TIMEEVENT DESCRIPTIONLOCATION

UNIVERSE
1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

  
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2) There is more space than matter.

MORE INFO
[1]
  
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3) All matter is made of particles of light.6 Light particles are the base
unit of all matter from the tiniest particles to the largest galaxies.7 In
this sense light particles are the most basic atoms.8

The basic order of matter from smaller to larger is light particles, electrons
and positrons, muons, protons and antiprotons, atoms, molecules, living
objects, planets, stars, globular clusters, galaxies, and then galactic
clusters.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted
Huntington.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.4

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of
galaxies.4

This accumulation of light particles into atoms may be the result of particle
collision, gravitation, or a combination of both.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington
  
940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.4

Most galaxies are too far away for even one particle of light they emit to be
going in the exact direction of our tiny location, and all the light particles
they emit are captured by atoms in between there and here.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington
4. ^ Ted Huntington
5. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles,
(1980). (estimate of how many galaxies)
  
935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which exist as
gas clouds (like the Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula). These gas clouds,
called nebulae continue to accumulate trapped light particles. At points of
high density planets and stars form and the cloud is eventually dense enough to
become a galaxy of stars. The stars emit light particles back out to the rest
of the universe, where the light again becomes trapped and forms new clouds.
Around each star are many planets and pieces of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant emitting of light particles (decay). Like
bacteria, these living objects grow in number, with the most successful
organisms occupying and moving around many stars. These advanced organisms then
move the groups of stars they control, as a globular cluster, away from the
plane of the spiral galaxy. As time continues, all of the stars of a galaxy are
occupied by living objects who have organized their stars into globular
clusters. These globular clusters together form an elliptical galaxy, and then
finally a globular galaxy. The globular galaxy may then exist for a long time
living off the matter in stars, in addition to matter from external sources.

So free light particles are trapped into volumes of space that grow in density
first forming atoms, then gas clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, an
elliptical galaxy, and finally a globular galaxy.4

Globular galaxies at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale,
just as light particles at our scale may be globular galaxies at a much smaller
scale. This system may go on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
930,000,000,000 YBN
8) An expanding universe seems unlikely to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken observation, for one reason because spectrum
size changes the position of spectral lines (as clearly shown in the 1936
Humason photo)3 , and because the distance of a light source changes the
position, but not the frequency of spectral lines4 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Humason, M. L., "The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic
Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal, vol. 83, p.10, Jan
1936. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1936ApJ....83...10H/0000010.000.
html

2. ^ Ted Huntington, "Spectral line position depends on distance of light
source - Bragg Equation Effect",
04/03/2012. http://tedhuntington.com/paper_Bragg.htm
3. ^ Humason, M. L., "The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic
Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal, vol. 83, p.10, Jan
1936. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1936ApJ....83...10H/0000010.000.
html

4. ^ Ted Huntington, "Spectral line position depends on distance of light
source - Bragg Equation Effect",
04/03/2012. http://tedhuntington.com/paper_Bragg.htm
  

LIFE
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13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to form.4

Galaxies may form from accumulation of light particles or from the collision of
two or more galaxies.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.5

Stars may form from the accumulation of matter or from collisions of two or
more large bodies. As less collisions occur over time, most smaller objects are
absorbed by the larger star and planets.6

Stars and planets may have centers of densely packed unmoving light particles.
Atoms may form in the less dense space near the surface of planets and stars
where there are less collisions.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.4
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
5,500,000,000 YBN
5
16) The star Earth orbits forms.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington
4. ^ Ted Huntington
5. ^ Ted Huntington, guess

MORE INFO
[1] http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/208/mar1/nucleo.html (with image of
onion skin layers)
[2] another person declares star inside to be similar to planets:
iron, oxygen, nickel, etc. do not support standard solar
model. star_inside_iron.pdf
  
5,500,000,000 YBN
6
17) Planets form around our star from many collisions. Like the star, they are
red hot with liquid rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the
surface of the planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.4

As the number of collisions decreases, and smaller objects are absorbed by the
star and planets, the average temperature of the star system is lowered. As the
temperature of the planets and moons decreases, water and other molecules
condense at the surface.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
5 6
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
2. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
3. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
4. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
5
50) Start of the "Precambrian". The Hadean {HA DEen3 } Eon.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 03 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
2. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
3. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
03 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
4. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
5. ^ "Divisions of Geologic Time", 2010,
USGS http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
4,571,000,000 YBN
5 6
31) The oldest meteorite yet found on Earth: 4.5 billion years old.3 4
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2

2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/783048.stm
3. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2

4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/783048.stm
5. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2
(4.7 +- .2 billion years)
6. ^ sci has 4.7 +- .2 by where did 4.571
come from?
  
4,530,000,000 YBN
33) The oldest Moon rock.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/nojs/wl.br.1.html
2. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/nojs/wl.br.1.html
  
4,404,000,000 YBN
34) The oldest "terrestrial" zircon; evidence that the crust and liquid water
are on the surface of Earth. A terrestrial zircon is not from a meteorite.2

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/links/010111/010111-1.html
2. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/links/010111/010111-1.html
  
4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth, like amino acids, phosphates, and sugars,
the components of living objects.6

These molecules are made in the oceans, fresh water, and atmosphere of Earth
(and other planets) by lightning, from light particles with high frequency from
the Sun, and around ocean floor volcanoes.7

The initial building blocks of living objects are easily formed, but assembling
them into longer-chain molecules, or polymers, is more difficult. Amino acids
link up to form polymers called proteins, simple fatty acids plus alcohols link
up to form lipids (oils and fats), simple sugars like glucose and sucrose link
together to form complex carbohydrates and starches, and finally, the
nucleotide bases (plus phosphates and sugars) link up to form nucleic acids,
the genetic code of organisms, known as RNA and DNA.8

Possibly all proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are strictly the products of
living objects.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p150.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Donald Prothero,
"Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p150.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amino acids into proteins using other RNA molecules ("messenger" or mRNA
molecules), as a template.

This protein assembly system is the main system responsible for all the
proteins on Earth.4

Part of each tRNA molecule bonds with a specific amino acid, and another part
of the tRNA molecule bonds with an opposite matching 3 nucleotide sequence on
an mRNA molecule.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA. This protein is called an RNA polymerase
{PoL-u-mu-rAS3 }.

For the first time, a nucleic acid functions both as a template for building
proteins (with the help of tRNA molecules) and also as a template for building
other nucleic acid molecules.4

Eventually an mRNA that codes for the necessary tRNA, and RNA polymerase may be
copied many times.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26
Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Schuppli, Daniel et al. “Altered 3′-terminal RNA Structure in
Phage Qβ Adapted to Host Factor-less Escherichia Coli.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 94.19 (1997): 10239 –10242.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/19/10239.abstract
  
4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. The first Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing a platform for more
efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all the instructions
needed to make more ribosomes.

All cells contain ribosomes.2 Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry
out protein synthesis, through a process called translation. These molecular
machines are responsible for accurately translating the linear genetic code on
the messenger RNA (mRNA), into a linear sequence of amino acids to produce a
protein.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ribosome." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 28 Nov.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/ribosome
2. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
3. ^ "ribosome." Genetics.
The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ribosome
  
4,365,000,000 YBN
166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that
allows the assembly of DNA from RNA; a ribonucleotide reductase.3

This protein changes ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides, which allows
the first DNA molecule on Earth to be assembled.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March 1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase:
regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
2. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March
1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase: regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends
Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23. DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
3. ^
Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March 1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase:
regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules, a DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS4 }.5
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 04
Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
2. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26
Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
3. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003.
Answers.com 04 Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
4. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random
House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
5. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc,
2003. Answers.com 04 Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
  
4,360,000,000 YBN
6409) Transcription. A protein assembles RNA from DNA.
  
4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth evolves. This is the first prokaryotic cell and
first bacterium. DNA is surrounded by a membrane of proteins made by ribosomes;
the first cytoplasm.9

This cell may form in either fresh or salt water, near the sunlit water surface
or near underwater volcanoes on the ocean floor.10

The DNA of this cell is a template containing the code for a copying molecule
(DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS11 }), and the necessary mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
molecules needed to build the cytoplasm. For the first time, ribosomes and DNA
build cell structure. DNA protected by cytoplasm is more likely to survive and
be copied.12

This is the start of binary cell division. A protein duplicates DNA within the
cell and then the cell divides into two parts.13

This is also the start of passive transport: molecules enter and exit the
cytoplasm only because of a difference in concentration and represent the
beginnings of the first digestive system.

This cell structure forms the basis of all future cells of every living object
on Earth.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p145-154.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p145-154.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
10. ^ Prothero,
"Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p145-154.
11. ^ "Polymerase."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
12. ^ Ted Huntington.
13. ^ Ted Huntington.
14. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,350,000,000 YBN
8
183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, waxes6 ).7
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ find biomarker evidence
2. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,345,000,000 YBN
27) A phospholipid bilayer evolves around the cell, providing added protection
from the external environment.2 All extant cells have this phospholipid
bilayer.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson
Benjamin Cummings, 2008. Alternative eText Formats Series, p76-77.
  
4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons evolve. Operons are sequences of DNA that allow a bacterium to
produce certain proteins only when necessary. Bacteria before now can only
build a constant stream of all proteins encoded in their DNA.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

2. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
3. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

4. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
5. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

6. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
  
4,340,000,000 YBN
6340) Facilitated diffusion. Proteins in the cell membrane allow only certain
molecules to enter the cell.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Daniel V. Lim, "Microbiology", 2002,
p101. http://books.google.com/books?id=CKEgLmqfbRQC&pg=PA101
2. ^ Daniel V. Lim, "Microbiology", 2002,
p101. http://books.google.com/books?id=CKEgLmqfbRQC&pg=PA101
  
4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can make
ATP (adenosine {oDeNoSEN4 } triphosphate) by converting glucose into pyruvate
{PIrUVAT5 }. This is the beginning of cellular respiration, how cells convert
food into ATP and waste products.6

ATP is the molecule that drives most cellular work.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
4. ^ "adenosine." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/adenosine
5. ^ "pyruvate." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/pyruvate
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162.
7. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
  
4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves in the cell cytoplasm. Cells can make lactic acid.3
FO
OTNOTES
1. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

2. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

3. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

  
4,325,000,000 YBN
213) A second kind of fermentation evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells (all
anaerobic) can now convert pyruvate (the final product of glycolysis) into
ethanol.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
  
4,315,000,000 YBN
196) Active transport evolves. Proteins and ATP are used to transport molecules
into and out of the cytoplasm.4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/cmeu.html
2. ^ "active transport." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
10 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
3. ^ "active transport." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science
. Oxford University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 10 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
4. ^ http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/cmeu.html
5. ^ "active transport." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
6. ^ "active transport." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 10 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
  
4,200,000,000 YBN
4 5
292) The prokaryote flagellum evolves.3

Prokaryotic cells now have more mobility, and can make more choices about their
location.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
2. ^
conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ conjugation in
protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Pallen MJ, Matzke NJ (October 2006). "From The Origin of Species to
the origin of bacterial flagella". Nature Reviews. Microbiology 4 (10):
784–90. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1493. PMID
16953248. http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v4/n10/full/nrmicro1493.html
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] Tree of life, http://tolweb.org/tree/
[4] David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia,
"Symbiosis Between methanogenic Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin
of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530.
eukorig6_jmol.pdf
[5] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
[6] "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>
  
4,193,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
77) Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve according to genetic
comparison.3 The Phylum Nanoarcheota.4 5

Eubacteria and Archaea are the two major lines of Prokaryotes.6 7 8 9 10 11 12


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p102. http://timetree.org/pdf/Battistuzzi2009Chap06.pdf
5. ^ Huber, H., Hohn, M.J., Rachel, R., Fuchs, T., Wimmer, V.C., and Stetter,
K.O. "A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic
symbiont." Nature (2002)
417:63-67. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v417/n6884/full/417063a.html
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
7. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). 2142-1873my
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 2300my
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4 eu)
10. ^ Osawa, S., Honjo, "Archaebacteria
vs Metabacteria : Phylogenetic tree of organisms indicated by comparison of 5S
ribosomal RNA sequences.", (Tokyo: Springer, Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of
Life", pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {4000my}
12. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
3970my
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/pdf/Hedges2009Chap05.pdf
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
16. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). 2142-1873my (2142-1873my)
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 2300my (2300my)
18. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4 eu) (4100my)
19. ^
Osawa, S., Honjo, "Archaebacteria vs Metabacteria : Phylogenetic tree of
organisms indicated by comparison of 5S ribosomal RNA sequences.", (Tokyo:
Springer, Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of Life", pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my
(1800my)
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). 4000my (4000my)
21. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
3970my (3970my)
  
4,189,000,000 YBN
7 8
193) The Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (the ancestor of Aquifex and
Thermotoga).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
6. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of
Life", 2009, p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
  
4,187,000,000 YBN
7 8
180) The Archaea Phylum: Crenarchaeota (the ancestor of Sulfolobus).5 6
FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
  
4,187,000,000 YBN
14 15
181) The Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu10 } evolve (the ancestor
of methanogens and halobacteria).11 12

The earliest cell response to light.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
5. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
9. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

10. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
13. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

14. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
15. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44

MORE INFO
[1] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November 2002),
doi:10.1038/nrg929 http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html#to
p

  
4,112,000,000 YBN
5
58) The first autotrophic cells; cells that can produce some of their own
food.3

Autotrophs produce their own sugars, lipids, and amino acids.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ "autotroph." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 06
Jan. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/autotroph
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
  
4,100,000,000 YBN
12
49) Photosynthesis.6

Bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and an electron
donor7 (also called a reductant), like Hydrogen sulfide, into glucose, water,
and sulfur.8 This process of moving carbon from carbon dioxide gas to the
hydrocarbon molecule glucose is called carbon fixation.9

This is the ancestor of Photosystem I.10

This system of photosynthesis does not liberate oxygen.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ "reductant."Answers.com
14 Jul. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/reductant
3. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to
Astronomy", 1982, p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
4. ^ "carbon fixation>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1).
Random House, Inc. "carbon fixation." The American Heritage® Science
Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. 14 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carbon fixation>.
5. ^ Lockau, Wolfgang, Wolfgang
Nitschke (1993). "Photosystem I and its Bacterial Counterparts". Physiologia
Plantarum 88 (2): 372–381.
DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05512.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1399-3054
.1993.tb05512.x

6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^ "reductant."Answers.com 14 Jul. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/reductant
8. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy", 1982,
p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
9. ^ "carbon fixation>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
"carbon fixation." The American Heritage® Science Dictionary. Houghton
Mifflin Company. 14 Jul. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carbon
fixation>.
10. ^ Lockau, Wolfgang, Wolfgang Nitschke (1993). "Photosystem I and its
Bacterial Counterparts". Physiologia Plantarum 88 (2): 372–381.
DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05512.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1399-3054
.1993.tb05512.x

11. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g6n805154602432w/?MUD=MP {Olson_
2006.pdf}
12. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g6n805154602432w/?MUD=MP {Olson_
2006.pdf}

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology", 2009, 190-198
  
4,000,000,000 YBN
12
43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II evolves. Cells emit free Oxygen.8

Bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and water into
glucose, releasing oxygen gas in the process.9 10

This is the main system responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of
Earth.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
2. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
3. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
4. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
5. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
6. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy", 1982,
p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
7. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
8. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
9. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
10. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy",
1982, p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
11. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
12. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID 16453059.

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology", 2009, 190-198
  
4,000,000,000 YBN
7
51) The end of the Hadean {HADEiN4 } and start of the Archean {oRKEiN5 } Eon.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
2. ^ "Archean." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/archaean
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
30 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
5. ^ "Archean." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/archaean
6. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
7. ^ "Divisions of Geologic Time", 2010,
USGS http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
3,950,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments. Cells stay fastened together after cell division.4


Multicellularity appears to have evolved independently multiple times in the
history of life on Earth.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

2. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

3. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

4. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

5. ^ Inaki Ruiz-Trillo, Gertraud Burger, Peter W.H. Holland, Nicole King, B.
Franz Lang, Andrew J. Roger, Michael W. Gray, The origins of multicellularity:
a multi-taxon genome initiative, Trends in Genetics, Volume 23, Issue 3, March
2007, Pages 113-118, ISSN 0168-9525, DOI:
10.1016/j.tig.2007.01.005. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
168952507000236)

6. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. “The Multiple Origins of Complex Multicellularity.”
Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 39.1 (2011):
217-239. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.1002
09

7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol.
1, 27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

9. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Grosberg R. K., Strathmann R. R. 2007 The evolution of
multicellularity: a minor major transition? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 38,
621–654. (doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735
[2] Rokas A. 2008 The origins of multicellularity and the early history of the
genetic toolkit for animal development. Ann. Rev. Genet. 42, 235–251.
(doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.42.110807.091513) http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Inb
oundService.do?UT=000261767000011&IsProductCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord&product=WOS&
SID=1EHDdbNiNf4NO8nC299&smartRedirect=yes&SrcApp=CR&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.we
bofknowledge.com%3FDestApp%3DCEL%26DestParams%3D%253Faction%253Dretrieve%2526mod
e%253DFullRecord%2526product%253DCEL%2526UT%253D000261767000011%2526customersID%
253DHighwire%26e%3DQZIAIzGgKoYbxc_i_WNamlaqQ0.s968BNEwQvqhM9p.770dFYju0AbJCFAAcj
orA%26SrcApp%3DHighwire%26SrcAuth%3DHighwire&action=retrieve&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=Hi
ghwire&customersID=Highwire&Func=Frame

  
3,950,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
3. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
4. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
5. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238
6. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N. SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès: Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract


MORE INFO
[1] Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

  
3,950,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
322) Nitrogen fixation evolves. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia
from Nitrogen gas in the air.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
3. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
4. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
5. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
6. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
7. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
8. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
9. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238
10. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N. SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès: Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract

West Africa7   
3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration. The first aerobic (or "oxygenic") cell. These
cells use oxygen to convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.4

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
4. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162-184.
  
3,850,000,000 YBN
18
36) The oldest physical evidence for life: the ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12
in grains of ancient apetite {aPeTIT10 } (which are calcium phosphate
minerals).11 12 13

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12 isotope and so the ratio of carbon-12 to
carbon-13 is different from a nonliving source (such as calcium carbonate or
limestone).14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
2. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

3. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
4. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

5. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
6. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

7. ^ "apatite." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
8. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
9. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

10. ^ "apatite." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
11. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
12. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

13. ^ "apatite." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
14. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al.
"Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million Years Ago." Nature 384.6604
(1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
15. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

16. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
17. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

18. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Banded iron formation." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 11 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/banded-iron-formation
[2] Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
AND http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
Akilia Island, Western Greenland16 17   
3,850,000,000 YBN
18
45) The oldest sediment, the Banded Iron Formation begins.12
Banded Iron
Formation is sedimentary rock that spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years ago,
made of iron-rich silicates (like silicon dioxide SiO2) with alternating layers
of black colored reduced or ferrous iron and red colored oxidized or ferric
iron.13 14 These alternating layers represent a seasonal cycle where the
quantity of free oxygen in the ocean rises and falls, possibly linked to
photosynthetic organisms.15 16

The atmosphere of Earth still has only small amounts of oxygen at this time.

