TIMEEVENT DESCRIPTIONLOCATION

UNIVERSE
1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

  
990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.

MORE INFO
[1]
  
980,000,000,000 YBN
3) All matter is made of particles of light.3 Light particles are the base
unit of all matter from the tiniest particles to the largest galaxies.4 In
this sense light particles are the most basic atoms.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.3

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of
galaxies.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington

MORE INFO
[1] Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles,
(1980). (estimate of how many galaxies)
  
935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which exist as
gas clouds (like the Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula). These gas clouds,
called nebulae continue to accumulate trapped light particles. At points of
high density planets and stars form and the cloud is eventually dense enough to
become a galaxy of stars. The stars emit light particles back out to the rest
of the universe, where the light again becomes trapped and forms new clouds.
Around each star are many planets and pieces of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant emitting of light particles (decay). Like
bacteria, these living objects grow in number, with the most successful
organisms occupying and moving around many stars. These advanced organisms then
move the groups of stars they control, as a globular cluster, away from the
plane of the spiral galaxy. As time continues, all of the stars of a galaxy are
occupied by living objects who have organized their stars into globular
clusters, and these globular clusters together, form a globular galaxy. The
globular galaxy may then exist for a long time living off the matter in stars,
in addition to matter from external sources.

So free light particles are trapped into volumes of space that grow in density
first forming atoms, then gas clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, and finally
a globular galaxy.3

Stars at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale, just as light
particles at our scale may be stars at a much smaller scale. This system may go
on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
930,000,000,000 YBN
8) An expanding universe seems unlikely to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken observation, for one reason because spectrum
size changes the position of spectral lines1 , and because the distance of a
light source changes the position, but not the frequency of spectral lines2 .

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Humason, M. L., "The Apparent Radial Velocities of 100 Extra-Galactic
Nebulae", Astrophysical Journal, vol. 83, p.10, Jan
1936. http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1936ApJ....83...10H/0000010.000.
html

2. ^ Ted Huntington, "Spectral line position depends on distance of light
source - Bragg Equation Effect",
04/03/2012. http://tedhuntington.com/paper_Bragg.htm
  

LIFE
165,000,000,000 YBN
13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to form.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.3

Atoms may form near the surface of planets and stars.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.3
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
5,500,000,000 YBN
4
16) The star Earth orbits forms.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington
4. ^ Ted Huntington, guess

MORE INFO
[1] http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/208/mar1/nucleo.html (with image of
onion skin layers)
[2] another person declares star inside to be similar to planets:
iron, oxygen, nickel, etc. do not support standard solar
model. star_inside_iron.pdf
  
5,500,000,000 YBN
4
17) Planets form around our star. Like the star, they are red hot with liquid
rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the surface of the
planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
4 5
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
2. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
3. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
3
50) Start of the "Precambrian". The Hadean {HA DEen1 } Eon.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 03 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
2. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
3. ^ "Divisions of Geologic Time", 2010,
USGS http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
4,571,000,000 YBN
3 4
31) Oldest meteorite.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2

2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/783048.stm
3. ^
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/288/5472/1819?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits
=10&RESULTFORMAT=&fulltext=zag+morocco&searchid=1129920472874_9236&stored_search
=&FIRSTINDEX=0#RF2
(4.7 +- .2 billion years)
4. ^ sci has 4.7 +- .2 by where did 4.571
come from?
  
4,530,000,000 YBN
33) Oldest moon rock.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/atmimages/S73-15446.f.jpg
http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/nojs/wl.br.1.html
  
4,404,000,000 YBN
34) Oldest "terrestrial" zircon; evidence that the crust and liquid water are
on the surface of Earth.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/links/010111/010111-1.html
  
4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth, like amino acids, phosphates, and sugars,
the components of living objects.3

The initial building blocks of living objects are easily formed, but assembling
them into longer-chain molecules, or polymers, is more difficult.4

Possibly all proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are strictly the products of
living objects.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p150.
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amino acids into proteins using other RNA molecules ("messenger" or mRNA),
as a template.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA. This protein is called an RNA polymerase
{PoL-u-mu-rAS1 }.

