TIMEEVENT DESCRIPTIONLOCATION

UNIVERSE
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1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

  
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2) There is more space than matter.
  
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3) All matter is made of particles of light. Light particles are the base unit
of all matter from the tiniest particles to the largest galaxies. In this sense
light particles are the most basic atoms.

The basic order of matter from smaller to larger is light particles, electrons
and positrons, muons, protons and antiprotons, atoms, molecules, living
objects, planets, stars, globular clusters, galaxies, and then galactic
clusters.

  
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11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.

  
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5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.

  
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6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of
galaxies.

This accumulation of light particles into atoms may be the result of particle
collision, gravitation, or a combination of both.

  
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7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.

Most galaxies are too far away for even one particle of light they emit to be
going in the exact direction of our tiny location, and all the light particles
they emit are captured by atoms in between there and here.

  
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4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which exist as
gas clouds (like the Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula). These gas clouds,
called nebulae continue to accumulate trapped light particles. At points of
high density planets and stars form and the cloud is eventually dense enough to
become a galaxy of stars. The stars emit light particles back out to the rest
of the universe, where the light again becomes trapped and forms new clouds.
Around each star are many planets and pieces of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant emitting of light particles (decay). Like
bacteria, these living objects grow in number, with the most successful
organisms occupying and moving around many stars. These advanced organisms then
move the groups of stars they control, as a globular cluster, away from the
plane of the spiral galaxy. As time continues, all of the stars of a galaxy are
occupied by living objects who have organized their stars into globular
clusters. These globular clusters together form an elliptical galaxy, and then
finally a globular galaxy. The globular galaxy may then exist for a long time
living off the matter in stars, in addition to matter from external sources.

So free light particles are trapped into volumes of space that grow in density
first forming atoms, then gas clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, an
elliptical galaxy, and finally a globular galaxy.

Globular galaxies at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale,
just as light particles at our scale may be globular galaxies at a much smaller
scale. This system may go on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.

  
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8) An expanding universe seems unlikely to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken observation, for one reason because spectrum
size changes the position of spectral lines (as clearly shown in the 1936
Humason photo), and because the distance of a light source changes the
position, but not the frequency of spectral lines.

  

LIFE
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13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to form.

Galaxies may form from accumulation of light particles or from the collision of
two or more galaxies.

  
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6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.

Stars may form from the accumulation of matter or from collisions of two or
more large bodies. As less collisions occur over time, most smaller objects are
absorbed by the larger star and planets.

Stars and planets may have centers of densely packed unmoving light particles.
Atoms may form in the less dense space near the surface of planets and stars
where there are less collisions.

  
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6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship.
  
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6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.
  
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16) The star Earth orbits forms.
  
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17) Planets form around our star from many collisions. Like the star, they are
red hot with liquid rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the
surface of the planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.

As the number of collisions decreases, and smaller objects are absorbed by the
star and planets, the average temperature of the star system is lowered. As the
temperature of the planets and moons decreases, water and other molecules
condense at the surface.

  
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21) The moon of Earth is captured.
  
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30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.

  
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50) Start of the "Precambrian". The Hadean {HA DEen} Eon.
  
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31) The oldest meteorite yet found on Earth: 4.5 billion years old.
  
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33) The oldest Moon rock.
  
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34) The oldest "terrestrial" zircon; evidence that the crust and liquid water
are on the surface of Earth. A terrestrial zircon is not from a meteorite.

  
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18) Larger molecules form on Earth, like amino acids, phosphates, and sugars,
the components of living objects.

These molecules are made in the oceans, fresh water, and atmosphere of Earth
(and other planets) by lightning, from light particles with high frequency from
the Sun, and around ocean floor volcanoes.

The initial building blocks of living objects are easily formed, but assembling
them into longer-chain molecules, or polymers, is more difficult. Amino acids
link up to form polymers called proteins, simple fatty acids plus alcohols link
up to form lipids (oils and fats), simple sugars like glucose and sucrose link
together to form complex carbohydrates and starches, and finally, the
nucleotide bases (plus phosphates and sugars) link up to form nucleic acids,
the genetic code of organisms, known as RNA and DNA.

Possibly all proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are strictly the products of
living objects.

  
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19) Nucleic acids form on Earth. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.

  
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167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amino acids into proteins using other RNA molecules ("messenger" or mRNA
molecules), as a template.

This protein assembly system is the main system responsible for all the
proteins on Earth.

Part of each tRNA molecule bonds with a specific amino acid, and another part
of the tRNA molecule bonds with an opposite matching 3 nucleotide sequence on
an mRNA molecule.

  
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40) A protein can copy RNA. This protein is called an RNA polymerase
{PoL-u-mu-rAS}.

For the first time, a nucleic acid functions both as a template for building
proteins (with the help of tRNA molecules) and also as a template for building
other nucleic acid molecules.

Eventually an mRNA that codes for the necessary tRNA, and RNA polymerase may be
copied many times.

  
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168) The ribosome evolves. The first Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing a platform for more
efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all the instructions
needed to make more ribosomes.

All cells contain ribosomes. Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry
out protein synthesis, through a process called translation. These molecular
machines are responsible for accurately translating the linear genetic code on
the messenger RNA (mRNA), into a linear sequence of amino acids to produce a
protein.

  
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166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that
allows the assembly of DNA from RNA; a ribonucleotide reductase.

This protein changes ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides, which allows
the first DNA molecule on Earth to be assembled.

  
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212) A protein can copy DNA molecules, a DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS}.
  
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6409) Transcription. A protein assembles RNA from DNA.
  
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20) The first cell on Earth evolves. This is the first prokaryotic cell and
first bacterium. DNA is surrounded by a membrane of proteins made by ribosomes;
the first cytoplasm.

This cell may form in either fresh or salt water, near the sunlit water surface
or near underwater volcanoes on the ocean floor.

The DNA of this cell is a template containing the code for a copying molecule
(DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS}), and the necessary mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
molecules needed to build the cytoplasm. For the first time, ribosomes and DNA
build cell structure. DNA protected by cytoplasm is more likely to survive and
be copied.

This is the start of binary cell division. A protein duplicates DNA within the
cell and then the cell divides into two parts.

This is also the start of passive transport: molecules enter and exit the
cytoplasm only because of a difference in concentration and represent the
beginnings of the first digestive system.

This cell structure forms the basis of all future cells of every living object
on Earth.

  
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183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, waxes).
  
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27) A phospholipid bilayer evolves around the cell, providing added protection
from the external environment. All extant cells have this phospholipid bilayer.

  
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64) Operons evolve. Operons are sequences of DNA that allow a bacterium to
produce certain proteins only when necessary. Bacteria before now can only
build a constant stream of all proteins encoded in their DNA.

  
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6340) Facilitated diffusion. Proteins in the cell membrane allow only certain
molecules to enter the cell.

  
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28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can make
ATP (adenosine {oDeNoSEN} triphosphate) by converting glucose into pyruvate
{PIrUVAT}. This is the beginning of cellular respiration, how cells convert
food into ATP and waste products.

ATP is the molecule that drives most cellular work.

  
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44) Fermentation evolves in the cell cytoplasm. Cells can make lactic acid.
  
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213) A second kind of fermentation evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells (all
anaerobic) can now convert pyruvate (the final product of glycolysis) into
ethanol.

  
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196) Active transport evolves. Proteins and ATP are used to transport molecules
into and out of the cytoplasm.

  
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292) The prokaryote flagellum evolves.

Prokaryotic cells now have more mobility, and can make more choices about their
location.

  
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77) Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve according to genetic
comparison. The Phylum Nanoarcheota.

Eubacteria and Archaea are the two major lines of Prokaryotes.

  
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193) The Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (the ancestor of Aquifex and
Thermotoga).

  
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180) The Archaea Phylum: Crenarchaeota (the ancestor of Sulfolobus).
  
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181) The Archaea Phylum: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} evolve (the ancestor of
methanogens and halobacteria).

The earliest cell response to light.

  
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58) The first autotrophic cells; cells that can produce some of their own
food.

Autotrophs produce their own sugars, lipids, and amino acids.

  
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49) Photosynthesis.

Bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and an electron
donor (also called a reductant), like Hydrogen sulfide, into glucose, water,
and sulfur. This process of moving carbon from carbon dioxide gas to the
hydrocarbon molecule glucose is called carbon fixation.

This is the ancestor of Photosystem I.

This system of photosynthesis does not liberate oxygen.

  
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43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II evolves. Cells emit free Oxygen.

Bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and water into
glucose, releasing oxygen gas in the process.

This is the main system responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of
Earth.

  
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51) The end of the Hadean {HADEiN} and start of the Archean {oRKEiN} Eon.
  
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37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments. Cells stay fastened together after cell division.

Multicellularity appears to have evolved independently multiple times in the
history of life on Earth.

  
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316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.

  
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322) Nitrogen fixation evolves. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia
from Nitrogen gas in the air.

West Africa  
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57) Aerobic cellular respiration. The first aerobic (or "oxygenic") cell. These
cells use oxygen to convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

  
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36) The oldest physical evidence for life: the ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12
in grains of ancient apetite {aPeTIT} (which are calcium phosphate minerals).

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12 isotope and so the ratio of carbon-12 to
carbon-13 is different from a nonliving source (such as calcium carbonate or
limestone).

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
3,850,000,000 YBN
45) The oldest sediment, the Banded Iron Formation begins.
Banded Iron
Formation is sedimentary rock that spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years ago,
made of iron-rich silicates (like silicon dioxide SiO2) with alternating layers
of black colored reduced or ferrous iron and red colored oxidized or ferric
iron. These alternating layers represent a seasonal cycle where the quantity of
free oxygen in the ocean rises and falls, possibly linked to photosynthetic
organisms.

The atmosphere of Earth still has only small amounts of oxygen at this time.

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
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39) The oldest fossil evidence of life: stromatolites.
Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa  
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287) The oldest fossils of an organism. The organism is similar to
cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u}, and is found in the 3,500 million year old
chert, sedimentary rock made of silica, in Australia and South Africa.

2.8 billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.

Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa  
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190) The earliest fossils of coccoid {KoKOED} (spherical) bacteria.
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa  
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71) Prokaryote reproduction by budding.
Swartkoppie, South Africa  
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66) The earliest acritarch fossils (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity). These acritarchs are also the earliest possible eukaryote fossils.

(Moodies Group) South Africa  
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178) The Eubacteria Phylum Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ) evolves (Gram positive
bacteria: the cause of botulism, tetanus, and anthrax).

  
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288) The first endospores evolve; in firmicutes. An endospore is a tough
reduced dry form of a bacterium, triggered by a lack of nutrients, that
protects the bacterium, and allows it to be revived after long periods of time.

  
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76) The Eubacteria Phylum Proteobacteria evolves (includes Rickettsia {the
ancestor of all mitochondria}, gonorrhea, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli
{esRriKEo KOlI} or E coli {E KOlI}).

  
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177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo KOlI}
bacteria. Conjugation is the exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor {male}
bacterium through a pilus to a recipient {female} bacterium.

In addition to pili and conjugation, proteins that can cut DNA, and other
proteins that can connect two strands of DNA evolve.

  
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23) The first virus evolves.

These cells depend on the DNA duplicating and protein producing systems of
other cells to reproduce themselves. The first viruses may be made from
bacteria, or may be bacteria initially.

  
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176) The Eubacteria Phylum, Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS} (also known as
Planctobacteria) evolves.

  
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179) The Eubacteria Phylum, Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu} evolves (the
source of streptomycin and the cause of tuberculosis and leprosy).

  
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174) The Eubacteria Phylum, Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ) evolves (the cause of
Syphilis, and Lyme disease).

  
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175) The Eubacteria Phylum Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ} evolves.
  
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217) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E} evolves.
  
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6309) The Eubacteria Phylum Chlorobi {KlOROBE} evolves (green sulphur
bacteria).

  
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6310) The Eubacteria Phylum Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo) evolves.
  
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80) Endo and exocytosis evolve. Cells can now eat other cells.

In endocytosis the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the
cell.

In Exocytosis substances contained in vesicles are released from the cell.

  
2,700,000,000 YBN
60) The eukaryotic cell evolves. The first cell with a nucleus. The first
protist. The nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.

There are some differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:
In prokaryotic
cells the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed called
the "nucleoid" while in eukaryotic cells most of the DNA is contained in a
nucleus that is bounded by a double membrane. Eukaryotic cells are generally
much larger than prokaryotic cells. Typical bacteria are between 1-5 um in
diameter, while eukaryotic cells are typically 10-100 um in diameter. Unlike
prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton
enables eukaryotic cells to change their shape and to surround and engulf other
cells. Eukaryotic cells also have internal structures that prokaryotic cells
lack such as mitochondria and plastids. DNA in prokaryotic cells is usually in
the form of a single circular chromosome, while DNA in the nucleus of
eukaryotes contains linear chromosomes.

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably haploid (has a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets of DNA).

All protists, fungi, animals and plant cells descend from this common
eukaryotic cell.

  
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62) The earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiRAN}
molecules). Steranes are formed from sterols {STeRoLZ}, molecules made by
mitochondria.

Northwestern Australia  
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198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves in a eukaryotic cell. The endoplasmic
reticulum is a membrane system that extends from the nucleus, important in the
synthesis of proteins and lipids.

  
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207) The cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN} forms in the eukaryote cytoplasm.
  
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208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia evolve.

The eukaryote flagellum and cilia are structurally the same but are very
different from the prokaryote flagellum. The eukaryote flagellum is composed of
a characteristic "9+2" arrangement of microtubules {mIKrO-TUB-YU-LZ}. Unlike
the prokaryote flagella that rotate, the flagella and cilia of eukaryotic cells
undulate in a wave-like motion to propel the cell.

The sperm cells of algae, animals, and some plants have flagella.

  
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65) The circular chromosome in the eukaryote nucleus changes into linear
chromosomes.

Although the eukaryotic cell may have descended from a prokaryote that already
had linear DNA.

  
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216) Histones evolve. Histones are proteins found in all eukaryotic cell nuclei
that package and order a single continuous DNA molecule into structural units
called nucleosomes {nUKlEuSOMZ}.

  
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291) The eukaryote cell evolves two intermediate stages between cell division
and DNA synthesis.

In prokaryotes, DNA synthesis can take place uninterrupted between cell
divisions, but eukaryotes duplicate their DNA exactly once during a discrete
period between cell divisions.

  
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199) The Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves. The Golgi apparatus packages
proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations.

  
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290) The nucleolus evolves. The nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus that makes
ribosomal RNA.

  
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72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the nucleus divides resulting in two new nuclei,
each of which contains an identical copy of the parental chromosomes. Mitosis
is usually immediately followed by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm.

  
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73) Eukaryote sex evolves. This is the first diploid cell and the first
zygote.

Because of sex, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more genetic
variety. Having two chromosome sets also provides a backup copy of important
genes.

All sexual species alternate between haploid and diploid. There are three main
different types of sexual life cycles; haplontic, haplodiplontic, and
diplontic.

This begins the haplontic life cycle: in the entire life cycle mitosis only
occurs in the haploid phase; the only diploid cell is the zygote.

This fusion of two haploid cells results in the first diploid single-celled
organism, which may then immediately divide back to two haploid cells.

Initially sex may be the fusion of two indistinguishable cells (isogamy) with
gender (anisogamy) only evolving later. Although possibly eukaryote cell fusion
and gender is directly descended from prokaryote conjugation.

  
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206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis: a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).

Meiosis, which looks similar to mitosis, is the process of cell division in
sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in
reproductive cells from diploid to haploid, leading to the production of
gametes in animals and spores in plants.

Without the reduction back to haploid, genomes would double in size with every
generation.

  
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296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves. Anisogamy {aNISoGomE}, sex (cell and nucleus
fusion) between two cells that are different in size or shape.

  
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298) Oogamy {O-oG-omE}, a form of anisogamy, evolves in protists: sex between a
flagellated gamete and an unflagellated gamete.

  
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295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides twice into
four haploid cells).

Most protists divide by two-step meiosis, and one-step meiosis is rare.

  
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171) The Eubacteria phylum "Deinococcus-Thermus" evolves (includes Thermus
Aquaticus {used in PCR}, and Deinococcus radiodurans {which can survive long
exposure to radiation}).

  
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172) The Eubacteria phylum, Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u} evolves.

Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes with oxygen-producing photosynthesis,
and are the ancestor of all eukaryote plastids (for example chloroplasts).

  
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315) The Eubacteria Phylum Chloroflexi evolves; (Green Non-Sulphur bacteria).
  
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52) The end of the Archean and start of the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or
ProTReZOiK} Eon.

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542 million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.

  
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170) Bacteria live on land.
  
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59) Start of a 200 million year ice age.
  
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48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide formed on land, begin here, and are also
evidence of more free oxygen in the air of Earth.

  
2,000,000,000 YBN
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely related to Rickettsia prowazekii, an aerobic
proteobacteria, is engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. Over time a symbiotic
relationship evolves within the eukaryotic cell (an endosymbiosis) where the
Rickettsia become mitochondria.

Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of almost all
eukaryotic cells, and are where cellular respiration occurs producing most of
the ATP in a eukaryotic cell.

  
1,874,000,000 YBN
61) The earliest large filamentous fossil (Grypania). Grypania spiralis is
about 10 cm long, and is thought to be either a green alga or large
cyanobacterium. If eukaryote, Grypania would be the earliest eukaryote fossil.

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA  
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46) The end of the Banded Iron Formation.
  
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99) The first homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts in algae, plants, fungi and animals.

For example, when a homeobox gene responsible for growing a mouse eye is added
to the cell of a fruit-fly embryo that is destined to be a leg, an extra fruit
fly eye is built on the leg.

  
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197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.

  
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202) The Protist Phylum Amoebozoa evolves (amoebas, slime molds). Feeding using
pseudopods evolves.

  
1,520,000,000 YBN
203) Colonialism (where cells form a colony) evolves for the first time in
Eukaryotes.

  
1,500,000,000 YBN
15) The first "plastids" evolve. Cyanobacteria form plastids through
endosymbiosis within a eukaryotic cell. Like mitochondria, these organelles
copy themselves and are not made by the cell DNA.

Plastids provide the eukaryotic cell with food from photosynthesis and gain
protection by living within the cell.

  
1,500,000,000 YBN
86) The first plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).

This begins the plant kingdom. The first plant is probably unicellular, similar
to the glaucophytes {GlxKoFITS}.

  
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220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).
  
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209) The earliest extant plant: Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu}.

Glaucophytes are unicellular algae found in freshwater.

  
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188) The Plant Phylum Chlorophyta {KlORoFiTu} evolves, Green Algae: (ancestor
of Volvox, Sea lettuce, Spirogyra, and Stoneworts).

The first land plants most likely
evolve from green algae.

  
1,300,000,000 YBN
219) The plant Phylum Rhodophyta {rODOFITu} evolves (Red Algae).
  
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323) The Protists Excavates: includes Parabasalids {PaRu-BAS-a-liDS}, and
Diplomonads {DiP-lO-mO-naDZ} {like Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u}).

  
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38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.

In this organism, unlike single cell eukaryotes, cells stay fastened together
after cell division.

Multicellularity seems to have arisen multiple times independently in
eukaryotes.

(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
Canada  
1,280,000,000 YBN
85) Differentiation in a multicellular eukaryote evolves. In addition to gamete
(or spore) cells, there are somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells
are asexual (non-fusing). This is the start of death by aging.

Cell differentiation is how cells in a multicellular organism become
specialized to perform specific functions in a variety of tissues and organs.

  
1,280,000,000 YBN
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves.
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
301) The haplodiplontic life cycle evolves (mitosis occurs in both haploid and
diploid life stages).

  
1,274,000,000 YBN
187) A captured red alga, through endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid in the
ancestor of all chromalveolates.

This is a secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured
instead of a cyanobacterium.

  
1,250,000,000 YBN
88) The Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS} evolve (ancestor of the
Chromista {Cryptophytes, Haptophytes, and Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ}}
and Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS}).

  
1,250,000,000 YBN
201) The earliest certain eukaryote fossils and eukaryote filamentous
multicellularity: Rhodophyta (red algae) fossils.

(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada  
1,200,000,000 YBN
221) The first fungi. This begins the Fungi Kingdom.

Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic (unable to build structural materials by
photosynthesis) and so must feed on other living things.

Fungi live on organic material and are therefore generally parasitic (live or
feed on another organism to the detriment of the host organism) or are
saprophytic (live on dead or decaying organic matter). Some types of fungi,
however, form symbioses with plants.

  
1,180,000,000 YBN
6280) The Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS} (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS}).

  
1,100,000,000 YBN
75) The oldest extant fungi phylum "Microsporidia" evolves.

Microsporidia are obligate (survive only as) intracellular parasites of
eukaryotes.

  
1,100,000,000 YBN
313) The Protist Phylum "Dinoflagellata" evolves (the Dinoflagellates
{DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS}).

  
1,080,000,000 YBN
87) The Excavates Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS}; the ancestor of protists
which have mitochondria with discoidal shaped cristae (includes euglenids,
leishmanias {lEsmaNEuZ}, trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ}, and acrasid {oKrASiD}
slime molds).

  
1,080,000,000 YBN
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.

The earliest eye probably evolves from a plastid. The first proto eye is a
light sensitive area in a unicellular eukaryote.