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
2. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
3. ^ Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New
Views on an Old Planet 2nd ed.
1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Konhauser,
Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the Precambrian Banded Iron
Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
6. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^
Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New Views on an
Old Planet 2nd ed. 1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Konhauser, Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the
Precambrian Banded Iron Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
11. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
12. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
13. ^
Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New Views on an
Old Planet 2nd ed. 1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ Konhauser, Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the
Precambrian Banded Iron Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
16. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
17. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
18. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102, {3850 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Roger Lewin, "Thread of Life", (New York: Smithsonian Books, 1982).
p102
[2]
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

[3] "Banded iron formation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banded_iron_formation
Akilia Island, Western Greenland17   
3,500,000,000 YBN
11 12
39) The oldest fossil evidence of life: stromatolites.7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
2. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
3. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
4. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
5. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
6. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
7. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
8. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
9. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
10. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
11. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
12. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa9 10   
3,500,000,000 YBN
21 22 23 24
287) The oldest fossils of an organism. The organism is similar to
cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u12 }, and is found in the 3,500 million year
old chert, sedimentary rock made of silica13 , in Australia14 15 and South
Africa.16

2.8 billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.17 18

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
2. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
3. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
4. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
7. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
8. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
9. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
12. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
13. ^ "chert." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chert
14. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
15. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
16. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
17. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
18. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
19. ^ Schopf, J.
William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest Fossils." Nature
416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
20. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
21. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
22. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
23. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
24. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

MORE INFO
[1] BIO415 (Author? University?) Multicelluarity.pdf (t3:
multicellularity of cyanobacteria)
[2] t3:
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol3018.htm multicellularity.
"Some cyanobacteria species exist in a truly, though primitive, multicellular
form in which cellular differentiation occurs."
Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia19 and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa20   
3,400,000,000 YBN
6
190) The earliest fossils of coccoid {KoKOED3 } (spherical) bacteria.4
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ "coccoid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coccoid
2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ "coccoid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coccoid
4. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

5. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

6. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)


MORE INFO
[1] maybe evidence: Nagy, B. and Nagy, L.A., 1969. Early Precambrian
microstructures: possibly the oldest fossils on Earth?. Nature 223, pp.
1226-1229.?
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa5   
3,260,000,000 YBN
5
71) Prokaryote reproduction by budding.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

4. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

5. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

Swartkoppie, South Africa4   
3,200,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17 18
66) The earliest acritarch fossils (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity9 10 ). These acritarchs are also the earliest possible eukaryote
fossils.11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
2. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution of Dinoflagellates", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p194.
3. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
4. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
5. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
6. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution
of Dinoflagellates", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
7. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
8. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
9. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
10. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution
of Dinoflagellates", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
11. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
12. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
13. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P.
Marshall, and Andrey Bekker. “Organic-walled microfossils in
3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits.” Nature 463.7283
(2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
14. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P. Marshall, and Andrey Bekker.
“Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature 463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
{3.2 bybn}
15. ^ A. H. Knoll, E. J. Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic
Organisms in Proterozoic Oceans", Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470, Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological,
Molecular and Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29,
2006), pp. 1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209698 {1.8 bybn}
16. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/dinoflagfr.html {1.8 bybn}
17. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html {1900-1600 mybn}
18. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p257. {1.6 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Knoll, Andrew H., Walter, Malcolm,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life
and Evolution of Biospheres, 2003-02-01, Springer Netherlands, Vol33, Iss1,
p75-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023992712071
[2] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean
Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
[3] Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A Molecular Time-Scale for Eukaryote
Evolution Recalibrated with the Continuous Microfossil Record", Proceedings:
Biological Sciences , Vol. 273, No. 1596 (Aug. 7, 2006), pp.
1867-1872 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25223537
[4] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Andrew H. Knoll, and Malcolm R. Walter.
“Morphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems.”
Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html
(Moodies Group) South Africa13   
2,923,000,000 YBN
14
178) The Eubacteria Phylum Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ10 ) evolves (Gram positive
bacteria: the cause of botulism, tetanus, and anthrax).11 12 13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges,
"A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds.
Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the
Environment, Washington DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteria?topic=49480
6. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
10. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
13. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
14. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptidoglycan
[2] firmicutes only bacteria to make endospores
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes
[4] http://www.earthlife.net/prokaryotes/firmicutes.html
  
2,920,000,000 YBN
3
288) The first endospores evolve; in firmicutes. An endospore is a tough
reduced dry form of a bacterium, triggered by a lack of nutrients, that
protects the bacterium, and allows it to be revived after long periods of
time.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney
Draggan and C.J. Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment,
Washington DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteria?topic=49480
2. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds.
Sidney Draggan and C.J. Cleveland, National Council for Science and the
Environment, Washington DC
http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteria?topic=49480
3. ^ Ted Huntington, a total guess my friends

MORE INFO
[1] "Endospore". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
  
2,800,000,000 YBN
16
76) The Eubacteria Phylum Proteobacteria evolves (includes Rickettsia {the
ancestor of all mitochondria}, gonorrhea, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli
{esRriKEo KOlI9 } or E coli {E KOlI10 }).11 12 13 14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
4. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Tree of life, http://tolweb.org/tree/
8. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria
as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
9. ^ "Escherichia coli." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 30 Dec. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
10. ^ "E.
coli." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/escherichia-coli
11. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
14. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
15. ^
http://taxonomicon.taxonomy.nl/TaxonTree.aspx?id=71320
16. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] multicellularity.
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol3018.htm multicellularity.
Multicellularity.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacteria
[2] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
[3] "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>
[4] conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa
and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989)
[5] prokaryote pili and
archaea flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
[6] Stackebrandt et al. Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the
phylogenetic taxon that includes the "purple bacteria and their relatives".
Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38,
321–325. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/38/3/321.full.pdf
  
2,800,000,000 YBN
29
177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo KOlI21 }
bacteria. Conjugation is the exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor {male}
bacterium through a pilus to a recipient {female} bacterium.22 23 24 25 26 27

In addition to pili and conjugation, proteins that can cut DNA, and other
proteins that can connect two strands of DNA evolve.28

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
2. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
6. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
7. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM,
"Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946)
doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
8. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
12. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
13. ^ "Escherichia coli."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 30 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
14. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E.
L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19
October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
15. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
16. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
19. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
20. ^ prokaryote pili and archaea
flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
21. ^ "Escherichia coli." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 30 Dec.
2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
22. ^ JOSHUA
LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158,
558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
23. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
24. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
25. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
26. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
27. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
28. ^ prokaryote pili and archaea
flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
29. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}
  
2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.5

These cells depend on the DNA duplicating and protein producing systems of
other cells to reproduce themselves. The first viruses may be made from
bacteria, or may be bacteria initially.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
2. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
3. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
4. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
5. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
6. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
  
2,784,000,000 YBN
7
176) The Eubacteria Phylum, Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS5 } (also known as
Planctobacteria) evolves.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] s10 http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/6/1965
[2] http://genomebiology.com/2002/3/6/research/0031
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planctomycetes
[4] Lee, Kuo-Chang, Rick Webb, and John Fuerst. “The
Cell Cycle of the Planctomycete Gemmata Obscuriglobus with Respect to Cell
Compartmentalization.” BMC Cell Biology 10.1 (2009):
4. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2121/10/4/
  
2,784,000,000 YBN
20
179) The Eubacteria Phylum, Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu13 } evolves (the
source of streptomycin and the cause of tuberculosis and leprosy14 ).15 16 17
18 19

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
4. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
5. ^ http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
10. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
11. ^ http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
13. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
14. ^ Schaechter, M. Desk Encyclopedia of Microbiology. Academic Press, 2009.
Academic Press, p1-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=vO0oU4z36DIC&pg=PA1
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
17. ^ "Actinobacteria".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
18. ^
http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
19. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
20. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] "streptomyces." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/streptomyces
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
7
174) The Eubacteria Phylum, Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ5 ) evolves (the cause of
Syphilis, and Lyme disease).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^ estimated from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] "spirochete." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/spirochete
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
10 11
175) The Eubacteria Phylum Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ7 } evolves.8 9
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
4. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
10. ^ estimate from
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
11. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidetes
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
7
217) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E5 } evolves.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicrobia
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
7 8
6309) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlorobi {KlOROBE} evolves (green sulphur
bacteria).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).. ^
7. ^ estimate from Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidetes
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
7
6310) The Eubacteria Phylum Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo5 ) evolves.6
F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicrobia
  
2,730,000,000 YBN
5 6
80) Endo and exocytosis evolve. Cells can now eat other cells.

In endocytosis the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the
cell.3

In Exocytosis substances contained in vesicles are released from the cell.4

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ "endocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis
2. ^ "exocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/exocytosis
3. ^ "endocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis
4. ^ "exocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/exocytosis
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn guess
and }
6. ^ guess based on Cavalier-Smith stating that endocytosis occurs before a
cytoskeleton {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn guess and}
  
2,700,000,000 YBN
21
60) The eukaryotic cell evolves. The first cell with a nucleus. The first
protist. The nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.12

There are some differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
In prokaryotic
cells the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed called
the "nucleoid" while in eukaryotic cells most of the DNA is contained in a
nucleus that is bounded by a double membrane. Eukaryotic cells are generally
much larger than prokaryotic cells. Typical bacteria are between 1-5 um in
diameter, while eukaryotic cells are typically 10-100 um in diameter.13 Unlike
prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton
enables eukaryotic cells to change their shape and to surround and engulf other
cells. Eukaryotic cells also have internal structures that prokaryotic cells
lack such as mitochondria and plastids.14 DNA in prokaryotic cells is usually
in the form of a single circular chromosome, while DNA in the nucleus of
eukaryotes contains linear chromosomes.15

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably haploid (has a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets of DNA).16 17 18 19

All protists, fungi, animals and plant cells descend from this common
eukaryotic cell.20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
2. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
4. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008,
p516-517.
6. ^ Jill Saffrey, "Biology: uniformity & diversity. Core of life, Book 3,
Volume 2", 2001, p353. http://books.google.com/books?id=43yiLI1DvwAC&pg=PA353
7. ^ Montgomery Slatkin, "Exploring evolutionary biology:
readings from American scientist", 1995,
p161. http://books.google.com/books?ei=AAVdT77TFMiiiQKB8a24Cw
8. ^ Andrew Wallace Hayes, "Principles and methods of toxicology", 2007,
p1181. http://books.google.com/books?id=vgHXTId8rnYC&pg=PA1181
9. ^ N. A. Kolchanov, Hwa A. Lim, "Computer analysis of genetic macromolecules:
structure, function, and evolution", 1994,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=crip5tRcF0YC&pg=PA2
10. ^ "diploid", Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry http://www.answers.com/topic/diploid
11. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
12. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
13. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
14. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
15. ^ Jill Saffrey, "Biology: uniformity &
diversity. Core of life, Book 3, Volume 2", 2001,
p353. http://books.google.com/books?id=43yiLI1DvwAC&pg=PA353
16. ^ Montgomery Slatkin, "Exploring evolutionary biology: readings from
American scientist", 1995,
p161. http://books.google.com/books?ei=AAVdT77TFMiiiQKB8a24Cw
17. ^ Andrew Wallace Hayes, "Principles and methods of toxicology", 2007,
p1181. http://books.google.com/books?id=vgHXTId8rnYC&pg=PA1181
18. ^ N. A. Kolchanov, Hwa A. Lim, "Computer analysis of genetic
macromolecules: structure, function, and evolution", 1994,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=crip5tRcF0YC&pg=PA2
19. ^ "diploid", Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry http://www.answers.com/topic/diploid
20. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
21. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong
Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{split of archae and eukaryote at c4.0 bybn, but eukaryote {with nucleus?} at)
2.7 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p256
[2] Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
[3] Alexey S. Kondrashov, "EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF LIFE CYCLES", Annual Review
of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 28: 391-435 (Volume publication date November
1997)
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.391;
jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

  
2,700,000,000 YBN
62) The earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiRAN7 }
molecules).8 9 Steranes are formed from sterols {STeRoLZ10 }, molecules made
by mitochondria.11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
4. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
7. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
9. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
10. ^ "sterol." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterol
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
12. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
13. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
14. ^ Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 1033-1036 , 13 August 1999 Archean Molecular Fossils and
the Early Rise of Eukaryotes Jochen J. Brocks, 1,2* Graham A. Logan, 2 Roger
Buick, 1 Roger E. Summons 2
Northwestern Australia13 14   
2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves in a eukaryotic cell. The endoplasmic
reticulum is a membrane system that extends from the nucleus, important in the
synthesis of proteins and lipids.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
2. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
3. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
  
2,690,000,000 YBN
13 14
207) The cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN9 } forms in the eukaryote cytoplasm.10
11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
2. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
3. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman Inc,
New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
4. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
5. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
6. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
7. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman Inc,
New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
8. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
9. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
10. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
11. ^ Margulis,
L. 1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman
Inc, New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
12. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess
and }
14. ^ guess based on ER and golgi made of same material as cytoskeleton,
and after first eukaryote cell {Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess and}
  
2,690,000,000 YBN
5
208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia evolve.

The eukaryote flagellum and cilia are structurally the same1 but are very
different from the prokaryote flagellum. The eukaryote flagellum is composed of
a characteristic "9+2" arrangement of microtubules {mIKrO-TUB-YU-LZ2 }. Unlike
the prokaryote flagella that rotate, the flagella and cilia of eukaryotic cells
undulate in a wave-like motion to propel the cell.3

The sperm cells of algae, animals, and some plants have flagella.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
2. ^
"microtubule." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/microtubule>.
3. ^ Dr. P.D. Sharma, "Microbiology & Plant Pathology", 2007,
p86. http://books.google.com/books?id=ByDwOIWXp4MC&pg=PA86
4. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
5. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi
Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -10mybn
guess}
  
2,680,000,000 YBN
5
65) The circular chromosome in the eukaryote nucleus changes into linear
chromosomes.3

Although the eukaryotic cell may have descended from a prokaryote that already
had linear DNA.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir
Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale
for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 +20mybn guess}

MORE INFO
[1] not all prokaryotes have circle of
DNA: http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.
391;jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

[2] Jumas-Bilak E, Maugard C, Michaux-Charachon S, Allardet-Servent A, Perrin
A, et al. 1995. Study of the organization of the genomes of Escherichia coli,
Brucella melitensis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens by insertion of a unique
restriction site. Microbiology 141:2425-32 (Medline)
[3] Lezhava A, Kameoka D, Sugino H,
Goshi K, Shinkawa H, et al. 1997. Chromosomal deletions in Streptomyces griseus
that remove the afsA locus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253:478-83
[4] Marconi RT, Casjens S,
Munderloh UG, Samuels DS. 1996. Analysis of linear plasmid dimers in Borrelia
burgdorferi sensu lato isolates: implications concerning the potential
mechanisms of linear plasmid replication. J. Bact. 178:3357-61
  
2,680,000,000 YBN
216) Histones evolve. Histones are proteins found in all eukaryotic cell nuclei
that package and order a single continuous DNA molecule into structural units
called nucleosomes {nUKlEuSOMZ1 }.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "nucleosome." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/nucleosome Read more:
http://www.answers.com/main/cite_this_answer.jsp#ixzz2Ga2DeYfP
2. ^ Nelson, D.L., and M.M. Cox. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. W. H.
Freeman, 2008. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry,
p963. http://books.google.com/books?id=5Ek9J4p3NfkC
  
2,680,000,000 YBN
3
291) The eukaryote cell evolves two intermediate stages between cell division
and DNA synthesis.1

In prokaryotes, DNA synthesis can take place uninterrupted between cell
divisions, but eukaryotes duplicate their DNA exactly once during a discrete
period between cell divisions.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: p45
2. ^ "cell." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/101396/cell>.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -20mybn
guess}

MORE INFO
[1] Cooper GM (2000). "Chapter 14: The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle". The cell:
a molecular approach (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C: ASM Press. ISBN
0-87893-106-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK9876/
[2] Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, p228-245
  
2,670,000,000 YBN
199) The Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves. The Golgi apparatus packages
proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations.3

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.
2. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.
3. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.

MORE INFO
[1] "Endosome." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endosome
  
2,670,000,000 YBN
4
290) The nucleolus evolves. The nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus that makes
ribosomal RNA.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
3. ^ Michael
Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold,
1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
4. ^ Ted Huntington guess

MORE INFO
[1] Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry Oxford University Press. Oxford
Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology © 1997, 2000, 2006 All rights
reserved. http://www.answers.com/topic/nucleolus#ixzz2VAspF99U
  
2,660,000,000 YBN
11
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.7 8

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the nucleus divides resulting in two new nuclei,
each of which contains an identical copy of the parental chromosomes. Mitosis
is usually immediately followed by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm.9
10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis, evolution of mitosis.
2. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
3. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis, evolution of
mitosis.
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
5. ^ "mitosis." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mitosis
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, p230-233.
7. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis,
evolution of mitosis.
8. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
9. ^ "mitosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mitosis
10. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, p230-233.
11. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi
Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -40mybn
guess}
  
2,640,000,000 YBN
29
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. This is the first diploid cell and the first
zygote.18 19

Because of sex, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more genetic
variety. Having two chromosome sets also provides a backup copy of important
genes.20 21

All sexual species alternate between haploid and diploid. There are three main
different types of sexual life cycles; haplontic, haplodiplontic, and
diplontic.22 23

This begins the haplontic life cycle: in the entire life cycle mitosis only
occurs in the haploid phase; the only diploid cell is the zygote24 .25 26

This fusion of two haploid cells results in the first diploid single-celled
organism, which may then immediately divide back to two haploid cells.

Initially sex may be the fusion of two indistinguishable cells (isogamy) with
gender (anisogamy) only evolving later.27 Although possibly eukaryote cell
fusion and gender is directly descended from prokaryote conjugation.28

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
4. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution",
(London: Nelson, 1964).
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
7. ^ Karen Arms,
Pamela S. Camp, "Biology", Third Edition, 1987,
p398. http://books.google.com/books?ei=fjtmT96tDqPQiAKP2qyiDw&id=ga_uAAAAMAAJ
8. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
9. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
11. ^ Glenn E. Croston, "Kaplan AP biology",
2000, p98. http://books.google.com/books?id=PWsKAQAAMAAJ
12. ^ Janette B. Benson, Marshall M. Haith, "Diseases and Disorders in
Infancy and Early Childhood", 2009, p203.
13. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology",
Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
14. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
15. ^
Rowoand, M.D. Bath Advanced Science - Biology. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Limited,
1992. Bath Science 16-19 Series,
p503. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9cEEouPBogC&pg=PA503
16. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
17. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
18. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
19. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
20. ^ Glenn E. Croston,
"Kaplan AP biology", 2000, p98. http://books.google.com/books?id=PWsKAQAAMAAJ
21. ^ Janette B. Benson, Marshall M. Haith,
"Diseases and Disorders in Infancy and Early Childhood", 2009, p203.
22. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
23. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
24. ^ Rowoand, M.D. Bath Advanced Science - Biology. Thomas
Nelson & Sons, Limited, 1992. Bath Science 16-19 Series,
p503. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9cEEouPBogC&pg=PA503
25. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
26. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
27. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestors Tail", 2004, p626.
28. ^ Ted Huntington.
29. ^ estimate
based on diplomonads having sex repro, and origin of euk being (is now)
{Nucleus 2700 -60mybn guess)(was 2710mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] J. William Schopf, "Major Events in the History of Life", (Boston,
MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1992).p57 (was)
  
2,640,000,000 YBN
12
206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis: a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).7 8

Meiosis, which looks similar to mitosis9 , is the process of cell division in
sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in
reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of
gametes in animals and spores in plants.10

Without the reduction back to haploid, genomes would double in size with every
generation.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
3. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth
Edition, 2008, p253.
6. ^ "meiosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
12 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/meiosis
7. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
8. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
9. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p253.
10. ^ "meiosis." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 12 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/meiosis
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestors Tail",
2004, p627.
12. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
  
2,610,000,000 YBN
17
296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves.12 Anisogamy {aNISoGomE13 14 }, sex (cell
and nucleus fusion) between two cells that are different in size or shape.15 16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
5. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
6. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
7. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
8. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
10. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
11. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 18 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
12. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
13. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
14. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
15. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
16. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
17. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir
Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale
for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -90mybn guess}
  
2,590,000,000 YBN
5
298) Oogamy {O-oG-omE3 }, a form of anisogamy, evolves in protists: sex between
a flagellated gamete and an unflagellated gamete.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oogamy&submit=Submit
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oogamy&submit=Submit
4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir
Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale
for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -110mybn guess}
  
2,570,000,000 YBN
6
295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides twice into
four haploid cells).3

Most protists divide by two-step meiosis, and one-step meiosis is rare.4 5

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
2. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
3. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989) p71.
5. ^ Igor B. Raikov, Meiosis in protists: Recent
advances and persisting problems, European Journal of Protistology, Volume 31,
Issue 1, 15 March 1995, Pages 1-7, ISSN 0932-4739,
10.1016/S0932-4739(11)80349-4. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0932473911803494)

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -130mybn
guess}
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
4
171) The Eubacteria phylum "Deinococcus-Thermus" evolves (includes Thermus
Aquaticus {used in PCR}, and Deinococcus radiodurans {which can survive long
exposure to radiation}).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
11 12
172) The Eubacteria phylum, Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u7 } evolves.

Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes with oxygen-producing photosynthesis,8
and are the ancestor of all eukaryote plastids (for example chloroplasts).9 10


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cyanobacterium." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in
Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
4. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19,
Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
7. ^ "cyanobacterium." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
8. ^ Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece. Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
Alternative eText Formats Series, p569.
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
10. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
11. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC533871/ {2558 mybn}
12. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends
in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003). {2558 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] Journal of Molecular Evolution Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York ISSN: 0022-2844 (Paper) 1432-1432 (Online) Issue:
Volume 42, Number 2 Date: February 1996 Pages: 194 - 200
[4] Phylogenetic
Relationships of Nonaxenic Filamentous Cyanobacterial Strains Based on 16S rRNA
Sequence Analysis jme_42_2_1996.pdf
[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria
[6] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
4
315) The Eubacteria Phylum Chloroflexi evolves; (Green Non-Sulphur bacteria).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[2] Tree of Life http://tolweb.org/tree/
  
2,500,000,000 YBN
52) The end of the Archean and start of the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or
ProTReZOiK6 7 } Eon.8

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542 million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Proterozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/proterozoic
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=proterozoic&submit=Submit
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
5. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th Edition,
2006, p243.
6. ^ "Proterozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/proterozoic
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=proterozoic&submit=Submit
8. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
9. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
10. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th Edition,
2006, p243.
  
2,480,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16 17 18
170) Bacteria live on land.10 11 12
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
2. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
3. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

4. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
5. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
6. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

7. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
8. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
9. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

10. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
11. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
12. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

13. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
14. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
15. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

16. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). (2600-2700my)
17. ^ University of
Tennessee at Knoxville. "Bacteria's move from sea to land may have occurred
much later than thought." ScienceDaily, 22 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Jul.
2012. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111222195017.htm
18. ^ Florence Wisniewski-Dyé, Kirill Borziak, Gurusahai Khalsa-Moyers, Gladys
Alexandre, Leonid O. Sukharnikov, Kristin Wuichet, Gregory B. Hurst, W. Hayes
McDonald, Jon S. Robertson, Valérie Barbe, Alexandra Calteau, Zoé Rouy,
Sophie Mangenot, Claire Prigent-Combaret, Philippe Normand, Mickaël Boyer,
Patricia Siguier, Yves Dessaux, Claudine Elmerich, Guy Condemine, Ganisan
Krishnen, Ivan Kennedy, Andrew H. Paterson, Victor González, Patrick Mavingui,
Igor B. Zhulin. Azospirillum Genomes Reveal Transition of Bacteria from Aquatic
to Terrestrial Environments. PLoS Genetics, 2011; 7 (12): e1002430 DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1002430

MORE INFO
[1] "pyrite." The American Heritage� Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 May.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/pyrite
  
2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of a 200 million year ice age.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
  
2,300,000,000 YBN
48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide formed on land, begin here, and are also
evidence of more free oxygen in the air of Earth.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
  
2,000,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely related to Rickettsia prowazekii, an aerobic
proteobacteria, is engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. Over time a symbiotic
relationship evolves within the eukaryotic cell (an endosymbiosis) where the
Rickettsia become mitochondria.

Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all
eukaryotic cells, and are where cellular respiration occurs producing most of
the ATP in a eukaryotic cell.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
4. ^ "mitochondrion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/386130/mitochondrion>.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p100.
6. ^
"mitochondrion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/386130/mitochondrion>.
7. ^ B. Franz Lang, Michael W. Gray, and Gertraud Burger, "Mitochondrial Genome
Evolution and the Origin of Eukaryotes", Annu. Rev. Genet., V33, p351-397,
p385. 1999. {2 BYBN}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {average of)
2230-1840 bybn} {earliest of) 2350-1640 bybn} {average of 1995my) 2350-1640
mybn}
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {1.8 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Michael W. Gray, et al, "Genome structure and gene content in protist
mitochondrial DNAs", Nucl. Acids Res. (1998) 26(4): 865-878
doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865 http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/4/865.full
  
1,874,000,000 YBN
15
61) The earliest large filamentous fossil (Grypania).8 9 Grypania spiralis is
about 10 cm long, and is thought to be either a green alga or large
cyanobacterium.10 11 If eukaryote, Grypania would be the earliest eukaryote
fossil.12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
2. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
3. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
4. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
5. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
6. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
7. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
8. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
9. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
10. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
11. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
12. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
13. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
14. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
15. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E.
Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and
syndepositional iron formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for
the tectonic setting of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior
region. Can. J. Earth Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Samuelsson, Joakim, Peter R Dawes, and Gonzalo Vidal.
“Organic-walled Microfossils from the Proterozoic Thule Supergroup, Northwest
Greenland.” Precambrian Research 96.1–2 (1999):
1–23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301926898001235
[2] Jacques Dumais, Kyle Serikawa and Dina F Mandoli, "Acetabularia: A
Unicellular Model for Understanding Subcellular Localization and Morphogenesis
during Development", Journal of Plant Growth Regulation Volume 19, Number 3
(2000), 253-264, DOI:
10.1007/s003440000035 http://www.oeb.harvard.edu/faculty/dumais/Publications/JP
GR2000.2.pdf

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA13 14   
1,800,000,000 YBN
46) The end of the Banded Iron Formation.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
  
1,570,000,000 YBN
13 14 15
99) The first homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts in algae, plants, fungi and animals.7 8 9 10

For example, when a homeobox gene responsible for growing a mouse eye is added
to the cell of a fruit-fly embryo that is destined to be a leg, an extra fruit
fly eye is built on the leg.11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
9. ^ Thomas R. Bürglin, "Analysis of TALE superclass homeobox genes (MEIS,
PBC, KNOX, Iroquois, TGIF) reveals a novel domain conserved between plants and
animals", Nucl. Acids Res. (1997) 25(21): 4173-4180 doi:10.1093/nar/25.21.4173
http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/21/4173.abstract
10. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin. “A
Comprehensive Classification and Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/12/2775.short
11. ^ Halder, G, P Callaerts, and WJ Gehring. “Induction of ectopic eyes by
targeted expression of the eyeless gene in Drosophila.” Science 267.5205
(1995) : 1788 -1792. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;267/5205/1788
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p399.
13. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin TR, "MEKHLA, a
novel domain with similarity to PAS domains, is fused to plant
homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins.", Plant Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/140/4/1142.full
14. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin. “A
Comprehensive Classification and Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/12/2775.short {1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown algae}
15. ^ Jongmin Nam, Claude W. dePamphilis,
Hong Ma, and Masatoshi Nei, "Antiquity and Evolution of the MADS-Box Gene
Family Controlling Flower Development in Plants", Mol Biol Evol (2003) 20(9):
1435-1447 first published online May 30, 2003 doi:10.1093/molbev/msg152
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/9/1435.abstract {1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown algae}
  
1,570,000,000 YBN
10 11
197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the eukaryote tree
pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

2. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
4. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

5. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
7. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

8. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
10. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf} {problem with 1250 my
bangia red algae fossils)1126 mybn}
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1570 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution", J Mol Evol
(2003) 56:540 563
[2] J Mol Evol (2003) 56:540 563 Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution Thomas
Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao
  
1,520,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14
202) The Protist Phylum Amoebozoa evolves (amoebas, slime molds).7 8 Feeding
using pseudopods evolves.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p515.
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p515.
7. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p515.
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1520 mybn}
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1400 my}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1587mybn)
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1400) {c1220}
14. ^
Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c1090}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.unige.ch/sciences/biologie/biani/msg/Amoeboids/Amoebozoa/Conosea.html

  
1,520,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8
203) Colonialism (where cells form a colony2 ) evolves for the first time in
Eukaryotes.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "colonial." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
2. ^ "colonial." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
4. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {1956 mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1999 mybn}
7. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1600mybn)
8. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). (1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Biorealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
15) The first "plastids" evolve. Cyanobacteria form plastids through
endosymbiosis within a eukaryotic cell. Like mitochondria, these organelles
copy themselves and are not made by the cell DNA.4

Plastids provide the eukaryotic cell with food from photosynthesis and gain
protection by living within the cell.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Lee, R.E. Phycology. Cambridge
University Press, 2008,
p85. http://books.google.com/books?id=gfoIAFHgusgC&pg=PA85
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {c1600 my}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see comments {1576 MYBN}
11. ^ Knoll A, Summons
R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J, "The Geological Succession of Primary Producers in
the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers
in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p152. {no later than) 1200 my}
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see comments {1576 MYBN} {needs to be at
least as old as Euglenozoa since many have plastids)1956} {Euglenozoa)1956}

MORE INFO
[1] "Plastid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastid
[2] Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
32 33 34 35 36 37 38
86) The first plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).21 22
23 24 25

This begins the plant kingdom. The first plant is probably unicellular, similar
to the glaucophytes {GlxKoFITS26 }.27 28 29 30 31

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay,
Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton
reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
4. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay,
Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton
reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
9. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
14. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
16. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
19. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
21. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
23. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
24. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
25. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
26. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
27. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
28. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
29. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
30. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
31. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
32. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1500)
33. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {first plastid) 1300mybn}
34. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {first plastid) c1600}
35. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120.
{1550 mybn}
36. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1609 mybn)
37. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{1580} http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
38. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf {fossil
Grypania) 1874my}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith and Ema E. -Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution", Springer New
York, (2003). file:///home/ted/ulsf/docs/cav-smith_apusozoa_fulltext.html
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).5
6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya
D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1380 mybn}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1400mybn}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1600
mybn}
11. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{960 mybn}
  
1,400,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
209) The earliest extant plant: Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu9 }.10 11 12

Glaucophytes are unicellular algae found in freshwater.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon,
Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ Hwan Su Yoon,
Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
13. ^ Lee, R.E. Phycology. Cambridge University Press,
2008, p85. http://books.google.com/books?id=gfoIAFHgusgC&pg=PA85
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1400)
15. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
16. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150 mybn}
17. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1290 mybn}
18. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1225 mybn}
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849
(2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (c1500my)
20. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(1558my)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P6064
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
188) The Plant Phylum Chlorophyta {KlORoFiTu12 } evolves, Green Algae:
(ancestor of Volvox, Sea lettuce, Spirogyra, and Stoneworts).13 14 15 16 17

The
first land plants most likely evolve from green algae.18 19

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
4. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
5. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlorophyta&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
10. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
11. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlorophyta&submit=Submit
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
15. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
16. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
17. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
19. ^ Taylor, Taylor, Krings, "Paleobotany: The
Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants", 2009, p133-134.
20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
21. ^ "algae."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/14828/algae>.
22. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1150 mybn}
23. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450mybn}
24. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (968mybn)
25. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2
Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular
Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10
August 2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001). (1061?)
26. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2",
(London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1993). fr2b (1650-800mybn)
27. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html (1000my)
28. ^ Herman N,
"Organic World One Billion Years Ago", Nauka, Leningrad, 1990.
29. ^ Knoll A, Summons
R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J, "The Geological Succession of Primary Producers in
the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers
in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p150.
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13
219) The plant Phylum Rhodophyta {rODOFITu7 } evolves (Red Algae).8 9
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450 mybn}
12. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1428mybn)
13. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119.

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
17 18 19 20 21 22 23
323) The Protists Excavates: includes Parabasalids {PaRu-BAS-a-liDS11 }, and
Diplomonads {DiP-lO-mO-naDZ12 } {like Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u13 }).14 15 16

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=parabasalid&submit=Submit
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diplomonads&submit=Submit
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
11. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=parabasalid&submit=Submit
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diplomonads&submit=Submit
13. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
17. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
18. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {2000 my}
19. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {2291} {2291 my}
20. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
{1600} {1600 my}
21. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{2230} {2230 my}
22. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1594 my}
23. ^ Cédric Berney
and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated
with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{1030 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Heterokonts". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterokonts
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.7 8

In this organism, unlike single cell eukaryotes, cells stay fastened together
after cell division.

Multicellularity seems to have arisen multiple times independently in
eukaryotes.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
2. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
3. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
4. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
5. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
6. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
7. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
8. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
9. ^ Nicholas H. Barton, "Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225
10. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
11. ^ Ted Huntington.
12. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
13. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
14. ^
Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz
and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron formations,
Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting of
Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874 mybn}
15. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the
2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874
mybn}
16. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2009, p517.

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
[3] Ted huntington, Estimate based on origin
of brown algae around 1,973,000,000
(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
Canada10   
1,280,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
85) Differentiation in a multicellular eukaryote evolves. In addition to gamete
(or spore) cells, there are somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells
are asexual (non-fusing). This is the start of death by aging.

Cell differentiation is how cells in a multicellular organism become
specialized to perform specific functions in a variety of tissues and organs.1


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cell differentiation." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cell-differentiation
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
4. ^ Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of
Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
1 2 3
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -80mybn
guess}
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
301) The haplodiplontic life cycle evolves (mitosis occurs in both haploid and
diploid life stages).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
3. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
4. ^ Ted
Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905

MORE INFO
[1] Mark Kirkpatrick, "The evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles",
1994, p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
  
1,274,000,000 YBN
11 12
187) A captured red alga, through endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid in the
ancestor of all chromalveolates.7 8 9

This is a secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured
instead of a cyanobacterium.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
11. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {1274
mybn}
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {1280mybn}
  
1,250,000,000 YBN
22 23 24 25 26 27
88) The Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS15 } evolve (ancestor of
the Chromista {Cryptophytes, Haptophytes, and Stramenopiles
{STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ16 }} and Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS17 }).18 19 20 21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
3. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
7. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626 (2003)
: 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
9. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
10. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
13. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
14. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
15. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
16. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
17. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
20. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
21. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
22. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin
of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004):
809 -818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract
{c1250 mybn}
23. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
24. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1665 mybn}
25. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1973mybn)
26. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
27. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1600mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Brown alga". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_alga
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science,
Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
  
1,250,000,000 YBN
12
201) The earliest certain eukaryote fossils and eukaryote filamentous
multicellularity: Rhodophyta (red algae) fossils.7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
2. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

3. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
4. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
5. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

6. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
7. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
8. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

9. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
10. ^ Science 1990 vol 250
Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
11. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

12. ^ Science 1990 vol 250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A
bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science 250:
104-107 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {1250 mybn}
(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada10 11   
1,200,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17
221) The first fungi. This begins the Fungi Kingdom.8 9

Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic (unable to build structural materials by
photosynthesis) and so must feed on other living things.10

Fungi live on organic material and are therefore generally parasitic (live or
feed on another organism to the detriment of the host organism11 ) or are
saprophytic (live on dead or decaying organic matter12 ). Some types of fungi,
however, form symbioses with plants.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf}
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
11. ^ "parasitic." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/parasitic
12. ^ "saprophytic." Grzimek's Animal Life
Encyclopedia. The Gale Group, Inc, 2005. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/saprophytic-zoology
13. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007. {c1200 mybn}
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1368 mybn}
16. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1513mybn) {1513 mybn}
17. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c1200) {c1100} {c1100 mybn}
  
1,180,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
6280) The Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS11 } (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS12 }).13 14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
2. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
7. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
10. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
11. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
12. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
15. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
16. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1180 mybn}
17. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1480 my}
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956 my}
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
20. ^ Emmanuelle J.
Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{1000 my}
21. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c820 my}
22. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1628}
  
1,100,000,000 YBN
9 10
75) The oldest extant fungi phylum "Microsporidia" evolves.5 6

Microsporidia are obligate (survive only as7 ) intracellular parasites of
eukaryotes.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ "obligate." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/obligate
8. ^ Murray Wittner, Louis M. Weiss, "The
microsporidia and microsporidiosis", 1999,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?ei=SqNvT_O5JKbTiAKf8PDuAg
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (>1460mybn)
10. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c1100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=93911
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
  
1,100,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16 17
313) The Protist Phylum "Dinoflagellata" evolves (the Dinoflagellates
{DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS9 }).10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before ciliophora and
apicomplexa branch
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise
of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
13. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing
and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and
Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{Dinosterane molecular fossils)1100 my}
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {DNA)1040 mybn}
15. ^ A. H. Knoll,
E. J. Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic Organisms in Proterozoic
Oceans", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470,
Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological, Molecular and Cellular
Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp.
1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209698 {1.8 bybn} {Dinosterane
molecular fossils)1100 my}
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {940 mybn}
17. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7,
2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{430 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch (1600mybn)
[3] Pratt, L. M., Summons, R. E. and
Hieshima, G. B.: 1991, Sterane and Triterpane Biomarkers in the Precambrian
Nonesuch Formation, North American Midcontinent Rift, Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta
55, 911–916
[4] J.J. Brocks, R.E. Summons, 8.03 - Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers
for Early Life, In: Editors-in-Chief: Heinrich D. Holland and Karl K.
Turekian, Editor(s)-in-Chief, Treatise on Geochemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, 2003,
Pages 63-115, ISBN 9780080437514,
10.1016/B0-08-043751-6/08127-5. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/p
ii/B0080437516081275)

[5] Moldowan, J. Michael et al. “Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of
biofacies: Molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with
pre-Triassic ancestors.” Geology 24.2 (1996): 159 -162.
http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/24/2/159.abstract
AND http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/24/2/159.full.pdf
[6] Raven, Evert, Eichhorn, "Biology of Plants", (New York: Worth Publishers,
1992). p98-99
[7] "coenocyte." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 23 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/coenocyte
  
1,080,000,000 YBN
18 19 20 21 22
87) The Excavates Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS}; the ancestor of protists
which have mitochondria with discoidal shaped cristae (includes euglenids,
leishmanias {lEsmaNEuZ11 }, trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ12 }, and acrasid
{oKrASiD13 } slime molds).14 15 16 17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
4. ^
"leishmanias." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/leishmanias>.
5. ^ "trypanosome." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trypanosome>.
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=acrasiomycetes&submit=Submit
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
10. ^
Baldauf, "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes", Journal of
Systematics and Evolution 46 (3): 263–273
(2008). http://www.plantsystematics.com/qikan/manage/wenzhang/jse08060.pdf
11. ^ "leishmanias." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun.
2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/leishmanias>.
12. ^ "trypanosome." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08
Jun. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trypanosome>.
13. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=acrasiomycetes&submit=Submit
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
16. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
17. ^
Baldauf, "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes", Journal of
Systematics and Evolution 46 (3): 263–273
(2008). http://www.plantsystematics.com/qikan/manage/wenzhang/jse08060.pdf
18. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
19. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {1956 mybn}
20. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1999 mybn}
21. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1600mybn)
22. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). (1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Biorealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,080,000,000 YBN
18 19 20 21
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.12
13 14

The earliest eye probably evolves from a plastid. The first proto eye is a
light sensitive area in a unicellular eukaryote.15 16

Eukaryotes are the first organisms to evolve the ability to follow light
direction in three dimensions in open water.17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

3. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
4. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

5. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

6. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
7. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

8. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

9. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
10. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

11. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
12. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

13. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

14. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
15. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

16. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
17. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

18. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119.
19. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {guess
based on earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}
20. ^ Hackett
JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{guess based on earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}
21. ^ my
own estimate based on where euglenozoa genetically appear to evolve {guess
based on earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Peter Hegemann, "Algal Sensory Photoreceptors", Annual Review of
Plant Biology, Vol. 59: 167 -189 (Volume publication date June 2008)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092847
%40recept.2009.1.issue-1

[2] Trevor D. Lamb, Detlev Arendt, and Shaun P. Collin, "The evolution of
phototransduction and eyes", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B October 12, 2009
364:2791-2793;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0106 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1
531/2791.full

[3] Kreimer, G. (2009) The green algal eyespot apparatus: a primordial visual
system and more? Current Genetics 55:19-43 doi:10.007/s00294-008-0224-8 PMID
19107486 http://www.springerlink.com/content/v54v124mxg52r091/
  
1,050,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
169) The Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ9 } (also called Heterokonts)
evolve (ancestor of all brown algae, golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota
{Ou-mI-KO-Tu10 )).11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
3. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
5. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
7. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
9. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
10. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
11. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
13. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {1050
mybn}
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1180 mybn}
15. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1480my}
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
17.
^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956my} {Alveolates and Plant split)1956my}
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600 my}
{Chromalveolates)1600 my}
19. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf} {c775my} {c754my}
20. ^
Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and
Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of
Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{c1000my}
21. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste,
Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic evolution:
Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad
Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{872 my}
  
1,000,000,000 YBN
7
324) The Protists Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u5 } evolve (also called
DRIPS).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1000 MYBN (end of Mesoproterozoic}

MORE INFO
[1] Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, Orr R, Ruden T, et al.
2008 Multigene Phylogeny of Choanozoa and the Origin of Animals. PLoS ONE 3(5):
e2098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098
[2] Leonel Mendoza, John W. Taylor, and Libero Ajello, "THE CLASS
MESOMYCETOZOEA: A Heterogeneous Group of Microorganisms at the Animal-Fungal
Boundary", Annual Review of Microbiology October 2002, Vol. 56:
315-344. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.
160950

  
985,000,000 YBN
17 18 19
309) The Protist Phylum Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu11 } evolves (ancestor of the
Oomycetes12 ; water molds).13 14 15 16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
11. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
16. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
17. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {985}
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.ilmyco.gen.chicago.il.us/Terms/coeno128.html#coeno128
[2] "Coenocyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenocyte
[3]
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Protists.html#Water_Mol
ds

[4] http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/16protists.htm
  
900,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
6281) The Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u5 } evolve (ancestor of all Radiolaria,
Foraminifera and Cercozoa).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Medlin, L. , Kooistra, W. , Potter, D. ,
Saanders, G. and Wandersen, R. (1997): Phylogenetic relationships of the
'golden algae' (haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids , The
origin of the algae and their plastids (D Bhattacharya, ed ) Plant systematics
and evolution (Suppl ) http://epic.awi.de/2100/
AND http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf {900 my}
8. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_a=rhizaria&taxon_b=haptophyta&submit=Sea
rch
{900 my}
9. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my} {754 my}
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Moreira D, von der Heyden S, Bass D, López-García P, Chao E,
Cavalier-Smith T (July 2007). "Global eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small- and
large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and
Excavata". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44 (1): 255–66.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1055-7903(06)00433-7
[2]
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_a=rhizaria&taxon_b=alveolates&submit=Sea
rch

[3] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
  
850,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16
224) The Fungi "Zygomycota" evolves (ancestor of the bread molds, and pin
molds).9 10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1250mybn)
14. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2
Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular
Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10
August 2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001). (1107mybn)
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19,
Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003). (1107mybn)
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c850m)
  
767,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
312) The Protist Phylum "Ciliophora" {SiL-E-oF-R-u7 } evolves (the "Ciliates")
(ancestor of the paramecium).8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
7. ^ "ciliophora."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 03 Jun. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ciliophora>.
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
11. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew
H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early
Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1,
75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{750 my}
12. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric
Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
13. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
  
767,000,000 YBN
13 14 15
314) The Protist Phylum "Apicomplexa" {a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su9 } evolves (includes
Malaria and Toxoplasmosis).10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
13. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery,
Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The
timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile
proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
14. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}
15. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm
Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{api+dino and ciliate split)1100 my}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003, p135
  
680,000,000 YBN
25 26 27 28 29
326) The Protists "Choanoflagellates" {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS16 } evolve.17 18 19
20 21 22
Choanoflagellates are the closest relatives to the animals and may be
direct ancestors of sponges.23

There are about 140 species of choanoflagellates. Some are free-swimming,
propelling themselves with a flagellum. Others are attached by a stalk,
sometimes with several together in a colony.24

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
16. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
18. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
19. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
20. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

21. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
22. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
23. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
24. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
25. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
26. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000 drips and 900 choano) {900 MYBN}
27. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {900 MYBN}
28. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1020 mybn}
29. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450
choano) {1450 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003)
[2] "Ichthyosporea".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthyosporea
  
670,000,000 YBN
15 16 17
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist.10 11 This allows
larger free moving organisms to evolve.12

This multicellularity is thought to be independently evolved, and not related
to the earlier filamentous multicellularity of prokaryotes like cyanobacteria,
and eukaryotes like algae.13 14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506.
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
13. ^ Shuhai Xiao, Yun Zhang, Andrew H. Knoll, "Three-dimensional
preservation of algae and animal embryos in a Neoproterozoic phosphorite",
Nature 391, 553-558 (5 February
1998) http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n666
7/full/391553a0_fs.html

14. ^ Buss, L. W. The Evolution of Individuality (Princeton Univ. Press, NJ,
1987).
15. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
17. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)

MORE INFO
[1] Nicholas H. Barton, "Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225
[2] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, 188-191
  
670,000,000 YBN
297) The diplontic life cycle evolves; this organism is predominantly diploid,
mitosis in the haploid phase does not occur.3 4

All animals are diplontic, and descend from this multicellular organism.5

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
3. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
4. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
  
660,000,000 YBN
35 36 37 38 39
81) The first animal and first metazoan, the sponge evolves. This begins the
Animal Kingdom, and the Phylum Porifera; the sponges. There are only three
major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians, and bilaterians.15 16 17

The word "porifera" means "pore bearing" in Latin18 , and water continuously
flows through the pores in sponges19 .

Metazoans are multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform
different functions). Sponges have cells that form a body wall, cells that
secrete the skeleton, contractile {KunTraKTL20 } cells, cells that digest food,
and other kinds of cell types.21 22 23 24

All sponge cells are totipotent and so are capable of regrowing a new sponge.25


Sponges have two layers, each a single cell thick. The outer surface is called
the pinacoderm {PiN-o-KO-DRM26 } and is made of cells called pinacocytes
{PiN-o-KO-SITS27 }. On the inner surface is the choanoderm {KOenO-DRM or
KO-aNo-DRM28 } which is made of flagellated cells called choanocytes
{KOenO-SITS29 or KO-aNo-SITS30 }. Between these two thin cellular sheets is
the jellylike31 mesohyl {mASuHIL32 }33

Some sponges can live for over 1000 years.34

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p497-501.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
13. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
188-191.
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
17. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
18. ^
http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/Porifera
19. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 2006, p335.
20. ^ "contractile."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 31 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/contractile>.
21. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
22. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
23. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
24. ^ Brusca
and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, 188-191.
25. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
26. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pinacoderm&submit=Submit
27. ^ "pinacocyte." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinacocyte
28. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoderm&submit=Submit
29. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanocyte&submit=Submit
30. ^ "choanocyte." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/choanocyte
31. ^ Meglitsch, P.A., and F.R. Schram. Invertebrate Zoology.
Oxford University Press, USA, 1991, p56.
32. ^
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/pronunciation.php?id=animal-kingdom/simple-org
anisms-echinoderms/29852&title=mesohyl

33. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p183.
34. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p101.
35. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
36. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
37. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {c800my}
38. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
39. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] Müller, Werner E. G. “The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera
as Integrated Animals.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 43.1 (2003):
3–10. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3884834
  
660,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13
517) The male gonad (testis {TeSTiS5 } or testicle) evolves in a sponge.6 In
sponges sperm are contained in spermatic cysts, which are choanocyte chambers
transformed by the formation of sperm7 (spermatogenesis), but ova are
distributed throughout the mesohyl {mASuHIL8 } (or middle layer).9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
3. ^ "testis." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 21 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/testis
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
5. ^ "testis." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 21 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/testis
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
7. ^ "spermatogenesis."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/spermatogenesis>.
8. ^
http://visual.merriam-webster.com/pronunciation.php?id=animal-kingdom/simple-org
anisms-echinoderms/29852&title=mesohyl

9. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {based on evolution of sponge) c850my}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
13. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglycan
[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p17
  
650,000,000 YBN
41) Start of the 60 million year (Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July 1994 "Proterozoic
and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating evolutionary
tempo" Andrew H Knoll
2. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July
1994 "Proterozoic and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating
evolutionary tempo" Andrew H Knoll
  
650,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
69) Cells that group as tissues that are arranged in layers evolve in
metazoans.4

Unlike the Porifera, in the Placozoa and all later metazoans, cells group as
tissues.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
5. ^ D.
T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p2-3.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p494.
7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
8. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750) {c750MYBN (Ctenophores are first metazoans
with tissues}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1
  
650,000,000 YBN
12 13
79) The Metazoan Phylum "Placozoa" evolves.5 6

Placozoans look like amoebas but are multicellular.7 The only known species is
Trichoplax adhaerens {TriKOPlaKS8 aDHEReNZ}. Trichoplax lives in the sea and
feeds on single celled organisms, mostly algae. There are only 4 cell types in
Trichoplax compared to the more than 200 cell types in humans. Trichoplax has
two main cell layers, like a cnidarian or ctenophore. Between these two layers
are a few contractile cells that are similar to muscle cells9 , however
placozoans have no muscle or nerve cells10 11 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ based on "Trichomonas." The American Heritage Stedman's Medical
Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/trichomonas
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p494.
10. ^ Grell, K.G., Gruner, H.E., Kilian, E.F., 1980.
Einfu¨hrung. In: Graner, H.E. (Ed.), Lehrbuch der speziellen Zoologie, Vol.
1: Wirbellose Tiere: I. Einfu¨hrung Protozoa, Placozoa, Porifera. Fischer,
Stuttgart.
11. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
12. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {780 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Srivastava, Mansi et al. “The Trichoplax genome and the nature of
placozoans.” Nature 454.7207 (2008) :
955-960. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v454/n7207/abs/nature07191.html
[2] Dellaporta, Stephen L. et al. “Mitochondrial genome of Trichoplax
adhaerens supports Placozoa as the basal lower metazoan phylum.” Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences 103.23 (2006) : 8751 -8756.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/23/8751.full
  
650,000,000 YBN
13 14 15
223) The Fungi "Chytridiomycota" {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) evolves (includes all
Chytridiomycetes {KI-TriDEO-mI-SE-TEZ}7 )).8 9 10

The chytrids are primitive fungi and are mostly saprobic (feed on dead species,
decomposing chitin and keratin). Many chytrids are aquatic (mostly found in
freshwater).11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
"Chytridiomycetes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chytridiomycetes-1
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2008/browse_taxa.php?path=0,5597
&selected_taxon=5597

7. ^ "Chytridiomycetes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chytridiomycetes-1
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2008/browse_taxa.php?path=0,5597
&selected_taxon=5597

11. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
12. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
13. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
(1460mybn)
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=71577&tree=0.1
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomycota
[3] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chytridiomycetes&submit=Submit
[4] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
Northern Russia12   
640,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17 18
83) The first nerve cell (or neuron), and nervous system evolves in the
ancestor of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians.9 10 This leads to the first
ganglion and brain.11 This is the earliest touch and sound detection, and
memory.12

As time continues in the evolution of the metazoans, the number of neurons
increases while the size of neurons decreases, just like transistors as
computers improve.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2,30.
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (presumably)
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (presumably)
10. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p2,30.
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (presumably)
12. ^ Ted Huntington.
13. ^ Ted Huntington.
14. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
15. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN (estimate
based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn}
16. ^ S OOta and N Saitou, "Phylogenetic relationship of muscle tissues deduced
from superimposition of gene trees.", Mol Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/856.abstract {Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
18. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {574mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Ghysen, A. (2003). The origin and evolution of the nervous system.
The International journal of developmental biology , 47 (7-8),
555-562. http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14756331
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750mybn)
  
640,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
96) Muscle cells evolve in the ancestor of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians.5
Both the earliest known muscle and nerve cells are found in Ctenophores and
Cnidarians.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
2. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
3. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
4. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
5. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
6. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
8. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn}
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
(c750mybn) {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN (estimate
based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
10. ^ S OOta and N Saitou, "Phylogenetic
relationship of muscle tissues deduced from superimposition of gene trees.",
Mol Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/856.abstract {Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
  
640,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
225) A closeable mouth evolves in the ancestor of all ctenophores and
cnidarians.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3. {c750MYBN (all metazoans but sponges have a closable
mouth}
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750) {c750MYBN (all metazoans but sponges have a
closable mouth}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1
  
640,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
414) The female gonad (the first ovary) evolves in the ancestor of Ctenophores
and Cnidarians.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
2. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
4. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
6. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
8. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
{based on evolution of cnidaria) 580my}
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
13. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglycan
[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p17
[4] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c850my)
[5] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
[6] Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)
  
640,000,000 YBN
12 13
523) The animal Phylum Ctenophora {Ti-noF-R-u5 } evolves (comb jellies).6

Like the Cnidarians, the Ctenophores are diploblastic; they have two embryonic
germ layers- the ectoderm {EKTeDRM7 } and the endoderm {eNDeDRM8 } which become
the adult epidermis and gastrodermis, respectively. The middle mesenchyme
{meSeNKIM9 }, a watery gelatinous fluid, never produces the complex organs seen
in triploblastic Metazoa.10

The main body cavity of the ctenophores is also
the digestive chamber, and they have a simple nerve net.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophore>.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
3. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 02 May. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophore>.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
5. ^ "ctenophora." Dictionary.com Unabridged.
Random House, Inc. 02 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophora>.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
7. ^ "ectoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/ectoderm
8. ^ "endoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/endoderm
9. ^ "mesenchyme." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.
31 Dec. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mesenchyme>.
10. ^ {ULSF: Note that this info is taken from cnidaria, but is
the same for ctenophora} Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p225,274.
11. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p491-493.
12. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750)
  
635,000,000 YBN
2
6413) The start of the Ediacaran Period.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
2. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
  
630,000,000 YBN
33 34 35 36
82) The Animal Phylum Cnidaria {NIDAREeo} evolves (the ancestor of sea
anemones, sea pens, corals, and jellyfish).19 20 21 22 Cnidaria also evolve
the earliest animal eye.23 24

Cnidaria are primarily radially symmetrical animals with tentacles, have a
single body cavity with only one opening to take in food and to release wastes,
and have specialized stinging cells.25

Cnidarians have two alternate body plans, the polyp and the medusa {miDUSe26
}.27 A sea anemone is an example of a polyp: fixed to the ground with mouth on
top.28 A coral is a polyp that secretes a skeleton29 which it lives inside
of30 . The medusa form is upside down compared to the polyp form31 , and is
free swimming. A jellyfish has a typical medusa form.32

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
6. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
11. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
12. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

13. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
15. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
16. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
17. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
18. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

19. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
20. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
21. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
22. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
23. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
24. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

25. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p31.
26. ^ "medusa." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
01 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/medusa
27. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490.
28. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490.
29. ^ "coral." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 23 Sep. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/coral
30. ^ Levine, "The Earth Through
Time", 2006, p338.
31. ^ Levine, "The Earth Through Time", 2006, p338.
32. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
33. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
34. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
35. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
36. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] Collins, A.G. (2002). "Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the Evolution of
Cnidarian Life Cycles" (PDF). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15 (3):
418–432.
doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00403.x. http://cima.uprm.edu/~n_schizas/CMOB_8676
/Collins2002.pdf

[2] Philippe, H. (April 2009). "Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep
Animal Relationships". Current Biology 19: 706–712.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052. PMID
19345102. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982209008057
[3] doi:10.1038/4631003b; Published online 24 February
2010 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/4631003b.html
  
600,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
91) The start of the Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN6 } soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.7


The sudden appearance of Ediacaran fossils may relate to the accumulation of
free oxygen in the atmosphere and sea, which may permit an oxidative
metabolism.8

Because the Ediacaran animals are soft-bodied, they are infrequently
preserved.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
3. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
5. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
6. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
7. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
8. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
9. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
10. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996). "Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/content/93/10/4990.full.pdf
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
12. ^ Meert, J.
G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.; Grice, W. C.; Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin, A.
(2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser Karatau
Microcontinent, Kazakhstan". Gondwana Research 19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005

13. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996). "Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/content/93/10/4990.full.pdf
14. ^ Ben Waggoner, "The Ediacaran Biotas in Space and Time", Integrative and
Comparative Biology , Vol. 43, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp.
104-113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3884845 {Waggoner_200302xx.pdf}
15. ^ H. J. Hofmann, G. M. Narbonne and J. D. Aitken, "Ediacaran remains from
intertillite beds in northwestern Canada", Geology, December, 1990, v. 18, p.
1199-1202. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/18/12/1199.abstract {Hofmann_Edi
acaran_Fossils_1990.pdf}
16. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
17. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
18. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329. {630 mybn}
19. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). {575 mybn}
20. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
{670 mybn}
21. ^ Meert, J. G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.; Grice, W. C.;
Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin, A. (2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?)
Fossils from the Lesser Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan". Gondwana Research
19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005


MORE INFO
[1] Ivantsov, A. Yu (2004). "New Proarticulata from the Vendian of the
Arkhangel'sk Region" (PDF). Paleontological Journal 38 (3): 247–253
[2] Peterson, Kevin
J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005): 9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.short
Sonora, Mexico10 |Adelaide, Australia11 | Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
Kazakhsta12   
600,000,000 YBN
33 34 35
107) The Animals Bilaterians evolve (metazoans with two sided symmetry).23 24
25
This is the first triploblastic animal; an animal with a third embryonic
layer, the mesoderm {meZuDRM26 }.27 This is also the earliest animal brain.28


In most bilaterians food enters in one end (the mouth) and waste exits at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an advantage for sense organs like light,
sound, touch, smell, and taste detection to be located on the head near the
mouth to help with getting food.29

The earliest brain (ganglion and memory) develop in a bilaterian worm.30 31

This begins the Animal Subkingdom "Bilateria".32

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
6. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
9. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
13. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
14. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
16. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
18. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
20. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
21. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396.
23. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
24. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
25. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
26. ^
"mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
27. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p59.
28. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
29. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396.
30. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p69.
31. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p396-400.
32. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
33. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
34. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
35. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
15 16 17
403) The earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (ancestor of acoela flat
worms and nemertodermatida).9 10 11

The Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track, anus and coelom.12 13

Flatworms have no lungs or gills and breathe through their skin. With no
circulating blood, their branched gut presumably transports nutrients to all
parts of the body.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p472-476.
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ "Acoelomorpha". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoelomorpha
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
10. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
12. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^
"Acoelomorpha". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoelomorpha
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
15. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p396
  
600,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian. Since the gut of this organism has
no anus, undigested food must be regurgitated through the mouth.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p61,66-67.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
532) A cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian;6
found in all bilaterians except Acoelomorpha7 and Platyhelminthes.8

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
5. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p4.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
8. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my) {630my (first bilateral species-acoelomates}
11. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older) {575
(first bilateral species-acoelomates)(fossil record is older}
  
600,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p58-79.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
5. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
2. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
3. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology",
2004.
4. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my) {based on some Platyhelminthes have a penis)
630my}
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575
(fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001
  
590,000,000 YBN
70) The end of the Varanger Ice Age (650-590 mybn).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July 1994 "Proterozoic
and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating evolutionary
tempo" Andrew H Knoll
2. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July
1994 "Proterozoic and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating
evolutionary tempo" Andrew H Knoll
  
590,000,000 YBN
7 8
95) The coelom (SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.3

The coelem is a fluid filled cavity that forms within the mesoderm and exists
between the gut and body wall4 in most triploblastic animals5 .