For the first time, a nucleic acid functions both as a template for building
proteins (with the help of tRNA molecules) and also as a template for building
other nucleic acid molecules.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Schuppli, Daniel et al. “Altered 3′-terminal RNA Structure in
Phage Qβ Adapted to Host Factor-less Escherichia Coli.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 94.19 (1997): 10239 –10242.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/19/10239.abstract
  
4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. First Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing a platform for more
efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all the instructions
needed to make more ribosomes.

Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry out protein synthesis, through
a process called translation.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ribosome." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 28 Nov.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/ribosome
  
4,365,000,000 YBN
166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that
allows DNA to be assembled from RNA.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March 1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase:
regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
2. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March
1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase: regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends
Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23. DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
  
4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules, a DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS2 }.3
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 04
Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
2. ^ "Polymerase." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 26
Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Polymerase>.
3. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003.
Answers.com 04 Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
  
4,360,000,000 YBN
6409) Transcription. A protein assembles RNA from DNA.
  
4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth (a bacterium). DNA is surrounded by a membrane made
of proteins. The first cytoplasm.4

This cell may form in either fresh or salt water, near the sunlit water surface
or near underwater volcanoes on the ocean floor.5

DNA protected by cytoplasm is more likely to survive and be copied.6

Start of binary cell division.7

This cell structure forms the basis of all future cells of every living object
on Earth.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p145-154.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p145-154.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Ted Huntington.
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,350,000,000 YBN
6
183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, waxes4 ).5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ find biomarker evidence
2. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,345,000,000 YBN
27) A phospholipid bilayer evolves around the cell.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons allow selective protein assembly.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

2. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
3. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

4. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
  
4,340,000,000 YBN
6340) Facilitated diffusion. Proteins in the cell membrane allow only certain
molecules to enter the cell.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Daniel V. Lim, "Microbiology", 2002,
p101. http://books.google.com/books?id=CKEgLmqfbRQC&pg=PA101
  
4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can make
ATP from glucose.2

ATP is the molecule that drives most cellular work.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
  
4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves. Cells can make lactic acid.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

2. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

  
4,325,000,000 YBN
213) Fermentation of ethanol evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
  
4,315,000,000 YBN
196) Active transport evolves. Proteins transport molecules into and out of the
cytoplasm.1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.cat.cc.md.us/~gkaiser/biotutorials/eustruct/cmeu.html
2. ^ "active transport." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
10 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
3. ^ "active transport." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science
. Oxford University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 10 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/active-transport
  
4,200,000,000 YBN
3 4
292) Prokaryote flagellum evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
2. ^
conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Pallen MJ, Matzke NJ (October 2006). "From The Origin of Species to
the origin of bacterial flagella". Nature Reviews. Microbiology 4 (10):
784–90. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1493. PMID
16953248. http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v4/n10/full/nrmicro1493.html
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] Tree of life, http://tolweb.org/tree/
[4] David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia,
"Symbiosis Between methanogenic Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin
of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530.
eukorig6_jmol.pdf
[5] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
[6] "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>
  
4,193,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
77) Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/pdf/Hedges2009Chap05.pdf
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
6. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). 2142-1873my (2142-1873my)
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 2300my (2300my)
8. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4 eu) (4100my)
9. ^
Osawa, S., Honjo, "Archaebacteria vs Metabacteria : Phylogenetic tree of
organisms indicated by comparison of 5S ribosomal RNA sequences.", (Tokyo:
Springer, Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of Life", pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my
(1800my)
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). 4000my (4000my)
11. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
3970my (3970my)
  
4,189,000,000 YBN
5 6
193) The Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (Aquifex, Thermotoga).3 4
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of
Life", 2009, p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
  
4,187,000,000 YBN
5 6
180) Archaea: Crenarchaeota (Sulfolobus).3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of
Life", 2009, p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
  
