: Lobo en
el zoo de Kolmården (Suecia). Date
2010-12-23 18:10 (UTC) Source
Wolf_Kolmården.jpg Author
Wolf_Kolmården.jpg: Daniel
Mott from Stockholm, Sweden
derivative work:
Mariomassone Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/5f/Kolm%C3%A5rden_Wolf.j
pg

29,000 YBN
[27000 BC]
6215) The earliest ceramic objects, the
Venus figurines.

Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia 
[1] Description Věstonická
venuše na výstavě Lovci mamutů v
Národním muzeu v Praze Date 2.
9. 2007 Source che Author
che (Please credit as ''Petr
Novák, Wikipedia'' in case you use
this outside WMF projects.) guidance:
Danny B. Permission (Reusing this
file) As they reached the Summit,
he said: “Thou shall take this
Snapshot and use it according to the
Code of License, and let your people
flourish all around the world.” They
brought the Snapshot to their homes and
there was much rejoicing. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/b8/Vestonicka_venuse_edi
t.jpg


[2] Description Deutsch: Venus von
Willendorf Date 1 January
2007 Source Own work Author
User:MatthiasKabel Own work,
attribution required (Multi-license
with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY
2.5) GNU Figure 2 from: O. Soffer,
J. M. Adovasio, D. C. Hyland, ''The
“Venus” Figurines: Textiles,
Basketry, Gender, and Status in the
Upper Paleolithic'', Current
Anthropology, Vol. 41, No. 4
(August/October 2000), pp.
511-537 URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/3173
81 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/50/Venus_von_Willendorf_
01.jpg

28,000 YBN
[26000 BC]
451) The Neanderthals go extinct.
Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, Spain 
[1] Description English: View of
Gorham's Cave, a sea cave in the east
face of the Rock of Gibraltar,
Gibraltar. Date {ULSF: with top
part showing house removed} 3 July
2007 Source Own work Author
Gibmetal77 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/Gorham%27s_Cave
.jpg/800px-Gorham%27s_Cave.jpg


[2] Description English: View of
Gorham's Cave, a sea cave in the east
face of the Rock of Gibraltar,
Gibraltar. Date 3 July
2007 Source Own work Author
Gibmetal77 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/ec/Gorham%27s_Cave
.jpg/800px-Gorham%27s_Cave.jpg

26,000 YBN
[24000 BC]
6224) The earliest "fired" clay (clay
dried and hardened by fire).

Dolní Věstonice, Pavlov, Czech
Republic 

[1] On a lump of fired clay from the
Dolní Věstonice / Pavlov area were
found the impressions of substances
from plant fibres. The whole process of
picking nettles, crushing the dried
stem, preparation of tow, spinning the
thread and then weaving was tested and
shown to be possible using tools of the
time by M. Bunatova. Urbanová (ca
1999) http://www.donsmaps.com/dolnivpot
tery.html Dexterity of the First
Weavers A decade ago, experts did
not dare to think about people living
in the last ice age making
fabric. However, on a lump of fired
clay from the Dolní Věstonice /
Pavlov area were found the impressions
of substances from plant fibres. The
whole process of picking nettles,
crushing the dried stem, preparation of
tow, spinning the thread and then
weaving was tested and shown to be
possible using tools of the time by M.
Bunatova. Urbanová (ca
1999) Source: Display, Dolní
Věstonice Museum From Buňatová
(1999) and Sosna (2000): Buňatová,
M., 1999: Textilní produkce v mladém
paleolitu, experiment pro
dokumentární film ''Úsvit géniů'',
in: AR LI, Praha, 104 - 111. Sosna,
D., 2000: Počátky textilnictví. PhD.
Dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, Masaryk University, Brno.
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/
Images/countries/Czech%20pics/dolnifabri
c.jpg

25,000 YBN
[23000 BC]
724) Woven baskets.
Pavlov, Czech Republic  
[1] Figures 3 and 4 from: ADOVASIO J.
M., SOFFER O., KLÍMA B., 1996: Upper
Paleolithic fibre technology:
Interlaced woven finds from Pavlov I,
Czech Republic, c. 26,000 years ago.
Antiquity 70: 526-534.
{Adovasio_Fibre_technology_1996.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source:


[2] On a lump of fired clay from the
Dolní Věstonice / Pavlov area were
found the impressions of substances
from plant fibres. The whole process of
picking nettles, crushing the dried
stem, preparation of tow, spinning the
thread and then weaving was tested and
shown to be possible using tools of the
time by M. Bunatova. Urbanová (ca
1999) http://www.donsmaps.com/dolnivpot
tery.html Dexterity of the First
Weavers A decade ago, experts did
not dare to think about people living
in the last ice age making
fabric. However, on a lump of fired
clay from the Dolní Věstonice /
Pavlov area were found the impressions
of substances from plant fibres. The
whole process of picking nettles,
crushing the dried stem, preparation of
tow, spinning the thread and then
weaving was tested and shown to be
possible using tools of the time by M.
Bunatova. Urbanová (ca
1999) Source: Display, Dolní
Věstonice Museum From Buňatová
(1999) and Sosna (2000): Buňatová,
M., 1999: Textilní produkce v mladém
paleolitu, experiment pro
dokumentární film ''Úsvit géniů'',
in: AR LI, Praha, 104 - 111. Sosna,
D., 2000: Počátky textilnictví. PhD.
Dissertation, Department of
Anthropology, Masaryk University, Brno.
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/
Images/countries/Czech%20pics/dolnifabri
c.jpg

23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6231) The earliest human-made
structure. A stone wall.

(Theopetra Cave) Kalambaka,
Greece 

[1] Picture: Remains of the stone wall.
From the Greek Ministry of Culture.
UNKNOWN
source: http://blogs.discovery.com/files
/wall.jpg

23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6461) The earliest fishing hooks.
(Jerimalai Cave, east end of East
Timor, an island off northwestern
Australia) 

[1] Fishing hook Source: Susan
O'Connor UNKNOWN
source: http://www.archaeology.org/1203/
trenches/images/fish-hooks.jpg

19,000 YBN
[17000 BC]
6175) Cereal gathering.
Near East (Southwest Asia Turkey,
Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi
Arabia) 

[1] escription Русский:
Дикая пшеница
Эребунийского
заповедника -
Однозернянка
араратская (Triticum
araraticum) English: The Wild Wheat of
Erebuni Reserve (Triticum
araraticum) Date 5 June 2007 Source
for-wikimedia.wowarmenia.ru Author
uncredited Permission (Reusing this
file) Released by WOWARMENIA for
Wikimedia under Creative Commons
Attribution-Share Alike license
(Multi-license with GFDL and Creative
Commons CC-BY-SA-3.0 and older versions
(2.5, 2.0 and 1.0)). If you wish to
reuse the photos elsewhere, please read
the instructions at COM:REUSE. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/d/d3/WildWheat_Erebu
ni_Reserve.jpg/1280px-WildWheat_Erebuni_
Reserve.jpg


[2] Description Česky:
Pšenice. Deutsch: Weizen. English:
Wheat. Español: Trigo. Français :
Blé. Magyar: Búza. Tiếng Việt:
Lúa mì. Date August
2005 Source Own work Author
User:Bluemoose GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Wheat_close-up.
JPG/800px-Wheat_close-up.JPG

18,000 YBN
[16000 BC]
603) The earliest pottery.
(Yuchanyan cave), Daoxian County, Hunan
Province, China 

[1] Pottery Fu (Cooking Vessel)-Shaped
Vessel Paleolithic Age to Neolithic
Age 12000 years ago Diameter at mouth
32.5cm height 29.8cm Restored on the
basis of unearthed pottery pieces at
Yuchanyan, Dao County in 1995 It is by
far the earliest pottery discovered, a
cooking vessel. [t Note that there
are apparently fragments of 2 or more
pottery vessels, and they are redated
in the article to 18000ybn: Elisabetta
Boaretto, Xiaohong Wu, Jiarong Yuan,
Ofer Bar-Yosef, Vikki Chu, Yan Pan,
Kexin Liu, David Cohen, Tianlong Jiao,
Shuicheng Li, Haibin Gu, Paul Goldberg,
and Steve Weiner, ''Radiocarbon dating
of charcoal and bone collagen
associated with early pottery at
Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China
PNAS 2009 106 (24) 9595-9600;''
published ahead of print June 1, 2009,
doi:10.1073/pnas.0900539106
http://www.pnas.org/content/106/24/959
5.full?sid=4a6f1743-94c2-4be8-b046-575b4
f27ab46]
source: http://www.hnmuseum.com/hnmuseum
/eng/whatson/exhibition/images/kg/2.jpg

17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6225) The earliest rope.
Lascaux, France 
[1] Remains of the rope. Fragments of
the first piece of clay (at left the
remains of the rope, at right, its
mark). Images from: LEROI-GOURHAN,
A., Lascaux Inconnu (A. LEROIGOURHAN &
J. ALLAIN, eds.), Xlle Suppl. à Gallia
Préhistoire, CNRS: Paris, 1979,
p183. COPYRIGHTED
source: LEROI-GOURHAN, A., Lascaux
Inconnu (A. LEROIGOURHAN & J. ALLAIN,
eds.), Xlle Suppl. à Gallia
Préhistoire, CNRS: Paris, 1979, p183.