The advantage of a coelem is that it allows the body wall and gut wall to act
independently, and also that other organ systems can be developed in the
fluid-filled space. In addition, the fluid in the cavity can act as a
deformable skeleton.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates",
2003, p48.
5. ^ Valentine, J.W. On the Origin of Phyla. University of Chicago Press,
2004. American Politics and Political Economy Series,
p60. http://books.google.com/books?id=DMBkmHm5fe4C&pg=PA60
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4-5.
7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {estimate based on coelom being before protostome-deutostome
division, after acoelomorph) 630-590 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "coelom." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 24 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/body-cavity
  
590,000,000 YBN
16 17
98) The first circulatory system evolves; blood vessels, and blood evolve in a
bilaterian.9 The first blood cells.10 Cnidarians and flatworms are at most
two sheets of tissue thick and so allow gas exchange and nutrient distribution
by diffusion, but larger animals with thicker tissues require a circulatory
system to distribute materials.11 12 13

The circulatory system transports molecules like gases, food, and waste to and
from individual cells.14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p81.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p81.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p327.
6. ^ Solomon, E., L. Berg, and D.W. Martin. Biology.
Cengage Learning, 2010. Available Titles CourseMate Series,
p938-939. http://books.google.com/books?id=itHVNZicPgwC
7. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p299.
8. ^ Cowen, R. History of Life.
John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
p46. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z-Tam4XuXLkC&pg=PA46
9. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p81.
10. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p327.
11. ^ Solomon,
E., L. Berg, and D.W. Martin. Biology. Cengage Learning, 2010. Available Titles
CourseMate Series, p938-939. http://books.google.com/books?id=itHVNZicPgwC
12. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p299.
13. ^ Cowen,
R. History of Life. John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
p46. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z-Tam4XuXLkC&pg=PA46
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
16. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on}
  
580,000,000 YBN
31 32 33 34
93) The Bilaterians Protostomes evolve.21 22 The ancestor of all Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu23 } and Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu24 }.25 26 27 28

The difference between protostomes and deutrostomes arises during embryonic
development. In protostomes, the first indentation of the gastrula (an early
stage of the embryo29 ) develops into the mouth and the second indentation
develops into the anus. The reverse is true for the deuterostomes.30

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
3. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE;
Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
4. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
11. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
12. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
14. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
15. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
16. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
18. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
19. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
20. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
22. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
23. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
24. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
25. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
26. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
27. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
28. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
29. ^ "gastrula." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/gastrula>.
30. ^ Alters, S. Biology: Understanding Life. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2000.
Human and Introductory Biology Series,
p511. http://books.google.com/books?id=GRDUIbQwGc8C&pg=PA511
31. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
32. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (590my) {590 mybn}
33. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins.
“Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of evidence to
investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages.” Integrative and
Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {543 mybn}
34. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {910 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=priapulids
[2] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide
Pisani, "The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic
and the geological fossil records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April 27, 2008 363
(1496) 1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

  
580,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16
105) The Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve; the ancestor of all Echinoderms
(iKIniDRMS 9 }, Hemichordates, and Chordates.10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
9. ^ "echinoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
11. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
12. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {570 mybn}
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {910 mybn}
15. ^ Cartwright,
Paulyn, and Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple
lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan
lineages.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {367 mybn}
16. ^ Jun-Yuan
Chen, David J. Bottjer, Paola Oliveri,Stephen Q. Dornbos, Feng Gao, Seth
Ruffins, Huimei Chi, Chia-Wei Li, Eric H. Davidson, "Small Bilaterian Fossils
from 40 to 55 Million Years Before the Cambrian", Science, Vol 305, Issue 5681,
218-222, 9 July
2004 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;305/5681/218

MORE INFO
[1] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide Pisani,
"The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the
geological fossil records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April 27, 2008 363 (1496)
1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

  
580,000,000 YBN
8 9
131) The first shell (or skeleton) evolves. The first known shell belongs to a
group of ciliates called tintinnids.5 Skeletons evolve independently in
different groups of organisms.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
2. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
3. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
4. ^ "skeleton." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 25 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547371/skeleton>.
5. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
6. ^ "skeleton." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 25 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547371/skeleton>.
7. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
8. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf} {earliest hard shell fossil -
ciliate) 580 mybn}
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {Euglenozoa -pellicle) 1956 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Hamm, Smetacek, "Armor: Why, When, and How", in Falkowski, Knoll,
"Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea", 2007, p311-332, p323
[2] Bengtson, S.
(2004), Early skeletal fossils, in Lipps, J.H., and Waggoner, B.M.,
"Neoproterozoic- Cambrian Biological Revolutions" (PDF), Paleontological
Society Papers 10: 67–78, retrieved
2008-07-18 http://www.nrm.se/download/18.4e32c81078a8d9249800021554/Bengtson200
4ESF.pdf

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China7   
570,000,000 YBN
21 22 23 24
311) The Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu14 15 } evolve (Arrow Worms).16

The earliest teeth evolve. Animals start to eat other animals.17 18

The evolution of teeth and animal predation starts an "arms race" that rapidly
transforms ecosystems around the Earth.19 Teeth and shells evolve as
advantages to survival.20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
2. ^ Vannier, J.; Steiner, M.;
Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian origin of
modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of the Royal
Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC 2197202. PMID
17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

3. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
7. ^ Vannier, J.;
Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian
origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of
the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

8. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
12. ^ Vannier,
J.; Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early
Cambrian origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms".
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC 2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

13. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
14. ^ "arrow worm." The
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press.,
2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
15. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
17. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
18. ^ Vannier, J.;
Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian
origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of
the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

19. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
20. ^ Ted Huntington.
21. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(570)
22. ^ Chen, J.-Y.; Huang, D.-Y. (2002). "A possible Lower Cambrian chaetognath
(arrow worm)". Science 298 (5591): 187. doi:10.1126/science.1075059. PMID
12364798.
23. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
24. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", Oxford University
Press, New York., 2009, Chap 24, p224-225. http://timetree.org/book.php

MORE INFO
[1] Gonzalo Giribet, Daniel L. Distel, Martin Polz, Wolfgang Sterrer, and
Ward C. Wheeler Triploblastic Relationships with Emphasis on the Acoelomates
and the Position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and
Chaetognatha: A Combined Approach of 18S rDNA Sequences and Morphology Syst
Biol (2000) 49(3): 539-562 doi:10.1080/10635159950127385
[2] Martin Helmkampf, Iris Bruchhaus, Bernhard
Hausdorf, Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic
relationships, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 46, Issue 1,
January 2008, Pages 206-214, ISSN 1055-7903,
10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.004. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S105579030700317X)

[3] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
[4] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2002, p844
  
565,000,000 YBN
13 14 15
345) The Deuterostome Phylum Hemichordata evolves; The "Hemichordates", the
ancestor of pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS9 }10 and acorn worms).11

Adult Pterobranchs are sessile, fastening to solid structures, but the younger
(or larval) form is free swimming, and is thought to have retained this form
before evolving into tunicates and then the first fish.12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p201.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p203.
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
10. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
12. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
13. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
14. ^ Xian-guang Hou, Richard J. Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J. Siveter,
Mark Williams, Jan Zalasiewicz, Xiao-ya Ma. A pterobranch hemichordate zooid
from the lower Cambrian. Current Biology, 24 March 2011 DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.005 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096
0982211002776

15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p383.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126698
  
565,000,000 YBN
22 23
347) The Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves. Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds.15 16 Chordates get their name from the notochord {nOTe-KORD17 },
the cartilage rod that runs along the back of the animal, in the embryo if not
in the adult.18

The ancestor of all chordates evolves "upside-down": unlike earlier
invertebrates who have a ventral nerve cord (near the belly19 ) and a dorsal
heart (near the back20 ), this ancestor and all later vertebrates have a dorsal
nerve cord and a ventral heart.21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p399-400.
6. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
7. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
10. ^
"notochord." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/notochord
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p399-400.
13. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
14. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
17. ^ "notochord." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 04 Jun. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/notochord
18. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
19. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01
Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
20. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). p399-400.
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381. {565 MYBN}
23. ^
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3208583.stm

MORE INFO
[1] Douzery, E. J. P., Snell, E. A., Bapteste, E., Delsuc, F., &
Philippe, H. (2004). The timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils? Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 101 (43),
15386-15391. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403984101
[2] Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho
and Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of
Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science New Series, Vol. 271, No. 5248
(Jan. 26, 1996), pp. 470-477. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2890144
[3] Pennisi, Elizabeth. “Drafting a Tree.” Science
300.5626 (2003) : 1694.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1694.summary
[4] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary Emergence of
Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION: EDUCATION AND
OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[5] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
565,000,000 YBN
5 6
348) The earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (also called sea
squirts).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p377-381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381. {565 mybn}
6. ^ Chen, Jun-Yuan
et al. “The First Tunicate from the Early Cambrian of South China.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100.14 (2003): 8314 –8318.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/100/14/8314.full
  
560,000,000 YBN
19 20 21 22 23 24
117) The earliest animal shell (or skeleton) evolves.6
This is the earliest
evidence of animals eating other animals (predation).7 8
This begins the
appearance of small shelly fossils and deep burrows correlated with a decline
in stromatolites, possibly from feeding.9

The earliest animal shells are made by tiny organisms with simple tubelike
skeletons, such as Cloudina and Sinotubulites10 11 in addition to sponge
skeleton fossils.12

The shell of Cloudina is made of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)13 , and are possibly
made by some kind of worm.14

Predatory bore holes have been found in Cloudina shells. This is the oldest
evidence of predation known.15 16

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210.
2. ^
Dzik, J (2007), "The Verdun Syndrome: simultaneous origin of protective armour
and infaunal shelters at the Precambrian–Cambrian transition", in
Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran
Biota, Special publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 405–414,
doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 191881597 156823511 191881597
http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
3. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
4. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
5. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth",
sixth edition, 2002, p210.
6. ^ Dzik, J (2007), "The Verdun Syndrome: simultaneous
origin of protective armour and infaunal shelters at the Precambrian–Cambrian
transition", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall
of the Ediacaran Biota, Special publications, 286, London: Geological Society,
pp. 405–414, doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 191881597
156823511 191881597
http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
7. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
8. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
9. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth",
sixth edition, 2002, p210.
10. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th
edition 2002, p212.
11. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p168.
12. ^ Clites, Erica C., Mary L. Droser, and James G. Gehling.
“The Advent of Hard-part Structural Support Among the Ediacara Biota:
Ediacaran Harbinger of a Cambrian Mode of Body Construction.” Geology (2012):
n. pag. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2012/02/13/G32828.1
13. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
14. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p166.
15. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in
Late Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
16. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
17. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and distribution of
Cloudina, a potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic.",
Source: American journal of science (1990) volume: 290-A (Special volume)
page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf
18. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
19. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say
and Why It Matters", 2007, p163-170.
20. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th
edition 2002, p212.
21. ^ Adam C. Maloof, Susannah M. Porter, John L. Moore, Frank
Ö. Dudás, Samuel A. Bowring, John A. Higgins, David A. Fike, and Michael P.
Eddy, "The earliest Cambrian record of animals and ocean geochemical change",
Geological Society of America Bulletin, November 2010, v. 122, p. 1731-1774,
doi:10.1130/B30346.1 http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/122/11-12/1731.full

22. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a potential
index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic.", Source: American journal of
science (1990) volume: 290-A (Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf
23. ^ http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/neoproterozoic/ediacaran/ediacaran2.htm
24. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782

MORE INFO
[1] Philip W. Signor and Mark A. S. McMenamin "The Early Cambrian Worm
Tube Onuphionella from California and Nevada", Journal of Paleontology , Vol.
62, No. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 233-240 Published by: Paleontological
Society Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1305228
[2] MATTHEWS, S. C., AND V. V. MISSARZHEVSKY.
1975. "Small shelly fossils of late Precambrian and early Cambrian age: a
review of recent work." Journal of the Geological Society,
131:289-304 http://jgs.geoscienceworld.org/content/131/3/289.abstract
[3] GRANT, S. W. F. 1990. "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a
potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic." American Journal of
Science, 290(A):261-294
(Ara Formation) Oman17 |Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province18
  
560,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16
318) The Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu8 } evolve. Ecdysozoa are animals
that molt (lose their outer skin) as they grow.9 10 This is the ancestor of
round worms, and arthropods (which includes insects and crustaceans {also known
as "shell-fish"}).11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
7. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198710
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005),p390-394.
11. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198710
12. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c580) {c580 mybn}
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden,
MA: Blackwell, 2005),p388-394. (560) {560 mybn}
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {790 mybn}
16. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of
evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {530 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p390-394
[4] Telford, Maximilian J et al. “The Evolution of the Ecdysozoa.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1529 –1537.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1529.long
  
560,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20
331) The Protostomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u10 } evolve. Ancestor of
rotifers, phoronids, brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ11 }, entoprocts {eNTuProKS12 },
bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ13 }, platyhelminthes, gastrotrichs, nemertea, molluscs
and annelids.14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brachiopods&submit=Submit
6. ^ "entoproct?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entoproct?s=t
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=bryozoans&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
10. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
11. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brachiopods&submit=Submit
12. ^ "entoproct?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entoproct?s=t
13. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=bryozoans&submit=Submit
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science,
(2003).
16. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c547) {c580 mybn}
18. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003). (550) {550 mybn}
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {790 mybn}
20. ^
Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating
multiple lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan
lineages.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {538 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=202032
  
560,000,000 YBN
349) The first fish evolves.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
560,000,000 YBN
6290) The earliest extant fish, the Chordates Lancelets {laNSleTS7 } (also
called amphioxus {aMFEoKSiS8 }9 ).10 This is also the first liver and
kidney.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Feb. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p205.
4. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Feb.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p205.
7. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
11 Feb. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
8. ^ "amphioxus." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.
01 Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/amphioxus>.
9. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p202.
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
11. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p205.

MORE INFO
[1] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary
Emergence of Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION:
EDUCATION AND OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
550,000,000 YBN
11
328) The Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes {aSKHeLmiNtEZ7 8 } evolves; the ancestor of
the worms nematodes and priapulids.9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
3. ^ "Aschelminthes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/aschelminthes
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=aschelminthes
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
7. ^ "Aschelminthes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/aschelminthes
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=aschelminthes
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c550)
  
547,000,000 YBN
5
334) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Brachiopoda {BrAKEoPiDu2 } evolves (the
brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}).3

The Brachiopods are marine invertebrates that have bivalve dorsal and ventral
shells enclosing a pair of tentacled, armlike structures that are used to sweep
minute food particles into their mouth.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ "Brachiopoda." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth
Edition. Columbia University Press., 2013. Answers.com 01 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/brachiopoda
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ "brachiopod." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 18 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/brachiopod
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c547)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=202032
  
543,000,000 YBN
11
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts are repeated serially, for example
vertebrae).7 8

Some think that segmentation evolved independently in annelid worms,
arthropods, and vertebrates. But the universality of Homeobox genes, evolved
over a billion years earlier9 , implies that all segmented species may share a
common segmented ancestor.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
9. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin TR, "MEKHLA, a novel domain with similarity to PAS
domains, is fused to plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins.", Plant
Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/140/4/1142.full
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p622-624.
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {537 MYBN (based on Annaleda - segmented worns} {543
MYBN (based on arthropods, annelids - segmented worns=537}
  
542,000,000 YBN
9
53) The end of the "Precambrian". The end of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK5 } Eon. The end of the Neoproterozoic and start of the
Paleozoic {PAlEuZOiK6 } Era, and the end of the Ediacaran and start of the
Cambrian Period.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Phanerozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/phanerozoic
2. ^ "Paleozoic." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 09 Mar.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Paleozoic>.
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic
and Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
5. ^ "Phanerozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phanerozoic
6. ^ "Paleozoic." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 09 Mar. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Paleozoic>.
7. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
8. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
9. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time
Scale.” Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
  
542,000,000 YBN
15 16
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many (between 20 and 35) of the major phyla
of animals.9 10 11 An increase of animals with shells.12

The Cambrian metazoan radiation may be the result of a major increase in
atmospheric oxygen13 , and animal predation14 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
3. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
5. ^
"Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
6. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
7. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
8. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
9. ^
"Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
10. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
11. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
12. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
13. ^ Dott,
Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th edition 2002, p209.
14. ^ Dzik, J (2007),
"The Verdun Syndrome: simultaneous origin of protective armour and infaunal
shelters at the Precambrian–Cambrian transition", in Vickers-Rich, Patricia;
Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Special
publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 405–414,
doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 191881597 156823511
191881597 http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
15. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>. {542-530
mybn}
16. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
{535 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Derek E. G. Briggs and Richard A. Fortey, "Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation", Paleobiology , Vol. 31, No. 2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency: Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp. 94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25482671
  
540,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
104) The Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u5 } Phylum Platyhelminthes
{PlaTEheLmiNtEZ} evolves (flatworms).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)
8. ^ Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. et al. “The
Timing of Eukaryotic Evolution: Does a Relaxed Molecular Clock Reconcile
Proteins and Fossils?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386 -15391.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J et al. “The Ediacaran Emergence of Bilaterians:
Congruence Between the Genetic and the Geological Fossil Records.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1435 -1443.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1435.full
  
540,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
319) The Protist Phylum "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo7 } (ocean protists, many with
silica shells8 ).9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of
Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com
30 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales,
rhizaria, chromalveolates
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of
Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com
30 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
8. ^ "radiolarian." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 10
Aug. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/489175/radiolarian>.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
11. ^ A. Braun, J. Chen, D. Waloszek and A. Maas,
"First Early Cambrian Radiolaria", Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 2007, v. 286, p.
143-149. http://sp.lyellcollection.org/content/286/1/143.short
and http://www.core-orsten-research.de/Publications/PDF_Paper/ulm_team/2007b_Br
aun_etal.pdf {Earliest radiolaria fossils) 540 mybn}
12. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
13. ^ http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600my)
[2] Keeling, Patrick J. et al. "The tree of eukaryotes." Trends
in Ecology & Evolution 20.12 (2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534705003046
[3] Delsuc, Frederic, Henner Brinkmann, and Herve Philippe. "Phylogenomics and
the reconstruction of the tree of life." Nat Rev Genet 6.5 (2005):
361-375. http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v6/n5/abs/nrg1603.html
[4] http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/Bio-home/Pratt/boo305.htm
[5] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[6] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/radiolaria.html
[7] "Polycystine". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycystine
  
540,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16
321) The Protist Phylum "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu7 } evolves, (unicellular
protists with fine pseudopods that extend from a cytoplasm body encased within
a calcium carbonate shell8 9 ).10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
8. ^ "foraminiferan." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 30 Mar. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/212983/foraminiferan>.
9. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p175.
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second
Edition, 2003, p165-167. {earliest fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
13. ^ Culver,
S. J. (1991) Science 254, 689–691.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=254/5032/68
9
and http://www.sciencemag.org/content/254/5032/689.full.pdf {earliest
fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
14. ^ Culver, S. J. (1994) J. Foraminiferal Res.
24,
191–202. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=gsjfr&resid
=24/3/191
{earliest fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
15. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
16. ^ http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600mybn)
[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[3] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/foram.html
[4] "Allogromiida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allogromiida
[5] "Fusulinid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusulinid
[6] "Globigerinida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globigerinida
[7] "Miliolid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miliolid
[8] "Rotaliida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotaliida
[9] "Textulariida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textulariida
[10]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P4356&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