4,187,000,000 YBN
10 11
181) Archaea: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu6 } (methanogens, halobacteria).7 8


Earliest cell response to light.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
5. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
9. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

10. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
11. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44

MORE INFO
[1] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November 2002),
doi:10.1038/nrg929 http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html#to
p

  
4,112,000,000 YBN
3
58) The first autotrophic cells; cells that can produce some of their own
food.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
  
4,100,000,000 YBN
6
49) Photosynthesis.1

Bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and a an electron
donor2 like Hydrogen sulfide into glucose, water, and sulfur.3 Also called
"Carbon fixation".4

This is the ancestor of Photosystem I.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ "reductant."Answers.com
14 Jul. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/reductant
3. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to
Astronomy", 1982, p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
4. ^ "carbon fixation>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1).
Random House, Inc. "carbon fixation." The American Heritage® Science
Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. 14 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carbon fixation>.
5. ^ Lockau, Wolfgang, Wolfgang
Nitschke (1993). "Photosystem I and its Bacterial Counterparts". Physiologia
Plantarum 88 (2): 372–381.
DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05512.x. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1399-3054
.1993.tb05512.x

6. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059. http://www.springerlink.com/content/g6n805154602432w/?MUD=MP {Olson_
2006.pdf}

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology", 2009, 190-198
  
4,000,000,000 YBN
8
43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II evolves. Cells emit free Oxygen.4

Bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and water into
glucose, releasing oxygen gas in the process.5 6

This is the main system responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of
Earth.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
2. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
3. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
4. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
5. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
6. ^ Frank H. Shu, "The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy", 1982,
p537. http://books.google.com/books?id=v_6PbAfapSAC&pg=PA537
7. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
8. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID 16453059.

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology", 2009, 190-198
  
4,000,000,000 YBN
4
51) End of Hadean {HADEiN1 } start of Archean {oRKEiN2 } Eon.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Hadean Time." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/hadean-time
2. ^ "Archean." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/archaean
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ "Divisions of Geologic Time", 2010,
USGS http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
3,950,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments. Cells stay fastened together after cell division.3


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

2. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

3. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol.
1, 27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

6. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Grosberg R. K., Strathmann R. R. 2007 The evolution of
multicellularity: a minor major transition? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 38,
621–654. (doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735
[2] Rokas A. 2008 The origins of multicellularity and the early history of the
genetic toolkit for animal development. Ann. Rev. Genet. 42, 235–251.
(doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.42.110807.091513) http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Inb
oundService.do?UT=000261767000011&IsProductCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord&product=WOS&
SID=1EHDdbNiNf4NO8nC299&smartRedirect=yes&SrcApp=CR&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.we
bofknowledge.com%3FDestApp%3DCEL%26DestParams%3D%253Faction%253Dretrieve%2526mod
e%253DFullRecord%2526product%253DCEL%2526UT%253D000261767000011%2526customersID%
253DHighwire%26e%3DQZIAIzGgKoYbxc_i_WNamlaqQ0.s968BNEwQvqhM9p.770dFYju0AbJCFAAcj
orA%26SrcApp%3DHighwire%26SrcAuth%3DHighwire&action=retrieve&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=Hi
ghwire&customersID=Highwire&Func=Frame

  
3,950,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
3. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
4. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238
5. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N. SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès: Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract


MORE INFO
[1] Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

  
3,950,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
322) Nitrogen fixation. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia from
Nitrogen gas in the air.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
3. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
4. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
5. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
6. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
7. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238
8. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N. SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès: Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract

West Africa5   
3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration. First aerobic (or "oxygenic") cell. These
cells use oxygen to convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.3

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
  
3,850,000,000 YBN
12
36) Oldest physical evidence for life: ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12 in
grains of ancient minerals.5 6 7

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12 isotope.8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
2. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

3. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
4. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

5. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
6. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

7. ^ "apatite." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/apatite
8. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
9. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

10. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
11. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

12. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Banded iron formation." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 11 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/banded-iron-formation
[2] Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
AND http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
Akilia Island, Western Greenland10 11   
3,850,000,000 YBN
13
45) Oldest sediment, the Banded Iron Formation begins.7
Banded Iron Formation
is sedimentary rock that spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years ago, made of
iron-rich silicates with alternating layers of black colored reduced iron and
red colored oxidized iron8 9 and represents a seasonal rise and fall of free
oxygen in the ocean, possibly linked to photosynthetic organisms.10 11

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
2. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
3. ^ Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New
Views on an Old Planet 2nd ed.
1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Konhauser,
Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the Precambrian Banded Iron
Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
6. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^
Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New Views on an
Old Planet 2nd ed. 1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Konhauser, Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the
Precambrian Banded Iron Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
11. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
12. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
13. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102, {3850 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Roger Lewin, "Thread of Life", (New York: Smithsonian Books, 1982).
p102
[2]
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

[3] "Banded iron formation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banded_iron_formation
Akilia Island, Western Greenland12   
3,500,000,000 YBN
9 10
39) Oldest fossil evidence of life: stromatolites.5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
2. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
3. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
4. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
5. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
6. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
7. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
8. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
9. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
10. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa7 8   
3,500,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17
287) Oldest fossils of an organism, similar to cyanobacteria
{SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u7 }.8 9

2.8 billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
2. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
3. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
4. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
7. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
8. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
9. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
12. ^ Schopf, J.
William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest Fossils." Nature
416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
13. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
14. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
15. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
16. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
17. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

MORE INFO
[1] BIO415 (Author? University?) Multicelluarity.pdf (t3:
multicellularity of cyanobacteria)
[2] t3:
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol3018.htm multicellularity.
"Some cyanobacteria species exist in a truly, though primitive, multicellular
form in which cellular differentiation occurs."
Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia12 and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa13   
3,400,000,000 YBN
4
190) Earliest fossils of coccoid {KoKOED1 } (spherical) bacteria.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "coccoid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coccoid
2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

4. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)


MORE INFO
[1] maybe evidence: Nagy, B. and Nagy, L.A., 1969. Early Precambrian
microstructures: possibly the oldest fossils on Earth?. Nature 223, pp.
1226-1229.?
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa3   
3,260,000,000 YBN
4
71) Prokaryote reproduction by budding.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

4. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

Swartkoppie, South Africa3   
3,200,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14
66) Earliest acritarch fossils (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity5 6 ). These acritarchs are also the earliest possible eukaryote
fossils.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
2. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution of Dinoflagellates", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p194.
3. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
4. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
5. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
6. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution
of Dinoflagellates", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
7. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
8. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
9. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P.
Marshall, and Andrey Bekker. “Organic-walled microfossils in
3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits.” Nature 463.7283
(2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
10. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P. Marshall, and Andrey Bekker.
“Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature 463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
{3.2 bybn}
11. ^ A. H. Knoll, E. J. Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic
Organisms in Proterozoic Oceans", Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470, Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological,
Molecular and Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29,
2006), pp. 1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209698 {1.8 bybn}
12. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/dinoflagfr.html {1.8 bybn}
13. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html {1900-1600 mybn}
14. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p257. {1.6 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Knoll, Andrew H., Walter, Malcolm,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life
and Evolution of Biospheres, 2003-02-01, Springer Netherlands, Vol33, Iss1,
p75-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023992712071
[2] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean
Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
[3] Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A Molecular Time-Scale for Eukaryote
Evolution Recalibrated with the Continuous Microfossil Record", Proceedings:
Biological Sciences , Vol. 273, No. 1596 (Aug. 7, 2006), pp.
1867-1872 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25223537
[4] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Andrew H. Knoll, and Malcolm R. Walter.
“Morphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems.”
Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html
(Moodies Group) South Africa9   
2,923,000,000 YBN
10
178) Eubacteria Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ6 ) evolve (Gram positive bacteria: the
cause of botulism, tetanus, anthrax).7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges,
"A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds.
Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the
Environment, Washington DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteria?topic=49480
6. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
10. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptidoglycan
[2] firmicutes only bacteria to make endospores
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes
[4] http://www.earthlife.net/prokaryotes/firmicutes.html
  