Eukaryotes are the first organisms to evolve the ability to follow light
direction in three dimensions in open water.

  
1,050,000,000 YBN
169) The Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ} (also called Heterokonts)
evolve (ancestor of all brown algae, golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota
{Ou-mI-KO-Tu)).

  
1,000,000,000 YBN
324) The Protists Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u} evolve (also called
DRIPS).

  
985,000,000 YBN
309) The Protist Phylum Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu} evolves (ancestor of the
Oomycetes; water molds).

  
900,000,000 YBN
6281) The Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u} evolve (ancestor of all Radiolaria,
Foraminifera and Cercozoa).

  
850,000,000 YBN
224) The Fungi "Zygomycota" evolves (ancestor of the bread molds, and pin
molds).

  
767,000,000 YBN
312) The Protist Phylum "Ciliophora" {SiL-E-oF-R-u} evolves (the "Ciliates")
(ancestor of the paramecium).

  
767,000,000 YBN
314) The Protist Phylum "Apicomplexa" {a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su} evolves (includes
Malaria and Toxoplasmosis).

  
680,000,000 YBN
326) The Protists "Choanoflagellates" {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS} evolve.
Choanoflagel
lates are the closest relatives to the animals and may be direct ancestors of
sponges.

There are about 140 species of choanoflagellates. Some are free-swimming,
propelling themselves with a flagellum. Others are attached by a stalk,
sometimes with several together in a colony.

  
670,000,000 YBN
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist. This allows larger free
moving organisms to evolve.

This multicellularity is thought to be independently evolved, and not related
to the earlier filamentous multicellularity of prokaryotes like cyanobacteria,
and eukaryotes like algae.

  
670,000,000 YBN
297) The diplontic life cycle evolves; this organism is predominantly diploid,
mitosis in the haploid phase does not occur.

All animals are diplontic, and descend from this multicellular organism.

  
660,000,000 YBN
81) The first animal and first metazoan, the sponge evolves. This begins the
Animal Kingdom, and the Phylum Porifera; the sponges. There are only three
major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians, and bilaterians.

The word "porifera" means "pore bearing" in Latin, and water continuously flows
through the pores in sponges.

Metazoans are multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform
different functions). Sponges have cells that form a body wall, cells that
secrete the skeleton, contractile {KunTraKTL} cells, cells that digest food,
and other kinds of cell types.

All sponge cells are totipotent and so are capable of regrowing a new sponge.

Sponges have two layers, each a single cell thick. The outer surface is called
the pinacoderm {PiN-o-KO-DRM} and is made of cells called pinacocytes
{PiN-o-KO-SITS}. On the inner surface is the choanoderm {KOenO-DRM or
KO-aNo-DRM} which is made of flagellated cells called choanocytes {KOenO-SITS
or KO-aNo-SITS}. Between these two thin cellular sheets is the jellylike
mesohyl {mASuHIL}

Some sponges can live for over 1000 years.

  
660,000,000 YBN
517) The male gonad (testis {TeSTiS} or testicle) evolves in a sponge. In
sponges sperm are contained in spermatic cysts, which are choanocyte chambers
transformed by the formation of sperm (spermatogenesis), but ova are
distributed throughout the mesohyl {mASuHIL} (or middle layer).

  
650,000,000 YBN
41) Start of the 60 million year (Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).
  
650,000,000 YBN
69) Cells that group as tissues that are arranged in layers evolve in
metazoans.

Unlike the Porifera, in the Placozoa and all later metazoans, cells group as
tissues.

  
650,000,000 YBN
79) The Metazoan Phylum "Placozoa" evolves.

Placozoans look like amoebas but are multicellular. The only known species is
Trichoplax adhaerens {TriKOPlaKS aDHEReNZ}. Trichoplax lives in the sea and
feeds on single celled organisms, mostly algae. There are only 4 cell types in
Trichoplax compared to the more than 200 cell types in humans. Trichoplax has
two main cell layers, like a cnidarian or ctenophore. Between these two layers
are a few contractile cells that are similar to muscle cells, however
placozoans have no muscle or nerve cells.

  
650,000,000 YBN
223) The Fungi "Chytridiomycota" {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) evolves (includes all
Chytridiomycetes {KI-TriDEO-mI-SE-TEZ})).

The chytrids are primitive fungi and are mostly saprobic (feed on dead species,
decomposing chitin and keratin). Many chytrids are aquatic (mostly found in
freshwater).

Northern Russia  
640,000,000 YBN
83) The first nerve cell (or neuron), and nervous system evolves in the
ancestor of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. This leads to the first ganglion
and brain. This is the earliest touch and sound detection, and memory.

As time continues in the evolution of the metazoans, the number of neurons
increases while the size of neurons decreases, just like transistors as
computers improve.

  
640,000,000 YBN
96) Muscle cells evolve in the ancestor of the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. Both
the earliest known muscle and nerve cells are found in Ctenophores and
Cnidarians.

  
640,000,000 YBN
225) A closeable mouth evolves in the ancestor of all ctenophores and
cnidarians.

  
640,000,000 YBN
414) The female gonad (the first ovary) evolves in the ancestor of Ctenophores
and Cnidarians.

  
640,000,000 YBN
523) The animal Phylum Ctenophora {Ti-noF-R-u} evolves (comb jellies).

Like the Cnidarians, the Ctenophores are diploblastic; they have two embryonic
germ layers- the ectoderm {EKTeDRM} and the endoderm {eNDeDRM} which become the
adult epidermis and gastrodermis, respectively. The middle mesenchyme
{meSeNKIM}, a watery gelatinous fluid, never produces the complex organs seen
in triploblastic Metazoa.

The main body cavity of the ctenophores is also the digestive
chamber, and they have a simple nerve net.

  
635,000,000 YBN
6413) The start of the Ediacaran Period.
  
630,000,000 YBN
82) The Animal Phylum Cnidaria {NIDAREeo} evolves (the ancestor of sea
anemones, sea pens, corals, and jellyfish). Cnidaria also evolve the earliest
animal eye.

Cnidaria are primarily radially symmetrical animals with tentacles, have a
single body cavity with only one opening to take in food and to release wastes,
and have specialized stinging cells.

Cnidarians have two alternate body plans, the polyp and the medusa {miDUSe}. A
sea anemone is an example of a polyp: fixed to the ground with mouth on top. A
coral is a polyp that secretes a skeleton which it lives inside of. The medusa
form is upside down compared to the polyp form, and is free swimming. A
jellyfish has a typical medusa form.

  
600,000,000 YBN
91) The start of the Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN} soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.

The sudden appearance of Ediacaran fossils may relate to the accumulation of
free oxygen in the atmosphere and sea, which may permit an oxidative
metabolism.

Because the Ediacaran animals are soft-bodied, they are infrequently preserved.

Sonora, Mexico|Adelaide, Australia| Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
Kazakhsta  
600,000,000 YBN
107) The Animals Bilaterians evolve (metazoans with two sided symmetry).
This
is the first triploblastic animal; an animal with a third embryonic layer, the
mesoderm {meZuDRM}. This is also the earliest animal brain.

In most bilaterians food enters in one end (the mouth) and waste exits at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an advantage for sense organs like light,
sound, touch, smell, and taste detection to be located on the head near the
mouth to help with getting food.

The earliest brain (ganglion and memory) develop in a bilaterian worm.

This begins the Animal Subkingdom "Bilateria".

  
600,000,000 YBN
403) The earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (ancestor of acoela flat
worms and nemertodermatida).

The Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track, anus and coelom.

Flatworms have no lungs or gills and breathe through their skin. With no
circulating blood, their branched gut presumably transports nutrients to all
parts of the body.

  
600,000,000 YBN
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian. Since the gut of this organism has
no anus, undigested food must be regurgitated through the mouth.

  
600,000,000 YBN
532) A cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian;
found in all bilaterians except Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes.

  
600,000,000 YBN
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.
  
600,000,000 YBN
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.
  
590,000,000 YBN
70) The end of the Varanger Ice Age (650-590 mybn).
  
590,000,000 YBN
95) The coelom (SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.

The coelem is a fluid filled cavity that forms within the mesoderm and exists
between the gut and body wall in most triploblastic animals.

The advantage of a coelem is that it allows the body wall and gut wall to act
independently, and also that other organ systems can be developed in the
fluid-filled space. In addition, the fluid in the cavity can act as a
deformable skeleton.

  
590,000,000 YBN
98) The first circulatory system evolves; blood vessels, and blood evolve in a
bilaterian. The first blood cells. Cnidarians and flatworms are at most two
sheets of tissue thick and so allow gas exchange and nutrient distribution by
diffusion, but larger animals with thicker tissues require a circulatory system
to distribute materials.

The circulatory system transports molecules like gases, food, and waste to and
from individual cells.

  
580,000,000 YBN
93) The Bilaterians Protostomes evolve. The ancestor of all Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu} and Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu}.

The difference between protostomes and deutrostomes arises during embryonic
development. In protostomes, the first indentation of the gastrula (an early
stage of the embryo) develops into the mouth and the second indentation
develops into the anus. The reverse is true for the deuterostomes.

  
580,000,000 YBN
105) The Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve; the ancestor of all Echinoderms
(iKIniDRMS }, Hemichordates, and Chordates.

  
580,000,000 YBN
131) The first shell (or skeleton) evolves. The first known shell belongs to a
group of ciliates called tintinnids. Skeletons evolve independently in
different groups of organisms.

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
570,000,000 YBN
311) The Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu} evolve (Arrow Worms).

The earliest teeth evolve. Animals start to eat other animals.

The evolution of teeth and animal predation starts an "arms race" that rapidly
transforms ecosystems around the Earth. Teeth and shells evolve as advantages
to survival.

  
565,000,000 YBN
345) The Deuterostome Phylum Hemichordata evolves; The "Hemichordates", the
ancestor of pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS} and acorn worms).

Adult Pterobranchs are sessile, fastening to solid structures, but the younger
(or larval) form is free swimming, and is thought to have retained this form
before evolving into tunicates and then the first fish.

  
565,000,000 YBN
347) The Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves. Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds. Chordates get their name from the notochord {nOTe-KORD}, the
cartilage rod that runs along the back of the animal, in the embryo if not in
the adult.

The ancestor of all chordates evolves "upside-down": unlike earlier
invertebrates who have a ventral nerve cord (near the belly) and a dorsal heart
(near the back), this ancestor and all later vertebrates have a dorsal nerve
cord and a ventral heart.

  
565,000,000 YBN
348) The earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (also called sea
squirts).

  
560,000,000 YBN
117) The earliest animal shell (or skeleton) evolves.
This is the earliest evidence of
animals eating other animals (predation).
This begins the appearance of small shelly fossils
and deep burrows correlated with a decline in stromatolites, possibly from
feeding.

The earliest animal shells are made by tiny organisms with simple tubelike
skeletons, such as Cloudina and Sinotubulites in addition to sponge skeleton
fossils.

The shell of Cloudina is made of Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and are possibly
made by some kind of worm.

Predatory bore holes have been found in Cloudina shells. This is the oldest
evidence of predation known.

(Ara Formation) Oman|Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province  
560,000,000 YBN
318) The Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} evolve. Ecdysozoa are animals
that molt (lose their outer skin) as they grow. This is the ancestor of round
worms, and arthropods (which includes insects and crustaceans {also known as
"shell-fish"}).

  
560,000,000 YBN
331) The Protostomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} evolve. Ancestor of
rotifers, phoronids, brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ}, entoprocts {eNTuProKS},
bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ}, platyhelminthes, gastrotrichs, nemertea, molluscs and
annelids.

  
560,000,000 YBN
349) The first fish evolves.
  
560,000,000 YBN
6290) The earliest extant fish, the Chordates Lancelets {laNSleTS} (also called
amphioxus {aMFEoKSiS}). This is also the first liver and kidney.

  
550,000,000 YBN
328) The Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes {aSKHeLmiNtEZ} evolves; the ancestor of the
worms nematodes and priapulids.

  
547,000,000 YBN
334) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Brachiopoda {BrAKEoPiDu} evolves (the
brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}).

The Brachiopods are marine invertebrates that have bivalve dorsal and ventral
shells enclosing a pair of tentacled, armlike structures that are used to sweep
minute food particles into their mouth.

  
543,000,000 YBN
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts are repeated serially, for example
vertebrae).

Some think that segmentation evolved independently in annelid worms,
arthropods, and vertebrates. But the universality of Homeobox genes, evolved
over a billion years earlier, implies that all segmented species may share a
common segmented ancestor.

  
542,000,000 YBN
53) The end of the "Precambrian". The end of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK} Eon. The end of the Neoproterozoic and start of the
Paleozoic {PAlEuZOiK} Era, and the end of the Ediacaran and start of the
Cambrian Period.

  
542,000,000 YBN
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many (between 20 and 35) of the major phyla
of animals. An increase of animals with shells.

The Cambrian metazoan radiation may be the result of a major increase in
atmospheric oxygen, and animal predation.

  
540,000,000 YBN
104) The Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} Phylum Platyhelminthes
{PlaTEheLmiNtEZ} evolves (flatworms).

  
540,000,000 YBN
319) The Protist Phylum "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo} (ocean protists, many with
silica shells).

  
540,000,000 YBN
321) The Protist Phylum "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu} evolves, (unicellular
protists with fine pseudopods that extend from a cytoplasm body encased within
a calcium carbonate shell).

  
540,000,000 YBN
340) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu} evolves (ribbon worms).
  
540,000,000 YBN
341) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Tardigrada {ToRDiGRiDe} evolves (tardigrades).
  
540,000,000 YBN
342) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Onychophora evolves. Onychophorans are a transition
between worms and arthropods: they have segmented worm-like bodies but they
also have jointed appendages, antennae, and shed their cuticle like arthropods
do.

  
535,000,000 YBN
114) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.

Muscles for pumping blood and for maintaining adequate blood pressure can be
divided into three groups: contractile blood vessels (found in nemerteans and
annelids), ostiate {oSTEAT} hearts (found in arthropods), and chambered hearts
(found in molluscs and vertebrates).

  
533,000,000 YBN
343) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Mollusca evolves; Mollusks.

The phylum Mollusca is the second largest animal phylum after the arthropods,
and is divided into seven classes, three of which (Gastropoda {GaSTroPeDu}
(snails), Bivalvia (clams and muscles), and Cephalopoda {SeFeloPeDu} (squids
and octupuses) are of major importance.

  
530,000,000 YBN
338) The Lophotrochozoa Phylum Annelida evolves; segmented worms.

Annelids are various worms or wormlike animals, characterized by an elongated,
cylindrical, segmented body and includes the earthworm and leech.

  
530,000,000 YBN
339) The Ecdysozoa Phylum Arthropoda evolves; the "Arthropods".

Arthropods can be compared to a segmented worm encased in a rigid exoskeleton.

The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. Arthropods
include the trilobites, the crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, and lobsters), the
Myriapoda (centipedes and millipedes), the Chelicerata (arachnids and horseshoe
crabs) and the insects. All arthropods have a segmented body covered by an
exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armor and as a surface for
muscle attachment.

  
530,000,000 YBN
350) The Chordata Vertebrates evolve. This Subphylum, Vertabrata, contains most
fishes, and all amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

The characteristic features of the Vertebrata are a vertebral column, or
backbone, and a cranium, which protects the central nervous system (brain and
spinal cord) and major sense organs. This earliest vertebrate skeleton is made
completely of cartilage.

  
530,000,000 YBN
6637) The Vertebrates Jawless fishes evolve (agnatha).

The earliest extant jawless fishes, the hagfishes evolve now.

  
520,000,000 YBN
133) The Arthropods Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo) evolve (eight legs, ancestor of
the horseshoe crabs, sea spiders, and the Arachnids: mites, spiders, and
scorpions).

earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten, Sweden  
520,000,000 YBN
148) The earliest color vision evolves in arthropods.
  
520,000,000 YBN
346) The Deuterostome Phylum Echinodermata evolves; the "Echinoderms"
(iKIniDRMS }, the ancestor of the sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand dollars, and
star fishes.

  
520,000,000 YBN
6349) The arthropods trilobites evolve.

Trilobites have a segmented body that is divided into three vertical lobes.

There is a transition from soft-bodied organisms, to the clam-like shell
organisms, to the segmented calcite and chitin shells of the trilobites.

  
513,000,000 YBN
6351) The Arthropods Crustaceans evolve (the ancestor of all shrimps, crabs,
lobsters, and barnicles).

earliest fossils: Shropshire, England  
501,000,000 YBN
6348) The Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu} evolve; the ancestor of all
centipedes and millipedes.

earliest possible fossils: (Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA and
(Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia|(earliest fossils) Shropshire, England  
488,300,000 YBN
121) The end of the Cambrian (542-488.3 mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN} (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.

  
488,000,000 YBN
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN} radiation. During the Ordovician the number of
genera {JeN-R-u} will quadruple.

  
475,000,000 YBN
244) The non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo}, (the ancestor of the
Liverworts, Hornworts, and Mosses).

The Bryophytes are the simplest land plants, and reproduce with spores.

  
475,000,000 YBN
398) Plants live on land. The earliest fossil spores belonging to land plants.

Plants conquer land before animals do, and like animals may move to land not by
sea but by freshwater.

earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya  
472,000,000 YBN
402) The first animals live on land, the arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and
millipedes).

earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston, Ontario, Canada  
465,000,000 YBN
6636) The Jawless fishes lamprays evolve.
  
460,000,000 YBN
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo}. This large group
includes all jawed fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. The first
vertebrate teeth.

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill skeleton.

Oceans  
460,000,000 YBN
404) The Jawed fishes Chondrichthyes {KoN-DriK-tE-EZ} (Cartilaginous fishes:
ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates, and sawfishes).

  
460,000,000 YBN
458) The earliest fungi on land. The ancestor of all terrestrial fungi (the
Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota).

  
460,000,000 YBN
6414) The Fungi Phylum "Glomeromycota" {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu} evolves (arbuscular
{oRBuSKYUlR} mycorrhizal {MIKerIZL} fungi).

earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA  
445,000,000 YBN
90) The end-Ordovician mass extinction. This is caused by an ice age.

This is the first of five mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic.

  
443,700,000 YBN
122) The end of the Ordovician (488.3-443.7 mybn), and the start of the
Silurian (443.7-416) Period.

  
440,000,000 YBN
236) The Vascular plants evolve, the Phylum Tracheophyta {TrAKEoFiTu}.

Vascular plants have a specialized conducting system consisting mostly of
phloem (food-conducting tissue) and xylem (water-conducting tissue),
collectively called vascular tissue.

  
440,000,000 YBN
360) The Jawed fishes, Bony fishes evolve; Osteichthyes {oS TE iK tE EZ}), the
ancestor of the ray-finned, lobefin, and lung fishes.

Bony-fishes have a skeleton that is at least partly ossified or made of bone.

The bony fishes are the ancestors of the tetrapods who will ultimately move
onto land.

The earliest bony fishes are the ray-finned fishes.

Ocean and fresh water  
440,000,000 YBN
6172) The first lung evolves from the swim bladder in ray-finned fishes. Some
teleosts still use their swim bladder for breathing out of water.

Ocean (presumably)  
425,000,000 YBN
377) The Jawed fishes, Lobe-fin fishes evolve. Lobe-fin fishes have a fleshy
lobe at the base of each fin. The earliest extant Lobe-fin fishes, the
coelacanths evolve now.

  
420,000,000 YBN
6350) The Arthropods Hexapods (arthropods with six legs {3 pairs}, the ancestor
of all insects).

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Scotland  
418,000,000 YBN
6431) The Chelicerata Arachnids evolve (the ancestor of all scorpions, spiders,
mites and ticks).

earliest fossils: ("Bertie Waterlime" of) NY, USA  
417,000,000 YBN
378) The Lobefin fishes, Lungfishes evolve.
  
416,000,000 YBN
123) The end of the Silurian (443.7-416 mybn), and start of the Devonian
{DiVONEiN} (416-359.2 mybn) Period.

  
416,000,000 YBN
6352) The Hexapods: insects evolve.

The most primitive extant insects, the Bristletails evolve now.

  
410,000,000 YBN
6363) The Insects Silverfish.
  
400,000,000 YBN
227) The largest Fungi phylum "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu} evolves (the
ancestor of yeasts, truffles, Penicillium, and morels {mu-reLZ}).

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Aberdeenshire, Scotland  
400,000,000 YBN
237) The Vascular plants ferns evolve (the ancestor of club mosses, ferns and
horsetails).

Ferns are flowerless, seedless vascular plants that have roots, stems, and
fronds (the leaf-like part of a fern), and reproduce by spores.

  
400,000,000 YBN
436) The Cartilaginous fishes Subclass: "Elasmobranchii" {elaZmOBrANKEE or I}
evolves, (the ancestor of sharks, dogfishes, skates and rays).

  
395,000,000 YBN
6429) The Green Algae Charophytes evolve (Stoneworts).
  
395,000,000 YBN
6430) The earliest fungi lichen {lIKiN}.

A lichen is a fungus, usually of the class Ascomycetes {aSKOmISETS}, that grows
symbiotically with algae and cyanobacteria, resulting in a composite organism
that characteristically forms a crustlike or branching growth on rocks or tree
trunks.

  
392,000,000 YBN
359) The Cartilaginous fishes "Selachii" {SelAKEE or I} evolve, (the ancestor
of all sharks: includes great white, hammerhead, mako, tiger and nurse sharks).