[11]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2007&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

  
540,000,000 YBN
7
340) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu5 } evolves (ribbon worms).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c541)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
540,000,000 YBN
7
341) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Tardigrada {ToRDiGRiDe5 } evolves (tardigrades).6
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ "tardigrade." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "tardigrade." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ "Tardigrada." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 01 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrada-2
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
540,000,000 YBN
8
342) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Onychophora evolves.6 Onychophorans are a transition
between worms and arthropods: they have segmented worm-like bodies but they
also have jointed appendages, antennae, and shed their cuticle like arthropods
do.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "onychophoran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ "onychophoran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
05 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p193.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution: What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p193.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
535,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
114) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.4

Muscles for pumping blood and for maintaining adequate blood pressure can be
divided into three groups: contractile blood vessels (found in nemerteans and
annelids), ostiate {oSTEAT5 } hearts (found in arthropods), and chambered
hearts (found in molluscs and vertebrates).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p124-125.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p124-125.
5. ^ "ostium." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ostium>.
6. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p73, 327.
7. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p 73.
8. ^ Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.
9. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on} {539 MYBN (based on mollusca}
  
533,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
343) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Mollusca evolves; Mollusks.7

The phylum Mollusca is the second largest animal phylum after the arthropods,
and is divided into seven classes, three of which (Gastropoda {GaSTroPeDu8 }
(snails), Bivalvia (clams and muscles), and Cephalopoda {SeFeloPeDu9 } (squids
and octupuses) are of major importance.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=gastropoda&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cephalopoda&submit=Submit
6. ^ "Mollusca." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mollusca
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=gastropoda&submit=Submit
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cephalopoda&submit=Submit
10. ^ "Mollusca." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mollusca
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c539)
13. ^ Caron, Jean-Bernard et al. "A soft-bodied mollusc with
radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale." Nature 442.7099 (2006):
159-163. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v442/n7099/full/nature04894.html

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
530,000,000 YBN
5
338) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Annelida evolves; segmented worms.3

Annelids are various worms or wormlike animals, characterized by an elongated,
cylindrical, segmented body and includes the earthworm and leech.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ "annelid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/annelid
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c537)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
530,000,000 YBN
11 12
339) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Arthropoda evolves; the "Arthropods".7

Arthropods can be compared to a segmented worm encased in a rigid exoskeleton.8


The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. Arthropods
include the trilobites, the crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, and lobsters), the
Myriapoda (centipedes and millipedes), the Chelicerata (arachnids and horseshoe
crabs) and the insects.9 All arthropods have a segmented body covered by an
exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armor and as a surface for
muscle attachment.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p476.
5. ^
Hedges and Kumar, Time Tree, 2009,
p251. http://timetree.org/pdf/Pisani2009Chap29.pdf
6. ^ "arthropod." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/arthropod
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p476.
9. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
Time Tree, 2009, p251. http://timetree.org/pdf/Pisani2009Chap29.pdf
10. ^ "arthropod." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/arthropod
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c543)
12. ^ Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
530,000,000 YBN
350) The Chordata Vertebrates evolve.4 This Subphylum, Vertabrata, contains
most fishes, and all amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

The characteristic features of the Vertebrata are a vertebral column, or
backbone, and a cranium, which protects the central nervous system (brain and
spinal cord) and major sense organs.5 This earliest vertebrate skeleton is
made completely of cartilage.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ "Vertebrata." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of
Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/vertebrata
6. ^ Palmer, D. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New Line
Books, 2002, p22.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
  
530,000,000 YBN
5
6637) The Vertebrates Jawless fishes evolve (agnatha).3

The earliest extant jawless fishes, the hagfishes evolve now.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
4. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates",
2002, p85.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
  
520,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13
133) The Arthropods Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo6 ) evolve (eight legs, ancestor of
the horseshoe crabs, sea spiders, and the Arachnids: mites, spiders, and
scorpions).7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ J. W. Shultz
(2007). "A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological
characters". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150: 221–265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1096-3642.2007.00284.x
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
5. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
7. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
8. ^
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=6843&lvl=3
&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock

9. ^ D. Waloszek, J.A. Dunlop, "A larval sea spider (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida)
from the Upper Cambrian ‘Orsten’ of Sweden and the phylogenetic position of
pycnogonids", Palaeontology, 45 (2002), pp.
421–446 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-4983.00244/abstract
10. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p168.
11. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
12. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p66-67.
13. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.

MORE INFO
[1] Charbonnier, S, J Vannier, and B Riou. “New Sea Spiders from the
Jurassic La Voulte-sur-Rhône Lagerstätte.” Proceedings of the Royal Society
B: Biological Sciences 274, no. 1625 (October 22, 2007): 2555
–2561. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1625/2555.full
[2] Dunlop and Seldon, "The Early History and Phylogeny of the Chelicerates",
in Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relatioinships", 1997, p231
earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten, Sweden9   
520,000,000 YBN
3 4
148) The earliest color vision evolves in arthropods.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Koyanagi, M.; Nagata, T.; Katoh, K.; Yamashita, S.; Tokunaga, F. (2008).
"Molecular Evolution of Arthropod Color Vision Deduced from Multiple Opsin
Genes of Jumping Spiders". Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 (2): 130–137.
DOI:10.1007/s00239-008-9065-9. PMID
18217181. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e67h525378645572/?MUD=MP
2. ^ Koyanagi, M.; Nagata, T.; Katoh, K.; Yamashita, S.; Tokunaga, F. (2008).
"Molecular Evolution of Arthropod Color Vision Deduced from Multiple Opsin
Genes of Jumping Spiders". Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 (2): 130–137.
DOI:10.1007/s00239-008-9065-9. PMID
18217181. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e67h525378645572/?MUD=MP
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p168.
4. ^
Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210-211.

MORE INFO
[1] Yokoyama, S., and B. F. Radlwimmer. 2001. The molecular genetics and
evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates. Genetics Society of
America. 158: 1697-1710
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004)
  
520,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
346) The Deuterostome Phylum Echinodermata evolves; the "Echinoderms"
(iKIniDRMS 5 }, the ancestor of the sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars,
and star fishes.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Adam M. English, Loren E. Babcock, Census of the
Indian Springs Lagerstätte, Poleta Formation (Cambrian), western Nevada, USA,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 295, Issues 1–2, 1
September 2010, Pages 236-244, ISSN 0031-0182,
10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.05.041. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S0031018210003287)

8. ^ J. Wyatt Durham, "Notes on the Helicoplacoidea and Early Echinoderms",
Journal of Paleontology , Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1967), pp.
97-102 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1301905
9. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p66.
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p384.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126698
  
520,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18
6349) The arthropods trilobites evolve.9 10 11 12

Trilobites have a segmented body that is divided into three vertical lobes.13

There is a transition from soft-bodied organisms, to the clam-like shell
organisms, to the segmented calcite and chitin shells of the trilobites.14

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998). Article
ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
2. ^ http://www.nature.com0/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
3. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
4. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
5. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998).
Article ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
6. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
7. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
8. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
9. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998).
Article ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
10. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
11. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
12. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
13. ^ "trilobite." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
25 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/trilobite
14. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition,
2002, p209-213.
15. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p168.
16. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
17. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental evolution: insights from studies of
insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my {510 mybn}
18. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html {540 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.trilobites.info/biostratigraphy.htm
[2] http://www.trilobites.info/origins.htm
[3] Babcock, L.E., S Peng, G. Geyer, & J.H. Shergold. 2005.
Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward
subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geosci. Journal
9(2):101-6. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t7062n5744462260/
[4] Niles Eldredge, "Trilobites and Evolutionary Patterns", p305-332 in Anthony
Hallam, "Patterns of evolution as illustrated by the fossil record, Volume 5",
1977, p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=q7GjDIyyWegC
[5] Hughes, N. 2007. The evolution of trilobite body patterning. Annu.
Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2007.
35:401–34. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.earth.35.0313
06.140258

[6] Richard A. Fortey "Trilobite Systematics: The Last 75 Years", Journal of
Paleontology , Vol. 75, No. 6, 75th Anniversary Issue (Nov., 2001), pp.
1141-1151 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1307082
[7] http://www.palaeos.org/Cambrian_Stage_3
  
513,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
6351) The Arthropods Crustaceans evolve (the ancestor of all shrimps, crabs,
lobsters, and barnicles).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p251-253.
4. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek, "An early Cambrian
phosphatocopid crustacean with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts from
Shropshire, England", Special Papers in Paleontology, 70, 2003
5. ^ Siveter, David
J., Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek. “A Phosphatocopid Crustacean with
Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.” Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001):
479 –481. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/479.abstract
6. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek, "An early
Cambrian phosphatocopid crustacean with three-dimensionally preserved soft
parts from Shropshire, England", Special Papers in Paleontology, 70, 2003
7. ^
Siveter, David J., Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek. “A Phosphatocopid
Crustacean with Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.” Science 293, no. 5529
(July 20, 2001): 479
–481. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/479.abstract
8. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009, p66-67.
9. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
2009, p251-253.
10. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395

MORE INFO
[1]
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Crustacea/fossils.html
[2] http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0719_crustacean.html
earliest fossils: Shropshire, England4 5   
501,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
6348) The Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu5 } evolve; the ancestor of all
centipedes and millipedes.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
2009, p251-253.
5. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
7. ^ Robison, Richard A.
“Earliest-known Uniramous Arthropod.” Nature 343.6254 (1990): 163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html
{Robison_19900111.pdf}
8. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
9. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from the
Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596 {Budd_2001.pdf}
10. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A.
Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in the Silurian: Arachnids and
Myriapods from Shropshire, England.” Science 250, no. 4981 (November 2,
1990): 658 –661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;250/4981/658
11. ^ Robison, Richard A. “Earliest-known Uniramous Arthropod.”
Nature 343.6254 (1990): 163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html
{Robison_19900111.pdf}
12. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
13. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from the
Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596 {Budd_2001.pdf}
14. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B.,
Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and
Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land: Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern Ontario, Canada.” Geology
30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
15. ^ Budd, G.E., Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like
arthropod from the Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische
Zeitschrift, v. 75p. 37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596
16. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W.
Dalrymple, Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First
Steps on Land: Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
17. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A. Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in
the Silurian: Arachnids and Myriapods from Shropshire, England.” Science 250,
no. 4981 (November 2, 1990): 658
–661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;250/4981/658
18. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
19. ^ William A Shear, Andrew J Jeram and Paul Selden, "Centiped legs
(Arthropoda, Chilopoda, Scutigeromorpha) from the Silurian and Devonian of
Britain and the Devonian of North America.", American Museum novitates
3231:1-16 (1998) http://biostor.org/reference/30111
20. ^ Grimaldi, Engels, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p107-108.
21. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
22. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p111.
earliest possible fossils: (Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA7 8
and (Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia9 |(earliest fossils) Shropshire,
England10   
488,300,000 YBN
5
121) The end of the Cambrian (542-488.3 mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN3 } (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
3. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
4. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
5. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
488,000,000 YBN
10
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN7 } radiation. During the Ordovician the number
of genera {JeN-R-u8 } will quadruple.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
3. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
4. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
5. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
6. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
7. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
8. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
9. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
10. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levine, "The Eath Through Time", 2006, p333
  
475,000,000 YBN
16 17 18
244) The non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo11 }, (the ancestor of
the Liverworts, Hornworts, and Mosses).12 13

The Bryophytes are the simplest land plants, and reproduce with spores.14 15

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ "Bryophyta."
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
6. ^ "Bryophyta."
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^ Peter Robert
Bell, Alan R. Hemsley, "Green Plants: Their Origin and Diversity", 2000,
p102. http://books.google.com/books?id=HYkTvGq_RccC&pg=PA102
10. ^ Diego Fontaneto, "Biogeography of Microscopic Organisms: Is Everything
Small Everywhere?", 2011,
p211. http://books.google.com/books?id=QdcLHCPgG-wC&pg=PA211
11. ^ "Bryophyta." Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
12. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
13. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
14. ^ Peter Robert
Bell, Alan R. Hemsley, "Green Plants: Their Origin and Diversity", 2000,
p102. http://books.google.com/books?id=HYkTvGq_RccC&pg=PA102
15. ^ Diego Fontaneto, "Biogeography of Microscopic Organisms: Is Everything
Small Everywhere?", 2011,
p211. http://books.google.com/books?id=QdcLHCPgG-wC&pg=PA211
16. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
17. ^ S26 (c475)
18. ^ S15 (c475)

MORE INFO
[1] "Bryophyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryophyte
[2] "Bryophyta." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bryophyta-1
  
475,000,000 YBN
15 16
398) Plants live on land. The earliest fossil spores belonging to land
plants.10 11 12

Plants conquer land before animals do, and like animals may move to land not by
sea but by freshwater.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
2. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
5. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
8. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
11. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
12. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
13. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p520-521.
14. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
15. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
{475 MYBN}
16. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya14   
472,000,000 YBN
14 15 16
402) The first animals live on land, the arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and
millipedes).10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
2. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
3. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
4. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
6. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
7. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
9. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
10. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
11. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
12. ^ Heather M.
Wilson and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
13. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
14. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
15. ^ Heather M. Wilson and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of
Paleozoic Millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland",
Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
16. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p67.
earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston, Ontario, Canada13   
465,000,000 YBN
5
6636) The Jawless fishes lamprays evolve.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution. What the Fossils Have to Say and Why
It Matters", 2007, p198.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution. What the Fossils
Have to Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p198.
5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution. What the
Fossils Have to Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p198.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
[3] "ostracoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jan.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/ostracoderm
  
460,000,000 YBN
13
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo8 }.9 This large
group includes all jawed fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. The
first vertebrate teeth.10

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill skeleton.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^ "Gnathostomata." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostomata-1
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
4. ^ "Gnathostomata." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostomata-1
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
8. ^ "Gnathostomata." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostomata-1
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
11. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p360-363.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363. {460 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p106,110
[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl
Oceans12   
460,000,000 YBN
6 7
404) The Jawed fishes Chondrichthyes {KoN-DriK-tE-EZ4 } (Cartilaginous fishes:
ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates, and sawfishes).5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chondrichthyes&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chondrichthyes&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
6. ^ Miller, Randall F., Richard Cloutier, and Susan Turner.
“The Oldest Articulated Chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian Period.”
Nature 425.6957 (2003): 501–504. Web. 23 May
2012. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html {M
iller_Chondrichthyans_2003.pdf}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
  
460,000,000 YBN
4 5
458) The earliest fungi on land. The ancestor of all terrestrial fungi (the
Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
2. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
3. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
4. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
5. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
  
460,000,000 YBN
18 19 20 21
6414) The Fungi Phylum "Glomeromycota" {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu11 } evolves
(arbuscular {oRBuSKYUlR12 } mycorrhizal {MIKerIZL13 } fungi).14 15 16

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycota&submit=Submit
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=arbuscular&submit=Submit
7. ^ "mycorrhiza." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mycorrhiza
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
10. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
11. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycota&submit=Submit
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=arbuscular&submit=Submit
13. ^ "mycorrhiza." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mycorrhiza
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
16. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
17. ^
Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician".
Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
18. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c750mybn)
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). (c1460 to 1210mybn)
21. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (estimate that between 947 and 968)

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycetes&submit=Submit
[2] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
[3] Redecker, Dirk,
and Philipp Raab. "Phylogeny of the Glomeromycota (arbuscular Mycorrhizal
Fungi): Recent Developments and New Gene Markers." Mycologia 98.6 (November):
2006, p885 –895. http://www.mycologia.org/content/98/6/885.abstract
earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA17   
445,000,000 YBN
6 7
90) The end-Ordovician mass extinction. This is caused by an ice age.3 4

This is the first of five mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
2. ^ THE LATE ORDOVICIAN MASS EXTINCTION - Annual Review of
Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29(1):331 - Abstract".
Arjournals.annualreviews.org. 2003-11-28.
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.29.1.331?jou
rnalCode=earth

3. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
4. ^ THE LATE ORDOVICIAN MASS EXTINCTION - Annual Review of
Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29(1):331 - Abstract".
Arjournals.annualreviews.org. 2003-11-28.
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.29.1.331?jou
rnalCode=earth

5. ^ THE LATE ORDOVICIAN MASS EXTINCTION - Annual Review of Earth and Planetary
Sciences, 29(1):331 - Abstract". Arjournals.annualreviews.org. 2003-11-28.
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.29.1.331?jou
rnalCode=earth

6. ^ Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p83.
7. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148 {439 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
[2] David Jablonski, "Lessons from the Past: Evolutionary Impacts of
Mass Extinctions", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America, Vol. 98, No. 10 (May 8, 2001), pp.
5393-5398. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3055638
  
443,700,000 YBN
3
122) The end of the Ordovician (488.3-443.7 mybn), and the start of the
Silurian (443.7-416) Period.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
3. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
440,000,000 YBN
15 16 17
236) The Vascular plants evolve, the Phylum Tracheophyta {TrAKEoFiTu9 }.10 11
12 13

Vascular plants have a specialized conducting system consisting mostly of
phloem (food-conducting tissue) and xylem (water-conducting tissue),
collectively called vascular tissue.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline
for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution,
(2004).
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
6. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
7. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
8. ^ McElwain, Jenny C.; Willis, K. G.;
Willis, Kathy; McElwain, J. C. (2002). The evolution of plants. Oxford
Oxfordshire. ^: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850065-3.
9. ^ "Tracheophyta." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 02 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tracheophyta-botany
10. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
11. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
12. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
13. ^ McElwain, Jenny C.; Willis, K. G.;
Willis, Kathy; McElwain, J. C. (2002). The evolution of plants. Oxford
Oxfordshire. ^: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850065-3.
14. ^ "vascular plant."
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010.
Answers.com 25 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/vascular-plant
15. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p96.
16. ^
Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c400)
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
17. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c390)
  
440,000,000 YBN
12 13
360) The Jawed fishes, Bony fishes evolve; Osteichthyes {oS TE iK tE EZ3 }),
the ancestor of the ray-finned, lobefin, and lung fishes.4

Bony-fishes have a skeleton that is at least partly ossified or made of bone.5
6

The bony fishes are the ancestors of the tetrapods who will ultimately move
onto land.7

The earliest bony fishes are the ray-finned fishes.8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
3. ^ "Osteichthyes." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 27 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Osteichthyes>.
4. ^"bony fish." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 25 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/osteichthyes
5. ^ "bony fish." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/osteichthyes
6. ^ Palmer, D. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New Line
Books, 2002, p34.
7. ^ Palmer, D. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs
& Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New
Line Books, 2002, p34.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
9. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=42391
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
11. ^ "bony fish." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/osteichthyes
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363. {440 MYBN}
13. ^ Palmet et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p97.