[2] Figure 142. - Fragments of the
second piece of clay. The remains of
the cord appear on both sides. Images
from: LEROI-GOURHAN, A., Lascaux
Inconnu (A. LEROIGOURHAN & J. ALLAIN,
eds.), Xlle Suppl. à Gallia
Préhistoire, CNRS: Paris, 1979,
p183. COPYRIGHTED
source: LEROI-GOURHAN, A., Lascaux
Inconnu (A. LEROIGOURHAN & J. ALLAIN,
eds.), Xlle Suppl. à Gallia
Préhistoire, CNRS: Paris, 1979, p183.

17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6516) There are 10 million humans on
Earth, all hunter-gathering people.

 
[1] Parker, G. Compact History of the
World. Barnes & Noble, 2001,
p17. COPYRIGHTED
source: Parker, G. Compact History of
the World. Barnes & Noble, 2001, p17.

14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6227) The earliest known map.
Mezhirich, Ukraine 
[1] The oldest known map in the world,
discovered by archeologists, is from
12,000 B.C. and was found in Mezhirich,
Ukraine.
source: http://www.infoukes.com/history/
images/inventions/figure02.gif

14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6439) Lime cement is used as an
adhesive on small stone tools
(microliths) from Northern Sinai.

Geometric Kebaran site Lagama North
VIII, Gebel Maghara, Northern Sinai,
Egypt 

[1] Figure 6 from: Kingery, W D,
Pamela B. Vandiver, and Martha
Prickett. ''The Beginnings of
Pyrotechnology, Part Ii: Production and
Use of Lime and Gypsum Plaster in the
Pre-Pottery Neolithic Near East.''
Journal of Field Archaeology. 15.2
(1988): 219-244.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/530304 CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/5303
04


[2] See text ''In the north corner of
the room was an interesting structure
of unbaked plano-convex bricks (Fig.
44). It had a rectangular base
measuring approximately 1.00 x 1.60 m.,
the north-east side of which was only
15 cm. from the outer inclosure wall.
... The tops of these two walls were
rounded off toward the outside
throughout their length, on the higher
as well as on the lower parts (Fig. 45;
cf. also Fig. 65), and trhe whole
structure was originally coated with a
thick layer of white lime plaster- a
circumstance which greatly facilitated
its excavation and the tracing of its
peculiar shape. ... Fig 44
from: Delougaz, Pinhas, ''The temple
oval at Khafājah'', University of
Chicago Press/Chicago Ill., 1940.
http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/oip53.pdf
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/oip53
.pdf

13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
578) Sapiens reach America. The oldest
human bones in America.

Mexico City and Arlington Canyon on
Santa Rosa Island, California,
USA 

[1] A member of Arturo González's
underwater archaeological team studies
a skull in an underwater cave on the
coast of the Yucatán Peninsula near
Tulum, Mexico. Skeletons found in
similar caves may be among the oldest
human remains ever found in North or
South America. Photograph courtesy
Arturo Gonzáles COPYRIGHTED
source: http://news.nationalgeographic.c
om/news/bigphotos/images/080903-oldest-s
keletons_big.jpg


[2] Tulum, Mexico UNKNOWN
source: maps.google.com

12,000 YBN
[10000 BC]
6522) Humans transform from hunting and
gathering to agriculture, from a
migratory to a sedentary life, building
the first cities.

 
[1] Parker, G. Compact History of the
World. Barnes & Noble, 2001,
p16-17. COPYRIGHTED
source: Parker, G. Compact History of
the World. Barnes & Noble, 2001,
p16-17.

11,700 YBN
[9700 BC]
827) The end of the Pleistocene
(PlISTeSEN), and start of the Holocene
{HoLoSEN or HOLoSEN} epoch. This is the
end of the last Ice Age.

 
[1] Geologic Time Scale 2009 UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geosociety.org/scienc
e/timescale/timescl.pdf

11,700 YBN
[9700 BC]
828) The start of the Neolithic or "New
Stone Age" in the Fertile Crescent, a
region of the Middle East arching from
the Nile Valley to the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers.

 
[1] Lake dwellers lived in central
Europe and were ancestral to the Celts
and northern Italians, and built their
houses very near water so that their
kind of wheat, that grew in marshy
areas, could grow in fields nearby.
They built their houses on stilts to
keep them dry. They were genetically
characterized by a very large clade of
R2b1b2. UNKNOWN
source: http://freepages.genealogy.roots
web.ancestry.com/~villandra/McKinstry/I2
b1/lakedwellingNeolithic.jpg


[2] Catal Hoyuk
Reconstruction UNKNOWN
source: http://www.veeb.net/wp-content/u
ploads/2011/01/Catal_Hoyuk_Reconstructio
n.jpg

11,500 YBN
[9500 BC]
829) Humans shape metal objects.

Copper is the first metal shaped by
humans.

(Shanidar Cave) North East
Iraq|(Çayönü) Anatolia (modern
Turkey)|Northern Iraq|Eastern
Anatolia 

[1] from ''Metallurgy as a human
experience'': fgi2: Copper pendant from
Shanidar Cave, Northeast Iraq, about
9500 B.C. Length 2.3cm; thickness
0.3cm. Shaped by hammering a piece of
native metal and finishing with
abrasives. (It is completely
mineralized and there is a slight
possibility that it was originally
simply carved from a lump of
malachite.) Courtesy Professor Ralph S.
Solecki. --- Malachite is a green
mineral, basic copper carbonate, Cu 2
CO 3 (OH) 2 , an ore of copper, used
for making ornamental articles.
''Malachite.'' Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 04 Jul.
2012. . Cyril Stanley Smith,
''Metallurgy as a human experience'',
Metallurgical and Materials
Transactions A Volume 6, Number 4
(1975), 603-623, DOI:
10.1007/BF02672281 http://www.springerl
ink.com/content/4r60p045832k01l6/ COPYR
IGHTED
source: http://www.springerlink.com/cont
ent/4r60p045832k01l6/


[2] Description View of the exterior
of Shanidar Cave, taken during the
summer of 2005. Note for scale the two
crouching men in front of the cave. At
the time this photo was taken, the
interior of the cave was being used as
a pen by a local
shepherd. Licensing Date 2006-08-03
(original upload date) Source
Originally from en.wikipedia;
description page is/was here. Author
Original uploader was JosephV at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) Licensed under the GFDL by
the author; Released under the GNU Free
Documentation License. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a8/Erbil_governorate_sha
nidar_cave.jpg

11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
606) The oldest city, Jericho.
Jericho, (modern West Bank)
Palestine 

[1] An aerial view of Jericho showing
the ruins of Tell
es-Sultan Description Italiano:
veduta aerea dell'area archeologica di
Gerico Date 2008-03-05 (original
upload date) Source Transferred
from it.wikipedia Author Original
uploader was Fullo88 at
it.wikipedia PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f4/Tell_es-sultan.jpg


[2] Plastered skulls figures
from: Kathleen Kenyon, ''Excavations
at Jericho'', 1981,
vol5. {Kenyon_Excavations_At_Jericho_19
81.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: Kenyon_Excavations_At_Jericho_19
81.pdf

11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
608) The oldest saddle quern {KWRN} (a
flat stone and rounded stone used to
grind grain into flour).

Abu Hureyra, Syria 
[1] (presumably the:) Quern stone used
for making flour 9,500–9,000
BC Abu Hureyra, Syria NONCOMMERCIAL
USE
source: http://www.britishmuseum.org/ima
ges/quern_l.jpg


[2] Setting where Quern stone was used
for making flour 9,500–9,000
BC Abu Hureyra, Syria NONCOMMERCIAL
USE
source: http://www.britishmuseum.org/ima
ges/quern_setting_l.jpg

11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
617) Goats are kept, fed, milked, and
killed for food.

Euphrates river valley at Nevali Çori,
Turkey| (11,000 bp), and the Zagros
Mountains of Iran at Ganj Dareh
(10,000). 