2,920,000,000 YBN
2
288) First endospores. The ability to form endospores evolves in firmicutes. An
endospore is a tough reduced dry form of a bacterium that can be revived after
long periods of time.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney
Draggan and C.J. Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment,
Washington DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteria?topic=49480
2. ^ Ted Huntington, a total guess my friends

MORE INFO
[1] "Endospore". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
  
2,800,000,000 YBN
9
76) Eubacteria Proteobacteria evolve (Rickettsia {ancestor of all
mitochondria}, gonorrhea, Salmonella, E coli).5 6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
4. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Tree of life, http://tolweb.org/tree/
8. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria
as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000
YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] multicellularity.
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol3018.htm multicellularity.
Multicellularity.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacteria
[2] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
[3] "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>
[4] conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa
and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989)
[5] prokaryote pili and
archaea flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
[6] Stackebrandt et al. Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the
phylogenetic taxon that includes the "purple bacteria and their relatives".
Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38,
321–325. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/38/3/321.full.pdf
  
2,800,000,000 YBN
21
177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo KOlI13 }
bacteria. Conjugation is the exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor {male}
bacterium through a pilus to a recipient {female} bacterium.14 15 16 17 18 19

Proteins that can cut or connect strands of DNA evolve.20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
2. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
6. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
7. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM,
"Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946)
doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
8. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
12. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
13. ^ "Escherichia coli."
Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 30 Dec. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Escherichia coli>.
14. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E.
L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19
October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
15. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
16. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
19. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
20. ^ prokaryote pili and archaea
flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
21. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}
  
2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.3

These cells depend on the DNA duplicating and protein producing systems of
other cells to copy themselves.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
2. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
3. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
4. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
  
2,784,000,000 YBN
5
176) Eubacteria Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS3 } (or Planctobacteria).4
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] s10 http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/6/1965
[2] http://genomebiology.com/2002/3/6/research/0031
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planctomycetes
[4] Lee, Kuo-Chang, Rick Webb, and John Fuerst. “The
Cell Cycle of the Planctomycete Gemmata Obscuriglobus with Respect to Cell
Compartmentalization.” BMC Cell Biology 10.1 (2009):
4. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2121/10/4/
  
2,784,000,000 YBN
13
179) Eubacteria Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu7 } (Gram positive, source of
streptomycin).8 9 10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
4. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
5. ^ http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
9. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
10. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
11. ^ http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
12. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
13. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] "streptomyces." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/streptomyces
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
5
174) Eubacteria Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ3 ) (Syphilis, Lyme disease).4
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^ estimated from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] "spirochete." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/spirochete
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
7 8
175) Eubacteria Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ4 }.5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
4. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
7. ^ estimate from
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidetes
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
5
217) Eubacteria Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E3 } evolve.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicrobia
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
5 6
6309) Eubacteria Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria).3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
5. ^ estimate from Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ estimate from
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidetes
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
5
6310) Eubacteria Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo3 ).4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicrobia
  
2,730,000,000 YBN
3 4
80) Endo and exocytosis evolve. Cells can now eat other cells.

In endocytosis the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the
cell.1

In Exocytosis substances contained in vesicles are released from the cell.2

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ "endocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis
2. ^ "exocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/exocytosis
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn guess
and }
4. ^ guess based on Cavalier-Smith stating that endocytosis occurs before a
cytoskeleton {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn guess and}
  
2,700,000,000 YBN
12
60) Eukaryotic cell. The first cell with a nucleus. The first protist. The
nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.3

In prokaryotic cells the DNA is not membrane enclosed while in eukaryotic cells
most of the DNA is contained in a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are generally much
larger than prokaryotic cells.4 Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells
have a cytoskeleton. Eukaryotic cells may have mitochondria and plastids, which
prokaryotic cells lack.5 DNA in prokaryotic cells is usually a single circular
chromosome, while DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes contains linear
chromosomes.6