  
392,000,000 YBN
437) The Cartilaginous fishes: "Holocephali" {HoloSeFolE or I} evolve, (the
ancestor of the chimaeras {KiMERoZ} also called rabbit-fishes or ratfishes).

  
385,000,000 YBN
405) The first forests. The earliest large tree fossils.
earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York, USA  
385,000,000 YBN
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect, the ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu}). The earliest extant winged insects are the
Ephemeroptera {eFeMeroPTRo}: Mayflies, and the Odonata {ODenoDo}: Dragonflies
and Damselflies.

Insect wings evolve only once, and all winged insects descend from the first
winged insect.

The development of wings may have helped early insects to escape predators and
to move over larger distances to find new habitats.

earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic  
375,000,000 YBN
380) The first tetrapods (Vertebrates with four feet) evolve in fresh water.
These are the first vertebrate limbs (arms and legs) and fingers. This is also
the first amphibian, the ancestor of caecillians, frogs, toads, and
salamanders.

Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
367,000,000 YBN
408) The late Devonian mass extinction caused by an ice age.
  
363,000,000 YBN
379) The first vertebrates live on land (an amphibian).
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
360,000,000 YBN
226) The second largest Fungi phylum, "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu}
evolves (the ancestor of many mushrooms: button, chanterelle {saNTRreL},
cremini {KremENE}, enoki {inoKE}, fly agaric {uGaRiK}, oyster, porcino {PORCEnO
}, portabella, psilocybe, puffball, shiitake {sEToKE}, woodear, rusts, and club
fungi).

earliest fossils: Indiana  
360,000,000 YBN
6353) The Neoptera, folding wing insects evolve.

A mechanism to fold the wings against the body after landing has a selective
advantage by making the wings less conspicuous, awkward, and susceptible to
breakage.

All "higher" orders of insects evolve from the neoptera.

earliest fossils: (Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK  
359,200,000 YBN
124) The end of the Devonian (416-359.2 mybn), and start of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn) Period.

  
359,000,000 YBN
243) The first plant seed evolves; the ancestor of all seed plants.

The earliest fossil seed is from a seed fern (Pteridosperm {TARiDOSPRM}).

Fossils indicate that the first seed evolves from an enclosing ring of
vegetative lobes that fuse together.

earliest fossils: Scotland  
355,000,000 YBN
6410) Hearing in Amphibians adapts to sounds transmitted through the air. This
is the beginning of vertebrates making vocal sounds.

  
350,000,000 YBN
361) The Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and Paddlefish evolve.
  
350,000,000 YBN
6355) The Neoptera: Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu} evolve (the ancestor of
Cockroaches, Termites, and Mantises).

  
340,000,000 YBN
384) The first hard-shell egg. The Tetrapods Amniota {aMnEOtu} evolve; the
ancestor of all reptiles, mammals and birds and the first hard-shell egg. The
hard-shell egg is waterproof. This is the start of vertebrate internal
fertilization, because on land the egg cannot be fertilized as most fishes and
amphibians do, by a male swimming near the eggs and spraying them with sperm.
Amniote males and females must copulate {KoPYelAT} so that the sperm can reach
the eggs inside the female.

All living amniotes lay hard-shelled eggs, except most mammals and some snakes
and lizards, where egg laying has been replaced by live birth.

The egg shell of amniotes may be flexible (like the eggs of many lizards) or
mineralized and hard (like the eggs of birds).

earliest fossils: Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland  
335,000,000 YBN
6331) The Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu} and the Synapsida
{Si-naP-Si-Du}.

The Sauropsids have two major lineages: the Parareptilia (turtles) and the
Eureptilia (dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds). The Synapsids also have two major
lineages: the pelycosaurs (which are sail-backed amniotes) and the therapsids
(which are mammal-like amniotes).

earliest possible Synapsid fossils: (Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada  
330,000,000 YBN
6307) The Synapsids Pelycosauria {PeLiKuSOREu} evolve (the ancestor of
Edaphosaurus {eDaFoSORuS} and Dimetrodon).

  
325,000,000 YBN
381) The earliest extant Amphibians: Caecilians evolve.
  
320,000,000 YBN
238) The seed plants: Gymnosperms evolve. Gymnosperms are the most primitive
extant seed plants, and ancestor of all Cycads, Ginkgos and the Conifers).

The most primitive extant Gymnosperms, the Cycads evolve now.

Gymnosperm is Greek for "Naked Seed". A gymnosperm reproduces by a seed that is
in direct contact with the environment, as opposed to an angiosperm whose seeds
are enclosed by fruits.

  
320,000,000 YBN
6356) The Neoptera: Orthoptera evolve (the ancestor of crickets, grasshoppers,
locusts, and walking sticks).

  
317,000,000 YBN
385) The Sauropsids Reptilia {reP-TiL-E-u} evolve, the Reptiles; the ancestor
of all turtles, crocodiles, pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds.

Reptiles are a group of air-breathing amniotes with internal fertilization and
scales covering part or all of their body. All reptiles are cold-blooded,
except for birds, and possibly some or all pterosaurs and dinosaurs.

earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada  
314,000,000 YBN
240) The Gymnosperms Pinophyta {PInoFiTu} evolve (the ancestor of the Conifers:
includes Pine, Fir, Spruce, Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, Hemlock, Larch, Yew, and
Cypress.).

earliest fossils: Wakefield, Yorkshire, England  
310,000,000 YBN
6357) The Neoptera: Paraneoptera evolve (the ancestor of bark lice, true lice,
thrips, and the Hemiptera {HemiPTRu}. The Hemiptera have mouthparts adapted for
piercing and sucking and include: Cicadas, Aphids, and "true bugs": such as Bed
bugs, and Stink bugs).

  
310,000,000 YBN
6359) The Neoptera Holometabola {HoLomeTaBolu or HOlOmeTABolu} evolve:
Holometabolous insects: (insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, the
ancestor of beetles, bees, true flies, and butterflies).

The holometabolous insects account for nearly 85% of all insects.

The Holometabola are insects that have complete metamorphosis (or
holometabolous development). Unlike hemimetabolous insects in which the
immature structures (legs, eyes, antennae, etc.) must also serve the adults,
holometabolous insects have a morphologically reduced larval stage and acquire
a completely new body during the pupal stage.

  
305,000,000 YBN
242) The Amphibians: Anura {unRu} evolve (the ancestor of all Frogs and Toads).
  
300,000,000 YBN
1310) The Stramenopiles Chrysophyta {KriSoFiTu} evolve (Golden algae).
  
299,000,000 YBN
125) The end of the Carboniferous (359.2-299 mybn), and start of the Permian
(299-251 mybn) Period.

  
299,000,000 YBN
6360) The Holometabola: Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu} evolve (the ancestor of the
Beetles).

earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA  
290,000,000 YBN
239) The Gymnosperms: Ginkgos evolve.
  
290,000,000 YBN
6358) The Holometabola: Hymenoptera evolve (the ancestor of all bees, ants, and
wasps).

  
287,000,000 YBN
6308) The Synapsid Therapsids evolve (Cynodonts).[2
  
274,000,000 YBN
307) The Stramenopiles: Phaeophyta {FEoFiTu} evolve (the ancestor of all Brown
Algae, includes many seaweeds like the giant kelps).

Note that brown algae are not plants but are protists.

  
266,000,000 YBN
308) The Stramenopiles: Diatoms evolve.
  
260,000,000 YBN
232) The earliest endothermic (or "warm-blooded") and hair growing animal, a
therapsid.

Endothermy is the physiological maintenance, by a body, of a constant
temperature independent of the external environmental temperature. Hair for
insulation is correlated to endothermy.

Both birds and mammals are endothermic (also called "warm blooded") as opposed
to other vertebrates (like amphibians and crocodiles) which are ectothermic (or
"cold blooded") and cannot internally generate heat.

Endothermy allows birds and mammals to maintain a high and relatively constant
body temperature, even at rest, during a wide range of external environmental
conditions.

  
256,000,000 YBN
6362) The Holometabola: Diptera {DiPTRe} evolve, true flies, having a single
pair of wings: the ancestor of the mosquito, gnat, fruit fly, and house fly).

  
251,400,000 YBN
102) The largest mass extinction of history, the End-Permian mass extinction.
82% of all genera are observed extinct.

  
251,000,000 YBN
54) The end of the Paleozoic and start of the Mesozoic Era, and the end of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) and start of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn) period.

  
251,000,000 YBN
452) The supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe) forms.
  
235,000,000 YBN
304) The Protist Phlyum "Haptophyta" {HaPTuFITu} evolves, the Coccolithophores
{KoK-o-lit-u-FORZ}.

  
228,000,000 YBN
412) The Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina  
228,000,000 YBN
6282) Dinosaurs divide into two major lines: the Ornithischians {ORnitiSKEiNZ}
(Bird-hipped dinosaurs) and the Saurischians {SoriSKEiNZ} (Lizard-hipped
dinosaurs).

  
228,000,000 YBN
6283) The Saurischian {SoriSKEiN} Dinosaurs split into two major lines: The
Sauropodomorpha (SoroPiDimORFu} and the Therapoda {tiRoPiDu}.

The Sauropodomorphs are divided into prosauropods and sauropods, are mostly
plant-eating, and include the large, long-necked dinosaurs like Apatosaurus.

The Theropod {tERePoD} dinosaurs are bipedal and carnivorous and include
Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Velociraptor. All birds descend from a Therapod
ancestor.

earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina  
225,000,000 YBN
126) The Synapsids Mammals evolve. The first mammary gland.
earliest fossils: (Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA  
225,000,000 YBN
369) The Ray-Finned Fishes Teleost (TeLEoST) fishes evolve.

Teleosts are a large group of fishes with bony skeletons, including most common
fishes.

  
220,000,000 YBN
387) The most primitive extant reptiles, the Testudines {TeSTUDinEZ} evolve:
the ancestor of all Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins.

  
220,000,000 YBN
389) The reptiles: Tuataras {TUeToRoZ} evolve.
(Islands of) New Zealand  
220,000,000 YBN
428) The first flying vertebrate, the Reptiles Pterosaurs evolve.
  
210,000,000 YBN
390) The Reptiles Iguania evolve: (the ancestor of iguanas, chameleons, and
spiny lizards).

  
210,000,000 YBN
391) The Reptiles: Scleroglossa evolve (the ancestor of snakes, skinks, and
geckos).

  
210,000,000 YBN
6313) The earliest extant Teleosts: Bonytongues evolve.
  
201,600,000 YBN
127) The End-Triassic mass extinction. 53% of all genera are observed extinct.

Many terrestrial vertebrates and large amphibians go extinct.

  
201,600,000 YBN
228) The end of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn), and start of the Jurassic
(201.6-145.5 mybn) Period.

  
201,600,000 YBN
6372) The Ornithischians Thyreophora {tIrEoFeru} evolve; the ancestor of the
armored ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} and the plated stegosaurs {STeGeSORZ}.

(Kayenta Formation) Arizona, USA  
200,000,000 YBN
370) The Teleosts: eels and tarpons evolve.
  
200,000,000 YBN
392) The Reptiles: Crocodilia {KroKoDiLEu} evolve (the ancestor of Crocodiles,
allegators, and caimans {KAmeNS}).

  
195,000,000 YBN
246) The Saurischian {SoriSKEiN} Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ} evolve; the ancestor of
the large, long-necked dinosaurs like Apatosaurus {uPaTuSORuS}, Brachiosaurus
{BrAKEuSORuS}, and Diplodocus {DiPloDiKuS}.

western USA  
195,000,000 YBN
6373) The Ornithischian Ornithopoda {ORnitoPiDu} evolve; the duck-billed
dinosaurs, ancestor of the Hadrosaurs.

  
190,000,000 YBN
371) The Teleosts: herrings and anchovies evolve.
  
190,000,000 YBN
6289) The Supercontinent Pangea splits into Laurasia and Gondwana. The northern
part, Laurasia will form North America and Europe. The southern part, Gondwana
will form South America and Africa.

Pangea  
190,000,000 YBN
6347) The Holometabola Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu} evolve (the ancestor of moths,
butterflies, and caterpillars).

earliest fossils: Dorset, England  
180,000,000 YBN
456) The earliest extant mammals, Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ} evolve.

Monotremes are an order of primitive egg-laying mammals restricted to
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea. The Monotremes consist of only the platypus
and the echidna.

Monotremes are also the most primitive extant warm blooded and hair growing
species.

Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
170,000,000 YBN
372) The Teleosts: carp, minnows, and piranhas evolve.
  
170,000,000 YBN
373) The Teleosts: salmon, trout, and pike evolve.
  
170,000,000 YBN
383) The Amphibians: Salamanders evolve.
  
165,000,000 YBN
358) The Cartilaginous fishes: batoidea {BuTOEDEu} evolve, the ancestor of all
rays, skates, and sawfishes.

  
150,000,000 YBN
330) Stegosaurus, an armored, plant-eating Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereN} dinosaur
lives around this time.

western USA  
150,000,000 YBN
374) The Teleosts: Lightfish and Dragonfish evolve.
  
150,000,000 YBN
393) The Therapods {tERePoDZ} Birds evolve. The first feather.

Fossils of therapod dinosaurs from China indicate that feathers may have
originally evolved on non-flying reptiles for insulation (or courting) and not
for flight.

At least one known feathered dinosaur can probably glide, which suggests that
flapping flight evolves as an extension of gliding from trees.

  
145,000,000 YBN
245) The Seed plants angiosperms evolve. The first flowering plant.

Almost all grains, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices come from
plants with flowers. Much of our clothing comes from flowering plants too, for
example: cotton and linen are made from "fibers" of flowering plants, as are
rope and burlap. Many commercial dyes and drugs also come from flowering
plants.

Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants
now living. The angiosperms are vascular seed plants in which the ovule (or
egg) is fertilized and develops into a seed in an enclosed hollow ovary. The
ovary is usually enclosed in a flower, the part of the angiosperm that contains
the male or female reproductive organs or both. The fruit is the ovary of a
plant which encloses seeds.

Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly China  
144,000,000 YBN
128) The end of the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 mybn), and start of the Cretaceous
(145.5-65.5 mybn) Period.

  
143,000,000 YBN
6288) The earliest extant Angiosperm "Amborella".
  
140,000,000 YBN
247) The Angiosperms Nymphaeales {niM-FE-A-lEZ} evolve, the Water Lilies.
  
140,000,000 YBN
421) The Ornithiscian Ceratopsian dinosaurs evolve (the ancestor of
Triceratops).

Mongolia, China  
140,000,000 YBN
457) The Mammals Marsupials evolve. The first nipple and breast.
China  
136,000,000 YBN
460) The Birds Enantiornithes {iNaNTEORNitEZ} evolve.
  
134,000,000 YBN
250) The Angiosperms: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ} evolve (the ancestor of nutmeg,
avocado, sassafras, cinnamon, black and white pepper, camphor, bay (or laurel)
tree, and magnolia.).

  
133,000,000 YBN
253) The Angiosperms Eudicots {YUDIKoTS} evolve (the largest lineage of
flowers).

The two main groups of the Eudicots are the "rosids" and the "asterids".

Eudicots are also called "tricolpates" which refers to the structure of the
pollen.

  
132,000,000 YBN
462) The Birds Hesperornithiformes {HeS-Pe-rOR-nit-e-FOR-mEZ} evolve.
  
130,000,000 YBN
375) The Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying fish, pufferfish, and barracuda
evolve.

  
130,000,000 YBN
376) The Teleosts: cod and anglerfish evolve.
  
125,000,000 YBN
163) The Mammals Eutheria evolve: Placental mammals.

The Eutheria are mammals that have a placenta. The placenta is an organ that
forms in the uterus to aid in the exchange of food and wastes between the blood
of the mother and fetus through an umbilical cord.

Placental mammals include all living mammals except marsupials and monotremes.
The placenta allows for a longer developmental period within the womb which may
give the placentals a selective advantage.

earliest fossils: (Daxigou) Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China  
125,000,000 YBN
395) The bird beak evolves.
earliest fossils: (Yixian Formation) Liaoning Province, northeastern
China  
120,000,000 YBN
463) The birds Neornithes {nEORnitEZ} evolve (modern birds: the most recent
common ancestor of all extant birds).

  
112,000,000 YBN
252) The Angiosperms Monocotyledons (or "Monocots") evolve: Flowering plants
that have a single cotyledon (or seed leaf) in the embryo.

Monocots are the second largest lineage of flowers after the Eudicots, and
include lilies, palms, orchids, and grasses.

The two main orders of Monocots are "Base Monocots" and "Commelinids".

  
108,000,000 YBN
254) The Basal Eudicots evolve (the ancestor of the buttercup, clematis, poppy,
macadamia, lotus, and sycamore).

  
106,000,000 YBN
267) The "Core Eudicots" evolve (the ancestor of the cactus, caper, buckwheat,
rhubarb, venus flytrap, old world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa, spinach, and
grape plants).

  
105,000,000 YBN
491) The Eutheria Afrotheres evolve.

Afrotheres originate in Africa and are the earliest extant placental mammals.

Africa  
100,000,000 YBN
465) The Birds "Ratites" evolve (the ancestor of the ostrich, emu, cassowary
{KaSOwaRE}, and kiwi).

  
95,000,000 YBN
498) The Eutheria "Xenarthrans" {ZeNoRtreNZ} evolve (the ancestor of Sloths,
Anteaters, and Armadillos).

South America  
93,000,000 YBN
256) The Angiosperms: "Rosids" evolve (Basal Rosids include: the pomegranate,
clove, guava, allspice, and eucalyptus).

  
93,000,000 YBN
261) The Rosids "Fabales" {FoBAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of beans, pea, peanut,
soy, and lentil).

  
93,000,000 YBN
265) The Monocots "Base Monocots" evolve (the ancestor of vanilla, orchid,
asparagus, onion, garlic, agave, aloe, and lily).

  
93,000,000 YBN
266) The Monocots "Commelinids" {KomelIniDZ} evolve (the ancestor of palms,
coconut, corn, rice, barley, oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo, grass,
pineapple, papyrus, turmeric {TRmRiK}, banana, and ginger).

  
93,000,000 YBN
275) The Basal Asterids "Ericales" {AReKAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of the
kiwifruit, ebony, persimmon, blueberry, cranberry, brazil nut, new world
pitcher plant, and tea).

  
93,000,000 YBN
283) The Asterids "Apiales" {APEAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of dill, celery,
cilantro, carrot, parsnip, fennel, parsley, and ivy).

  
93,000,000 YBN
285) The Asterids "Asterales" {aSTRAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of tarragon,
daisy, artichoke, sunflower, lettuce, and dandelion).

  
91,000,000 YBN
259) The Rosids: "Malpighiales" {maLPiGEAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of coca,
rubber tree, cassava, poinsettia, willow, poplar, and aspen).

  
90,000,000 YBN
270) The Rosids "Brassicales" {BraSiKAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of horseradish,
mustard, cabbage, broccoli, radish, and papaya).

  
89,000,000 YBN
262) The Rosids "Rosales" {ROZAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of hemp, hop,
jackfruit, fig, strawberry, rose, raspberry, apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach,
and almond).

  
89,000,000 YBN
279) The Asterids "Gentianales" {JeNsinAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of oleander,
and coffee).

  
86,000,000 YBN
278) The Asterids "Solanales" {SOlanAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of bell pepper,
tomato, tobacco, potato, and eggplant).

Americas  
85,000,000 YBN
263) The Rosids "Cucurbitales" (KYUKRBiTAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of melon,
cucumber, pumpkin, squash, and zucchini).

Americas  
85,000,000 YBN
264) The Rosids "Fagales" {FaGAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of many flowers that
produce edible nuts: for example Birch, Hazel {nut}, Chestnut, Beech {nut},
Oak, Walnut, Pecan {PEKoN}, and Hickory).

  
85,000,000 YBN
466) The Birds "Galliformes" {GaLliFORmEZ} evolve (the ancestor of the Chicken,
Turkey, Pheasant, Peacock, and Quail).

  
85,000,000 YBN
467) The Birds "Anseriformes" {aNSRiFORmEZ} evolve (the ancestor of ducks,
geese, and swans).

  
85,000,000 YBN
499) The Eutheria "Laurasiatheres" evolve.

The Laurasiatheres are a major line of placental mammals that originate in the
northern continent Laurasia.

Laurasia  
84,000,000 YBN
454) The Rocky mountains start to form.
  
82,000,000 YBN
271) The Rosids "Malvales" {moLVAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of okra, marsh
mallow {malO}, durian {DUREiN}, cotton, balsa, and cacao {KoKoU}.

Americas  
82,000,000 YBN
272) The Rosids "Sapindales" {SaPiNDAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of the maple,
lychee, mahogany, cashew, mango, pistachio, and the citrus trees: orange,
lemon, and grapefruit).

Americas  
82,000,000 YBN
420) The Ornithopods {ORnitePoDZ} Hadrosaurs evolve; the duck-billed dinosaurs.
  
82,000,000 YBN
500) The Laurasiatheres "Insectivora" evolves (the ancestor of shrews, moles,
and hedgehogs).

  
80,000,000 YBN
422) The Therapods {tERePoDZ} Dromaeosaurs {DrOmEoSORZ} evolve: Raptors.
  