[1] Description Bezoar Ibex (Capra
aegagrus aegagrus) Deutsch:
Bezoarziege, fotografiert im Tierpark
Berlin Date January
2006 Source Uploaded first to de
wikipedia on 13:25, 19. Feb 2006 by Der
Irbis Author F. Spangenberg (Der
Irbis, own photo) GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f6/Bezoarziege.jpg


[2] Domestic goat kid, in field of
capeweed. Swifts Creek, Victoria,
September 2007 GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/ff/Domestic_goat_k
id_in_capeweed.jpg/1024px-Domestic_goat_
kid_in_capeweed.jpg

11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
1292) The earliest stone buildings and
temple; in Turkey.

Göbekli Tepe, near Sanliurfa,
Southeastern Turkey 

[1] Description English: Göbekli
Tepe, Şanlıurfa Date 6 September
2011 Source Own work Author
Teomancimit CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/d/d5/G%C3%B6bekli_Te
pe%2C_Urfa.jpg/1280px-G%C3%B6bekli_Tepe%
2C_Urfa.jpg


[2] Göbekli Tepe may hold first human
writings Prehistory specialist of
the German Archeological Institute in
Berlin announced the findings of a
South Eastern Turkish Excavation site
near Sanliurfa called Göbekli Tepe
(''Nabelberg'') . Klaus Schmidt claims
the 11 600 old stone markings of this
temple are the worlds earliest known
form of writing. ''The geometrical
forms and small animal reliefs are
surely more than just ornamentations.
Humans somewhat wanted to communicate
with future humans here '' he says in a
February 14, 2006 Berliner Morgenpost
article. Excavator Schmidt interprets
Goebekli Tepe as a center for a
complicated dead cult and adds, ''This
was monumental architecture, 6000 years
before the pyramids.'' The monoliths
were lower than the surrounding walls
indicating that the intention was not
architectural in erecting
them. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.lahana.org/blog/Gobek
litepe.htm

11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
6468) The earliest settlement in China.
Nanzhuangtou, Xushui County, Hebei
Province, China 

[1] Chi, Zang. ''The discovery of early
pottery in China.'' Documenta
Prehistorica 29 (2002):
34. http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/doc
umenta/pdf29/29chi UNKNOWN
source: http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/
documenta/pdf29/29chi

11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
6509) Rye is grown in modern Syria.

The domestication of plants is thought
to have originated in the Fertile
Crescent.

Abu Hureyra, Syria 
[1] Description an ear of rye Date
11 June 2007 Source Own work Author
LSDSL Permission (Reusing this file)
Please quote me as LSDSL Bitte
nennen Sie mich als LSDSL GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/79/Ear_of_rye.jpg


[2] Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria in Google
Maps UNKNOWN
source: https://maps.google.com/maps?ll=
35.866,38.4&spn=0.01,0.01&t=m&q=35.866,3
8.4

10,870 YBN
[8870 BC]
6438) The earliest settlement in
Mesopotamia.

Zawi Chemi, Shanidar, Northern
Iraq 

[1] Solecki, R.L. An Early Village Site
at Zawi Chemi Shanidar. Undena
Publications, 1981. Bibliotheca
Mesopotamica. COPYRIGHTED
source: Solecki, R.L. An Early Village
Site at Zawi Chemi Shanidar. Undena
Publications, 1981. Bibliotheca
Mesopotamica.


[2] Solecki, R.L. An Early Village
Site at Zawi Chemi Shanidar. Undena
Publications, 1981. Bibliotheca
Mesopotamica. COPYRIGHTED
source: Solecki, R.L. An Early Village
Site at Zawi Chemi Shanidar. Undena
Publications, 1981. Bibliotheca
Mesopotamica.

10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
610) Flax is grown.

Flax is an oil and fiber crop.

Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria 
[1] Lewis Blue Flax seeding along
I-86. PD
source: http://itd.idaho.gov/highways/op
s/maintenance/Roadside/ImageGalleries/Na
tive-Management/LewisBlueFlax4.jpg


[2] from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Flax_
seeds.jpg I took this picture of flax
seed in July of 2005 and grant its use
under the Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/15/Flax_seeds.jpg

10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
6315) Sheep are raised for wool, skins,
meat and dung (which is used for fuel).

Northern Zagros to southeastern
Anatolia|(Middle East) Eastern
Mediterranean 

[1] Ovis canadensis Information from
en: Subject: Rocky Mountain Bighorn
Sheep Camera: Canon D60 Lens: Canon
100--400mm IS Originally uploaded to
en: by
Sunborn Source http://pdphoto.org/Pict
ureDetail.php?mat=pdef&pg=8208 PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3a/Ovis_canadensis_2.jpg


[2] Description Fotografía tomada
en Brunete, Madrid,
España. Date 30 March 2008,
10:24 Source Black sheep . Do u
also feel different? // la Oveja negra.
Tambien te sientes
diferente? Uploaded by
Petronas Author Jesus Solana from
Madrid, Spain CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/1/1a/Black_sheep-1.j
pg/1024px-Black_sheep-1.jpg

10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
205) Pigs are raised and killed for
food.

(Near East) Eastern Mediterranean and
Island South East Asia|southeastern
Anatolia 

[1] Description English: A baby Wild
Boar (Sus scrofa) in a wildlife park in
the Netherlands Français : Marcassin
(Sus scrofa) dans une réserve faunique
au Pays-Bas Date 12 May 2010,
15:10 Source Frisling Author S
ander van der Wel CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/3/36/Sus_scrofa_pigl
et.jpg/1024px-Sus_scrofa_piglet.jpg


[2] Edited version of Image:Wild Boar
Habbitat 2.jpg slightly cropped with
artifacts
removed. [edit]Summary Description
Deutsch: Das Wildschwein (Sus scrofa)
gehört zur Familie der altweltlichen
oder echten Schweine (Suidae) aus der
Ordnung der Paarhufer. Hier zu sehen in
seinem natürlichen Umfeld: Eine
Suhle English: The Wild Boar (Sus
scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the
domestic pig. As shown in his natural
habitat. Español: El jabalí salvaje
(Sus scrofa), ancestro del cerdo
doméstico, en su hábitat
natural. Français : Sanglier (Sus
scrofa) dans son habitat naturel. Le
sanglier est l'ancêtre sauvage du
porc. Grünvalder forst, Bavière
(Allemagne). Cymraeg: Baedd gwyllt
(Sus scrofa), hynafiad y mochyn
dof. Italiano: Il cinghiale (Sus
scrofa), è la forma ancestrale del
maiale domestico, ritratto nel suo
habitat naturale. Nederlands: Wild
zwijn (Sus scrofa) neemt een
modderbad ‪Norsk (bokmål)‬:
Villsvin (Sus scrofa) i sitt naturlige
miljø Português: Um javali da
espécie Sus scrofa, ancestral selvagem
do porco doméstico. Русский:
Кабан (Sus scrofa),
валяющийся в грязи;
предок домашней
свиньи. Svenska: Ett vildsvin
(Sus scrofa) i sin naturliga
miljö. Date 2007-05-22 Source O
wn work Author Richard Bartz,
Munich Makro Freak CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Wild_Boar_Habbi
tat_3.jpg/1024px-Wild_Boar_Habbitat_3.jp
g

10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
1259) Clay tokens of various
geometrical shapes that represent
products are used in Mesopotamia.

eastern Iran, southern Turkey, Israel,
Sumer (modern Iraq)|Babylonia|Syria,
Sumer and Highland Iran 

[1] Pre-literate counting and
accounting MS 5067/1-8 NEOLITHIC
PLAIN COUNTING TOKENS POSSIBLY
REPRESENTING 1 MEASURE OF GRAIN, 1
ANIMAL AND 1 MAN OR 1 DAY'S LABOUR,
RESPECTIVELY ms5067/1-8Counting tokens
in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca.
8000-3500 BC, 3 spheres: diam. 1,6, 1,7
and 1,9 cm , (D.S.-B 2:1); 3 discs:
diam. 1,0x0,4 cm, 1,1x0,4 cm and
1,0x0,5 cm (D.S.-B 3:1); 2
tetrahedrons: sides 1,4 cm and 1,7 cm
(D.S.-B 5:1). Exhibited: The
Norwegian Intitute of Palaeography and
Historical Philology (PHI), Oslo,
13.10.2003- COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.earth-history.com/_im
ages/ms5067.jpg