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably haploid (a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets of DNA).7 8 9 10

All protists, fungi, animals and plant cells descend from this common
eukaryotic cell.11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
2. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
4. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008,
p516-517.
6. ^ Jill Saffrey, "Biology: uniformity & diversity. Core of life, Book 3,
Volume 2", 2001, p353. http://books.google.com/books?id=43yiLI1DvwAC&pg=PA353
7. ^ Montgomery Slatkin, "Exploring evolutionary biology:
readings from American scientist", 1995,
p161. http://books.google.com/books?ei=AAVdT77TFMiiiQKB8a24Cw
8. ^ Andrew Wallace Hayes, "Principles and methods of toxicology", 2007,
p1181. http://books.google.com/books?id=vgHXTId8rnYC&pg=PA1181
9. ^ N. A. Kolchanov, Hwa A. Lim, "Computer analysis of genetic macromolecules:
structure, function, and evolution", 1994,
p2. http://books.google.com/books?id=crip5tRcF0YC&pg=PA2
10. ^ "diploid", Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry http://www.answers.com/topic/diploid
11. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p98.
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong
Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{split of archae and eukaryote at c4.0 bybn, but eukaryote {with nucleus?} at)
2.7 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p256
[2] Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
[3] Alexey S. Kondrashov, "EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF LIFE CYCLES", Annual Review
of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 28: 391-435 (Volume publication date November
1997)
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.391;
jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

  
2,700,000,000 YBN
62) Earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiRAN4 }
molecules).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
4. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 1033-1036 , 13 August 1999 Archean Molecular Fossils and
the Early Rise of Eukaryotes Jochen J. Brocks, 1,2* Graham A. Logan, 2 Roger
Buick, 1 Roger E. Summons 2
Northwestern Australia7 8   
2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves, a membrane system that extends from the
nucleus, important in the synthesis of proteins and lipids.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
2. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
  
2,690,000,000 YBN
9 10
207) Cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN5 } forms in eukaryote cytoplasm.6 7 8
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
2. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
3. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman Inc,
New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
4. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
5. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
6. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
7. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman Inc,
New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
8. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess
and }
10. ^ guess based on ER and golgi made of same material as cytoskeleton,
and after first eukaryote cell {Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess and}
  
2,690,000,000 YBN
1
208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia evolve.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
  
2,680,000,000 YBN
3
65) The circular chromosome in the eukaryote nucleus changes into linear
chromosomes.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC
Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +20mybn
guess}

MORE INFO
[1] not all prokaryotes have circle of
DNA: http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.
391;jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

[2] Jumas-Bilak E, Maugard C, Michaux-Charachon S, Allardet-Servent A, Perrin
A, et al. 1995. Study of the organization of the genomes of Escherichia coli,
Brucella melitensis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens by insertion of a unique
restriction site. Microbiology 141:2425-32 (Medline)
[3] Lezhava A, Kameoka D, Sugino H,
Goshi K, Shinkawa H, et al. 1997. Chromosomal deletions in Streptomyces griseus
that remove the afsA locus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253:478-83
[4] Marconi RT, Casjens S,
Munderloh UG, Samuels DS. 1996. Analysis of linear plasmid dimers in Borrelia
burgdorferi sensu lato isolates: implications concerning the potential
mechanisms of linear plasmid replication. J. Bact. 178:3357-61
  
2,670,000,000 YBN
199) Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves (packages proteins and lipids into
vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.
2. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.