MORE INFO
[1] "teleost." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/teleost
Ocean and fresh water10 11   
440,000,000 YBN
6
6172) The first lung evolves from the swim bladder in ray-finned fishes. Some
teleosts still use their swim bladder for breathing out of water.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p338-363.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363. {440 MYBN (guess based on ray-finned fish evolving}

MORE INFO
[1] Farmer, C.G. 1999. The evolution of the vertebrate cardio-pulmonary
system. Annual Review of Physiology
61:573-592 http://biologylabs.utah.edu/farmer/publications%20pdf/1999%20AnnuRev
Physiol61.pdf

Ocean (presumably)5   
425,000,000 YBN
5
377) The Jawed fishes, Lobe-fin fishes evolve. Lobe-fin fishes have a fleshy
lobe at the base of each fin.3 The earliest extant Lobe-fin fishes, the
coelacanths evolve now.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p335-338.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p335-338.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p335-338.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p335-338.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p335-338.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=89942
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=42376
  
420,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11
6350) The Arthropods Hexapods (arthropods with six legs {3 pairs}, the ancestor
of all insects).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Timothy Duane Schowalter, "Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Timothy Duane Schowalter,
"Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
5. ^ Timothy Duane Schowalter,
"Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p66,116.
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects,
2005, p146.
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p66,116.
10. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
11. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395

MORE INFO
[1] Blaxter, Mark. “Evolutionary Biology: Sum of the Arthropod
Parts.” Nature 413.6852 (2001):
121–122. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v413/n6852/full/413121a0.html
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Scotland7   
418,000,000 YBN
4
6431) The Chelicerata Arachnids evolve (the ancestor of all scorpions, spiders,
mites and ticks1 ).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Undef&id=6843&lvl=3
&lin=f&keep=1&srchmode=1&unlock

2. ^ DUNLOP, JASON A., O. ERIK TETLIE, and LORENZO PRENDINI. 2008.
�REINTERPRETATION OF THE SILURIAN SCORPION PROSCORPIUS OSBORNI (WHITFIELD):
INTEGRATING DATA FROM PALAEOZOIC AND RECENT SCORPIONS.� Palaeontology 51 (2):
303�320.
doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00749.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.111
1/j.1475-4983.2007.00749.x/full

3. ^ DUNLOP, JASON A., O. ERIK TETLIE, and LORENZO PRENDINI. 2008.
�REINTERPRETATION OF THE SILURIAN SCORPION PROSCORPIUS OSBORNI (WHITFIELD):
INTEGRATING DATA FROM PALAEOZOIC AND RECENT SCORPIONS.� Palaeontology 51 (2):
303�320.
doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00749.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.111
1/j.1475-4983.2007.00749.x/full

4. ^ DUNLOP, JASON A., O. ERIK TETLIE, and LORENZO PRENDINI. 2008.
�REINTERPRETATION OF THE SILURIAN SCORPION PROSCORPIUS OSBORNI (WHITFIELD):
INTEGRATING DATA FROM PALAEOZOIC AND RECENT SCORPIONS.� Palaeontology 51 (2):
303�320.
doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00749.x. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.111
1/j.1475-4983.2007.00749.x/full


MORE INFO
[1] Shear, W. A. 2000. Gigantocharinus szatmaryi, a new trigonotarbid
arachnid from the Late Devonian of North America (Chelicerata, Arachinida,
Trigonotarbida). J. Paleont. 74(1): 25-31
[2] Parry, S.F.; Noble S.R., Crowley Q.G. &
Wellman C.H. (2011). "A high-precision U–Pb age constraint on the Rhynie
Chert Konservat-Lagerstätte: time scale and other implications". Journal of
the Geological Society (London: Geological Society) 168 (4): 863–872.
doi:10.1144/​0016-76492010-043. http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/content/168/4/
863.abstract

[3] Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p96-97
earliest fossils: ("Bertie Waterlime" of) NY, USA3   
417,000,000 YBN
3 4
378) The Lobefin fishes, Lungfishes evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=42316&tree=0.1
  
416,000,000 YBN
5
123) The end of the Silurian (443.7-416 mybn), and start of the Devonian
{DiVONEiN3 } (416-359.2 mybn) Period.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Devonian." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/devonian
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
3. ^ "Devonian." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/devonian
4. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
5. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
416,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13
6352) The Hexapods: insects evolve.7 8

The most primitive extant insects, the Bristletails evolve now.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
2. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
5. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
8. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
10. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
11. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
12. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p250-254.
13. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p1. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA1
  
410,000,000 YBN
2
6363) The Insects Silverfish.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146,150-151,154
2. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146,150-151,154
  
400,000,000 YBN
17 18 19 20 21
227) The largest Fungi phylum "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu11 } evolves (the
ancestor of yeasts, truffles, Penicillium, and morels {mu-reLZ12 }).13 14 15

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ "morel." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomycota&submit=Submit
7. ^ "morel." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
11. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomycota&submit=Submit
12. ^ "morel." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
16. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp, "The oldest fossil
ascomycetes", Nature 399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

17. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp, "The oldest fossil ascomycetes", Nature
399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

18. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
19. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1009my)
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1140my)
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Aberdeenshire, Scotland16   
400,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9
237) The Vascular plants ferns evolve (the ancestor of club mosses, ferns and
horsetails).3

Ferns are flowerless, seedless vascular plants that have roots, stems, and
fronds (the leaf-like part of a fern4 ), and reproduce by spores.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ "frond." Taylor's Dictionary for Gardeners. Houghton Mifflin Company,
1997. Answers.com 25 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/frond
5. ^ "fern." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 25 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/fern
6. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p110.
7. ^
Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c390 (360 for living species)
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah
D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004). (c390)
9. ^ Taylor, Thomas N.; Edith L. Taylor. (1993). The Biology
and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp.
332–334. ISBN 0-13-651589-4.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
(318mybn)
[2] Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (350mybn)
  
400,000,000 YBN
4
436) The Cartilaginous fishes Subclass: "Elasmobranchii" {elaZmOBrANKEE or I1 2
} evolves, (the ancestor of sharks, dogfishes, skates and rays).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Elasmobranchii." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 Oct. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/elasmobranchii-1
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=elasmobranchii&submit=Submit
3. ^ Palmer, D. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New Line
Books, 2002, p26-29.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p361.

MORE INFO
[1] "Sharks". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharks
[2] Prothero, D.R., and C.D. Buell. Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters. Columbia University Press, 2007
  
395,000,000 YBN
2
6429) The Green Algae Charophytes evolve (Stoneworts).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p110.
2. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p110.
  
395,000,000 YBN
6 7
6430) The earliest fungi lichen {lIKiN1 }.2

A lichen is a fungus, usually of the class Ascomycetes {aSKOmISETS3 }, that
grows symbiotically with algae and cyanobacteria4 , resulting in a composite
organism that characteristically forms a crustlike or branching growth on rocks
or tree trunks.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "lichen." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2012. Answers.com 08 Oct. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lichen
2. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p110.
3. ^ "Ascomycetes." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Ascomycetes>.
4. ^ Willis and McElwain, "The Evolution of Plants", 2002, p45.
5. ^ "lichen." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 08 Oct. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lichen
6. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p110.
7. ^ Taylor, T. N. et al. “The
Oldest Fossil Lichen.” Nature 378.6554 (1995):
244–244. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v378/n6554/abs/378244a0.html

MORE INFO
[1] "lichen." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 27 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/lichen>
  
392,000,000 YBN
7 8
359) The Cartilaginous fishes "Selachii" {SelAKEE4 or I5 } evolve, (the
ancestor of all sharks: includes great white, hammerhead, mako, tiger and nurse
sharks).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=selachii&submit=Submit
2. ^ "Selachii." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 26 Aug. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/selachii-2
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=selachii&submit=Submit
5. ^ "Selachii." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 26 Aug. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/selachii-2
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Prothero, D.R., and C.D. Buell. Evolution: What the Fossils Say
and Why It Matters. Columbia University Press, 2007, p198.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {190 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=selachimorpha&submit=Submit
  
392,000,000 YBN
4
437) The Cartilaginous fishes: "Holocephali" {HoloSeFolE or I1 } evolve, (the
ancestor of the chimaeras {KiMERoZ2 } also called rabbit-fishes or ratfishes).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=holocephali&submit=Submit
2. ^ "chimaera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 01 Jan.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/chimaera>.
3. ^ Palmer, D. The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New Line
Books, 2002, p26-29.
4. ^ Prothero, D.R., and C.D. Buell. Evolution: What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters. Columbia University Press, 2007, p198.

MORE INFO
[1] "Sharks". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sharks
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p361
[3] "Holocephali." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 Oct. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/holocephali-2
  
385,000,000 YBN
10 11 12
405) The first forests. The earliest large tree fossils.7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed Landing2
& Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the
Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
4. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
5. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
6. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
7. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
8. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
9. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
10. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed Landing2
& Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the
Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
{385 mybn}
11. ^ Palmet et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p111.
12. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {380mybn}
earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York, USA9   
385,000,000 YBN
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect, the ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu12 }). The earliest extant winged insects are the
Ephemeroptera {eFeMeroPTRo13 }: Mayflies, and the Odonata {ODenoDo14 }:
Dragonflies and Damselflies.15 16 17

Insect wings evolve only once, and all winged insects descend from the first
winged insect.18 19

The development of wings may have helped early insects to escape predators20
and to move over larger distances to find new habitats21 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
2. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
3. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterygota&submit=Submit
5. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
6. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
7. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterygota&submit=Submit
9. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
10. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
11. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
12. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterygota&submit=Submit
13. ^ "Ephemeroptera." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 02 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ephemeroptera-1
14. ^ "Odonata." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 02 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/odonata-1
15. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p148-148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
16. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
17. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
18. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/pterygota.html
19. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
20. ^ Belayeva, "History of Insects" 2002, p81.
21. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p155. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA155
22. ^ Knecht, R. J., Engel, M. S., & Benner, J. S. (2011). Late carboniferous
paleoichnology reveals the oldest full-body impression of a flying insect.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 108 (16),
6515-6519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015948108
23. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I (2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in
the Lower Carboniferous of the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic
(Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

24. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146
25. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p163. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA163
26. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p142.
27. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
28. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {315 MYBN}
29. ^ Regier,
et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and
maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561):
395–401. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
30. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p142.

MORE INFO
[1] Engel MS, Grimaldi DA (2004) New light shed on the oldest insect.
Nature 427: 627–630
[2] Grimaldi D, Engel MS (2005) Evolution of the Insects (Cambridge
Univ. Press, Cambridge)
[3] Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I (2005) Discovery of the oldest known
Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech
Republic (Insecta: Archoaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

[4] "Orthoptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/orthoptera-1
[5] David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p159. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA159
earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts22 and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic23   
375,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16
380) The first tetrapods (Vertebrates with four feet) evolve in fresh water.8
These are the first vertebrate limbs (arms and legs) and fingers.9 This is
also the first amphibian, the ancestor of caecillians, frogs, toads, and
salamanders.10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
6. ^ Ted
Huntington.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
9. ^ Ted Huntington.
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
11. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p302-329.
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} {375(360+-15) mybn}
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329. {340 mybn}
14. ^ P. E. Ahlberg, "Tetrapod
or near-tetrapod fossils from the Upper Devonian of Scotland", Nature 354, 298
- 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html {368
mybn (fossil}
15. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibfr.html
{368 mybn (fossil}
16. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{368 mybn (fossil}
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)11   
367,000,000 YBN
3 4
408) The late Devonian mass extinction caused by an ice age.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil
Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol.
344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary
Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148 {367
mybn}
4. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {360 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] David Jablonski, "Lessons from the Past: Evolutionary Impacts of Mass
Extinctions", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America, Vol. 98, No. 10 (May 8, 2001), pp.
5393-5398. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3055638
  
363,000,000 YBN
6 7
379) The first vertebrates live on land (an amphibian).4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p302-329.
6. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{363mybn}
7. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/tetrafr.html {360mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] P. E. Ahlberg, "Tetrapod or near-tetrapod fossils from the Upper
Devonian of Scotland", Nature 354, 298 - 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html
[2] http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibfr.html
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)5   
360,000,000 YBN
26 27 28 29 30
226) The second largest Fungi phylum, "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu15 }
evolves (the ancestor of many mushrooms: button, chanterelle {saNTRreL16 },
cremini {KremENE17 }, enoki {inoKE18 }, fly agaric {uGaRiK19 }, oyster, porcino
{PORCEnO 20 }, portabella, psilocybe, puffball, shiitake {sEToKE21 }, woodear,
rusts, and club fungi).22 23 24

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidiomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidiomycota&submit=Submit
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chanterelle&submit=Submit
7. ^ "cremini." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
04 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cremini
8. ^ "enoki?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random
House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/enoki?s=t
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=agaric&submit=Submit
10. ^ "porcino." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
04 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/porcino
11. ^ "shiitake." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
04 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/shiitake
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
15. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidiomycota&submit=Submit
16. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chanterelle&submit=Submit
17. ^ "cremini." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Jan. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cremini
18. ^ "enoki?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/enoki?s=t
19. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=agaric&submit=Submit
20. ^ "porcino." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Jan.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/porcino
21. ^ "shiitake." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Jan.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/shiitake
22. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
23. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
24. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
25. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck CB (1985) Studies of
Paleozoic fungi. V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon newberryi from
the Upper Devonian. Am J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.ku.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734
26. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck CB (1985)
Studies of Paleozoic fungi. V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon newberryi
from the Upper Devonian. Am J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.ku.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734
27. ^ Michael Krings, Nora Dotzler, Jean Galtier and
Thomas N. Taylor, "Oldest fossil basidiomycete clamp connections", Mycoscience,
Volume 52, Number 1 (2011), 18-23, DOI:
10.1007/s10267-010-0065-4 http://www.springerlink.com/content/725614321xj0604w/

28. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (968my)
29. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1210my)
30. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Basidiomycota". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basidiomycota
[2] McLAUGHLIN, DAVID J., ALAN BECKETT, and KWON S. YOON. “Ultrastructure and
Evolution of Ballistosporic Basidiospores.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society 91.1-2 (1985):
253–271. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1985.tb01149.
x/abstract

earliest fossils: Indiana25   
360,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
6353) The Neoptera, folding wing insects evolve.3

A mechanism to fold the wings against the body after landing has a selective
advantage by making the wings less conspicuous, awkward, and susceptible to
breakage.4

All "higher" orders of insects evolve from the neoptera.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
2. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
3. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
4. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/pterygota.html
5. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/pterygota.html
6. ^ Garwood, Russell, and Mark Sutton. “X-ray Micro-tomography of
Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: New Insights into Early Insects.” Biology
Letters 6.5 (2010): 699 –702.
Print. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/5/699.full
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
8. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
9. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
10. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
11. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
12. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
13. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
14. ^ Garwood, Russell, and Mark Sutton. “X-ray Micro-tomography of
Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: New Insights into Early Insects.” Biology
Letters 6.5 (2010): 699 –702.
Print. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/5/699.full

MORE INFO
[1] Video: Virtual fossil of Archimylacris eggintoni,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yR-_nq2UsOc
earliest fossils: (Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK6   
359,200,000 YBN
3
124) The end of the Devonian (416-359.2 mybn), and start of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn) Period.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
3. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
359,000,000 YBN
30 31
243) The first plant seed evolves; the ancestor of all seed plants.18 19 20 21


The earliest fossil seed is from a seed fern (Pteridosperm {TARiDOSPRM22 }).23
24 25 26

Fossils indicate that the first seed evolves from an enclosing ring of
vegetative lobes that fuse together.27

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler. “The
earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
2. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
3. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64, 29,
201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
4. ^ "Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
5. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and
Stephen E. Scheckler. “The earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
6. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
7. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64, 29,
201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
8. ^ "Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
9. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and
Stephen E. Scheckler. “The earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
10. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
11. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64,
29, 201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
12. ^ "Pteridosperms."
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
13. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pteridospermae
14. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler.
“The earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
15. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
16. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64,
29, 201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
17. ^ "Pteridosperms."
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
18. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler. “The
earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
19. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
20. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64,
29, 201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
21. ^ "Pteridosperms."
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
22. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pteridospermae
23. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler.
“The earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
24. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
25. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64,
29, 201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
26. ^ "Pteridosperms."
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
27. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
28. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science,
New Series, Vol. 142, No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
29. ^ "Genomosperma kidstonii." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 27
Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/229254/Genomosperma-kidstonii>.
30. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577 {359
MYBN (Lower Carboniferous}
31. ^ "Genomosperma kidstonii." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica,
2011. Web. 27 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/229254/Genomosperma-kidstonii>. {359
MYBN (Lower Carboniferous}

MORE INFO
[1] "Gymnosperms". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperms
[2] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
[3] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal
of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 (c320 (360 for living species)
[4] Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)
[5] Dr. Singh, Dr. Pande & Dr.
Jain, "Diversity and Systematics of Seed Plants",
2005. http://books.google.com/books?id=GTUgfghg80gC
[6] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
earliest fossils: Scotland28 29   
355,000,000 YBN
2 3
6410) Hearing in Amphibians adapts to sounds transmitted through the air. This
is the beginning of vertebrates making vocal sounds.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ E G Wever and C Gans, "The caecilian ear: further observations", PNAS
1976 73 (10) 3744-3746. http://www.pnas.org/content/73/10/3744.abstract
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {325 MYBN}
3. ^ Roelants, K., Gower, D. J., Wilkinson, M.,
Loader, S. P., Biju, S. D., Guillaume, K., Moriau, L., & Bossuyt, F. (2007).
Global patterns of diversification in the history of modern amphibians.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 104 (3), 887-892. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0608378104 {370 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Andrea E. Feller, S. Blair Hedges, Molecular Evidence for the Early
History of Living Amphibians, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 9,
Issue 3, June 1998, Pages 509-516, ISSN 1055-7903, DOI:
10.1006/mpev.1998.0500. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055
790398905000)

[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=47210
[3] Peter M. Narins, Albert S. Feng, Richard R. Fay and Arthur N. Popper,
"Hearing and Sound Communication in Amphibians", Springer Handbook of Auditory
Research, Volume 28, 2006, DOI:
10.1007/978-0-387-47796-1 http://www.springer.com/life+sciences/animal+sciences
/book/978-0-387-32521-7

  
350,000,000 YBN
4
361) The Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and Paddlefish evolve.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {350 MYBN}
  
350,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14 15
6355) The Neoptera: Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu7 } evolve (the ancestor of
Cockroaches, Termites, and Mantises).8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dictyoptera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
3. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001.
Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dictyoptera&submit=Submit
5. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
6. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001.
Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dictyoptera&submit=Submit
8. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
9. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001.
Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
10. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
11. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
12. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
13. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
14. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
15. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.