[2] MS 4631 BULLA-ENVELOPE WITH 11
PLAIN AND COMPLEX TOKENS INSIDE,
REPRESENTING AN ACCOUNT OR AGREEMENT,
TENTATIVELY OF WAGES FOR 4 DAYS' WORK,
4 MEASURES OF METAL, 1 LARGE MEASURE OF
BARLEY AND 2 SMALL MEASURES OF SOME
OTHER COMMODITY ms4631Bulla in clay,
Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca.
3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical
bulla-envelope (complete), diam. ca.
6,5 cm, cylinder seal impressions of a
row of men walking left; and of a
predator attacking a deer, inside a
complete set of plain and complex
tokens: 4 tetrahedrons 0,9x1,0 cm
(D.S.-B.5:1), 4 triangles with 2
incised lines 2,0x0,9 (D.S.-B.(:14), 1
sphere diam. 1,7 cm (D.S.-B.2:2), 1
cylinder with 1 grove 2,0x0,3 cm
(D.S.-B.4:13), 1 bent paraboloid
1,3xdiam. 0,5 cm
(D.S.-B.8:14). Context: MSS 4631-4646
and 5114-5127are from the same archive.
Total number of bulla-envelopes
worldwide is ca. 165 intact and 70
fragmentary. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.earth-history.com/_im
ages/ms4631.jpg

10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
6316) Cows are raised for milk, for
meat and eventually for plowing.

upper Euphrates Valley 
[1] Description Deutsch: Heckrinder
in den Niederlanden. English: An Heck
cattle group, in Oostvaardersplassen, a
nature reserve in the province of
Flevoland in the
Netherlands. Français : Aurochs de
Heck Nederlands: Heckrunderen in de
Oostvaardersplassen, een natuurgebied
in de provincie Flevoland,
Nederland. Date 16 septembre
2004 Source Travail personnel Auteur
GerardM GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Heckrund1.JPG/1
280px-Heckrund1.JPG


[2] Wild Cattle in Britain The
Chillingham Herd Chillingham
cattle (picture from
Whitepark.org.uk) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.vegaresearch.org/imag
es/Chillingham1.jpg

9,800 YBN
[7800 BC]
607) The earliest flint sickle.

A sickle has a semicircular blade and
is used for cutting grain or tall
grass.

Tell Aswad (modern
Syria)|Palestine 

[1] [t NOTE not- earliest sickle] [1]
Faucille néolithique danoise en silex
1/Danish Neolithic flint
sickle flint 105 UNKNOWN
source: http://idata.over-blog.com/4/25/
41/68/danois/flint-130.jpg


[2] [t NOTE not- earliest sickle]
Ancient Stone Age Neolithic Flint
Sickle Denmark UNKNOWN
source: http://www.artancient.com/ebay/2
50310/020412JSA010.jpg

9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
612) Wheat is grown in modern Syria.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria|southeastern
Turkey and northern Syria (Nevali Cori,
Turkey) 

[1] Description Česky:
Pšenice. Deutsch: Weizen. English:
Wheat. Español: Trigo. Français :
Blé. Magyar: Búza. Tiếng Việt:
Lúa mì. Date August
2005 Source Own work Author
User:Bluemoose GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Wheat_close-up.
JPG/800px-Wheat_close-up.JPG


[2] Nevali Cori, Turkey from Google
Maps UNKNOWN
source: https://maps.google.com/maps?ll=
37.518333,38.605556&spn=0.01,0.01&t=m&q=
37.518333,38.605556 http://localhost/ul
sf/images/Nevali_Cori_Turkey.jpg

9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
613) Common millet is grown in China.
Cishan, North China 
[1] Description English: Panicum
miliaceum Date 2008-5-4 Source Own
work Author Dalgial CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Panicum_miliace
um_2.JPG/768px-Panicum_miliaceum_2.JPG


[2] Name Panicum
miliaceum Family Poaceae
Bildbeschreibung: noch grüne
Rispenhirse Quelle: selbst
erstellt Fotograf:
User:MarkusHagenlocher Datum: 21.
Juli GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/51/Rispenhirse_gr%C3%BCn
.jpg

9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
6185) Barley is grown in modern Syria.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria 
[1] Hordeum-barley -
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/ph
otos/k5141-4.jpg PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/55/Hordeum-barley.jpg


[2] Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria in Google
Maps UNKNOWN
source: https://maps.google.com/maps?ll=
35.866,38.4&spn=0.01,0.01&t=m&q=35.866,3
8.4

9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
6440) The earliest gypsum cement (or
plaster).

Abu Hureyra, Syria 
[1] Andrew M. T. Moore, ''The
Prehistory of Syria'', Bulletin of the
American Schools of Oriental Research ,
No. 270, Ancient Syria (May, 1988), pp.
3-12. http://www.jstor.org/stable/13570
02 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1357
002


[2] Kingery, W D, Pamela B. Vandiver,
and Martha Prickett. ''The Beginnings
of Pyrotechnology, Part Ii: Production
and Use of Lime and Gypsum Plaster in
the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Near East.''
Journal of Field Archaeology. 15.2
(1988): 219-244.
http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/archaeology/
Publications/General/Lime%20and%20Gypsum
%20Plaster%20in%20the%20Pre-Pottery%20Ne
olithic%20near%20East.pdf AND
http://www.jstor.org/stable/530304 CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/5303
04

9,240 YBN
[7240 BC]
1478) The earliest domesticated plants
in America. Squash is grown in Peru.

Paiján, Peru 
[1] Fig. 3. Close-up of two dark
brown squash seed (C. moschata)
fragments recovered from a buried house
floor at CA-09-27. from: Tom D.
Dillehay, Jack Rossen, Thomas C.
Andres, and David E. Williams,
''Preceramic Adoption of Peanut,
Squash, and Cotton in Northern Peru'',
Science 29 June 2007: 316 (5833),
1890-1893. http://www.sciencemag.org/co
ntent/316/5833/1890.abstract COPYRIGHTE
D
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/316/5833/1890/F3.large.jpg

9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
1288) Mehrgarh {mARGoR}, an Indus
Valley city is founded.

Kachi plain of Baluchistan,
Pakistan 

[1] Early farming village in Mehrgarh,
c. 7000 BCE, with houses built with mud
bricks. (Musée Guimet, Paris). The
image was downloaded from the website
of the Indus and Mehrgarh
archaeological mission, Musée Guimet,
by Fowler&fowler«Talk» 22:56, 6 March
2007 (UTC) COPYRIGHTED FAIRUSE
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Neolithic_mehrgarh.jpg


[2] A relief map of Pakistan showing
Mehrgarh This is an annotated version
of a relief map of Pakistan in the
public domain([1]). The map was
annotated by Fowler&fowler«Talk»
08:07, 7 March 2007 (UTC) and
rereleased to the public domain. PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Mehrgarh_pakistan_rel96.JPG

9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
6484) The earliest fishing net.
Korpilahti, Karelian Isthmus, Finland
(Antrea, Finland, now:Kamennogorsk,
Russia) 

[1] Description English: Some of the
remains of the Paleolithic Antrea
net. Suomi: Osa kivikautisen Antrean
verkon jäännöksistä. Date
1920 Source Suomen
Muinaismuistoyhdistyksen Aikakauskirja
XXVIII Author Sakari Pälsi PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c1/AntreaNet.jpg

8,800 YBN
[6800 BC]
6511) Lentils are grown in Israel.
Yifta'el, North Israel 
[1] Name Lens
culinaris Family
Fabaceae Original book source: Prof.
Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von
Deutschland, Österreich und der
Schweiz 1885, Gera,
Germany Permission granted to use
under GFDL by Kurt Stueber Source:
www.biolib.de PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/da/Illustration_Lens_cul
inaris0.jpg


[2] Description English: Lentil
plants 75 days after emergence,
Castelltallat, Catalonia Català:
Plantes de llentilla 75 dies després
de l'emergència Date
14/05/2011 Source Own work Author
Victor M. Vicente Selvas PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/3/39/Llenties_maig.J
PG/1280px-Llenties_maig.JPG

8,500 YBN
[6500 BC]
6512) Peas are grown in Turkey.
Çayönü, Turkey 
[1] Pea plant: Pisum sativum Picture
taken by myself: (nl:Doperwt rijserwt
peulen)Pisum sativum pods; GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/bc/Doperwt_rijserwt_peul
en_Pisum_sativum.jpg


[2] Description English: Studio
photo of peas in their pods. Date 7
July 2011 Source Own work Author
Bill Ebbesen CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/1/11/Peas_in_pods_-_
Studio.jpg/1186px-Peas_in_pods_-_Studio.
jpg

8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
605) The oldest known boat, a dug-out
boat.