MORE INFO
[1] "Endosome." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endosome
  
2,670,000,000 YBN
3
290) The nucleolus evolves. The nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus that makes
ribosomal RNA.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
3. ^ Ted
Huntington guess

MORE INFO
[1] Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry Oxford University Press. Oxford
Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology © 1997, 2000, 2006 All rights
reserved. http://www.answers.com/topic/nucleolus#ixzz2VAspF99U
  
2,660,000,000 YBN
7
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.3 4

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the nucleus divides resulting in two new nuclei,
each of which contains an identical copy of the parental chromosomes. Mitosis
is usually immediately followed by division of the cytoplasm.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis, evolution of mitosis.
2. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
3. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis, evolution of
mitosis.
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
5. ^ "mitosis." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mitosis
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th Edition, 2008, p230-233.
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar,
Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the
origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -40mybn guess}
  
2,640,000,000 YBN
18
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. Two identical cells fuse (isogamy)7 . First diploid
cell. First zygote.8 9 Increase in genetic variety.10

Because of sex, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more genetic
variety. Having two chromosome sets also provides a backup copy of important
genes.11 12

All sexual species alternate between haploid and diploid.13 14

This begins the haplontic life cycle: mitosis only occurs in the haploid phase;
the only diploid cell is the zygote15 .16 17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
4. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution",
(London: Nelson, 1964).
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
7. ^ Karen Arms,
Pamela S. Camp, "Biology", Third Edition, 1987,
p398. http://books.google.com/books?ei=fjtmT96tDqPQiAKP2qyiDw&id=ga_uAAAAMAAJ
8. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
9. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
11. ^ Glenn E. Croston, "Kaplan AP biology",
2000, p98. http://books.google.com/books?id=PWsKAQAAMAAJ
12. ^ Janette B. Benson, Marshall M. Haith, "Diseases and Disorders in
Infancy and Early Childhood", 2009, p203.
13. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology",
Eigth Edition, 2008, p252.
14. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
15. ^
Rowoand, M.D. Bath Advanced Science - Biology. Thomas Nelson & Sons, Limited,
1992. Bath Science 16-19 Series,
p503. http://books.google.com/books?id=j9cEEouPBogC&pg=PA503
16. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
17. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
18. ^ estimate based on diplomonads having sex repro, and origin of euk being
(is now) {Nucleus 2700 -60mybn guess)(was 2710mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] J. William Schopf, "Major Events in the History of Life", (Boston,
MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1992).p57 (was)
  
2,640,000,000 YBN
7
206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis: a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).3 4

Meiosis, is similar to mitosis5 , but reduces the number of chromosomes from
diploid to haploid making gametes in animals and spores in plants.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
3. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
4. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth
Edition, 2008, p253.
6. ^ "meiosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
12 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/meiosis
7. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
  
2,610,000,000 YBN
12
296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves.7 Anisogamy {aNISoGomE8 9 }, sex (cell and
nucleus fusion) between two cells that are different in size or shape.10 11

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
5. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
6. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
7. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists",
(London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
8. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
9. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
10. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
11. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 18 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -90mybn
guess}
  
2,590,000,000 YBN
3
298) Oogamy {OoGomE1 }, a form of anisogamy, evolves in protists: sex between a
flagellated gamete and an unflagellated gamete.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oogamy&submit=Submit
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -110mybn
guess}
  
2,570,000,000 YBN
3
295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides twice into
four haploid cells).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
2. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -130mybn
guess}
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
3
171) Eubacteria "Deinococcus-Thermus".2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
7 8
172) Eubacteria Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u4 } (ancestor of all
plastids).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cyanobacterium." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in
Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
4. ^ "cyanobacterium."
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19,
Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
7. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC533871/ {2558
mybn}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003). {2558 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] Journal of Molecular Evolution Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York ISSN: 0022-2844 (Paper) 1432-1432 (Online) Issue:
Volume 42, Number 2 Date: February 1996 Pages: 194 - 200
[4] Phylogenetic
Relationships of Nonaxenic Filamentous Cyanobacterial Strains Based on 16S rRNA
Sequence Analysis jme_42_2_1996.pdf
[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria
[6] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
3
315) Eubacteria Chloroflexi, (Green Non-Sulphur bacteria).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[2] Tree of Life http://tolweb.org/tree/
  
2,500,000,000 YBN
52) End of the Archean and start of the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or ProTReZOiK1
2 } Eon.3

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542 million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Proterozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/proterozoic
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=proterozoic&submit=Submit
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
5. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th Edition,
2006, p243.
  