80,000,000 YBN
482) The Marsupials: New World Opossums evolve.
Americas  
75,000,000 YBN
492) The Afrotheres: Aardvarks evolve.
Africa  
74,000,000 YBN
280) The Asterids "Lamiales" {lAmEAlEZ} evolve (the ancestor of many spices:
mint, basil, marjoram {moRJ uruM}, oregano, rosemary, sage, savory, thyme,
teak, sesame, olive, ash, lilac and jasmine).

  
73,000,000 YBN
484) The Marsupials: Bandicoots and Bilbies {BiLBEZ} evolve.
Australia  
70,000,000 YBN
424) Two of the largest meat-eating dinosaurs known are common (both Therapods
{tERePoDZ}): Tyrannosaurus rex {TiraNiSORuS reKS} is the top predator in North
America and Giganotosaurus {JiGuNOTuSORuS} is the top predator in South
America.

Americas  
70,000,000 YBN
425) The Thyreophoran {tIRrEoFereNZ} Ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} evolve (the
shield back and/or club tail dinosaurs).

  
70,000,000 YBN
426) The Marine reptiles Mosasaurs {mOSeSORZ} evolve.
  
70,000,000 YBN
469) The Birds "Podicipediformes" {PoDiSiPeDeFORmEZ} evolve (grebes {GreBS}).
  
70,000,000 YBN
507) The Eutheria Lagomorpha {loGomORFo} evolve: the ancestor of Rabbits,
Hares, and Pikas {PIKuZ}.

  
70,000,000 YBN
516) The Eutheria Tree Shrews and Colugos {KolUGOZ} evolve.
  
66,000,000 YBN
120) The largest Pterosaur and largest flying animal ever known, Quetzalcoatlus
{KeTZLKWoTLuS}.

  
65,500,000 YBN
129) The End-Cretaceous mass extinction. 47% of all genera are observed
extinct.

Made extinct are: 60% of plant species, and all dinosaurs, mosasaurs,
pterosaurs, plesiosaurs {PlESEoSORZ} and pliosaurs {PlIoSORZ}.

A comet or meteor collides with the Earth in what is now the Yucatan {YUKoTaN}
Peninsula of Mexico and huge amounts of lava erupt from India. No large animals
survive on land, in the air, or in the sea.

  
65,500,000 YBN
397) The end of the Mesozoic and start of the Cenozoic Era, and the end of the
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 mybn), and start of the Tertiary (65.5-1.8 mybn) Period.

  
65,000,000 YBN
429) The start of the rapid diversification of mammals.
  
65,000,000 YBN
468) The Birds "Gruiformes" {GrUiFORmEZ} evolve (the ancestor of cranes, rails,
and bustards {BuSTRDZ}).

  
65,000,000 YBN
485) Marsupial moles evolve.
Australia  
65,000,000 YBN
486) The Marsupials Tasmanian Devil and Numbat {nuMBaT} evolve.
Australia  
65,000,000 YBN
488) The Marsupials "Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu} evolve (the ancestor of
Wombats, Kangeroos, Possums, and Koalas).

Australia  
65,000,000 YBN
508) The Eutheria "Rodentia" evolve; rodents.
The Rodents: "Myomorpha" {MIemORFu} evolve
(the ancestor of rats, mice, gerbils, voles {VOLZ}, lemmings, and hamsters).

  
63,000,000 YBN
587) The Primates evolve. The opposable thumb.

The Order primates contains more than 300 species, including monkeys, apes, and
humans.

Africa or India  
60,000,000 YBN
470) The Birds "Strigiformes" {STriJiFORmEZ} evolve (owls).
  
60,000,000 YBN
504) The Laurasiatheres "Carnivora" {KoRniVRu} evolve (the ancestor of Cats,
Dogs, Bears, Weasels, Hyenas, Seals, and Walruses).

Laurasia  
58,000,000 YBN
524) The Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ} evolve.
  
55,000,000 YBN
471) The Birds "Apodiformes" {oPoD-i-FORmEZ} evolve (hummingbirds, and swifts).
  
55,000,000 YBN
476) The Birds "Piciformes" {PESiFORmEZ} evolve (woodpeckers, and toucans).
  
55,000,000 YBN
477) The Birds "Passeriformes" {PaSRiFORmEZ} evolve (perching songbirds). This
order includes many common birds: for example crows, jays, sparrows, warblers,
mockingbirds, wrens, robins, orioles, bluebirds, vireos {VEREOZ}, larks,
swallows, and finches.

More than half of all species of birds are passerines.

earliest fossils: Australia|Gondwana  
55,000,000 YBN
495) The Afrotheres Elephants evolve.
Algeria, Africa|Africa  
55,000,000 YBN
497) The Afrotheres: Manatee and Dugong evolve.
  
55,000,000 YBN
502) The Laurasiatheres "Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu} evolve (the
ancestor of all Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu} also called "even-toed ungulates":
camels, pigs, ruminants {includes deer, giraffe, cattle, sheep, and antelope},
hippos, and all Cetacea {SiTASEu or SiTAsEu}: Whales, and Dolphins).

Hippos are the closest living land relative of the whales and dolphins.

Laurasia  
55,000,000 YBN
503) The Laurasiatheres "Perissodactyla" {PeriSODaKTilu} evolve (also called
"odd-toed ungulates") {uNGYUlATS or uNGYUliTS} (the ancestor of all Horses,
Tapirs {TAPRZ }, and Rhinos).

Laurasia  
55,000,000 YBN
509) The Rodents: Beavers.
  
55,000,000 YBN
511) The Rodents: Dormouse, Mountain Beaver, Squirrel and Marmot {moRmuT}
evolve.

  
55,000,000 YBN
585) The Birds Psittaciformes {SiTaS-iFORmEZ} evolve (Parrots).
  
55,000,000 YBN
6381) Horses evolve.
  
55,000,000 YBN
6387) The first Giraffes evolve.
  
54,000,000 YBN
810) The last common ancestor between hippos with dolphins and whales.
  
53,500,000 YBN
812) The earliest marine mammal and whale "Himalayacetus".
earliest fossils: (Subathu Formation) Northern India  
52,000,000 YBN
501) The Laurasiatheres "Chiroptera" {KIroPTRu} evolve (the ancestor of fruit
bats, and echolocating bats).

Laurasia  
51,000,000 YBN
513) The Rodents: Old World Porcupines evolve.
  
50,000,000 YBN
438) The Himalayan {HiMolAYeN} mountains start to form.
Himalyia Mountains, India  
50,000,000 YBN
816) The early whale Ambulocetus evolves.
  
49,000,000 YBN
474) The Birds "Falconiformes" {FaLKoNiFORmEZ} evolve (the ancestor of falcons,
hawks, eagles, and Old World vultures).

  
49,000,000 YBN
515) The Rodents: New World porcupines, guinea pigs, agoutis {uGUTEZ}, and
capybaras {KaPuBoRoZ} evolve.

  
40,000,000 YBN
525) The Primates "New World Monkeys" evolve (the ancestor of the Sakis,
Spider, Howler and Squirrel monkeys, Capuchins {KaP YU CiNZ}, and Tamarins).

The ancestor of all extant New World monkeys may have reached the Americas from
Africa by crossing the early Atlantic Ocean, perhaps on fallen trees over a
chain of islands.

Africa  
37,000,000 YBN
442) Dogs evolve.
  
37,000,000 YBN
475) The Birds: Cuculiformes {KUKUliFORmEZ} evolve (the ancestor of cuckoos,
and roadrunners).

  
34,000,000 YBN
813) Toothed and Baleen whale lines split.

Toothed whales include dolphins, sperm, and killer whales. Baleen whales
include blue, humpback, and gray whales.

  
30,000,000 YBN
444) Cats evolve.
  
30,000,000 YBN
520) The Primates: True Lemurs evolve.
  
30,000,000 YBN
6385) The first pigs evolve.
  
25,000,000 YBN
531) The Primates "Old World Monkeys" evolve (the ancestor of the Macaques,
Baboons, Mandrills, Proboscis and Colobus {KoLiBeS} monkeys).

(perhaps around Lake Victoria) Africa  
25,000,000 YBN
6386) The first deer evolves.
  
24,000,000 YBN
662) The ancestor of all Hominoids (Gibbons and Hominids) loses its tail.
  
23,000,000 YBN
478) The Monotreme: Echidna evolves.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
23,000,000 YBN
479) The Monotreme: Duck-Billed Platypus evolves.
Australia and Tasmania  
22,000,000 YBN
559) The Hominoid Proconsul evolves in East Africa.
  
18,000,000 YBN
537) The Hominoids: Gibbons evolve in South-east Asia.
South-East Asia  
15,000,000 YBN
6388) The first Kangeroos evolve.
Australia  
15,000,000 YBN
6389) The first bovids {BOViDZ} evolve (hollow-horned ruminants: oxen,
antelopes, sheep, cattle, and goats).

  
14,000,000 YBN
542) The earliest extant Hominids: Orangutans evolve in South-East Asia.
South-East Asia  
10,000,000 YBN
543) The Hominids: Gorillas evolve in Africa.
Africa  
6,000,000 YBN
544) The Hominids: Chimpanzees evolve in Africa. This is the last common
ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

Africa  
4,400,000 YBN
546) The Hominid: Ardipithecus evolves. The earliest bipedal primate.
Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya, Africa  
4,000,000 YBN
547) The Hominid: Australopithecus (x-STrA-lO-PitiKuS} evolves.
Sterkfontein, South Africa  

SCIENCE
3,390,000 YBN
269) Hominids use stones as tools.
Dikika, Ethiopia  
3,000,000 YBN
446) North and South America connect.
  
2,700,000 YBN
564) The Hominid: Paranthropus {Pa raN tru PuS} evolves; a line of extinct
early bipedal hominids.

Africa  
2,500,000 YBN
455) The oldest formed stone tools. The start of the Paleolithic or "Old Stone
Age".

Gona, Ethiopia  
2,200,000 YBN
447) The first humans. The Hominid: Homo habilis evolves (the earliest member
of the genus "Homo").

This is when the human brain begins to get bigger.

(Kenya and Tanzania) Africa  
2,000,000 YBN
545) The Hominids: Bonobos {BunOBOZ} evolve.
Africa  
1,800,000 YBN
130) The end of the Tertiary {TRsEARE} (65-1.8 mybn), and start of the
Quaternary {KWoTRnARE or KWoTRNRE} (1.8 mybn-now) Period.

  
1,800,000 YBN
563) Homo erectus {hOmO ireKTuS} evolves in Africa.
Lake Turkana, East Africa  
1,700,000 YBN
449) Homo erectus moves into Eurasia from Africa.
  
1,500,000 YBN
583) The controlled use of fire by Hominids.
(Swartkrans cave) Swartkrans, South Africa  
1,000,000 YBN
589) Homo erectus evolves far less body hair, except on the head, face, airpit,
chest, and groin.

  
970,000 YBN
200) Humans wear clothing.
Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK  
400,000 YBN
615) The earliest evidence of spears.
Kathu Pan 1, South Africa|(Schöningen, Germany.)  
302,000 YBN
6517) There are 1 million humans on Earth, all hunter-gathering people.
  
200,000 YBN
548) Homo sapiens evolve in Africa.
Ethiopia, Africa  
200,000 YBN
590) The Human language of thirty short sounds begins to develop. All words are
single syllable.

This is the beginning of the transition from the verbal language of chimpanzees
and monkeys, to the language humans use now, which has shorter sound duration
and a larger number of sounds.

  
130,000 YBN
450) Homo Neanderthalensis evolves in Europe and Western Asia.
Europe and Western Asia  
120,000 YBN
572) The start of the Wurm glaciation, which connects a land bridge between
Asia and America.

  
101,000 YBN
[99000 BC]
594) Homo sapiens move out of Africa into Eurasia. This is the beginning of
differences in race within the human species.

  
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
257) The oldest Homo sapiens skull outside of Africa; in Israel.
(Skhul Cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
597) The earliest human burial, Skhul {SKuL?} cave in Israel.
(es-Skhul cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
6333) The theory that Gods control the universe.
(Es-Skhul) Mount Carmel, Israel  
61,000 YBN
[59000 BC]
614) Humans use a bow and arrows.
Sibudu Cave, South Africa  
53,300 YBN
[51300 BC]
557) Homo Erectus goes extinct.
Ngandong, Indonesia  
50,000 YBN
[48000 BC]
6399) The start of the mass extinction of large mammals due in part to human
impact.

  
46,000 YBN
[44000 BC]
577) The earliest water ship. Sapiens from Southeast Asia reach Australia by
water ship.

  
43,000 YBN
[41000 BC]
1187) The earliest known mine: "Lion Cave" in Swaziland, Africa.
Swaziland, Africa  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
598) The earliest sapiens fossils in Europe (Romania).
Peştera cu Oase, Romania (and baby tooth: Grotta del Cavallo, Italy, jaw:
Kent's Cavern, UK)  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
604) The earliest oil lamp.
Southwest France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
1262) The earliest known human-made painting.
(The Panel de las Manos) El Castillo Cave, Spain|Southern France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
5871) The earliest musical instrument, a flute, made from the wing bone of a
vulture.

Hohle Fels Cave, Germany  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
6483) Humans catch fish.
Peçstera cu Oase, Romania  
39,000 YBN
[37000 BC]
599) Sapiens reach China.
(Tianyuan Cave) Zhoukoudian, China (Tongtianyan Cave, Liujiang County, Guangxi
Zhuang)  
32,000 YBN
[30000 BC]
602) Humans weave textiles from flax and use coloring dyes.
Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia  
31,700 YBN
[29700 BC]
42) Humans raise dogs.
Goyet cave, Belgium  
29,000 YBN
[27000 BC]
6215) The earliest ceramic objects, the Venus figurines.
Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia  
28,000 YBN
[26000 BC]
451) The Neanderthals go extinct.
Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, Spain  
26,000 YBN
[24000 BC]
6224) The earliest "fired" clay (clay dried and hardened by fire).
Dolní Věstonice, Pavlov, Czech Republic  
25,000 YBN
[23000 BC]
724) Woven baskets.
Pavlov, Czech Republic   
23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6231) The earliest human-made structure. A stone wall.
(Theopetra Cave) Kalambaka, Greece  
19,000 YBN
[17000 BC]
6175) Cereal gathering.
Near East (Southwest Asia Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi
Arabia)  
18,000 YBN
[16000 BC]
603) The earliest pottery.
(Yuchanyan cave), Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6225) The earliest rope.
Lascaux, France  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6516) There are 10 million humans on Earth, all hunter-gathering people.
  
14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6227) The earliest known map.
Mezhirich, Ukraine  
14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6439) Lime cement is used as an adhesive on small stone tools.
Geometric Kebaran site Lagama North VIII, Gebel Maghara, Northern Sinai,
Egypt  
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
578) Sapiens reach America. The oldest human bones in America.
Mexico City and Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA  
12,000 YBN
[10000 BC]
6522) Humans transform from hunting and gathering to agriculture, from a
migratory to a sedentary life, building the first cities.

  
11,700 YBN
[9700 BC]
827) The end of the Pleistocene (PlISTeSEN), and start of the Holocene {HoLoSEN
or HOLoSEN} epoch. This is the end of the last Ice Age.

  
11,700 YBN
[9700 BC]
828) The start of the Neolithic or "New Stone Age" in the Fertile Crescent, a
region of the Middle East arching from the Nile Valley to the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers.

  
11,500 YBN
[9500 BC]
829) Humans shape metal objects from native copper.
(Shanidar Cave) North East Iraq|(Çayönü) Anatolia (modern Turkey)|Northern
Iraq|Eastern Anatolia  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
606) The oldest city, Jericho.
Jericho, (modern West Bank) Palestine  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
608) The oldest saddle quern {KWRN} (a flat stone and rounded stone used to
grind grain into flour).

Abu Hureyra, Syria  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
617) Goats are kept, fed, milked, and killed for food.
Euphrates river valley at Nevali Çori, Turkey| (11,000 bp), and the Zagros
Mountains of Iran at Ganj Dareh (10,000).  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
1292) The earliest stone buildings and temple; in Turkey.
Göbekli Tepe, near Sanliurfa, Southeastern Turkey  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
6509) Rye is grown in Syria.
Abu Hureyra, Syria  
10,870 YBN
[8870 BC]
6438) The earliest settlement in Mesopotamia.
Zawi Chemi, Shanidar, Northern Iraq  
10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
610) Flax is grown.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria  
10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
6315) Sheep are raised for wool, skins, meat and dung (which is used for fuel).
Northern Zagros to southeastern Anatolia|(Middle East) Eastern
Mediterranean  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
205) Pigs are raised and killed for food.
(Near East) Eastern Mediterranean and Island South East Asia|southeastern
Anatolia  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
1259) Clay tokens with different shapes that represent products are used in
Mesopotamia.

eastern Iran, southern Turkey, Israel, Sumer (modern Iraq)|Babylonia|Syria,
Sumer and Highland Iran  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
6316) Cows are raised for milk, for meat and eventually for plowing.
upper Euphrates Valley  
9,800 YBN
[7800 BC]
607) The earliest flint sickle.

A sickle is used for cutting grain.

Tell Aswad (modern Syria)|Palestine  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
612) Wheat is grown in modern Syria.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria|southeastern Turkey and northern Syria (Nevali Cori,
Turkey)  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
613) Common millet is grown in China.
Cishan, North China  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
6185) Barley is grown in modern Syria.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria  
9,240 YBN
[7240 BC]
1478) The earliest domesticated plants in America. Squash is grown in Peru.
Paiján, Peru  
9,000 YBN
[7000 BC]
1288) Mehrgarh {mARGoR}, an Indus Valley city is founded.
Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan  
8,800 YBN
[6800 BC]
6511) Lentils are grown in Israel.
Yifta'el, North Israel  
8,500 YBN
[6500 BC]
6512) Peas are grown in Turkey.
Çayönü, Turkey  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
605) The oldest known boat, a dug-out boat.
Netherlands  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
6220) The earliest drum.
Moravia, Czeck Republic  
7,700 YBN
[5700 BC]
719) Rice is grown in China.
Kuahuqiao, Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang Province|Yangtze (in Hubei and Hunan
provinces), China  
7,100 YBN
[5100 BC]
720) Corn is grown in Mexico.
San Andrés, Mexico|(Oaxaca, Mexico)  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
627) The first metal to be smelted and casted (copper). Smelting is separating
a metal from its ore by using heat and a reducing or oxidizing material.

Belovode, Eastern Serbia  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
727) The earliest reed boats.
Kuwait  
6,900 YBN
[4900 BC]
648) The sail boat.
Mesopotamia  
6,800 YBN
[4800 BC]
6527) The first fruit trees, olives are grown in Israel and Jordan.
(Chalcolithic) Tuleilat Ghassul (north of the Dead Sea)  
6,500 YBN
[4500 BC]
6437) The earliest settlement in Europe, Provadia-Solnitsata {PrOVoDEYo
SOLnETSoTo?}, in Bulgaria is founded.

(near) Provadia, Bulgaria  
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
665) Wine making.
(Areni-1 cave complex in) southeastern Armenia|Egypt  
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6232) The earliest Sun-dried mud bricks and mud-brick house.
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
5,800 YBN
[3800 BC]
6540) The earliest nut crops, almond trees are grown in the eastern part of the
Mediterranean basin.

Eastern part of the Mediterranean Basin  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
233) The earliest writing (on clay objects in Mesopotamia). The first numbers.
The first stamp (or seal).

The first writing begins as symbols for numbers on clay bulla (hollow clay
containers that hold clay tokens). These symbols represent the quantity and
kind of tokens inside the bulla.
Hollow bullae are eventually replaced by
solid clay tablets with the same impressions.

Mesopotamia (Babylonia)|Sumer (Syria, Sumer, Highland Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
294) The sundial, the earliest timekeeping device.
China and Chaldea  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
621) The earliest plow. Plows are used to break up soil.
Mesopotamia  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
622) The earliest irrigation (supplying water to crops).
Middle east (eastern part of Mediterranean)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
625) Donkeys are raised and used for transport.
  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
634) The Egyptian calendar (12 months of 30 days, plus 5 extra days).
  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
646) The earliest known wheel, a pottery wheel.
Mesopotamia (and a similar pottery wheel from Choga Mish, Iran)  
5,490 YBN
[3490 BC]
702) Cotton is grown in Peru.
Northwestern Peru|Indus valley  
5,350 YBN
[3350 BC]
1261) Writing on clay tablets.

Symbols that represent a product (such as cows, sheep, and cereals), drawn with
a stylus on clay tablets, are the earliest record of what will become the
modern alphabet.

The training of scribes is an early school.

These tablets contain a record of objects owned or traded, and contain no
stories.

Uruk  
5,310 YBN
[3310 BC]
704) Ox pulled vehicles with wheels.
(TRB - Funnel Beaker culture) Bronocice, Krakow, Poland  
5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
641) The earliest record of a belief in Gods and Goddesses.
Uruk  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
569) The earliest stringed musical instrument (the lyre and the harp).
Sumer (modern Iraq)  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
596) Written symbols are combined to form words; there is a transition from
word-writing to sound-writing in Sumarian.

The vast majority of Sumerian language is made of one-syllable words. This
suggests that all earlier spoken languages contained only single-syllable
words.

Jemdet Nasr  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
628) Bronze (copper and tin) are smelted and casted.

The start of the Bronze Age.