Netherlands 
[1] De boot van Pesse (Drenthe).
C14-dateringen geven aan dat dit object
uit het mesolithicum dateert (ca. 8600
voor Chr.). De lengte bedraagt iets
minder dan 3 meter. foto: Drents
Museum grotere afbeelding UNKNOWN
source: http://www.archeoforum.nl/images
/webboot.jpg


[2] Afb. 1 Mark Jan Dielemans
probeert een kopie van de kano van
Pesse uit in een ven bij
recreatiecentrum Witterzomer in
Assen foto: GPD grotere
afbeeldin UNKNOWN
source: http://www.archeoforum.nl/images
/Pesse10afb1.jpg

8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
6220) The earliest drums.
Moravia, Czeck Republic 
[1] Curt Sachs, ''The History of
Musical Instruments'', 1940, p81. PD
source: Curt Sachs, "The History of
Musical Instruments", 1940, p81.

7,700 YBN
[5700 BC]
719) Rice is grown near the Yangtze
river in China.

Kuahuqiao, Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang
Province|Yangtze (in Hubei and Hunan
provinces), China 

[1] Description English: Paddy in
West Bengal, India Date 18 October
2009 Source Own
work Author Amartyabag CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/9/98/Paddy_West_Beng
al.jpg/1280px-Paddy_West_Bengal.jpg


[2] Description: Cambodia, Kratie: A
worker is removing the rice
seedlings. Capture date: August
2002 Photographer: Oliver Spalt
Published under CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/07/Rice_02.jpg

7,100 YBN
[5100 BC]
720) Corn is grown in Mexico.
San Andrés, Mexico|(Oaxaca,
Mexico) 

[1] Description Deutsch:
Maispflanzen (Zea mays) English: Maize
(Zea mays) plant with ears, the baby
corn growing level தமிழ்:
இளங்கதிர்கள்,
நன்கு
வளர்நிலையில்
இருக்கிறது. Date
2004 Source Own work Author
burgkirsch CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/32/Maispflanze.jpg

7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
627) The first metal to be smelted and
casted (copper). Smelting is separating
a metal from its ore by using heat and
a reducing or oxidizing material.

Casting involves pouring liquid metal
into a shaped mold of baked clay,
stone, metal, or sand.

Belovode, Eastern Serbia 
[1] Copper slag from Belovode (sample
No. 21). Figure 3 from: Miljana
Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Ernst
Pernicka, Dušan Šljivar, Michael
Brauns, Dušan Borić, On the origins
of extractive metallurgy: new evidence
from Europe, Journal of Archaeological
Science, Volume 37, Issue 11, November
2010, Pages 2775-2787, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012. (http://www.
sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440310001986) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence/article/pii/S0305440310001986


[2] Byzantine Roman
Collection tanged arrowhead Inventory
#: 308-316 Type:
Arrowhead Material: Iron Period:
Byzantine (Eastern Roman) 6th - 14th
Cent. A.D. Provenance: Balkan
Region Measurements: (lengths in cm,
left to right): 14.5, 17 cm UNKNOWN
source: http://www.worldmuseumofman.org/
img1000/308316b.jpg

7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
727) The earliest reed boats.
Kuwait 
[1] Bitumin remains from older Kuwaiti
boat show rope impressions. Lawler,
Andrew (June 7, 2002). ''Report of
Oldest Boat Hints at Early Trade
Routes''. Science (AAAS) 296 (5574):
1791–1792.
doi:10.1126/science.296.5574.1791. PMID
12052936.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/
summary/296/5574/1791
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3076918
COPYRIGHTED
source: Lawler, Andrew (June 7, 2002).
"Report of Oldest Boat Hints at Early
Trade Routes". Science (AAAS) 296
(5574): 1791–1792.
doi:10.1126/science.296.5574.1791. PMID
12052936.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/
summary/296/5574/1791http://www.jstor.or
g/stable/3076918


[2] Description Totora reed fishing
boats on the beach at Huanchaco,
Peru Date 13 October 2006,
15:26 Source Totora reed fishing
boats on the beach at Huanchaco,
Peru Author Roy & Danielle CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/8/82/Peruvian_fishin
g_boats.jpg/768px-Peruvian_fishing_boats
.jpg

6,900 YBN
[4900 BC]
648) The sail boat.
Mesopotamia 
[1] Scale 1/20 model of a Bronze Age
reed boat, as proposed by Tom Vosmer,
Model of a Third Millennium BC Reed
Boat Image from: Connan, Jacques et
al. “A comparative geochemical study
of bituminous boat remains from H3,
As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), and RJ-2, Ra’s
al-Jinz (Oman).” Arabian Archaeology
and Epigraphy 16.1 (2005):
21-66. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/d
oi/10.1111/j.1600-0471.2005.00041.x/abst
ract {Connan_Norman_200505xx.pdf} COPY
RIGHTED
source: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/d
oi/10.1111/j.1600-0471.2005.00041.x/abst
ract

6,800 YBN
[4800 BC]
6527) The first fruit trees, olives are
grown in Israel and Jordan.

(Chalcolithic) Tuleilat Ghassul (north
of the Dead Sea) 

[1] Description English: Olive trees
on Thasos Deutsch: Alte Olivenbäume
auf Thasos Date 9.7.2006 Source Own
work Author Petr Pakandl CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/Olive_trees_on_
Thassos.JPG/1280px-Olive_trees_on_Thasso
s.JPG


[2] Description English: Unique
Ancient Olive Tree Date 30 January
2011 Source Own work Author Dennis
koutou CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Ancient_Olive_T
ree_in_Pelion%2C_Greece.jpg/768px-Ancien
t_Olive_Tree_in_Pelion%2C_Greece.jpg

6,500 YBN
[4500 BC]
6437) The earliest settlement in
Europe, Provadia-Solnitsata {PrOVoDEYo
SOLnETSoTo?}, in Bulgaria is founded.

(near) Provadia, Bulgaria 
[1] The remains of the settlement made
of two-story houses near the town of
Provadia The prehistoric town at
Provadia features two-storey houses and
a defensive
wall (AFP/Getty) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multime
dia/archive/02384/b2_2384873c.jpg


[2] The remains of a man with a
ceramic bowl Photo:
AFP/GETTY COPYRIGHTED
source: http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multime
dia/archive/02384/b1_2384879b.jpg

6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
665) Wine making.
(Areni-1 cave complex in) southeastern
Armenia|Egypt 

[1] Wine press The wine press (center)
is clearly evident in this photograph
of the excavation. Behind the press is
an archaeological identification kit.
The vat (to the right of the press),
which was apparently used for
accumulating grape juice and the
consequent wine fermentation, emerges
clearly here as a result of the
excavation. (Photo credit: Gregory
Areshian) UNKNOWN
source: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/
ucla/artwork/8/8/6/8/3/188683/wine_press
.jpg


[2] Grape stems and seeds A range of
6,100-year-old desiccated grape stems
and dried, pressed grapes was found on
and around the wine press in the
Armenian cave. The chemical studies
were led by UCLA scientists and
supported by the National Geographic
Society, which also funded the
archaeological work. (Photo credit:
Gregory Areshian) UNKNOWN
source: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/
ucla/artwork/8/8/6/8/3/188683/stems_seed
s_grapes.jpg

6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6232) The earliest Sun-dried mud bricks
and mud-brick house; in Mesopotamia.

Mud brick, dried by the Sun, is one of
the first building materials.

Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) 
[1] The Royal Tombs (Cemetery) of Ur.
Courtesy Nathanm, Creative Commons. CC

source: http://popular-archaeology.com/u
pload/2697/urroyaltombs.jpg


[2] Pre-Historic Tell Uqair UNKNOWN
source: http://ancientneareast.tripod.co
m/IMAGES/Uqair.jpg

5,800 YBN
[3800 BC]
6540) The earliest nut crops, almond
trees are grown in the eastern part of
the Mediterranean basin.

Eastern part of the Mediterranean
Basin 

[1] Description English: Amond
blossom, Plants of Israel עברית:
פרי השקד, Original Image
Name:שקדיה,
Location:מודיעין Date circa
2010 Source Wild Flowers of Israel
via the PikiWiki - Israel free image
collection project Author שרה
גולד Permission (Reusing this
file) w:en:Creative
Commons attribution CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/84/PikiWiki_Israel_7025_
Amond_blossom.jpg


[2] Description English: Green
Almonds. Date 4 April 2009 Source
Own work Author 6th Happiness My
own work. Green Almonds, originally
posted here:
http://fithfath.com/images/2009/04/04/yo
ung-green-almonds/ PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a2/Green_almonds.jpg

5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
233) The earliest writing (on clay
objects in Mesopotamia). The first
numbers. The first stamp (or seal).