MORE INFO
[1] "orthopteran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 06 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/433540/orthopteran/39576/Evoluti
on-and-paleontology
>
  
340,000,000 YBN
24 25 26 27 28 29 30
384) The first hard-shell egg.14 The Tetrapods Amniota {aMnEOtu15 } evolve;
the ancestor of all reptiles, mammals and birds and the first hard-shell egg.16
The hard-shell egg is waterproof.17 This is the start of vertebrate internal
fertilization, because on land the egg cannot be fertilized as most fishes and
amphibians do, by a male swimming near the eggs and spraying them with sperm.
Amniote males and females must copulate {KoPYelAT18 } so that the sperm can
reach the eggs inside the female.19

All living amniotes lay hard-shelled eggs, except most mammals and some snakes
and lizards, where egg laying has been replaced by live birth.20

The egg shell of amniotes may be flexible (like the eggs of many lizards) or
mineralized and hard (like the eggs of birds).21

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p234.
5. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
7. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
8. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p234.
9. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
10. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
11. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
13. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p234.
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
16. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^ "copulate." The American Heritage� Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
03 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/copulate
19. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p234.
20. ^ Benton MJ, 2010 Studying Function and Behavior in the
Fossil Record. PLoS Biol 8(3): e1000321. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000321
21. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life",
2009, p163.
22. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678
(07 December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html
23. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil Reported Found in Scotland",
NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html

24. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.
25. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678 (07
December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html {338
MYBN (oldest reptil fossil}
26. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil Reported
Found in Scotland", NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html
{338 MYBN (oldest reptil fossil}
27. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {310 MYBN}
28. ^
"Eryops". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eryops
{295 MYBN (verify}
29. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree", 2009.
30. ^ Benton, Michael J., and
Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.”
Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract

MORE INFO
[1] Romer, Alfred Sherwood, Price, Llewellyn Ivor, "The oldest vertebrate
egg", Am J Sci 1939 237:
826-829. http://www.ajsonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/237/11/826?maxtoshow=&hi
ts=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&title=The+oldest+vertebrate+egg&andorexacttitle=and&andorex
acttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevanc
e&resourcetype=HWCIT

[2] Karl F. Hirsch, "The Oldest Vertebrate Egg?", Journal of Paleontology, Vol.
53, No. 5 (Sep., 1979), pp. 1068-1084. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1304086
[3] Robert R. Reisz, Johannes Müller, Molecular
timescales and the fossil record: a paleontological perspective, Trends in
Genetics, Volume 20, Issue 5, 1 May 2004, Pages 237-241, ISSN 0168-9525,
10.1016/j.tig.2004.03.007. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
168952504000757)

[4] "fenestrae." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fenestrae>
[5] "orbit." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/orbit>
earliest fossils: Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland22 23   
335,000,000 YBN
15 16
6331) The Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu9 } and the Synapsida
{Si-naP-Si-Du10 }.11

The Sauropsids have two major lineages: the Parareptilia (turtles) and the
Eureptilia (dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds).12 The Synapsids also have two
major lineages: the pelycosaurs (which are sail-backed amniotes) and the
therapsids (which are mammal-like amniotes).13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sauropsida&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=synapsida&submit=Submit
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sauropsida&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=synapsida&submit=Submit
6. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
7. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p108-109.
8. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p119.
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sauropsida&submit=Submit
10. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=synapsida&submit=Submit
11. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
12. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p108-109.
13. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p119.
14. ^ Carroll, R.L., 1964, The ear1iest
reptiles: Jour. Linn. Soc (Zool.), v. 45, p.
61-83. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1964.tb00488.x/ab
stract

15. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.
16. ^ Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological
Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1
(2007): 26 -53. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract

MORE INFO
[1] Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p271
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p263
[3] Reisz RR. Pelycosaurian reptiles from the Middle
Pennsylvanian of North America. Bull Mus Comp Zool Harv
1972;144:27-62. http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object
_id=47789&local_base=GEN01-MCG02

[4] "reptile." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/reptile
earliest possible Synapsid fossils: (Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada14   
330,000,000 YBN
7
6307) The Synapsids Pelycosauria {PeLiKuSOREu4 } evolve (the ancestor of
Edaphosaurus {eDaFoSORuS5 } and Dimetrodon).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Pelycosaur." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 10 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pelycosaur>.
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=edaphosaurus&submit=Submit
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p119-122.
4. ^ "Pelycosaur." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 10 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pelycosaur>.
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=edaphosaurus&submit=Submit
6. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p119-122.
7. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p119-122.
  
325,000,000 YBN
4 5
381) The earliest extant Amphibians: Caecilians evolve.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {325 MYBN}
5. ^
Roelants, K., Gower, D. J., Wilkinson, M., Loader, S. P., Biju, S. D.,
Guillaume, K., Moriau, L., & Bossuyt, F. (2007). Global patterns of
diversification in the history of modern amphibians. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences , 104 (3), 887-892. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0608378104 {370 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Andrea E. Feller, S. Blair Hedges, Molecular Evidence for the Early
History of Living Amphibians, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 9,
Issue 3, June 1998, Pages 509-516, ISSN 1055-7903, DOI:
10.1006/mpev.1998.0500. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055
790398905000)

  
320,000,000 YBN
19 20 21 22 23
238) The seed plants: Gymnosperms evolve.10 Gymnosperms are the most primitive
extant seed plants, and ancestor of all Cycads, Ginkgos and the Conifers11 12
).13 14

The most primitive extant Gymnosperms, the Cycads evolve now.15

Gymnosperm is Greek for "Naked Seed".16 A gymnosperm reproduces by a seed that
is in direct contact with the environment, as opposed to an angiosperm whose
seeds are enclosed by fruits.17 18

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
2. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia
Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2012.
Answers.com 23 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
6. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
10. ^ "gymnosperm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gymnosperm
11. ^ "spermatophyte." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/spermatophyte-1
12. ^ "Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
13. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
14. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
15. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
16. ^ "gymnosperm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gymnosperm
17. ^ "gymnosperm." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gymnosperm
18. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
19. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor, and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and
Evolution of Fossil Plants. Elsevier Science, 2008.
20. ^ Norstog K, Nicholls TJ.
1997.The biology of cycads. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
21. ^ Pant, D.D., R.
Osborne, and Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany. An Introduction to
Gymnosperms, Cycas, and Cycadales. Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany,
2002. BSIP Monograph. http://books.google.com/books?ei=twN6UJqpA5D2qQGvhYHoAQ
22. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The
plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf} (c320 (360 for
living species)
23. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)

MORE INFO
[1] "Gymnosperms". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperms
[2] Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler. “The
earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
[3] Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
[4] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Main/Overview/3213.htm
  
320,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
6356) The Neoptera: Orthoptera evolve (the ancestor of crickets, grasshoppers,
locusts, and walking sticks).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
2. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
3. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
4. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
5. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
6. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p208.

MORE INFO
[1] "orthopteran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 06 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/433540/orthopteran/39576/Evoluti
on-and-paleontology
>
[2] http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/orthopteroids.html#A
  
317,000,000 YBN
22 23 24 25 26
385) The Sauropsids Reptilia {reP-TiL-E-u10 } evolve, the Reptiles; the
ancestor of all turtles, crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds11 .12 13

Reptiles are a group of air-breathing amniotes with internal fertilization and
scales covering part or all of their body.14 15 16 All reptiles are
cold-blooded, except for birds17 , and possibly some or all pterosaurs18 and
dinosaurs19 .20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Benton, Michael
J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of
Life.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
6. ^ "reptile". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 21 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/498684/reptile>.
7. ^ "reptile." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/reptile
8. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life",
2009, p163.
9. ^ Douglas Palmer, "The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs
and Prehistoric Animals", 1999, p59.
10. ^ "reptilia." Dictionary.com Unabridged.
Random House, Inc. 30 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/reptilia>.
11. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ Benton, Michael J., and
Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.”
Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
14. ^ "reptile". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 21 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/498684/reptile>.
15. ^ "reptile." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/reptile
16. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive
Life", 2009, p163.
17. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p110-111.
18. ^ Peter Wellnhofer,
"Pterosaurs", 1991, p163-164.
19. ^ Robert Bakker, "The Dinosaur Heresies", 1986.
20. ^
"reptile." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/reptile
21. ^ Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J.
Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
22. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What The Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2009,
p232.
23. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678 (07
December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html
{338MYBN (oldest reptile fossil}
24. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil
Reported Found in Scotland", NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html
{338MYBN (oldest reptile fossil}
25. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {310 MYBN}
26. ^
Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to
Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada21   
314,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16 17
240) The Gymnosperms Pinophyta {PInoFiTu6 } evolve (the ancestor of the
Conifers: includes Pine, Fir, Spruce, Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, Hemlock, Larch,
Yew, and Cypress.7 8 ).9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pinophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
3. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2012. Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pinophyta&submit=Submit
7. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
8. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia
Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2012.
Answers.com 23 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
9. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
10. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
11. ^
SCOTT, ANDREW. “The Earliest Conifer.” Nature 251.5477 (1974):
707–708. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v251/n5477/abs/251707a0.html
12. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor, and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and
Evolution of Fossil Plants. Elsevier Science, 2008, p806.
13. ^ SCOTT, ANDREW. “The
Earliest Conifer.” Nature 251.5477 (1974):
707–708. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v251/n5477/abs/251707a0.html
14. ^ Lyons, Paul C. et al. “Radiometric Ages of the Fire Clay Tonstein
Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous), Westphalian, Duckmantian. ^: A Comparison
of U–Pb Zircon Single-crystal Ages and 40Ar/39Ar Sanidine Single-crystal
Plateau Ages.” International Journal of Coal Geology 67.4 (2006):
259–266. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166516206000140
15. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor, and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and
Evolution of Fossil Plants. Elsevier Science, 2008, p806.
16. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and
some points of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.abstract (c270 (290 for
living species)
17. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)

MORE INFO
[1] Burleigh J. G. S. Mathews 2004 Phylogenetic signal in nucleotide data
from seed plants: implications for resolving the seed plant tree of life.
American Journal of Botany 91:
1599-1613 http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1599.abstract?ijkey=b60985db66551
09e270893676c522743d400bc1e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

earliest fossils: Wakefield, Yorkshire, England11 12   
310,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14
6357) The Neoptera: Paraneoptera evolve (the ancestor of bark lice, true lice,
thrips, and the Hemiptera {HemiPTRu5 }. The Hemiptera have mouthparts adapted
for piercing and sucking and include:6 Cicadas, Aphids, and "true bugs": such
as Bed bugs, and Stink bugs).7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=hemiptera&submit=Submit
3. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p261.
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=hemiptera&submit=Submit
6. ^ "true bug." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 06 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/true-bug
7. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p261.
9. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
10. ^ Labandeira,
Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and
the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages.”
Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
11. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
12. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
13. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p286.
14. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p321.
  
310,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16
6359) The Neoptera Holometabola {HoLomeTaBolu or HOlOmeTABolu7 8 } evolve:
Holometabolous insects: (insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, the
ancestor of beetles, bees, true flies, and butterflies).9

The holometabolous insects account for nearly 85% of all insects.10

The Holometabola are insects that have complete metamorphosis (or
holometabolous development). Unlike hemimetabolous insects in which the
immature structures (legs, eyes, antennae, etc.) must also serve the adults,
holometabolous insects have a morphologically reduced larval stage11 and
acquire a completely new body during the pupal stage.12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "holometabolous." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Jan.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/holometabolous>.
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=holometabolous+&submit=Submit
3. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p146,331.
4. ^ "holometabolous." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 05 Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/holometabolous>.
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=holometabolous+&submit=Submit
6. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p146,331.
7. ^ "holometabolous." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Jan.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/holometabolous>.
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=holometabolous+&submit=Submit
9. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p146,331.
10. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p331.
11. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p331.
12. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
13. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p146.
14. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
15. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
16. ^ Labandeira,
Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and
the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages.”
Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
  
305,000,000 YBN
8
242) The Amphibians: Anura {unRu5 } evolve (the ancestor of all Frogs and
Toads).6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anura&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ "frog." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/frog
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anura&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ "frog." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/frog
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {305 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Neil H. Shubin and Farish A. Jenkins, Jr (7 September 1995). "An
Early Jurassic jumping frog". Nature 377 (6544): 49–52.
doi:10.1038/377049a0.http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v377/n6544/full/377049
a0.html

[2] "Pliensbachian Stage." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 27 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/464801/Pliensbachian-Stage>
  
300,000,000 YBN
5 6
1310) The Stramenopiles Chrysophyta {KriSoFiTu3 } evolve (Golden algae).4
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chrysophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ Brown JW, Sorhannus U (2010) A Molecular Genetic Timescale for the
Diversification of Autotrophic Stramenopiles (Ochrophyta): Substantive
Underestimation of Putative Fossil Ages. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12759.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012759
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chrysophyta&submit=Submit
4. ^ Brown JW, Sorhannus U (2010) A Molecular Genetic Timescale for the
Diversification of Autotrophic Stramenopiles (Ochrophyta): Substantive
Underestimation of Putative Fossil Ages. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12759.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012759
5. ^ Brown JW, Sorhannus U (2010) A Molecular Genetic Timescale for the
Diversification of Autotrophic Stramenopiles (Ochrophyta): Substantive
Underestimation of Putative Fossil Ages. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12759.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012759
6. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/chrysophyta.html
  
299,000,000 YBN
3
125) The end of the Carboniferous (359.2-299 mybn), and start of the Permian
(299-251 mybn) Period.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
2. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
3. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
299,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14
6360) The Holometabola: Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu7 8 } evolve (the ancestor of the
Beetles).9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Coleoptera." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coleoptera-2
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=coleoptera&submit=Submit
3. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
4. ^ "Coleoptera."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coleoptera-2
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=coleoptera&submit=Submit
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
7. ^ "Coleoptera."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coleoptera-2
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=coleoptera&submit=Submit
9. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
10. ^ Béthoux, Olivier.
“The Earliest Beetle Identified.” Journal of Paleontology 83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1666/08-158.1
11. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous
Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major
Holometabola Lineages.” Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
12. ^ Béthoux, Olivier. “The Earliest Beetle Identified.” Journal of
Paleontology 83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1666/08-158.1
13. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p146.
14. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA10   
290,000,000 YBN
5 6
239) The Gymnosperms: Ginkgos evolve.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c290 (300 for living species)
6. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah
D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)
  
290,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
6358) The Holometabola: Hymenoptera evolve (the ancestor of all bees, ants, and
wasps).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time
Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
3. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009,
p260-263.
4. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p146.
5. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous
Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major
Holometabola Lineages.” Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
6. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
7. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
8. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.
9. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.
10. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
  
287,000,000 YBN
1
6308) The Synapsid Therapsids evolve (Cynodonts).[2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p119-122.
  
274,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18 19 20
307) The Stramenopiles: Phaeophyta {FEoFiTu9 } evolve (the ancestor of all
Brown Algae, includes many seaweeds like the giant kelps10 ).11 12 13

Note that brown algae are not plants but are protists.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full {Baldauf_Doolittle_199911
17.pdf} has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=phaeophyta&submit=Submit
5. ^ "Phaeophyta." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 12 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phaeophyta
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full {Baldauf_Doolittle_199911
17.pdf} has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=phaeophyta&submit=Submit
10. ^ "Phaeophyta." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 12 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phaeophyta
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
13. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full {Baldauf_Doolittle_199911
17.pdf} has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
14. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p117. timetree.org
15. ^ Linda Medlin, et al, "Phylogenic
relationships of the 'golden algae' (haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and
their plastids", Plant Systematics and Evolution (Supplement), v11, 1997,
p187-219. http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf {genetic) 274 mybn}
16. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7,
2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{genetic) 200 mybn}
17. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
{Fossil) 1600-1800 mybn}
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {Alveolates) 1956mybn} {Alveolates and
Plants) 1956mybn}
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009.
http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
20. ^ Cécile Gueidan, Constantino
Ruibal, G.S. de Hoog, Harald Schneider, Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during
periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic, Fungal
Biology, Volume 115, Issue 10, October 2011, Pages 987-996, ISSN 1878-6146,
10.1016/j.funbio.2011.04.002. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S1878614611000675)
{822.5 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science,
Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
[2] Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. et al. “The
timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile
proteins and fossils?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386
-15391. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386.long
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
[5] "Phaeophyta". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaeophyta
[6] Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989)
[7] "Brown algae". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_algae
[8] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
266,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
308) The Stramenopiles: Diatoms evolve.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883
2. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883
3. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883
4. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883 {no
earlier than) 266 MYBN}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf} (1973mybn) {Alveolates) 1956mybn}
6. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
  
260,000,000 YBN
13 14 15
232) The earliest endothermic (or "warm-blooded") and hair growing animal, a
therapsid.7 8

Endothermy is the physiological maintenance, by a body, of a constant
temperature independent of the external environmental temperature. Hair for
insulation is correlated to endothermy.9

Both birds and mammals are endothermic (also called "warm blooded") as opposed
to other vertebrates (like amphibians and crocodiles10 ) which are ectothermic
(or "cold blooded") and cannot internally generate heat.11

Endothermy allows birds and mammals to maintain a high and relatively constant
body temperature, even at rest, during a wide range of external environmental
conditions.12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

2. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

3. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

4. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids: Evidence for Late Permian
Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp.
207-229. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
5. ^ "mammal." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 07 Feb. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/360838/mammal>.
6. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids: Evidence for Late Permian
Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp.
207-229. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
7. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in
mammals and birds: from physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

8. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids: Evidence for Late Permian
Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp.
207-229. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
9. ^ "mammal." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 07 Feb. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/360838/mammal>.
10. ^ Ted Huntington.
11. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids: Evidence for
Late Permian Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr.,
1994), pp. 207-229. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
12. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in
Therapsids: Evidence for Late Permian Origins of Mammalian Endothermy",
Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp. 207-229. Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
13. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids: Evidence for Late Permian
Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp.
207-229. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
14. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in
mammals and birds: from physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441
{c250 MYBN (Late Permian}
15. ^ Ted Huntington. {230 MYBN (between crocodilia
240mybn and pterosaur 220mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Schweitzer, Mary Higby, and Cynthia Lee Marshall. “A molecular
model for the evolution of endothermy in the theropod-bird lineage.” Journal
of Experimental Zoology 291.4 (2001) :
317-338. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1132/abstract
  
256,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14
6362) The Holometabola: Diptera7 {DiPTRe8 } evolve, true flies, having a
single pair of wings: the ancestor of the mosquito, gnat, fruit fly, and house
fly)9 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
2. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
3. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of
Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07
May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
5. ^ "Diptera."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
6. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
7. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
8. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
9. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of
Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07
May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
10. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
11. ^ Labandeira,
Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and
the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages.”
Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
12. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
13. ^ Wiegmann, Brian M. et al. “Episodic Radiations in the Fly Tree of
Life.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011): n.
pag. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/03/15/1012675108.full.pdf+html
14. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p469.

MORE INFO
[1] Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p197
  
251,400,000 YBN
4 5 6
102) The largest mass extinction of history, the End-Permian mass extinction.
82% of all genera are observed extinct.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
2. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the
Fossil Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences, Vol. 344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks
Anniversary Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
3. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
4. ^ Jin YG, Wang Y, Wang W, Shang QH, Cao CQ, Erwin DH (2000).
"Pattern of Marine Mass Extinction Near the Permian–Triassic Boundary in
South China". Science 289 (5478): 432–436. Bibcode 2000Sci...289..432J.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5478.432. PMID 10903200. {251.4 MYBN}
5. ^ Bowring SA, Erwin
DH, Jin YG, Martin MW, Davidek K, Wang W (1998). "U/Pb Zircon Geochronology and
Tempo of the End-Permian Mass Extinction". Science 280 (5366): 1039–1045.
doi:10.1126/science.280.5366.1039. {251.4 MYBN}
6. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148 {245 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
[2] http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/06/060601174729.htm
[3] http://www.ia.ucsb.edu/pa/display.aspx?pkey=1073
  
251,000,000 YBN
3
54) The end of the Paleozoic and start of the Mesozoic Era, and the end of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) and start of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn) period.2

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
2. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
3. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
251,000,000 YBN
452) The supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe) forms.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
  
235,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
304) The Protist Phlyum "Haptophyta" {HaPTuFITu11 } evolves, the
Coccolithophores {KoK-o-lit-u-FORZ12 }.13 14 15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=haptophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=coccolithophores&submit=Submit
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=haptophyta&submit=Submit
7. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=coccolithophores&submit=Submit
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
11. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=haptophyta&submit=Submit
12. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=coccolithophores&submit=Submit
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
15. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
16. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor,
and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants.
Elsevier Science, 2008, p145. http://books.google.com/books?id=_29tNNeQKeMC
17. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution
21.5 (2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {c1050 mybn}
18. ^
Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{920 mybn}
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {genetic)1382 mybn}
20. ^ De
Vargas, Aubry, Probert, Young, "Origin and Evolution of Cocolithophores: From
Coastal Hunters to Oceanic Farmers", Chapter 12, p251. in: Paul G. Falkowski,
Andrew H. Knoll, "Evolution of primary producers in the sea",
2007. http://books.google.com/books?id=5tRSAr1JMhwC {DNA)1900mybn}
{genetic)1900mybn}
21. ^ Linda Medlin, et al, "Phylogenic relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids", Plant Systematics
and Evolution (Supplement), v11, 1997,
p187-219. http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf {DNA)1750 mybn} {genetic)1750
mybn}
22. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/prymnesiophyta.html {possible
fossil) 318mybn}
23. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{genetic) 920 mybn}
24. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
{possible fossil) 318mybn}
25. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/prymnesiophyta.html {certain fossil)
201mybn}
26. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/ {certain fossil) 201mybn}