Tell Judaidah, Turkey|Egypt  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
650) Cuneiform writing.
Uruk  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
664) Soldering of metals.
Tell al-'Ubaid|Mesopotamia  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
672) The earliest dam.
Wadi Gerrawi, Egypt  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
675) The earliest silver objects.
Ur  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
676) Metal casting where wax is melted in a clay mold.
  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
1276) The first recorded political assembly.
Sumer, Uruk, Kish  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6222) The inclined plane (or ramp).
Egypt?  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6226) The abacus; a counting and calculating device.
Mesopotamia  
4,980 YBN
[2980 BC]
654) The earliest pyramid in Egypt, designed by the earliest known scientist,
Imhotep.

Sakkara, Egypt  
4,800 YBN
[2800 BC]
6565) Musical reed instruments.
Greece  
4,750 YBN
[2750 BC]
320) The earliest metal saw.
Mesopotamia  
4,700 YBN
[2700 BC]
1052) The earliest arch.
Nippur, Mesopotamia  
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
635) Iron is smelted and casted.

The start of the Iron Age in Turkey.

Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia (modern Turkey)|Palestine|Tell Hammeh
(az-Zarqa), Jordan|Central Europe and north Assyria  
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
637) Scribes change from writing right to left in columns to writing left to
right in rows.

Sumer  
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
6230) The earliest dice and boardgame.
Ur, Mesopotamia  
4,450 YBN
[2450 BC]
708) Animal skin is used for writing (the earliest parchment).
Egypt  
4,400 YBN
[2400 BC]
1277) The earliest recorded written history.
Lagash  
4,345 YBN
[2345 BC]
800) Writing on papyrus.
Egypt  
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
629) The Akkadian language, the earliest known semitic language. The earliest
verb tense, and noun gender. The first dictionary.

Agade, Mesopotamia   
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
667) The earliest glass making; glass beads.
Mesopotamia  
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
1271) The earliest written stories. These consist of epics and myths, hymns and
laments, proverbs and wisdom.

These writings record a belief in Gods, Goddesses, a Heaven, and an Under
World.

There are clear similarities between the Sumerian and the later Greek stories,
for example stories about the creation of the universe, good and bad deeds of
the gods, and of a flood.

Lagash|Nippur  
4,200 YBN
[2200 BC]
6446) Egyptian writing becomes completely phonetic. The first alphabet.
Egypt  
4,130 YBN
[2130 BC]
6234) The earliest musical horn.
Lagash, Mesopotamia  
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
1279) The earliest Health science text.
Nippur  
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
6376) The first place value number system, a sexagesimal (base 60) number
system. Fractional values such as 1/60 and 1/3600 are also in use.

Babylonia  
4,050 YBN
[2050 BC]
1278) The earliest recorded laws.
Ur  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
706) Humans ride horses.
Kazakhstan  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
711) The earliest spoked wheel. Spokes make the wheel lighter in weight.
  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
733) The earliest lock and key.
Nineveh, Assyria on the Tigris River  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
1283) The earliest library catalog.
Nippur an ancient city of Babylonia on the Euphrates River southeast of
Babylon   
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
6236) Metal is traded as money.
Babylonia  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
6542) The vegetables leek, garlic and onion are grown around the fertile
crescent.

Mesopotamia  
3,700 YBN
[1700 BC]
1280) The earliest agricultural science text.
Nippur  
3,650 YBN
[1650 BC]
716) The earliest mathematical text.
Egypt  
3,531 YBN
[1531 BC]
639) The first planet, Venus, is recognized in Babylon.
Babylon  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
624) The earliest oven-baked mud brick (or "burned brick").
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
723) The earliest pulley.
Nimroud, Assyria  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
1516) The "Vedas", four ancient Indian collections of poems or hymns, originate
as an oral tradition.

India  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
6228) The water clock (or Clepsydra {KlePSi-Dru}).
Egypt  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
6456) The earliest American city, an Olmec city in Veracruz, Mexico.
(El Manati shrine, near modern) San Lorenzo, Veracruz, Mexico  
3,450 YBN
[1450 BC]
6449) The first letters that represent vowel sounds.
Ugarit (modern Ra's Shamra on Syria's north coast)  
3,400 YBN
[1400 BC]
6454) The earliest Chinese writing.
near Anyang, north-central China  
3,350 YBN
[1350 BC]
6561) Welding of metals using heat and hammering.
Egypt  
3,348 YBN
[1348 BC]
2727) Monotheism, the theory that only one God exists.
Amarna, Egypt  
3,300 YBN
[1300 BC]
736) Two piece mold metal casting.
Mesopotamia  
3,300 YBN
[1300 BC]
5862) The earliest written musical notation and musical composition.
Ur, Babylonia|Mesopotamia  
3,150 YBN
[1150 BC]
6447) The Phoenician alphabet, the ancestor of the Greek alphabet.
(coastal centers) Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Beurut, and Ashkelon  
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
746) Complex pulleys.
  
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6237) The earliest lens.
Nimrud, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6448) The Aramaic alphabet, the ancestor of Hebrew, Arabic, and probably the
alphabets of India.

  
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6450) The earliest Hebrew writing.
Khirbet Qeiyafa near the Elah valley, Israel  
2,850 YBN
[850 BC]
751) The Greek alphabet.
Greece  
2,800 YBN
[800 BC]
6452) The Indian alphabets of India and South-East Asia.
India  
2,785 YBN
[785 BC]
771) Eclipses are predicted by Babylonian astronomers.
  
2,690 YBN
[690 BC]
1066) The earliest aquaduct, a channel to move water from one place to another
near Nineveh.

Jerwan, Nineveh  
2,690 YBN
[690 BC]
6378) The earliest concrete (lime cement mixed with limestone); used in an
aqueduct.

Jerwan, Nineveh  
2,651 YBN
[651 BC]
6337) All planets visible to the naked eye (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and
Saturn) are clearly distinguished from stars in Babylonia.

Babylonia  
2,650 YBN
[650 BC]
6458) The Etruscan {iTruSKeN} alphabet.
  
2,622 YBN
[622 BC]
826) The Old Testament (The Torah, The Hebrew Bible, The Ten Commandments, and
The Story of Genesis).

Judah|(Israel)  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
630) Metal coin money.
Lydia, Anatolia  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
762) The Universe is explained without using the theory of Gods by Thales.
Miletus, Greece  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
6455) The earliest Native American writing.
San Jose Mogote, Oaxaca, Mexico  
2,580 YBN
[580 BC]
764) The Earth-centered Universe theory, and the theory that humans evolved
from fish.

The Earth-centered theory will dominate until the 1500s.

Miletus  
2,550 YBN
[550 BC]
1036) The Latin alphabet.
Rome  
2,529 YBN
[529 BC]
772) The Earth is described as a sphere.
Croton, Italy  
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
6518) There are 100 million humans on Earth.
  
2,470 YBN
[470 BC]
840) That the brain controls the body is understood, and the first human
dissection.

(academy at Croton, now:) Crotone, southern Italy  
2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
836) That stars are other Suns and made of red-hot metal is recognized.
Clazomenae (75 miles/120 km north of Miletus)|Athens|Did not move to Athens
until around 462 bce  
2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
1894) The earliest particle (or wireless) communication. The optical telegraph;
using fire signals.

Argos, Greece  
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
841) The theory that all matter is made of atoms.
  
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
842) The theory that the universe is made of only four elements: water, air,
fire and earth.

  
2,450 YBN
[450 BC]
843) The theory that the Earth moves through space.
Croton, Italy  
2,432 YBN
[432 BC]
849) The Metonic {miToNiK} calendar: 12 years of 12 months and 7 years of 13
months.

Athens, Greece (presumably)  
2,430 YBN
[430 BC]
845) The Universe is explained as being filled with many other worlds, and the
Milky Way as a large group of stars.

Abdera, Thrace  
2,424 YBN
[424 BC]
6533) Grafting of plants in Greece.
Greece|(presumably for Theophrastus) (The Lyceum) Athens, Greece   
2,387 YBN
[387 BC]
851) Plato's Academy.
Athens, Greece  
2,358 YBN
[358 BC]
856) The theory that the Earth rotates around its own axis, and that some
planets rotate around the Sun.

(Academy) Athens, Greece (presumably)  
2,335 YBN
[335 BC]
859) Aristotle's Lyceum {LI SEuM or lU-KEoN}).
A fifth element "aether" is added.
The concept of
gravity.

Athens, Greece  
2,325 YBN
[325 BC]
887) The theory that the Moon influences the tides.
Massalia (now: Marseille France)  
2,300 YBN
[300 BC]
6482) The earliest chain-drive, and automatic repeating crossbow.
Rhodes, Greece  
2,297 YBN
[297 BC]
902) The Museum and Library of Alexandria.
  
2,295 YBN
[295 BC]
878) Euclid's "Elements" compiles all known mathematics.
(Mouseion) Alexandria, Egypt  
2,285 YBN
[285 BC]
1028) Compressed air is used for a catapult and for the earliest musical
keyboard instrument, an organ, by Ctesibius.

Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,274 YBN
[274 BC]
886) The cerebrum and cerebellum of the brain are identified.
Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
663) The earliest lever.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
822) The earliest screw.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
882) The rotation of the Earth around its own axis once a day and around the
Sun once a year is understood by Aristarchus.

(Mousion of Alexandria) Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,250 YBN
[250 BC]
890) The earliest known escapement, a device that controls the rotation of a
toothed gear to provide periodic impulses.

  
2,246 YBN
[246 BC]
898) The size of Earth is correctly calculated by using the angle of the Sun's
shadow and the distance between two cities.

Alexandria, Egypt  
2,240 YBN
[240 BC]
1325) The earliest observation of a comet.
China  
2,231 YBN
[231 BC]
833) Metal gears. The earliest evidence of the spur and worm gears.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,160 YBN
[160 BC]
1029) The distance to the Moon is measured using parallax; by measuring how
much an object appears to move compared to a more distant object when the
observer changes positions.

(before 141 BC) Bithynia (presumably Nicaea)|(observatory on) Island of Rhodes,
Greece  
2,160 YBN
[160 BC]
6477) The law of inertia (that a body preserves its motion) is understood.
(before 141 BC) Bithynia (presumably Nicaea)|(observatory on) Island of Rhodes,
Greece  
2,140 YBN
[140 BC]
1070) The invention of paper in China.
Pa-chhiao near Sian in the Shensi province of China|Xian, China  
2,134 YBN
[134 BC]
1041) A nova is observed. The first star catalog that uses celestial
coordinates of latitude and longitude, and that divides stars by brightness.
The "precession of the equinoxes" is recognized; that the position of the stars
at equinox changes slightly each year.

(observatory on) Island of Rhodes, Greece  
2,100 YBN
[100 BC]
870) The earliest known metal spur gear and mechanical computer.
near the island of Antikythera, Mediterranean Sea  
2,075 YBN
[75 BC]
1116) Negative numbers are used in China.
China  
2,056 YBN
[56 BC]
1045) The theory that light is made of atoms that move very fast.
Rome, Italy  
2,050 YBN
[50 BC]
1050) The first glass blowing.
(origin of glass blowing probably in the Syro-Palestine area, but earliest
artifact is from) Jerusalem  
2,045 YBN
[01/01/45 BC]
1056) The Julian calendar: 365 days with an extra day every 4 years.
Rome (presumably)  
2,040 YBN
[40 BC]
1058) The earliest waterwheel. The earliest elevator (or vertical lift).
Rome  
2,037 YBN
[37 BC]
6549) The germ theory of disease; that disease can be caused by tiny living
organisms.

Rome (presumably)  
1,950 YBN
[50 AD]
1078) The steam engine.
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,950 YBN
[50 AD]
6566) A wind-wheel powered machine.
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,935 YBN
[65 AD]
6432) The glass prism.
Rome  
1,925 YBN
[75 AD]
1270) The last cuneiform texts.
Sumer/Babylon (Southern Iraq)  
1,923 YBN
[77 AD]
1083) The earliest Encyclopedia.
Spain?  
1,917 YBN
[83 AD]
766) The magnetic compass.
China (more specific)  
1,900 YBN
[100 AD]
5861) The earliest known complete musical composition including musical
notation.

(now Aidin, Turkey) (verify)  
1,850 YBN
[150 AD]
1087) Ptolomy's "Almagest", an Earth-centered model of the universe, with the
Earth a stationary sphere in the center, surrounded by 7 larger planetary
spheres for the Moon, Sun, planets, and fixed stars.

(in Mouseion?) Alexandria, Egypt  
1,800 YBN
[200 AD]
1073) The earliest "press-on" printing in China.
China  
1,672 YBN
[328 AD]
6451) The Arabic alphabet.
(early inscription) Namara, Syria  
1,609 YBN
[02/24/391 AD]
1002) Roman Emperor Theodosius I prohibits the visiting of non-Christian
temples.

(presumably) Rome, Italy  
1,609 YBN
[391 AD]
1003) The Library in Alexandria (the Serapeum) is destroyed by Christians.
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,585 YBN
[03/??/415 AD]
1009) The murder of Hypatia.
(steps of a church called The Caesarium ) Alexandria, Egypt  
1,471 YBN
[529 AD]
1014) Byzantine {BiZeNTEN} Emperor Justinian closes the schools of Alexandria
and Athens (including Plato's Academy).

Athens, Greece (and Alexandria,Egypt)  
1,458 YBN
[542 AD]
1381) The earliest hospital in France.
Lyon, France  
1,400 YBN
[600 AD]
1111) The earliest windmill, in Persia. This windmill uses a vertical shaft and
horizontal sails to grind grain.

Persia (Iran)  
1,300 YBN
[700 AD]
1118) The numerals (0 through 9), and decimal notation.
Bakhshali (near modern Peshawar, Pakistan)  
1,249 YBN
[751 AD]
1253) Jabir prepares and identifies acids.
Kufa, (now Iraq)  
1,230 YBN
[770 AD]
1060) Wood-cut Printing.
Japan  
1,219 YBN
[781 AD]
1254) Lower case letters.
Aachen, in north-west Germany, or York, England  
1,211 YBN
[789 AD]
1256) Charlemagne {soRlemAN} establishes schools where math and grammar are
taught.

Aachen, in north-west Germany  
1,200 YBN
[800 AD]
6221) String instruments are played with a bow.
River Oxus (modern) Turkmenistan (Central Asia)  
1,185 YBN
[815 AD]
1021) The "Bayt al-Hikma" (House of Wisdom) school is founded, where many
scientific works are translated into Arabic.

Baghdad  
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1144) Gunpowder is invented; in China
China  
1,100 YBN
[900 AD]
1379) A health science school is founded in Salerno, Italy.
Salerno (near Naples), Italy  
1,080 YBN
[920 AD]
6183) Norwegian explorers reach North America.
L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland  
1,040 YBN
[960 AD]
6186) The earliest rocket; in China.
China  
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1022) The Encyclopedia the "Suda".
  
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1054) Paper money is used; in China.
China  
962 YBN
[1038 AD]
1308) The pin-hole camera.
Cairo, Egypt  
959 YBN
[1041 AD]
1124) Movable type printing, where individual blocks can be put together to
form a text.

China  
912 YBN
[1088 AD]
1339) The University of Bologna.
Bologna, Italy  
868 YBN
[1132 AD]
1146) The first cannon and gun.
Ta-tsu, Szechuan Province, China  
850 YBN
[1150 AD]
6239) The first stringed instrument to use a keyboard.
Europe  
833 YBN
[1167 AD]
1340) The University of Oxford.
Oxford, England (now: United Kingdom)  
830 YBN
[1170 AD]
1319) The University of Paris.
Paris, France  
816 YBN
[11/??/1184 AD]
1153) The start of the Inquisition. Pope Lucius III makes burning the official
punishment for heresy {HAReSE}.

Verona, Italy  
772 YBN
[1228 AD]
1392) The theory that all matter is made of light.
Oxford, England  
766 YBN
[1234 AD]
1125) The movable metal block printing press.
Korea  
720 YBN
[1280 AD]
6238) The first eyeglasses.
Florence, Italy  
700 YBN
[1300 AD]
1121) Mechanical clocks.
Europe  
690 YBN
[1310 AD]
1424) Sulfuric and other strong acids described.
Spain  
684 YBN
[1316 AD]
1428) The first book devoted entirely to anatomy.
Bologna, Italy  
665 YBN
[1335 AD]
1425) The law of inertia is revived.
Paris, France  
635 YBN
[03/12/1365 AD]
1360) The University of Vienna, the oldest university in the German-speaking
world.

Vienna, Austria  
602 YBN
[1398 AD]
1364) Sungkyunkwan University in Korea is founded.
Seoul, South Korea  
565 YBN
[1435 AD]
1435) The movable type printing press is introduced into Europe.
Strassburg (now Strasbourg, France)  
560 YBN
[02/12/1440 AD]
1437) Space is described as infinite in size, and stars are described as other
suns with inhabited planets.

Cusa, Germany  
550 YBN
[1450 AD]
1171) The earliest wound spiral spring driven clocks.
southern Germany or northern Italy  
546 YBN
[1454 AD]
1436) The first printed book in Europe (copies of the Bible).
Mainz, Germany  
517 YBN
[1483 AD]
6481) A parachute is designed.
Milan, Italy  
514 YBN
[1486 AD]
1467) Gliders, a helical air-screw, and a flying machine with flapping wings
are designed.

Milan, Italy  
508 YBN
[10/12/1492 AD]
1450) Humans from Europe reach America by crossing the Atlantic Ocean in three
small ships.

(probably) San Salvador  
487 YBN
[09/25/1513 AD]
1485) Europeans reach the Pacific Ocean.
from a peak in Darién, Panama  
483 YBN
[10/31/1517 AD]
1389) The start of the Protestant Reformation.
Wittenberg, Germany  
478 YBN
[09/08/1522 AD]
1475) Humans circumnavigate the Earth.
Seville, Spain  
467 YBN
[1533 AD]
1541) The method of triangulation to measure distance: a base line of known
length is chosen, and from its endpoints the angles of sight to a remote object
are measured. The distance to the object from either endpoint can then be
calculated using simple trigonometry.

Friesland (present day Netherlands) (presumably)  
462 YBN
[10/28/1538 AD]
1371) The University of Santo Domingo, the first university in the Western
Hemisphere.

Santo Domingo, (now the) Dominican Republic  
457 YBN
[1543 AD]
1482) The Sun centered theory is revived by Copernicus.
(presumably) written in (Frauenburg, East Prussia now:)Frombork, Poland;
(printed in)Nuremberg, Germany  
455 YBN
[1545 AD]
1543) Arteries are tied to stop bleeding. Artificial limbs are created.
Paris, France  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
1507) The scientific classification of minerals.
written: Chemnitz, Saxony, Germany| published: Basel, Switzerland  
454 YBN
[1546 AD]
1547) Pulmonary circulation is understood by Michael Servetus (SRVETuS): that
blood goes from the right side of the heart to the lung where it is mixed with
air becoming red, and then to the left side of the heart where it is sent
through the rest of the body.

Vienne, France  
449 YBN
[1551 AD]
1549) The first planetary tables based on the Sun-centered theory.
  
447 YBN
[10/27/1553 AD]
1548) Servetus is burned alive for heresy {HAReSE}.
Geneva, Switzerland  
440 YBN
[1560 AD]
1538) Systematic computations of probability.
Italy  
440 YBN
[1560 AD]
1563) The first scientific society (a group for the communication of scientific
research), the precursor of the Academy of the Lynx.

  
439 YBN
[1561 AD]
1562) Fallopian tubes, and semicircular canals are identified, and the vagina,
placenta, clitoris and cochlea are named.

(University of Padua) Padua, Italy  
431 YBN
[1569 AD]
1550) Cyclindrical projection is used to make a map so that lines of latitude
and longitude are straight.

Duchy of Cleves, Germany (presumably)  
427 YBN
[1573 AD]
1575) A comet is proven to be farther away than the moon and to have an orbit
that is not circular.

Island of Hven (now Ven, Sweden)  
418 YBN
[1582 AD]
1566) The Gregorian calendar: February 29th is omitted in century years which
are not divisible by 400.

Rome, Italy  
415 YBN
[1585 AD]
1581) Decimal point notation is used in Europe.
Netherlands (presumably)  
414 YBN
[1586 AD]
1583) Objects of different weight are shown to fall the same distance in the
same amount of time.

Netherlands (presumably)  
409 YBN
[1591 AD]
1182) The flush toilet.
(Palace of Queen Elizabeth) Richmond, Surrey, England  
409 YBN
[1591 AD]
1568) Letters are used to represent constant and unknown numbers (the first
"variables").

(possibly) Paris, France  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1613) Galileo invents the first thermometer.
Padua, Italy  
404 YBN
[08/03/1596 AD]
1616) A variable star is discovered, a star that shows periodic changes in
brightness.

Resterhave (near Dorum) East Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast
Netherlands) (presumably)   
400 YBN
[02/17/1600 AD]
1578) Bruno is burned alive for heresy.
(Campo de Fiori {flower market}) Rome, Italy  
400 YBN
[1600 AD]
1571) That the Earth is a spherical magnet on which a compass points to the
magnetic poles is recognized, and the first electroscope, which measures static
electricity.

London, England (presumably)  
396 YBN
[1604 AD]
1622) The inverse squared law of light: that the intensity of light is
inversely related to the square of the distance.

Prague, (now: Czech Republic) (presumably)  
392 YBN
[1608 AD]
1618) The earliest telescope.
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland) (modern: Netherlands)  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1599) The "law of falling bodies"; that the distance covered by a falling body
is proportional to the square of the elapsed time is understood.