The first writing begins as symbols for
numbers on clay bulla (hollow clay
containers that hold clay tokens).
These symbols represent the quantity
and kind of tokens inside the bulla.
Markings on clay tokens which represent
products like sheep, oil, or metal, may
lead to the first symbols of the
alphabet. Hollow bullae and clay tokens
are eventually replaced by solid clay
tablets with the same impressions.

Mesopotamia (Babylonia)|Sumer (Syria,
Sumer, Highland Iran) 

[1] Fig 109 from: Nissen, Archaic
Bookkeeping, 1993, p127. COPYRIGHTED
source: Archaic Bookkeeping, Nissen,
1993, p127.


[2] Fig 110 from: Nissen, Archaic
Bookkeeping, 1993, p128. COPYRIGHTED
source: Archaic Bookkeeping, Nissen,
1993, p128.

5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
294) The sundial, the earliest
timekeeping device. The length of the
shadow indicates the time of day.

China and Chaldea 
[1] Stick in sand with shadow UNKNOWN
source: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/1
77/484077420_e01337d101.jpg


[2] Description English: Ancient
sundial from Marcianopolis, Museum of
Mosaicas, Devnya,
Bulgaria Български:
Слънчев часовник от
Марцианополис, Музей
на мозайките,
Девня Date 21 September
2010 Source Own work Author
Edal Anton Lefterov CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/ff/Sundial-from-Marciano
polis.jpg

5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
621) The earliest plow. Plows are used
to break up soil.

Mesopotamia 
[1] [t determine source of
drawing] Apparently mesopotamian
drawing of animal pulled plow. UNKNOWN

source: http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/A
rchives/ED101fa06/jtobz87/pic-3-2plow-lg
.png


[2] Akkadian plough with seeder c2200
BCE Peter Roger Stuart Moorey,
''Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and
Industries: The Archaeological
Evidence'', 1999,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=P_
Ixuott4doC&pg=PA3 UNKNOWN
source: Peter Roger Stuart Moorey,
"Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and
Industries: The Archaeological
Evidence", 1999,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=P_
Ixuott4doC&pg=PA3

5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
622) The earliest irrigation (an
artificial supply of water to land for
food crops).

Middle east (eastern part of
Mediterranean) 

[1] Illustration 1. A shaduf was used
to raise water above the level of the
Nile. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.waterhistory.org/hist
ories/nile/shaduf.jpg


[2] This is a picture of how egyptians
could have used the Nile to plant their
crops. They are using an irrigation
method. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.amersol.edu.pe/class1
5/_15eescob/6th/humanities/images/nile_i
rrigation.jpg

5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
625) Donkeys are raised and used for
transport.

 
[1] Artist Maler der Grabkammer
des Panehsi Title Deutsch:
Grabkammer des Panehsi, Priester,
Szene: Esel mit Bauern Date
Deutsch: um 1298-1235 v.
Chr. English: c. 1298-1235 BCE Medium
Deutsch: Wandbild Dimensions
Deutsch: 30 × 61 cm Current
location Deutsch: Grab des
Panehsi Deutsch:
Theben Source/Photographer The
Yorck Project: 10.000 Meisterwerke der
Malerei. DVD-ROM, 2002. ISBN
3936122202. Distributed by DIRECTMEDIA
Publishing
GmbH. http://mail.wikipedia.org/piperma
il/wikide-l/2005-April/012195.html PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/ce/Maler_der_Grabk
ammer_des_Panehsi_001.jpg/1024px-Maler_d
er_Grabkammer_des_Panehsi_001.jpg

5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
634) The Egyptian calendar (12 months
of 30 days, plus 5 extra days).

 
[1] Egyptian Calendar UNKNOWN
source: http://analyzer.depaul.edu/paper
plate/2002%20vernal%20equinox/Egyptian_c
alendar_dark.jpg

5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
646) The earliest known wheel, a
pottery wheel, in Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamia (and a similar pottery
wheel from Choga Mish, Iran) 

[1] These pots, found at al`Ubaid type
site itself are typical of last phase
of Ubaid pottery found throughout much
of Mesopotamia, including Uruk. London:
British Museum. [t Note that the
first and tihrd match figures in
Woolley's 1982 book.] PD
source: http://www.hartford-hwp.com/imag
e_archive/ue/pottery03.jpg


[2] 14. Pottery jar of Jemdat Nasr
type. It was found in the al`Ain region
of the United Arab Emirates, which
attests to contacts between Mesopotamia
and Oman peninsula—an important
source of copper. Ca. 3000 BC. London:
British Museum. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.hartford-hwp.com/imag
e_archive/ue/pottery02.jpg

5,490 YBN
[3490 BC]
702) Cotton is grown in Peru.
Northwestern Peru|Indus valley 
[1] English: cotton plant, Texas, 1996,
after chemical haulm (topkilling
Chemical ; usually by the Monosodium
methyl arsenate used to quickly kill
the leaves that would interfere with
harvesting machines). This chemical is
a growing source of residual
contamination of soils by arsenic,
which is not degradable; Photo courtesy
of USDA Natural Resources Conservation
Service. http://photogallery.nrcs.usda.
gov/Index.asp This came from the
website PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/68/CottonPlant.JPG
/1024px-CottonPlant.JPG

5,350 YBN
[3350 BC]
1261) Writing on clay tablets.

Symbols that represent a product (such
as cows, sheep, and cereals), drawn
with a stylus on clay tablets, are the
earliest record of what will become the
modern alphabet. Many of the symbols
look like the marked clay tokens that
represent actual products, and that are
replaced by the drawn symbols on clay
tablets.

This is the first training and industry
of scribes, which will ultimately
evolve into the modern school system.
Writing will be continuously taught
eventually in all major civilizations
(even through the Dark Ages) until
now.

These tablets are all economic records,
used to keep a record of objects owned
or traded, and contain no stories.

Uruk 
[1] MS 4551 Account of grain products,
bread, beer, butter oil. Sumer 32nd
century COPYRIGHTED?
source: http://www.earth-history.com/_im
ages/ms4551.jpg


[2] MS2963 Account of male and female
slaves Sumer
c3300-3200BCE COPYRIGHTED?
source: http://www.earth-history.com/_im
ages/ms2963.jpg

5,310 YBN
[3310 BC]
704) The earliest wheeled vehicles, and
ox pulled wheeled vehicles; in Poland.

(TRB - Funnel Beaker culture)
Bronocice, Krakow, Poland 

[1] Stuart and Piggott, ''The Earliest
Wheeled Transport'', 1983,
p40,62-63. COPYRIGHTED
source: Stuart and Piggott, "The
Earliest Wheeled Transport", 1983,
p40,62-63.


[2] According
to: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explor
e/highlights/highlight_objects/me/t/the_
standard_of_ur.aspx 2600-2400
BC According to:
http://sumerianshakespeare.com/687045.ht
ml this image is 4500 years old -
putting it at 2500bce - get more
evidence of age [1] Description
English: detail of the ''Standard of
Ur'', ca. 2500 BC. Date 2500
BC Source
http://www.alexandriaarchive.org/op
encontext/iraq_ghf/ur_standard/ur_standa
rd_8.jpg Author
Anonymous Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/7d/Ur_chariot.jpg

5,200 YBN
[3200 BC]
6493) Cheese-making.
Linear Pottery settlements along the
lower Vistula river (including Brześć
Kujawski 3 and 4, Miechowice 4, Smólsk
4, Wolica Nowa 1, Stare Nakonowo 2, and
Ludwinowo 6 and 7) 

[1] Figure 1: Drawings of
representative reconstructed sieve
vessels and photographs of specific
sieve fragments from the region of
Kuyavia submitted to lipid residue
analyses. a, b, KUY0750, from Brześć
Kujawski site 3. c, d, KUY0757 from
Smólsk site 4. The typology of the
sieve vessels is comparable to those
used by modern-day cheese producers
(Supplementary Fig. 1). Drawings used
with permission from ref. 20. Figure
1ab from: Salque, Melanie et al.
“Earliest Evidence for Cheese Making
in the Sixth Millennium Bc in Northern
Europe.” Nature advance online
publication (2012): n.
pag. http://www.nature.com/nature/journ
al/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature11698.html
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/vaop/ncurrent/images/nature11698-f1
.2.jpg

5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
641) The earliest record of a belief in
Gods and Goddesses.

Uruk 
[1] Archaic
Bookkeeping,Nissen,1993,p20-21.
COPYRIGHTED
source: Archaic
Bookkeeping,Nissen,1993,p20-21.

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
569) The earliest stringed musical
instrument (the lyre and the harp); in
Mesopotamia.

Sumer (modern Iraq) 
[1] Bearded Harpists, detail from
Sumerian tablet in the Temple of Sin in
Khafage, Mesopotamia (presently Iraq) c
3000 BC. Reprinted by permission
from The Harp by Rajka
Dobronic-Mazzoni. Published by Graficki
Zavrod Hrvatske, OOUR, Izdavcka
djelatnost, Preobrazenska 4, Zagreb,
Croatia, 1989 PD
source: http://www.harpspectrum.org/time
line/images/mesopotamia_1.jpg


[2] Harp-player of Sumer, from a
plaque of Khafaje (After Heras, 1953,
p. 182). PD
source: http://www.hindunet.org/hindu_hi
story/sarasvati/html/HARPPL-1.jpg

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
596) Written symbols are combined to
form words; there is a transition from
word-writing to sound-writing in
Sumarian.

The vast majority of Sumerian language
is made of one-syllable words. This
suggests that all earlier spoken
languages contained only
single-syllable words.

Jemdet Nasr 
[1] Fischer, S.R. A History of Writing.
Reaktion, 2001. Globalities Series.
p47-48. COPYRIGHTED
source: Fischer, S.R. A History of
Writing. Reaktion, 2001. Globalities
Series. p47-48.


[2] Source:
http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201
/writingsystems/sumeriancuneiform.htm U
NKNOWN
source: http://www.omniglot.com/images/w
riting/sumerian_glyphs.jpg

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
628) Bronze (copper and tin) are
smelted and casted; in modern Turkey.

The start of the Bronze Age; which
varies on different parts of Earth.

Bronze is made by smelting together two
separate ores, one bearing copper, and
the other tin. Bronze tools will
replace copper tools.

Tell Judaidah, Turkey|Egypt 
[1] Tell Judaidah bronze
figurines These figurines of men and
women from Tell Judaidah, Turkey, are
the oldest examples of true bronze
(combination of copper and tin) known.
They date to about 3000 B.C. The male
figures were originally equipped as
warriors, and the women were dressed
with accessories of precious metal.
They are the forerunners of later
figurines of gods who were ''dressed''
in gold and silver. Recently, the ore
content of the figurines was tested at
the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne
National Laboratory. UNKNOWN
source: http://www-news.uchicago.edu/rel
eases/05/050112.oi-3.jpg


[2] Female Figurine Amuq Valley Tell
Judaidah Turkey Amuq G Early Bronze Age
I (3400-2750 BCE)
Bronze Photographed at the Oriental
Institute of the University of Chicago,
Chicago, Illinois. UNKNOWN
source: http://farm3.staticflickr.com/26
18/3859375883_ccc6b90ec4_b.jpg

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
650) Cuneiform writing. Pictures are
not drawn with pointed reed, but drawn
with a cut reed-stem pressed into the
wet clay to make wedges.

Uruk 
[1] Archaic
Bookkeeping,Nissen,1993,p118.
COPYRIGHTED
source: Archaic
Bookkeeping,Nissen,1993,p118.


[2] Description Cuneiform script
tablet from the Kirkor Minassian
collection in the Library of Congress.
From Year 6 in the reign from
Amar-Suena/Amar-Sin between 2041 and
2040 BC.
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.amed/amcune.cf001
3 Date 2012-02-28 16:01 (UTC) Source
This file was derived from:
Cuneiform_script2.jpg Cuneiform
script2.jpg Author
Cuneiform_script2.jpg: derivative
work: Yjenith (talk) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/19/Cuneiform_script2.png

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
664) Soldering of metals.
Tell al-'Ubaid|Mesopotamia 
[1] Im-Dugud El-Ubaid Mesopotamia the
earliest soft solder 3000BC, presumably
with tin UNKNOWN
source: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3
116/2778973410_6db0e4ab03_o.jpg}
http://www.britishmuseum.org/images/ps16
5397_l.jpg


[2] {ULSF: Note that this may not be
the earliest known soldered
(soft-soldered joint) material
presumably with tin- update- this is
the correct panel- it's shown by the
Singer source in the Footnotes} Copper
frieze From the temple of Ninhursag,
Tell al-'Ubaid, southern Iraq About
2600-2400 BC COPYRIGHTED
source: http://link.springer.com/article
/10.1007%2FBF03216523?LI=true#

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
668) Silk making; in China.
 
[1] Making and Hanging Skeins of
Silk Photo: Image ID: 1564083 +
1564090 NYPL Digital Gallery. From
Twelve pictures showing various stages
in the manufacture of silk. UNKNOWN
source: http://0.tqn.com/d/ancienthistor
y/1/0/d/E/3/Silk.png


[2] Putting Silkworms on Bamboo
Screens NYPL Digital Gallery UNKNOWN
source: http://0.tqn.com/d/ancienthistor
y/1/0/a/E/3/Silk.jpg

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
672) The earliest dam; built in Egypt
to provide a water reservoir.

Wadi Gerrawi, Egypt 
[1] M. Kassas and M. Imam, ''Habitat
and Plant Communities in the Egyptian
Desert: III. The Wadi Bed Ecosystem'',
Journal of Ecology, Vol. 42, No. 2
(Jul., 1954), pp.
424-441 http://www.jstor.org/stable/225
6869 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2256
869

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
675) The earliest silver objects.
Ur 
[1] Queen Shub-ad harp with
silver Woolley, C. Leonard, and L.
Legrain. Ur excavations. Oxford
University Press,
1934. http://www.clintgoss.com/flutoped
ia.com/refs/Woolley_1934_UrExcavations_V
ol02_excerpt_FP.pdf COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.clintgoss.com/flutope
dia.com/refs/Woolley_1934_UrExcavations_
Vol02_excerpt_FP.pdf

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
676) Metal casting where wax is melted
in a clay mold.

 
[1] Trevor I. Williams, ''A history of
invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips '', (New York: Checkmark Books,
2000), p79.
source: Trevor I. Williams, "A history
of invention : from stone axes to
silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark
Books, 2000), p79.


[2] Description English: Liquid
bronze at 1200°C is poured into the
dried and empty casting mold. Date
Source Own work Author Takkk CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/de/Born_bronze_-_Bronze_
casts.jpg

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
1276) The first recorded political
assembly.

Sumer, Uruk, Kish 
[1] Kramer, Samuel Noah, and Thorkild
Jacobsen. “Gilgamesh and Agga.”
American Journal of Archaeology 53.1
(1949):
1–18. http://www.jstor.org/stable/501
208 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/5012
08


[2] Kramer, Samuel Noah, and Thorkild
Jacobsen. “Gilgamesh and Agga.”
American Journal of Archaeology 53.1
(1949):
1–18. http://www.jstor.org/stable/501
208 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/5012
08

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6222) The inclined plane (or ramp).
Egypt? 
[1] Description A free body
diagram of a mass on an inclined
plane Date 27 May 2007 Source
Own work Author Mets501 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/8/85/Free_body.svg/1
000px-Free_body.svg.png

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6226) The abacus; a counting and
calculating device.

Mesopotamia 
[1] Suanpan (the number represented in
the picture is 6,302,715,408). [t Note
that each place represents a decimal
place, and a bead on top at the bar
indicates +5, a bead on bottom at the
bar +1.] English: Abacus Scanned and
uploaded by Malcolm Farmer (englische
Wikipedia) Source: Article for
''abacus'', 9th edition Encyclopedia
Britannica, volume 1 (1875) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/af/Abacus_6.png

5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6441) The earliest bow drill. A bow
drill can drill holes and start a fire
from friction.

Egypt 
[1] Description Bow Drill Date
14:27, 7 April 2008 (UTC) Source Own
work Author
Reddi Permission (Reusing this file)
GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6f/Bow_Drill.png

4,980 YBN
[2980 BC]
654) The earliest pyramid in Egypt, the
step pyramid of Djoser, designed by
Imhotep, the earliest known scientist
of history.