(University of Padua) Padua, Italy  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1619) Kepler shows that planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one
focus of the ellipse, and that a line connecting a planet and the Sun will
sweep over equal areas in equal times.

Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of
Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center)  
390 YBN
[01/??/1610 AD]
1605) The moons of Jupiter are first seen and their period determined by
Galileo.

(University of Padua) Padua, Venice, Italy  
390 YBN
[12/11/1610 AD]
6485) The phases of planet Venus are seen by Galileo.
Florence, Italy  
390 YBN
[1610 AD]
6488) The earliest Microscope, a compound light microscope.
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland) (modern: Netherlands)  
389 YBN
[06/13/1611 AD]
1617) That the Sun has spots and rotates around its own axis is shown.
Osteel, East Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast Netherlands)  
388 YBN
[1612 AD]
3680) The theory of storage of light; that light can be absorbed in materials
and re-emitted later.

(Collegio Romano) Rome, Italy  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
1584) Exponential notation and logarithms.
Scotland (presumably)  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1644) Harvey describes the circulatory system, that blood can only move in one
direction and that blood moves in a circle from the heart to the arteries, from
the arteries to the veins, and through the veins back to the heart.

London, England  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1831) The earliest known reflecting telescope.
Rome, Italy  
383 YBN
[01/15/1617 AD]
6491) The first double (or binary) star system is observed.
(University of Florence) Florence, Italy  
379 YBN
[1621 AD]
1651) The law of refraction, which describes how a light ray bends when passing
between two mediums of different density.

Leiden, Netherlands (presumably)  
376 YBN
[1624 AD]
6241) The submarine.
Thames River, England  
374 YBN
[1626 AD]
1693) The sealed thermometer (measures temperature independently of air
pressure).

(The Low Countries) Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg|was: Tuscany,
Italy (presumably)  
370 YBN
[1630 AD]
1642) That the Sun completes one rotation every 25 days is recognized.
Rome, Italy  
369 YBN
[11/07/1631 AD]
1663) The transit of Mercury across the Sun is observed.
Paris, France (presumably)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1664) The speed of sound is measured.
Paris, France (presumably)  
367 YBN
[06/22/1633 AD]
1611) Galileo is condemned to life imprisonment by the Inquisition.
Rome, Italy  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1657) The "Académie Parisienne" (the precursor to the French Academy of
Sciences).

Paris, France (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1660) Frequencies of sounds are measured.
Paris, France (presumably)  
364 YBN
[1636 AD]
1219) Harvard College is founded.
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA  
363 YBN
[1637 AD]
1668) The cartesian coordinate system.
Netherlands (presumably)  
361 YBN
[11/24/1639 AD]
1708) The transit of Venus is observed.
Hoole, Lancashire, England (presumably)  
360 YBN
[1640 AD]
1697) The micrometer (a device for precision measurement).
Middleton (West Yorkshire), England  
359 YBN
[1641 AD]
6244) The repeating gun, a gun in which ammunition is fed from a magazine.
Netherlands  
358 YBN
[1642 AD]
1719) A mechanical calculating machine that can add and subtract.
Rouen, France (presumably)  
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
1692) The earliest vacuum and the barometer (which measures the pressure of the
air).

Florence, Italy  
356 YBN
[11/22/1644 AD]
1694) The phases of Mercury are observed.
(rooftop observatories on many houses) Danzig (now Gdansk in Poland)  
356 YBN
[1644 AD]
2618) The principle of the conservation of motion.
Netherlands (presumably)  
352 YBN
[09/19/1648 AD]
1721) Atmospheric pressure is shown to change at different elevations.
Rouen, France (presumably)  
352 YBN
[1648 AD]
1648) The label of "gas" is applied to a substance. Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is
recognized.

Vilvoorde, Belgium  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1675) The first air pump. That sound cannot be produced in the absence of air
is proven.

Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1722) The hydraulic press.
Rouen, France (presumably)  
345 YBN
[03/25/1655 AD]
1763) The first known moon of Saturn, Titan is identified.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
345 YBN
[1655 AD]
1702) Exponents are extended to include negative numbers and fractions.
(University of Oxford) Oxford, England  
342 YBN
[1658 AD]
1804) Red blood cells are observed and described.
Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
340 YBN
[11/28/1660 AD]
1704) The Royal Society is formed.
London, England  
340 YBN
[1660 AD]
1737) Gas is collected. That electrical attraction is transmitted through a
vacuum is proven.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1738) Acid-base indicators.
Oxford, England (presumably)  
339 YBN
[1661 AD]
1754) The connection of arteries and veins is observed.
Bologna, Italy  
338 YBN
[1662 AD]
1739) That pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related is known.
Oxford, England (presumably)  
337 YBN
[1663 AD]
2247) The first static electricity generator: a sulfur globe is rotated against
a cloth.

Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
336 YBN
[1664 AD]
1666) The theory that light is made of particles is revived by Descartes.
Descartes also identifies both the wave and corpuscular theory of light.

(in 1633:) Netherlands (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1688) The theory that comets move in elliptical orbits.
Pisa, Italy (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1707) The theory of light "diffraction".
Bologna, Italy (presumably)  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1726) The period of a Mars day is measured as 24 hours and 40 minutes.
Bologna, Italy  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1776) The first blood transfusion.
London?, England  
335 YBN
[1665 AD]
1799) The wave theory of light is firmly established by Hooke, with the medium
being a fluid between the stars associated with the ancient concept of aether.

Hooke also publishes the first images of a microorganism (or protist).

London, England  
334 YBN
[10/??/1666 AD]
1827) Calculus: differentiation is used to find the rate of change (or slope)
of an equation and integration is used to calculate the area or volume
described by an equation.

Cambridge, England  
332 YBN
[11/26/1668 AD]
3257) The theory of momentum (mass times velocity).
London, England (presumably)  
332 YBN
[1668 AD]
1727) Jupiter's period of daily rotation is determined.
(Observatory at) Panzano (near Bologna), Italy  
331 YBN
[03/18/1669 AD]
3258) The concept of energy (mass multiplied by velocity squared), and the
theory of conservation of energy is defined.

The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1735) "Double refraction" is observed.
Copenhagen, Denmark  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1774) The element Phosphorus is identified.
Hamburg, Germany (presumably)  
329 YBN
[1671 AD]
2119) The element Hydrogen is identified; released by mixing iron filings and
acids.

Oxford, England (presumably)  
328 YBN
[02/19/1672 AD]
1829) The corpuscular theory of light is firmly established by Newton. Color is
determined to be a property of light, not of objects. White light is separated
into and recreated from primary colors. Light of different colors is shown to
refract at different angles.

Cambridge, England  
328 YBN
[1672 AD]
1731) The scale of our star system is measured.
Paris, France;Guiana, South America  
326 YBN
[1674 AD]
1825) The element Oxygen is identified.
Oxford, England  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1851) The speed of light is shown to be finite and is measured by subtracting
the time it takes for the moon of Jupiter, Io, to enter and exit the shadow of
Jupiter when the Earth is moving toward Jupiter, from the time it takes when
the Earth is moving away from Jupiter.

(Paris Observatory) Paris, France  
323 YBN
[1677 AD]
1784) Sperm cells are observed.
Delft, Netherlands  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
1794) The helical spring.
London, England (presumably)|(if 1657:) Oxford, England (presumably)  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
1871) A catalog of southern hemisphere stars.
London, England (presumably)  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
3592) Direct neuron activation (or direct neuron writing). Jan Swammerdam (Yon
SVoMRDoM) contracts a muscle with electricity.

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
318 YBN
[03/03/1682 AD]
1788) The cell nucleus is described.
Delft, Netherlands  
317 YBN
[09/12/1683 AD]
1785) The first picture of bacteria.
Delft, Netherlands  
313 YBN
[1687 AD]
1845) The law of gravitation by Newton; that all matter attracts other matter
with a force that is the product of their masses, and the inverse of their
distance squared.

Newton also theorizes that light particles are affected by gravity.

Cambridge, England (presumably)  
310 YBN
[1690 AD]
1200) A gear-cutting machine.
Sweden  
310 YBN
[1690 AD]
1864) The steam engine is reinvented.
Leipzig, Germany  
302 YBN
[1698 AD]
1777) The size and distance of other stars is measured.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
301 YBN
[1699 AD]
2008) The theory that color is determined by the frequency of light.
Paris, France  
300 YBN
[1700 AD]
6251) The piano.
Florence, Italy  
295 YBN
[1705 AD]
1872) The path of a comet is correctly calculated.
London, England (presumably)  
287 YBN
[03/28/1713 AD]
6594) The mass and density of the planets are determined and the theory that
the Universe is made of mostly empty space by Newton.

(Dabam) London, England  
282 YBN
[1718 AD]
1876) The movement of the stars over long periods of time is proven.
  
275 YBN
[1725 AD]
3604) A machine uses a perforated roll of paper to form patterns in textiles.
Lyon, France  
267 YBN
[12/27/1733 AD]
1965) The theory that electricity is made of two different fluids.
Paris, France  
265 YBN
[1735 AD]
1996) Life of Earth is systematically categorized by Linnaeus (li-nE-uS or
li-nA-uS).

Netherlands  
255 YBN
[11/04/1745 AD]
1972) The storage of electricity. The first electric memory and capacitor
(commonly called the Leyden jar).

(University of Wittenburg) Wittenburg, Germany(was for von Kleist: Pomerania?,
Prussia) (coast of Baltic Sea between Germany and Poland)  
255 YBN
[1745 AD]
2966) An electrostatic motor.
(University of Erfurt) Erfurt, Germany  
253 YBN
[07/11/1747 AD]
1981) The single fluid theory of electricity. Lightning is recognized as
electricity.

Philadelphia, PA (English colonies) USA (letter to London, England)  
253 YBN
[1747 AD]
2055) Citris fruits are proven to cure scurvy.
England  
253 YBN
[1747 AD]
3452) The basis of refrigeration is understood. Humans recognize that
evaporating liquid lowers temperature.

(Academy of Petersburg) Petersburg, Russia  
248 YBN
[02/20/1752 AD]
2976) A spark is passed through a vacuum tube.
London, England  
245 YBN
[01/25/1755 AD]
1370) Moscow State University is founded.
Moscow, Russia  
240 YBN
[1760 AD]
2122) Electrolysis. Molecules are split using electricity. Water is separated
into hydrogen and oxygen gases using electricity.

Turin, Italy  
234 YBN
[05/29/1766 AD]
2113) Hydrogen gas is isolated.
London, England  
231 YBN
[1769 AD]
1206) The first self-propelled vehicle. A steam-engine powered automobile.
England  
228 YBN
[06/04/1772 AD]
6495) Five new gases are identified and isolated (including nitrous oxide and
carbon monoxide).

Leeds, England|(does not move to Calne until 1773)  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2076) The theory that gravity changes the speed of light particles.
Thornhill, Yorkshire, England  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2140) The mass of a light particle is measured to be around 10 nanograms.
Leeds, England  
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2285) Nitrogen gas is isolated.
Edinburgh, Scotland  
226 YBN
[08/01/1774 AD]
2139) Oxygen gas is isolated.
Calne, England  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2200) The element chlorine is isolated, as a gas.
Uppsala, Sweden  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2216) Combustion is shown to be a reaction with a gas in the air (later named
oxygen).

Paris, France (presumably)  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2664) The earliest telegraph.
Switzerland (presumably)  
223 YBN
[1777 AD]
2201) Eleven new acids are identified (including citric and lactic), in
addition to the identification of casein, aldehyde, and glycerol.

(starts phramacy position in 1777 in) Uppsala, Sweden  
219 YBN
[03/13/1781 AD]
2840) Planet Uranus is identified.
Bath, England  
217 YBN
[02/01/1783 AD]
2183) The motion of the Sun relative to the other stars is recognized.
Datchet, near Winsor, England|(Slough, England)  
217 YBN
[06/04/1783 AD]
2192) The hot air balloon.
Annonay, France  
217 YBN
[07/15/1783 AD]
2206) A steam engine boat.
Saône River, near Lyon, France  
217 YBN
[11/21/1783 AD]
2194) Human flight by balloon.
Paris, France  
217 YBN
[1783 AD]
2114) The density of gases is measured.
London, England  
216 YBN
[01/15/1784 AD]
2115) Water is shown to be a compound, not an element. The fusion of molecules
using electricity; water is synthesized by using an electric spark in hydrogen
and oxygen gases.

London, England  
216 YBN
[1784 AD]
2259) The first gas is liquefied, sulfur dioxide.
(École du génie) Angers, France  
215 YBN
[02/17/1785 AD]
3463) The earliest "diffraction" grating (made with hair).
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA  
215 YBN
[06/02/1785 AD]
2116) Air is shown to be a mixture of gases, and not a single element.
London, England  
215 YBN
[1785 AD]
2168) Electric and magnetic attraction and repulsion are proven to be both
proportional to amount of charge and inversely proportional to distance
squared.

Paris?, France (presumably)  
213 YBN
[08/27/1787 AD]
2265) That volume and temperature of a gas are inversely related is known.
Paris, France (presumably)  
209 YBN
[1791 AD]
2175) Remote neuron activation (or remote neuron writing) by Luigi Galvani. A
muscle is contracted remotely by using a remote electric spark while metal is
connected to the nerve.

Bologna, Italy  
206 YBN
[1794 AD]
2085) The theory of natural selection: that species less adapted are more
likely to die while those better adapted will continue and multiply.

Edinburgh, Scotland (presumably)  
204 YBN
[07/01/1796 AD]
2280) Immunity by vaccination is proven.
Berkeley, England (presumably)  
203 YBN
[1797 AD]
2338) Marble is produced by melting and quickly cooling limestone.
  
202 YBN
[1798 AD]
2117) The gravitational constant, the mass, and the density of the Earth are
measured.

London, England  
201 YBN
[1799 AD]
2315) Elements are shown to combine in definite proportions.
Segovia, Spain  
200 YBN
[03/20/1800 AD]
2250) The electric battery (or voltaic pile).
Pavia, Italy  
200 YBN
[03/27/1800 AD]
2179) Invisible light is recognized (infrared light).
Slough, England  
200 YBN
[09/17/1800 AD]
2436) Hydrogen and oxygen gas are collected separately from the electrolysis of
water.

Jena, Germany (presumably)  
200 YBN
[11/??/1800 AD]
2437) Electroplating.
Jena, Germany (presumably)  
199 YBN
[01/01/1801 AD]
2261) The first known asteroid (and minor planet), Ceres {SErEZ}, is
recognized.

Palermo, Sicily  
199 YBN
[02/22/1801 AD]
2167) The invisible light, ultra-violet light is discovered.
Jena, Germany (presumably)  
199 YBN
[11/12/1801 AD]
2405) The frequencies and wavelengths (or particle intervals) of light are
determined. The first glass diffraction gratings. The three color principle
(that only three colors in different proportions are needed to see any other
color). The theory of light interference.

London, England  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2365) Spectral lines are identified.
London, England  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2439) The first dry electric battery.
Gotha, Germany  
197 YBN
[10/21/1803 AD]
2375) That atoms of different elements vary in size and mass is shown. The
first table of elements by atomic mass.

Manchester, England  
197 YBN
[1803 AD]
2400) The steam engine railway train.
South Wales, England  
196 YBN
[1804 AD]
6519) There are 1 billion humans on Earth.
  
194 YBN
[1806 AD]
2346) Asparagine {e-SPAR-e-JEN}, the first amino acid, is isolated.
Paris, France  
192 YBN
[1808 AD]
2428) The phenomenon of light "polarization" is observed.
Paris, France  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2466) Gases are shown to combine in small whole number ratios by volume and not
by mass.

Paris, France (presumably)  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2481) The first electric light; the arc lamp.
London, England  
190 YBN
[1810 AD]
2480) Chlorine is shown to be an element and shown to support combustion like
oxygen does. Hydrogen is shown to be characteristic of acids.

London, England  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
2380) "Fourier's theorem": that any periodic oscillation can be reduced to a
sum of simple sinusoidal waves.

Grenoble, France  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
2432) The concept of molecules, and the method to determine correct atomic mass
and molecular formula.

Vercelli, Italy  
186 YBN
[1814 AD]
2571) The spectroscope. That substances emit specific spectral lines is known.
The spectrum of planet Venus is found to have the same absorption lines as the
Sun, and the spectrum of other stars are found to have absorption lines that
are different from those of the Sun.

Benedictbeuern (near Munich), Germany  
185 YBN
[11/??/1815 AD]
2544) The theory that all atomic masses are a multiple of hydrogen.
London, England (presumably)  
183 YBN
[01/12/1817 AD]
2408) The theory that light is a transverse wave (oscillates at a right angle
to the direction of travel) in an aether medium.

London, England  
183 YBN
[1817 AD]
2600) The theory that chemicals contain light.
Heidelberg, Germany  
180 YBN
[04/21/1820 AD]
2454) Electricity is understood to cause magnetism. The first electromagnet.
Copenhagen, Denmark  
180 YBN
[09/18/1820 AD]
2423) The direction of electric current in a wire is related to magnetic force.
Paris, France  
180 YBN
[09/25/1820 AD]
2424) Magnetism is identified as electricity.
Paris, France  
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
2486) The electric current meter.
Halle, Germany  
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
3374) The first gas combustion engine; uses hydrogen gas combustion to create a
vacuum.

(Magdalen College) Cambridge, England  
179 YBN
[09/11/1821 AD]
2701) The dynamic electric motor.
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
179 YBN
[1821 AD]
2397) Thermoelectricity (or the Seebeck (ZABeK) effect) is discovered: that an
electric current flows between different conductive materials that are kept at
different temperatures.
This is the basis of the thermocouple {tr-mO-KuPL} and thermopile
{tR-mu-PIL}.

Berlin, Germany  
177 YBN
[06/14/1823 AD]
3297) The grating equation: the wavelength (or particle interval) of light is
equated to the grating groove spacing. The wavelength of light is calculated by
using a diffraction grating.

Benedictbeuern (near Munich), Germany (presumably)  
175 YBN
[1825 AD]
2526) The first practical electromagnet.
Surrey, England (presumably)  
174 YBN
[07/31/1826 AD]
3440) The phenomenon of electrical oscillation is discovered (the basis of
alternating current and radio communication).

(Bureau des Longitudes) Paris, France (presumably)  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
2355) The first permanent photograph and photograph reproduction process.
Chalon-sur-Saône, France  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
3384) A gas combustion vacuum engine car.
London, England  
173 YBN
[05/01/1827 AD]
2606) (Ohm's law) Current is recognized as being equal to voltage divided by
resistance.

Berlin, Germany (written in Cologne?)  
173 YBN
[1827 AD]
3591) The earliest electronic printer.
New York City NY (presumably)  
172 YBN
[02/??/1828 AD]
2857) The first "organic" molecule (urea) is produced from inorganic sources.
(Berlin Gewerbeschule (trade school)) Berlin, Germany  
171 YBN
[03/27/1829 AD]
2844) Electric current is produced by moving a wire near a magnet.
Pavia, Italy  
171 YBN
[1829 AD]
2767) The theory that space is curved; that a curved surface geometry applies
to space in the universe. The start of "Non-Euclidean" geometry.

Kazan, Russia  
170 YBN
[1830 AD]
4003) Sound vibrations are recorded by a tuning fork moving an attached whisker
onto a sooted glass plate.

(University of) Göttingen, Germany  
169 YBN
[02/17/1831 AD]
2702) The electrical transformer: a device used to transfer electricity from
one circuit to another, in particular a pair of wire coils that can be used to
transfer electricity with a change in voltage, current, or phase.

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
169 YBN
[09/??/1831 AD]
2705) The (dynamic) electric generator (or "dynamo"). By mechanically moving a
conductor near a magnet, a constant electric current is produced.

(Royal Institution in) London, England  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2514) The first plastic materials, made of nitrocellulose.
Nancy, France  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2717) The alternating electric current (or AC) generator.
Paris, France  
166 YBN
[01/01/1834 AD]
1247) A mechanical reaper; a machine that cuts grain.
Rockbridge County, Virginia, USA  
166 YBN
[06/19/1834 AD]
2899) The speed of electricity in wire is measured using a rotating mirror.
(King's College) London, England  
165 YBN
[02/06/1835 AD]
2810) The electrical relay, a device that allows the electric current of
telegraph signals to be carried over long distances.

Princeton, NJ, USA  
164 YBN
[1836 AD]
2813) A high voltage induction coil.
Maynooth, Ireland  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2540) The parallax of a different star is measured.

61 Cygni {SiG-nI} is shown to be around 6 light years away.

Königsberg, (Prussia now:) Germany  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2934) Cell theory: the principle that all living objects are made of cells.
(University of Jena) Jena, Germany  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
3386) The direct-acting gas combustion engine.
?, England  
161 YBN
[07/29/1839 AD]
3308) Light is converted into electricity (the photoelectric or photovoltaic
effect). This is the first photovoltaic (or "solar") cell.

(University of Paris) Paris, France  
159 YBN
[1841 AD]
3158) Cell division is described.
(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany (presumably)  
158 YBN
[03/30/1842 AD]
3171) The first use of an anesthetic for surgery (ether).
Jefferson, Georgia  
158 YBN
[1842 AD]
2929) The Doppler effect: that frequency of light and sound is affected by the
relative motion of the source and observer.