Sakkara, Egypt 
[1] Description English: The Pyramid
of Djoser in Saqqara, Egypt. Date
6 February 2010 Source Own
work Author Wknight94 talk GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Pyramid_of_Djos
er_2010.jpg/1280px-Pyramid_of_Djoser_201
0.jpg

4,800 YBN
[2800 BC]
6565) Musical reed instruments.
Greece 
[1] Description figurines of a flutist
(playing a flute of the en:aulos type)
and a harpplayer, bronze age, 2600
B.C., from the Greek island en:Keros in
the island group of the Cyclades. On
display at the en:National
Archaeological Museum of Athens. Date
see metadata Source Own work (my
camera) Author sailko GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/85/Cycladic_idol_03_2_re
touched.jpg


[2] Artist English: Euaion
Painter Français : Peintre
d'Euaion Description English: Youth
playing the aulos, detail of a banquet
scene. Tondo of an Attic red-figure
cup, ca. 460 BC–450 BC. Français :
Jeune garçon jouant de l'aulos,
détail d'une scène de banquet. Tondo
d'une coupe attique à figures rouges,
v. 460–450 av. J.-C. Dimensions D.
31.1 cm (12 in.) Current location
(Inventory)Louvre MuseumLink back to
Institution infobox
template Department of Greek, Etruscan
and Roman Antiquities, Sully, first
floor, room 43, case 24 Accession
number G 467 Credit line Campana
Collection, 1861 References ARV²
792,47; Add² 290 Source/Photographer
Jastrow (2008) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/33/Banquet_Euaion_Louvre
_G467_n2.jpg

4,750 YBN
[2750 BC]
320) The earliest metal saw.
Mesopotamia 
[1] [t Note that these are not the
oldest known saws, but more recent saws
from Minoa.] Figures from: Wells, H.
Bartlett, ''The Position of the Large
Bronze Saws of Minoan Crete in the
History of Tool Making'', Expedition,
16.4, 1974,
p2-8. http://www.penn.museum/expedition
-back-issues/114-volumes-11-20/560-exped
ition-volume-16-number-4-summer-1974.htm
l
source: http://www.penn.museum/expeditio
n-back-issues/114-volumes-11-20/560-expe
dition-volume-16-number-4-summer-1974.ht
ml


[2] Saws from: [1] Deshayes, Jean,
''Les outils de bronze, de l'Indus au
Danube (IVe au IIe millénaire)'',
Librairie orientaliste P.
Geuthner/Paris,
1960 {Deshayes_Les_Outils_1960.pdf} CO
PYRIGHTED
source: Deshayes, Jean, "Les outils de
bronze, de l'Indus au Danube (IVe au
IIe millénaire)", Librairie
orientaliste P. Geuthner/Paris, 1960

4,700 YBN
[2700 BC]
1052) The earliest arch.
Nippur, Mesopotamia 
[1] One of the most ancient arches as
yet discovered is that which was brough
to light during the course of the
excavations carried on ... at the
ancient city of Nuippur (cf. Fig. 15).
It was found at a great depth below the
surface of the mound, being more than
22 1/2 feet below the pavement of
Ur-Engur (c2400BC), and 14 feet below
that of Naram-Sin (c2700 BC) Handcock,
P.S.P. Mesopotamian Archaeology: An
Introduction to the Archaeology of
Babylonia and Assyria. Putnam,
1912. http://books.google.com/books?id=
ErcoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA170 PD
source: http://books.google.com/books?id
=ErcoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA170

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
635) Iron is smelted and casted.

The start of the Iron Age in Turkey.

Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia
(modern Turkey)|Palestine|Tell Hammeh
(az-Zarqa), Jordan|Central Europe and
north Assyria 

[1] Description Dagger with iron blade
and golden hilt from Alaca Höyük.
Early evidence for the use of iron in
Anatolia. Date 2005 Source Own
work Author Stipich Béla GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/b9/Alaca_H%C3%BCy%C3%BCk
_dagger.jpg


[2] Xander Veldhuijzen and Eveline van
der Steen, ''Iron Production Center
Found in the Jordan Valley'', Near
Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 62, No. 3
(Sep., 1999), pp. 195-199 Published
by: The American Schools of Oriental
Research Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3210714 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3210
714

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
637) Scribes change from writing right
to left in columns to writing left to
right in rows.

Sumer 
[1] Fischer, S.R. A History of Writing.
Reaktion, 2001. Globalities Series.
p47-48. COPYRIGHTED
source: Fischer, S.R. A History of
Writing. Reaktion, 2001. Globalities
Series. p47-48.


[2] Nissen, Archaic Bookkeeping, 1993,
p22. COPYRIGHTED AND List of gods in
order of seniority: Enlil, Ninlil,
Enki, Nergal, Hendursanga,
Inanna-Zabalam, Ninebgal, Inanna, Utu,
Nanna. Sumerian cuneiform script
clay tablet, Sumer, 2400-2200 BC, 1
tablet, 4,7x4,4x1,7 cm, single column,
5+5 lines. Binding: Barking, Essex,
1998, blue cloth gilt folding case by
Aquarius. PD
source: Nissen, Archaic Bookkeeping,
1993,
p22.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi
a/commons/e/e1/Sumerian_MS2272_2400BC.jp
g

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
691) Skis are used in Skandinavia.
 
[1] Norway has a long tradition of
skiing. Skis have been used as a means
of transportation in Norway for several
thousand years. The Stone Age rock
carving, presently called'' the Rødøy
man'' found at Alstahaug in Nordland,
shows the use of skis about 4000 years
ago. The word ''ski'' originates from
the old Norwegian word ski which means
a split and flat piece of
wood. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.vest-telemark.museum.
no/vest-telemark/bilder/Altamannen.JPG


[2] Skiing is actually much older than
Viking. There are ancient images carved
in stone by the people of skiing and
archery. Red Eye Man from Nordland is
over 4,000 years old. In Alta there are
a whole bunch skiers who hunt wild
animals. They are over 3,000 years old.
You might see them in here if you look
closely. The world's second oldest ski,
Drevja from Skien Norway is more than
5000 years old. But in Russia it
certainly found a ski that is about
8,000 years old! UNKNOWN
source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_ofAN_C
hFQts/TM2M6_X9y7I/AAAAAAAACMg/Qu9tZMLJNJ
A/s1600/ski+pikt+ol+94.jpg

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
6230) The earliest dice and boardgame.
Ur, Mesopotamia 
[1] The Royal Game of Ur From Ur,
southern Iraq, about 2600-2400
BC One of the most popular games of
the ancient world This game board is
one of several with a similar layout
found by Leonard Woolley in the Royal
Cemetery at Ur. The wood had decayed
but the inlay of shell, red limestone
and lapis lazuli survived in position
so that the original shape could be
restored. The board has twenty squares
made of shell: Five squares each have
flower rosettes, 'eyes', and circled
dots. The remaining five squares have
various designs of five dots. According
to references in ancient documents, two
players competed to race their pieces
from one end of the board to another.
Pieces were allowed on to the board at
the beginning only with specific throws
of the dice. We also know that rosette
spaces were lucky. The gaming pieces
for this particular board do not
survive. However, some sets of gaming
pieces of inlaid shale and shell were
excavated at Ur with their boards. The
boards appear to have been hollow with
the pieces stored inside. Dice, either
stick dice or tetrahedral in shape,
were also found. Examples of this
'Game of Twenty Squares' date from
about 3000 BC to the first millennium
AD and are found widely from the
eastern Mediterranean and Egypt to
India. A version of the Mesopotamian
game survived within the Jewish
community at Cochin, South India until
modern times. PD
source: http://www.britishmuseum.org/ima
ges/ps121289_l.jpg


[2] he oldest backgammon in the world
along with 60 pieces has been unearthed
beneath the rubbles of the legendary
Burnt City in Sistan-Baluchistan
province, southeastern Iran, Iranian
Cultural Heritage News Agency
reported. Iranian archeologists
working on the relics of the
5,000-year-old civilization argue this
backgammon is much older than the one
already discovered in Mesopotamia and
their evidence is strong enough to
claim the board game was first played
in the Burnt City and then transferred
to other civilizations. ''The
backgammon reveals intriguing clues to
the lifestyle of those people,'' said
Mansour Sajjadi, head of the research
team. ''The board is rectangular and
made of ebony, which did not grow in
Sistan and merchants used to import it
from India.'' He added the board
features an engraved serpent coiling
around itself for 20 times, thus
producing 20 slots for the game, more
affectionately known in Persian as
Nard. The engraving, artistically done,
indicates artisans in the Burnt City
were masters of the craft. ''The 60
pieces were also unearthed inside a
terracotta vessel beside the board.
They were made of common stones
quarried in the city, including agate
and turquoise,'' Sajjadi
added. Experts still wonder why they
played the game with 60 pieces and are
trying to discern its rules, but it at
least shows it is 100-200 years older
than the one discovered in Mesopotamia.
... PD
source: http://www.payvand.com/news/04/d
ec/dice-ancient.jpg

4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
6462) The Babylonians describe
constellations.

(Elamite capital) Susa, Iran 
[1] Rogers, J. H., ''Origins of the
ancient constellations: I. The
Mesopotamian traditions'', Journal of
the British Astronomical Association,
vol.108, no.1,
p.9-28. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1
998JBAA..108....9R UNKNOWN
source: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/19
98JBAA..108....9R