(Prague Polytechnic, now Czech Technical University)Prague, Czech
Republic  
157 YBN
[1843 AD]
6240) The first remote controlled wired explosive.
Paterson, New Jersey, USA (presumably)  
155 YBN
[04/??/1845 AD]
2839) The spiral shape of other galaxies is recognized.
(Birr Castle) Parsonstown, Ireland  
154 YBN
[09/23/1846 AD]
3073) Planet Neptune is observed.
Berlin, Germany (and Paris, France)  
154 YBN
[1846 AD]
2828) The liquid explosive nitroglycerine.
Torino, Italy (presumably)  
153 YBN
[1847 AD]
3225) The percussion gun cartridge, a casing containing an explosive charge and
a bullet or shot.

Paris, France  
152 YBN
[06/05/1848 AD]
3477) The absolute temperature scale is created, with -273°C as absolute 0,
where all molecules stop moving.

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
152 YBN
[08/10/1848 AD]
2880) A constant high voltage is applied to gas-filled evacuated tubes.
London, England (presumably)  
151 YBN
[07/23/1849 AD]
3290) The speed of light is measured using a terrestrial method..
Paris, France  
150 YBN
[05/06/1850 AD]
3281) Light is shown to move more slowly in water than in air.
Paris, France (presumably)  
150 YBN
[1850 AD]
3332) The speed of electricity in nerves is measured.
(University of Königsberg) Königsberg, Germany  
149 YBN
[02/03/1851 AD]
3282) The rotation of the Earth around its own axis is proven experimentally
with a pendulum.

Paris, France (presumably)  
148 YBN
[05/10/1852 AD]
3489) The theory of "valence": that each type of atom has a fixed capacity for
combining with other atoms.

(Queenwood school) Hampshire, England  
148 YBN
[1852 AD]
3104) A practical passenger elevator.
Yonkers, NY, USA  
146 YBN
[1854 AD]
2945) The theory that an electrical mass will not be influenced by the
electrical force if moving with a velocity at least the speed of light.

(University of) Göttingen, Germany  
143 YBN
[03/24/1857 AD]
3999) The earliest extant sound recording.
Paris, France  
142 YBN
[07/01/1858 AD]
3033) The theory of evolution is popularized; the theory that life descends
from a single common ancestor, and that through natural selection only the best
adapted survive to pass on their successful traits while the less adapted die
out.

(Linnean Society), London, England  
141 YBN
[10/20/1859 AD]
3087) The spectral lines emitted when a substance is burned are used to
determine the atomic composition of the substance. That each element emits and
absorbs light at the same specific frequencies is recognized.

The first element is identified from the light of the Sun; sodium. The finding
that a spectral emission line can only be reversed to an absorption line when
the absorber is colder than the emitter.

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
140 YBN
[04/16/1860 AD]
3088) The element cesium is identified, the first element to be discovered
spectroscopically.

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
139 YBN
[10/26/1861 AD]
3997) The first microphone, speaker, and telephone. Sound is converted to
electricity and back to sound again.

Sound can be sent farther as electric current in a wire than mechanically in
air and travels silently.

(built in workshop behind Reis's house and cabinet in Garnier's Institute,
Friedrichsdorf, demonstrated before Physical Society) Frankfort, Germany  
139 YBN
[1861 AD]
3645) The first color image is projected.
(King's College, exhibit at the Royal Institution) London, England  
138 YBN
[11/04/1862 AD]
3219) The machine gun (or Gatling gun).
Indianapolis, Indiana (presumably)  
138 YBN
[1862 AD]
3375) The first direct-acting internal combustion gas engine car.
Paris, France (presumably)  
137 YBN
[02/19/1863 AD]
3427) Spectral lines from elements are matched to spectral lines from other
stars.

(Tulse Hill) London, England  
136 YBN
[09/08/1864 AD]
3428) The spectra of nebulae and galaxies are seen. Unlike stars, nebulae are
shown to have no spectrum except for a few emission lines, and therefore to be
composed of gas by using spectral comparison.

(Tulse Hill) London, England  
136 YBN
[10/27/1864 AD]
3657) The theory that light is an electromagnetic transverse wave.
(King's College) London, England  
135 YBN
[1865 AD]
3403) The law of genetic inheritance (the 1:2:1 ratio of inheritance of a
trait).

(Natural Science Society) Brünn, Austria (now: Brno, the Czech Republic)  
134 YBN
[1866 AD]
3695) Dynamite.
Paris, France (guess)  
132 YBN
[04/23/1868 AD]
3435) The Doppler effect is used to estimate the relative radial (or line of
sight) velocity of celestial objects by comparing the position of spectral
lines from the celestial object to those of a terrestrial light source.

(Tulse Hill) London, England  
132 YBN
[11/23/1868 AD]
3648) The first permanent color photograph.
?, France  
125 YBN
[08/28/1875 AD]
5575) The first direct neuron reading (the electricity in nerve cells is
measured).

Liverpool, England  
124 YBN
[1876 AD]
3819) The first practical refrigerator.
(Technische Hochschule) Munich, Germany  
123 YBN
[12/24/1877 AD]
4002) A sound recording is played back out loud.
(private lab) Menlo Park, New Jersey, USA  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3576) A practical electric light bulb.
Newcastle, England (presumably)  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3790) Synthetic fabric. The first synthetic silk (rayon).
Paris, France (presumably)  
120 YBN
[06/03/1880 AD]
4038) Sound is sent and received using light particles.
(top of Franklin School) Washington, D. C., USA  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
4348) Piezoelectricity {PIEZOeleKTriSiTE or PEZO- or PEAZO-} is discovered:
when pressure is applied to certain crystals, an electric potential is created,
and the opposite effect, when an electric potential is applied, these crystals
vibrate at a regular rate.

(Sorbonne) Paris, France  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
5839) An artificial muscle.
(University of Giessen) Giessen, Germany  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
6577) Slavery is ended.
  
119 YBN
[01/05/1881 AD]
3608) The electronic camera and electronic image. An image is captured and sent
electronically.

London, England (presumably)  
119 YBN
[1881 AD]
4157) Light is found to have the same speed in any direction horizontal to the
Earth; this causes doubt about the existence of an aether medium and about the
wave theory for light.

(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
118 YBN
[03/24/1882 AD]
3620) The first invisible frequency light particle communication. The first
radio communication. The sending and receiving of a message using light
particles by electrical induction.

(employed at Tuft's College) Sommerville, Massachusetts, USA  
115 YBN
[1885 AD]
6604) The first steel-framed building.
Chicago, Illinois, USA  
114 YBN
[07/27/1886 AD]
4096) Positively charged ion beams are discovered ("Kanalstrahlen" or "channel
rays").

(Potsdam Observatory) Berlin, Germany  
113 YBN
[03/04/1887 AD]
3713) The gasoline internal combustion engine car.
(factory) Stuttgart, Germany  
113 YBN
[03/??/1887 AD]
4285) The phenomenon of electrical resonance is discovered (this allows
specific frequencies of light to be singled out which improves radio
communication).

(University of Karlsruhe) Karlsruhe, Germany  
113 YBN
[10/12/1887 AD]
4245) The alternating current electric motor.
(Tesla's private lab) New York City, NY, USA|(earlier claim of)Strasbourg,
France  
113 YBN
[1887 AD]
4369) The electricity of a heart beat is measured and recorded.
(St. Mary's Hospital) London, England  
112 YBN
[02/02/1888 AD]
4288) Light interference between two radio sources is demonstrated. Electrical
induction is confirmed to have the speed of light.

(University of Karlsruhe) Karlsruhe, Germany  
111 YBN
[02/16/1889 AD]
211) Electricity is used to restart a heart beating.
(University of Aberdeen) Aberdeen, Scotland  
111 YBN
[03/12/1889 AD]
6255) An automatic telephone exchange allows people to connect their own phone
calls.

Kansas City, Missouri, USA  
111 YBN
[05/02/1889 AD]
4117) The theory that matter contracts depending on its velocity relative to
the speed of light.

Dublin, Ireland  
111 YBN
[06/21/1889 AD]
4021) The motion picture camera and projector. Moving images are captured,
stored on plastic film, and projected onto a screen.

(Piccadilly) London, England  
111 YBN
[11/28/1889 AD]
3818) A planet of a different star is detected.
(Astrophysical Observatory at Potsdam) Potsdam, Germany  
106 YBN
[10/??/1894 AD]
4258) The speed of cathode rays is shown to be less than the speed of light.
(Trinity College) Cambridge, England  
105 YBN
[01/31/1895 AD]
3842) The element Argon and the series of inert gases is identified.
(Own Laboratory) Terling, England  
105 YBN
[03/26/1895 AD]
4141) The element (and inert gas) helium is found on Earth.
(University College) London, England  
105 YBN
[11/05/1895 AD]
3936) X-rays are discovered.
(University of Würzburg) Würzburg, Germany  
104 YBN
[03/02/1896 AD]
4151) Radioactivity is discovered: invisible rays are detected from a uranium
salt.

(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
103 YBN
[04/30/1897 AD]
4260) Cathode rays are shown to be made of particles (the electron). This is
the first particle (besides light) known to be smaller than an atom.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
103 YBN
[08/07/1897 AD]
6658) The velocity of cathode ray particles is found to increase with electric
potential and with tube exhaustion.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
103 YBN
[1897 AD]
4088) The first electronic display (the oscilloscope).
(Physikal Institute) Strassburg, France  
102 YBN
[01/21/1898 AD]
4436) Kanalstrahlen rays are shown to be made of positively charged particles
with a mass to charge ratio similar to a hydrogen ion, These are later called
protons.

(Wurzburg University) Wurzburg, Germany  
102 YBN
[05/10/1898 AD]
3824) Hydrogen is liquefied.
(Royal Institution) London, England (presumably)  
102 YBN
[1898 AD]
4698) Magnetic writing and reading of data. Sound is recorded and played back
magnetically.

(Copenhagen Telephone Company) Copenhagen, Denmark  
101 YBN
[1899 AD]
4177) The theory that mass and time change for a body depending on its motion
relative to the speed of light.

(University of Leiden) Leiden, Netherlands  
100 YBN
[01/29/1900 AD]
4155) Beta rays of radioactivity are identified as electrons by showing that
their charge to mass ratio is the same as the electron.

(École Polytechnique) Paris, France  
100 YBN
[10/19/1900 AD]
4327) "Quantum theory", the theory that all energy exists in discrete units.
(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
99 YBN
[02/14/1901 AD]
6342) X-rays are shown to kill Guinea pigs.
Boston, Massachusetts, USA  
99 YBN
[10/10/1901 AD]
4148) The first synthesized protein.
(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
98 YBN
[03/??/1902 AD]
4734) Radioactivity is recognized as atomic decay in which one atom decays into
another kind.

(McGill University) Montreal, Canada   
97 YBN
[03/23/1903 AD]
4493) The airplane. The first powered, sustained, and controlled airplane
flight.

Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, USA  
97 YBN
[12/05/1903 AD]
4462) The Saturnian {Sa-TR-nE-iN} model of the atom (negatively charged
electrons rotate around a large mass positively charged particle).

(Tokyo University) Tokyo, Japan  
96 YBN
[1904 AD]
5099) Radar: Radio light is used to determine the location of distant objects.
Düsselsorf, Germany (presumably)  
95 YBN
[06/30/1905 AD]
4929) The special theory of relativity.

The theory that the speed of light is constant independently of the motion of
all other objects. The theory that motion changes mass and time is adopted, but
that an aether medium for light is unnecessary.

Bern, Switzerland  
94 YBN
[07/20/1906 AD]
4743) Alpha particles of radioactivity are identified as helium.
(McGill University) Montreal, Canada   
94 YBN
[12/21/1906 AD]
4788) The electric switch and vacuum tube amplifier.
(De Forest Radio Telephone Company) New York City, New York, USA  
93 YBN
[05/??/1907 AD]
4269) The mass spectrometer, a device that can separate atoms with an electric
charge (ions) by their mass.

(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
93 YBN
[11/13/1907 AD]
354) The helicopter. A helicopter achieves free flight while carrying a
passenger.

  
93 YBN
[1907 AD]
4438) The theory of space and time as a four dimensional structure called
"space-time".

(University of Göttingen) Göttingen, Germany  
92 YBN
[06/06/1908 AD]
3616) The first images sent and received by radio.
London, England  
91 YBN
[09/??/1909 AD]
4729) The mass and size of an electron is determined.
(École Normale, University of Paris) Paris, France  
91 YBN
[1909 AD]
4899) A wireless telephone.
(Marconi Company) London, England (verify)  
89 YBN
[1911 AD]
4908) The theory of atomic isotopes: that an element can have a different
atomic mass, but the same position on the periodic table.

(University of Glasgow) Glasgow, Scotland  
88 YBN
[05/04/1912 AD]
4939) The diffraction of x-rays by atomic planes in crystals is discovered. The
wavelength (or particle interval) of x-rays is determined to be smaller than
ultraviolet light, which suggests that x-rays are very high frequency light.

(University of Munich) Munich, Germany  
88 YBN
[11/11/1912 AD]
4404) Diffraction is explained as particle reflection. The dispersion of light
by a grating or prism into a spectrum of increasing frequencies is explained as
particles of the same spacing as the grating groove at a specific angle of
incidence, all reflecting in the same direction.

(Cavindish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
87 YBN
[05/28/1913 AD]
4932) The general theory of relativity, space and time are restricted to a
curved surface geometry.

(Federal Institute of Technology) Zurich, Switzerland  
87 YBN
[10/20/1913 AD]
4863) The Andromeda galaxy is claimed to have a very high velocity relative to
the Earth.

(Percival Lowell's observatory) Flagstaff, Arizona, USA  
87 YBN
[12/??/1913 AD]
5039) The frequency of secondary x-rays emitted from atoms is shown to increase
with atomic mass.

(University of Manchester) Machester, England  
86 YBN
[05/??/1914 AD]
5085) Gamma rays from radioactivity are found to have wavelengths in the X-ray
region.

(University of Manchester) Manchester, England  
86 YBN
[07/28/1914 AD]
4792) Sound is recorded and played back with motion pictures on plastic film.
Berlin, Germany (verify)  
86 YBN
[1914 AD]
4977) The theory that spiral "nebulae" are other galaxies.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
83 YBN
[10/04/1917 AD]
6508) The electric propulsion engine.
Worcester, Massachusetts, USA (presumably)  
83 YBN
[1917 AD]
4761) Ultrasonic sound (sound with a frequency too high to be heard by the
human ear) is produced by piezoelectricity and used to determine the location
of objects by reflection (sonar).

(Collège de France) Paris, France (presumably)  
83 YBN
[1917 AD]
4765) The theory that the universe is expanding.
(University of Leiden) Leiden, Netherlands  
82 YBN
[04/??/1918 AD]
5008) The Sun is determined to be in the outer part of our galaxy.
(Mount Wilson Solar Observatory) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
82 YBN
[06/21/1918 AD]
6199) The first electronic read and write memory.
(City and Guilds Technical College) London, UK  
81 YBN
[04/??/1919 AD]
4750) Atomic transmutation and atomic fusion. Atoms of Nitrogen are changed
into atoms of Oxygen by high speed alpha particles colliding with Nitrogen gas.

(University of Manchester) Manchester, England  
77 YBN
[06/14/1923 AD]
3613) Electronic moving images are transmitted and received by radio.
Washington, D.C., USA.   
75 YBN
[01/01/1925 AD]
5060) Spiral nebulae are proven to be other galaxies containing stars and to be
very far away.

(Mount Wilson) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
75 YBN
[07/13/1925 AD]
5059) A color image electronic scanning camera.
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation)   
75 YBN
[10/22/1925 AD]
5292) The transistor or solid-state electronic switch and amplifier.
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, USA  
70 YBN
[10/10/1930 AD]
5268) The circular particle accelerator (the cyclotron).
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
70 YBN
[1930 AD]
6578) Women gain the right to vote.
  
69 YBN
[09/10/1931 AD]
5446) The electron microscope.
(Technischen Hochschule/Technical University) Berlin, Germany  
69 YBN
[10/03/1931 AD]
5161) The first synthetic rubber: neoprene.
( E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company) Wilmington, Delaware, USA  
68 YBN
[02/17/1932 AD]
5086) The neutron is identified and distinguished from a hydrogen atom.
(Cavendish Lab University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
68 YBN
[04/16/1932 AD]
5182) Atomic fission. Lithium atoms are split by protons.
(Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
68 YBN
[08/02/1932 AD]
5381) The positive electron (the positron) is identified.
(California Institute of Technology) Pasadena, California  
66 YBN
[03/09/1934 AD]
4755) The atomic fusion of two Hydrogen atoms into a Helium atom.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
66 YBN
[05/??/1934 AD]
5275) Atomic fission of uranium by neutrons.
(University of Rome) Rome, Italy  
63 YBN
[05/14/1937 AD]
5548) The first transuranium elements. Elements 93 through 96 are identified
from the collision of neutrons with uranium.

(Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instute fur Chemie in Berlin-Dahlem) Berlin, Germany  
63 YBN
[05/22/1937 AD]
5515) The first image of individual atoms. Atoms are visually confirmed to be
about 0.1 nm in size.

(Siemens and Halske) Berlin, Germany  
63 YBN
[06/30/1937 AD]
5364) Element 43, the first completely artificial element, the radioactive
metal technetium {TeKnEsEuM} is created by particle collision.

(Royal University) Polermo, Italy  
62 YBN
[06/16/1938 AD]
5382) Charged particles with masses in between an electron and proton are
recognized (muons).

(California Institute of Technology) Pasadena, California  
62 YBN
[06/22/1938 AD]
5448) The first image of a virus (150nm in size).
(Berliner Medizinischen Gesellschaft/Berlin Medical Society) Berlin,
Germany  
61 YBN
[04/30/1939 AD]
5835) The bipedal (or two leg walking) robot.
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation) Mansfield, Ohio, USA  
58 YBN
[12/02/1942 AD]
5277) A self-sustained uranium fission reaction.
(University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
57 YBN
[11/01/1943 AD]
4916) The DNA molecule is recognized as being responsible for the creation and
inheritance of structural changes in a body.

(Rockefeller Institute, now called Rockefeller University) New York City, New
York, USA  
55 YBN
[07/16/1945 AD]
5311) The first atomic fission bomb is exploded.
(Alamogordo Test Range) Jornada del Muerto (Journey of Death) desert, New
Mexico, USA  
55 YBN
[10/08/1945 AD]
6272) The microwave oven.
(Raytheon Manufacturing Company) Newton, Massachusetts, USA  
53 YBN
[06/26/1947 AD]
5550) Elements 73 (tantalum) through 83 (bismuth) are fissioned with deuterons,
helium ions, or neutrons.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
52 YBN
[06/17/1948 AD]
5295) The semiconductor transistor.
(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
50 YBN
[03/15/1950 AD]
5553) The fission of medium weight elements (copper, bromine, silver, and tin).
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
50 YBN
[09/11/1950 AD]
5555) Atomic fusion of large atoms: carbon-12 ions are fused with both aluminum
and gold atoms.

(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
47 YBN
[04/02/1953 AD]
5660) The double helix structure of DNA is understood.
(Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
46 YBN
[05/05/1954 AD]
5649) The MASER ("microwave amplification by stimulated emission of
radiation").

(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
45 YBN
[10/24/1955 AD]
5366) The antiproton is identified.
(University of California) Berkeley, California, USA  
43 YBN
[10/04/1957 AD]
5486) The first human-made satellite.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam) Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
42 YBN
[08/01/1958 AD]
5606) The first atomic explosion in empty space.
(Johnson Island) Pacific Ocean  
42 YBN
[1958 AD]
6550) The integrated circuit (or IC).
(Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor)  
41 YBN
[09/14/1959 AD]
5597) A ship impacts the moon.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
41 YBN
[11/05/1959 AD]
191) A device inside the body is controlled remotely;. An artificial heart
pacemaker is remotely controlled with radio.

(Yale University School of Medicine) New Haven, New Jersey, USA  
40 YBN
[03/09/1960 AD]
5774) Photons are proven to have mass. Gravity is shown to change the speed and
frequency of light.

(Harvard University) Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA   
40 YBN
[04/22/1960 AD]
5768) The LASER ("light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation").
(Hughes Research Laboratories) Malibu, California  
40 YBN
[12/28/1960 AD]
5705) Messenger RNA and the system that regulates protein synthesis in the cell
(regulatory genes called "operons") are identified.

(Pasteur Institute) Paris, France  
39 YBN
[04/12/1961 AD]
5601) The first human to orbit the Earth.
Saratovskaya oblast, U.S.S.R.  
39 YBN
[12/30/1961 AD]
5663) That DNA nucleotides code for amino acids in proteins is understood.
(Cavendish Lab University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
38 YBN
[10/26/1962 AD]
6201) Laser writing and reading of data.
(Winston Research Corporation) Los Angeles, California, USA  
36 YBN
[1964 AD]
3980) The liquid crystal display (LCD).
RCA Labs, Princeton, New Jersey, USA  
35 YBN
[07/14/1965 AD]
5615) The first ship to reach Mars and to return images of the surface.
Planet Mars  
34 YBN
[03/01/1966 AD]
5613) The first ship to impact a different planet, Venus.
Planet Venus  
34 YBN
[04/04/1966 AD]
5599) The first ship to orbit a body beyond the Earth; the Moon.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
32 YBN
[02/09/1968 AD]
5739) Pulsars, stars that emit regularly timed bursts of radio light, are
identified.

(Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
31 YBN
[07/21/1969 AD]
655) Humans land and walk on the surface of the moon of Earth.
Moon of Earth  
31 YBN
[09/15/1969 AD]
5753) A DNA molecule is broken with an enzyme.
(Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine) Baltimore, Maryland, USA  
31 YBN
[1969 AD]
5851) The Internet (people use computers to communicate over the telephone wire
network).

(University of California at Los Angeles) Los Angeles, California,
USA|(Stanford Research Institute) Stanford, California, USA|(University of
California Santa Barbara) Santa Barbara, California, USA|(University of Utah)
Salt Lake City, Utah, USA  
30 YBN
[01/29/1970 AD]
5836) The digital electronic camera.
(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
30 YBN
[06/16/1970 AD]
5716) Two DNA molecules are combined using an enzyme. The first artificial gene
is synthesized.

(University of Wisconsin) Madison, Wisconsin, USA  
29 YBN
[11/14/1971 AD]
5618) The first ship to orbit another planet (Mars).
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[11/27/1971 AD]
5619) A ship impacts Mars.
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[12/02/1971 AD]
5620) The first ship to soft land on planet Mars and return data.
Planet Mars  
28 YBN
[07/31/1972 AD]
5751) Proteins are synthesized by using a virus to add DNA into bacteria.
(Stanford University Medical Center) Stanford, California, USA  
27 YBN
[12/03/1973 AD]
5622) A ship reaches Jupiter and sends the first close-up images.
Planet Jupiter  
26 YBN
[1974 AD]
5846) The personal computer.
(Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
(verify)  
25 YBN
[10/20/1975 AD]
5623) A ship orbits, lands on, and transmits images from the surface of Venus.
Planet Venus  
25 YBN
[1975 AD]
6371) An external object is moved by thought (electricity in the brain).
  
24 YBN
[07/20/1976 AD]
5624) The first images and soil samples from the surface of Mars.
Planet Mars  
24 YBN
[11/30/1976 AD]
5695) The complete DNA sequence of a virus is determined.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
23 YBN
[1977 AD]
6312) A self-driving car.
(Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Lab) Japan  
21 YBN
[09/01/1979 AD]
388) A ship reaches Saturn and sends the first close-up images.
Planet Saturn  
20 YBN
[09/12/1980 AD]
6189) The Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Individual atoms and molecules of many
kinds can be seen.

(IBM Zurich Research Laboratory) Ruschlikon, Zurich, Switzerland
(presumably)  
16 YBN
[03/10/1984 AD]
5814) A multicellular organism is "cloned" (genetically identical copies are
made) by replacing the nucleus of one ovum with a different one.

(AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology) Cambridge, UK  
15 YBN
[09/20/1985 AD]
5804) Polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS} chain reaction (PCR), a simple technique that
allows a specific segment of DNA to be copied billions of times in a few hours.

(Cetus Corporation) Emeryville, California, USA  
14 YBN
[01/24/1986 AD]
5628) A ship reaches Uranus and sends the first close-up images of the planet,
its moons, and its rings.

Planet Uranus  
12 YBN
[12/14/1988 AD]
6194) A microscopic electric motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
11 YBN
[08/25/1989 AD]
5629) A ship reaches Neptune and sends the first close-up images of the planet,
its moons and rings.

Planet Neptune  
10 YBN
[01/17/1990 AD]
6191) Individual atoms are moved.
(IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center) San Jose, California,
USA  
9 YBN
[10/29/1991 AD]
5635) A ship reaches and sends close-up images of an asteroid.
Asteroid Gaspra (Ida encounter must occur later)  
7 YBN
[08/28/1993 AD]
5636) A ship discovers the first known moon of an asteroid.
Asteroid Ida  
5 YBN
[12/07/1995 AD]
396) The first ship to orbit Jupiter.
Jupiter  
4 YBN
[11/25/1996 AD]
186) An animal is cloned by replacing the nucleus of an ovum with the nucleus
from a somatic cell.

(University of Edinburgh, Roslin Institute), Roslin Midlothian, UK  
1 YAN
[02/12/2001 AD]
5639) The first ship to land on an asteroid.
Asteroid Eros  
1 YAN
[06/28/2001 AD]
6192) A microscopic radio chip (or RFID chip).
(Hitachi) Japan  
2 YAN
[02/16/2002 AD]
6332) A remote control device emits drugs inside a human body.
(CCBR-SYNARC) Denmark  
3 YAN
[04/04/2003 AD]
6195) A nanometer scale electric motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
4 YAN
[07/01/2004 AD]
5641) The first ship to orbit Saturn.
Planet Saturn  
4 YAN
[07/22/2004 AD]
6655) The first image of a planet of a different star.
(European Southern Observatory) Santiago, Chili  
4 YAN
[11/29/2004 AD]
5832) Stem cells are used to repair damaged nerves, allowing a paralyzed human
to walk.

(Chosun University) Kwangju, South Korea  
5 YAN
[01/14/2005 AD]
5642) A ship lands on a moon of Saturn (Titan).
Planet Saturn, moon Titan  
8 YAN
[12/10/2008 AD]
3886) Remote neuron reading. An image of what the eyes are seeing is captured
remotely using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

(Collaboration between researchers at two Japanese Universities, two research
Institutes, and ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories) Kyoto, Japan  
12 YAN
[01/31/2012 AD]
276) Sound a brain hears is recorded directly from the brain.
(University of California at Berkeley) Berkeley, CA, USA  
FUTURE
15 YAN
[2015 AD]
332) Sound a brain hears is recorded remotely.
  
15 YAN
[2015 AD]
6394) A microscopic radio (or particle transmitter and receiver).
  
18 YAN
[2018 AD]
6208) A radio device functions inside a cell. The first human-made cell
organelle.

  
20 YAN
[2020 AD]
4559) Walking robots are produced in mass quantity, and are available for the
public to buy.

This is the start of the "robot revolution"; how robots replace humans in most
manual labor tasks, which greatly increases the quantity of food and humans.

  
20 YAN
[2020 AD]
6197) The first remote control microscopic flying device.
  
23 YAN
[2023 AD]
6552) The first wireless microscopic microphone. The "micro-mic".
  
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
337) Remote neuron writing using microscopic devices in neurons. Microscopic
devices enter the human body by the lung, enter the blood circulation which
connects directly to all cells, and position themselves as organelles inside
each neuron. External devices communicate with the intracellular devices to
read the voltage and to remotely make the neuron cell fire.

Sounds, images, smells, touches, emotions, and muscle contractions can now be
remotely activated in a brain by sending light particles to intracellular
devices.

  
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6193) The first wireless microscopic camera. The "micro-cam".
  
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6198) The first remote controlled microscopic flying camera.
  
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6375) The wireless microscopic maser.
  
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6395) The wireless nanometer scale radio transmitter and receiver (the
nano-radio).

  
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
365) The first thought-audio is recorded. Thought-audio is recorded using
remote neuron reading and played out loud publicly. The first recorded thought
audio may sound like this: "1 2 3". Humans start to communicate by
thought-image and thought-sound only.

  
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
366) The first artificial muscle bipedal robots. These robots are lighter and
more electrically efficient, than motor robots.

  
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
680) The first images of thought are seen. Thought-images are recorded remotely
using remote neuron reading and shown publicly.

The first thought-image may be the image of a triangle.

  
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
791) Bipedal robots start replacing humans in most low-skill jobs (for example
as walking security cameras, in fast-food, and fruit picking).

  
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
6391) The first wireless nanometer scale camera. The "nano-cam".
  
40 YAN
[2040 AD]
6553) The first use of remote writing to motor neurons to stop an act of
violence.

  
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
790) Humans walk around with robot servants. These robots clean and cook for
their owners.

  
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
4564) An artificial muscle robot can fly by flapping wings.
  
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
4566) The first air highway, for autopiloted flying cars, is established.
  
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
6300) Bacteria are identified and destroyed by microscopic devices inside an
animal body.

  
51 YAN
[2051 AD]
6520) There are 10 billion humans on Earth.
  
55 YAN
[2055 AD]
6302) Cancer cell growth is stopped by microscopic devices.
  
60 YAN
[2060 AD]
6301) A virus is identified and destroyed by microscopic devices.
  
75 YAN
[2075 AD]
6445) Humans stop unwanted weather (for example tornadoes and hurricanes), by
changing air temperature using millions of distributed remote control nanometer
sized devices.

  
80 YAN
[2080 AD]
6392) Accelerated nanocamera ships reach another planet and return closeup
images.

  
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
367) Most humans communicate only by images and sounds of thought.
  
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
793) Helicopter-cars form a second line of traffic above the streets.
  
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
794) 100 ships with humans orbit Earth.
  
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4569) Most vehicles are machine controlled.
  
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4575) Robots walk on the moon of Earth and build buildings.
moon of Earth  
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4613) Humans conquer all bacteria and viruses. Nanoscale devices can identify
and destroy all known bacteria and viruses anywhere inside or outside of the
body.

  
120 YAN
[2120 AD]
4583) Robots land and walk on an asteroid.
  
120 YAN
[2120 AD]
4584) Robots walk and build buildings on Mars.
Mars  
140 YAN
[2140 AD]
687) Large scale transmutation: Humans can convert most common atoms (like
Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, and Calcium) into much more useful atoms (like
Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen). This allows many humans to live independently
of Earth, in ships, and on planets and moons without water, because they can
produce all the air, fuel, water and food they need from the common atoms found
on planets and moons.

  
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
659) The first major nation to be fully democratic.
  
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
4592) The first humans land on Mars.
Mars  
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
6223) The first "Moon colony". Humans permanently live on the Moon of Earth.
  
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
6304) Nucleic Acids are changed by remote control nanoscale devices.
  
160 YAN
[2160 AD]
4590) Robots land and walk on planet Mercury.
Mercury  
160 YAN
[2160 AD]
4591) Robots land and walk on a moon of Jupiter.
Jupiter  
160 YAN
[2160 AD]
6642) Humans orbit Venus.
Venus  
180 YAN
[2180 AD]
4594) Humans live permanently on Mars. The first Mars colony. The first city of
another planet.

Mars  
190 YAN
[2190 AD]
4606) Humans land on Mercury.
Mercury  
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
792) Robots and other machines have replaced humans in most manual labor tasks
(driving, cleaning, and food planting, harvesting, preparing and serving).
Robots also do the most dangerous parts of police, and fire fighting.

  
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
795) 1000 human-filled ships orbit Earth.
  
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
4607) Humans live permanently on Mercury.
Mercury  
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
6305) Microscopic devices repair, regrow, and reshape damaged cells.
  
210 YAN
[2210 AD]
4585) Humans land and walk on an asteroid.
  
250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4589) The end of arrests for recreational drugs in most major nations.
  
250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4611) Humans land on a moon of Jupiter.
Jupiter  
275 YAN
[2275 AD]
661) Most humans are not religious.
  
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4595) All money is electronic.
  
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4598) Humans live permanently in a ship that orbits the Sun.
  
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4620) Humans land on a moon of Saturn.
Saturn  
290 YAN
[2290 AD]
4599) The first ships that regularly transport humans from Earth to the moon of
Earth.

  
300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4581) The end of arrests for nudity in public.
  
300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4627) Humans land on Uranus and its moons.
Uranus  
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4609) Humans switch to a single time system for all places in the universe.
  
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4630) Humans reach Neptune and land on its moon.
Neptune  
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
6393) The first microscopic ships to reach another star (Alpha Centauri) and to
return the first closeup images of the planets around another star.

  
370 YAN
[2370 AD]
6209) Living objects on planets of a different star are identified (bacteria
made of DNA on planets around Centauri).

Alpha Centauri  
400 YAN
[2400 AD]
4612) Humans send ships with robots to the stars of Alpha Centauri.
  
420 YAN
[2420 AD]
779) Most humans in developed nations reject the theory of gods.
  
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
683) The removal and conversion of the Venus atmosphere is started.

This is the first major "conversion of a gas atmosphere" engineering work of
humans.

  
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
686) The end of death by aging.
Using genetic editing, humans can reach any
developmental stage, and then hold that body shape indefinitely, dying only
from physical destruction. Humans now live for thousands of years. This causes
the human population to grow at an extremely fast rate.

  
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
4588) The end of arrests for all forms of trading money for consensual physical
pleasure.

  
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
6546) Microscopic ships reach Barnard's star, the second closest star, 6 light
years away, and send back the first images of the planets around Barnard's
star.

  
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
6554) The end of homicide, by remote neuron writing.
  
600 YAN
[2600 AD]
4617) An asteroid is moved by propulsion, either by cables or by embedded
engines.

  
600 YAN
[2600 AD]
6547) Microscopic ships reach Sirius, 8 light years away, and send back the
first images of the planets around Sirius.

Sirius  
650 YAN
[2650 AD]
4619) Humans create atoms from light particles. Photon fusion: the reverse of
separating atoms into light particles.

  
650 YAN
[2650 AD]
6555) The first images of large living objects on a planet of another star are
seen.

Alpha Centauri  
700 YAN
[2700 AD]
4605) Robots land and walk on Venus.
Venus  
750 YAN
[2750 AD]
4622) The first large ship to reach a different star (Alpha Centauri).

Smaller robot ships then land on all the planets and moons of Centauri.

Alpha Centauri  
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
24) Humans consume an asteroid.
  
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4615) Humans live on Venus. The first Venus colony.
Humans live on and under the
surface of Venus in cooled buildings.

Venus  
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4624) Ships containing humans leave for the stars of Alpha Centauri and will
arrive successfully perhaps 400 years later. This begins the colonization of
other stars.

  
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4628) Humans change the motion of a moon. (A moon of Jupiter).
Jupiter  
850 YAN
[2850 AD]
4580) Humans change the motion of a planet (planet Earth).
Earth  
900 YAN
[2900 AD]
29) A ship impacts the surface of Jupiter. The first image of the surface of
Jupiter is captured. The solid and liquid body of Jupiter is confirmed to be 6
times the diameter of Earth.

Jupiter  
900 YAN
[2900 AD]
775) A ship from Centauri leaves for Earth carrying matter from Centauri. This
is part of a long term project of bringing back matter from around Centauri to
be used around the star Earth orbits where consumable atoms are in great
demand.

Alpha Centauri  
900 YAN
[2900 AD]
4629) Human anatomical changes start to become apparent as a result of living
many generations in low gravity. Humans may start to look like ocean organisms
which do not walk but instead move by pushing water using their appendages.

  
1,000 YAN
[3000 AD]
4631) The start of the removal of the Jupiter atmosphere. Many humans may fear
Jupiter exploding.

Jupiter  
1,150 YAN
[3150 AD]
4638) Ships with robots reach the second closest star, Barnard's star.
Barnard's Star  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4614) A ship from Centauri reaches Earth and returns the first objects from a
different star. Robots around Centauri build ships to go to other stars and
pull them closer.

Earth System  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4637) Humans reach a different star (Alpha Centauri). Humans now live around
two star systems and so the chance of extinction is greatly decreased.

Alpha Centauri  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4639) Humans completely control the motion of planet Mercury.
Mercury  
1,300 YAN
[3300 AD]
777) The end of major religions. Most humans belong to no major religion.
  
1,350 YAN
[3350 AD]
4640) Ships with robots reach Sirius.
Sirius  
1,400 YAN
[3400 AD]
4643) The motion of Mars is controlled by orbiting ships.
Mars  
1,500 YAN
[3500 AD]
684) The Atmosphere of Venus is completely removed. The surface of Venus
becomes much colder.

Venus  
1,800 YAN
[3800 AD]
4645) The motion of Jupiter is controlled.
Jupiter  
2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4644) The atmosphere of Jupiter is completely removed.
Jupiter  
2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4646) Humans have robot ships at 10 different stars.
  
2,200 YAN
[4200 AD]
4651) The rings of Saturn are consumed by humans living there.
Saturn  
2,300 YAN
[4300 AD]
6379) Humans land on Jupiter.
Jupiter  
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4579) The Venus atmosphere is like the atmosphere of Earth.
Venus  
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4652) The first ships to hold an orbit above or below the planetary plane.
Ships can get closer to the Sun by occupying an orbit above or below the
planetary plane. They either need to thrust against the y component of the
Sun's gravity or cross the planetary plane.

  
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4655) Humans live on the surface of Jupiter.
Jupiter  
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4662) The motions of all the planets are under human control.
  
2,800 YAN
[4800 AD]
4669) Jupiter is the most populated planet, overtaking the Earth in number of
humans living in, on, and in orbit of it.

Jupiter  
3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4656) The atmosphere of Jupiter is now Nitrogen and Oxygen, and heated to stay
gaseous.

Jupiter  
3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4666) More humans live in ships than live in and on the surface of all the
planets, moons and asteroids.

  
3,000 YAN
[5000 AD]
4668) Humans have robot ships at 50 different stars.
  
3,100 YAN
[5100 AD]
4671) The first image of advanced living objects that evolved around a
different star.

  
3,200 YAN
[5200 AD]
4673) Humans inhabit 10 stars and have robot ships around 100 stars.
  
3,500 YAN
[5500 AD]
6176) The position of the Sun is under human control and is moved in the
direction of Centauri.

Sun  
4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4674) The stars of Centauri are moved towards the Sun.
Centauri  
4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4675) Humans touch advanced living objects that evolved around a different
star.

  
4,500 YAN
[6500 AD]
4676) Humans form a cluster of 4 stars (the Sun and the three stars of
Centauri) and start to look like an "open cluster".

Each star is within 1 light year from each other.

Sun-Centauri cluster  
5,000 YAN
[7000 AD]
678) One trillion humans.
  
9,000 YAN
[11000 AD]
4680) Genetic engineering may produce humans that use photosynthesis, only
needing water, oxygen, and light.

  
10,000 YAN
[12000 AD]
4681) Genetic engineering may remove the requirement of humans to urinate,
defecate, and sleep.

  
12,000 YAN
[14000 AD]
679) One quadrillion humans (1015).
  
12,000 YAN
[14000 AD]
4683) Our descendents probably will look very different from humans now,
adapted for efficiency and to low gravity space.

  
15,000 YAN
[17000 AD]
6570) More humans live around other stars than live around the Sun.
  
19,000 YAN
[21000 AD]
6548) One quintillion humans (1018).
  
25,000 YAN
[27000 AD]
4677) Humans have robot ships around 1000 stars, inhabit 100 stars, and form an
open cluster of 10 stars.

  
45,000 YAN
[47000 AD]
4679) Humans have robot ships around 10,000 stars, inhabit 1000 stars and form
a cluster of 100 stars.

  
50,000 YAN
[52000 AD]
4658) All asteroids are consumed.
  
63,000 YAN
[65000 AD]
6171) Humans reach the center of the Earth.
Earth  
65,000 YAN
[67000 AD]
6174) Earth is completely filled with living objects, and has a population of
10 quintillion {KWiNTiLYeN} (1019) humans.
There is no more molten material inside the
Earth. All the molten compressed matter was extracted, cooled and consumed,
mostly as building materials, fuel, and food. Earth is completely filled with
tunnels, rooms, and living objects.

Earth  
70,000 YAN
[72000 AD]
4684) Humans have robot ships at 100,000 stars, inhabit 10,000 stars, and form
a cluster of 1,000 stars.

  
90,000 YAN
[92000 AD]
6210) Humans form a globular cluster of 10,000 stars. This cluster starts to
leave the plane of the Milky Way Galaxy.

The human population is now around 50 sextillion (50 x 1021).

  
121,000 YAN
681) The Moon of Earth population reaches the maximum possible (200
quadrillion, 200 x 1015 ).

Moon of Earth  
125,500 YAN
4672) Planet Mercury is completely filled with living objects.
Mercury  
127,000 YAN
682) The population of humans on planet Mars reaches a physical maximum of 1
quintillion (1 x 1018) humans.

Mars  
138,000 YAN
4678) All the planets of the Sun are consumed.

All that remains are ships that orbit the Sun; most matter must now be taken
from the Sun and other stars.

  
148,000 YAN
100) The Sun is consumed.
  
205,000 YAN
6317) Sirius is consumed.
Sirius  
630,000 YAN
106) Ten to the power 100 humans.
  
1,000,000,000 YAN
4685) All the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy belong to a globular cluster. The
Milky Way is now an elliptical galaxy.

Milky Way Galaxy  
25,000,000,000 YAN
4686) The star clusters in the outer areas are pulled closer to the center
making the galaxy more spherical, and the galaxy develops a massive propulsion
system in order to go get more matter to consume. The Milky Way is now a
spherical globular galaxy.

Milky Way Galaxy  
30,000,000,000 YAN
4687) The Milky Way Globular Galaxy integrates the matter of the two Magellanic
Cloud galaxies.

Milky Way Galaxy  
40,000,000,000 YAN
4688) The Milky Way and Andromeda globular galaxies join.

The Andromeda and Milky Way globular galaxies may merge into a single larger
galaxy, which then resumes the search for a smaller galaxy to consume. Natural
selection must also create a large scale "eat or be eaten", "predator-prey"
existence for galaxies similar to that on Earth.

Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy  
"Universe, Life, Science, Future" is published under the GNU license, except where otherwise indicated or determined to be fair use, copyrighted, public domain, CC, GDFL or other license.
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