2,480,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14 15
170) Bacteria live on land.7 8 9
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
2. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
3. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

4. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
5. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
6. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

7. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
8. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
9. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

10. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
11. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
12. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

13. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). (2600-2700my)
14. ^ University of
Tennessee at Knoxville. "Bacteria's move from sea to land may have occurred
much later than thought." ScienceDaily, 22 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Jul.
2012. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111222195017.htm
15. ^ Florence Wisniewski-Dyé, Kirill Borziak, Gurusahai Khalsa-Moyers, Gladys
Alexandre, Leonid O. Sukharnikov, Kristin Wuichet, Gregory B. Hurst, W. Hayes
McDonald, Jon S. Robertson, Valérie Barbe, Alexandra Calteau, Zoé Rouy,
Sophie Mangenot, Claire Prigent-Combaret, Philippe Normand, Mickaël Boyer,
Patricia Siguier, Yves Dessaux, Claudine Elmerich, Guy Condemine, Ganisan
Krishnen, Ivan Kennedy, Andrew H. Paterson, Victor González, Patrick Mavingui,
Igor B. Zhulin. Azospirillum Genomes Reveal Transition of Bacteria from Aquatic
to Terrestrial Environments. PLoS Genetics, 2011; 7 (12): e1002430 DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1002430

MORE INFO
[1] "pyrite." The American Heritage� Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 May.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/pyrite
  
2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of 200 million year ice age.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
  
2,300,000,000 YBN
48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide formed on land, begin here, and are also
evidence of more free oxygen in the air of Earth.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
  
2,000,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely related to Rickettsia (an aerobic
proteobacteria) is captured by a eukaryote and through endosymbiosis, becomes
the mitochondria.3

Mitochondria are organelles in most eukaryotic cells4 , and are where cellular
respiration occurs and most of the ATP is produced5 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
4. ^ "mitochondrion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 23 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/386130/mitochondrion>.
5. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p100.
6. ^ B. Franz
Lang, Michael W. Gray, and Gertraud Burger, "Mitochondrial Genome Evolution and
the Origin of Eukaryotes", Annu. Rev. Genet., V33, p351-397, p385. 1999. {2
BYBN}
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {average of)
2230-1840 bybn} {earliest of) 2350-1640 bybn} {average of 1995my) 2350-1640
mybn}
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {1.8 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Michael W. Gray, et al, "Genome structure and gene content in protist
mitochondrial DNAs", Nucl. Acids Res. (1998) 26(4): 865-878
doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865 http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/4/865.full
  
1,874,000,000 YBN
10
61) Earliest large filamentous fossil (Grypania).3 4 Grypania spiralis is
about 10 cm long, and is thought to be either a green alga or a large
cyanobacterium.5 6 If eukaryote, Grypania would be the earliest eukaryote
fossil.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
2. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
3. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
4. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
5. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
6. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
7. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
8. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
9. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
10. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E.
Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and
syndepositional iron formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for
the tectonic setting of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior
region. Can. J. Earth Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Samuelsson, Joakim, Peter R Dawes, and Gonzalo Vidal.
“Organic-walled Microfossils from the Proterozoic Thule Supergroup, Northwest
Greenland.” Precambrian Research 96.1–2 (1999):
1–23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301926898001235
[2] Jacques Dumais, Kyle Serikawa and Dina F Mandoli, "Acetabularia: A
Unicellular Model for Understanding Subcellular Localization and Morphogenesis
during Development", Journal of Plant Growth Regulation Volume 19, Number 3
(2000), 253-264, DOI:
10.1007/s003440000035 http://www.oeb.harvard.edu/faculty/dumais/Publications/JP
GR2000.2.pdf

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA8 9   
1,800,000,000 YBN
46) End of the Banded Iron Formation.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
  
1,570,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
99) First homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts in algae, plants, fungi and animals.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
7. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin TR, "MEKHLA, a novel domain with similarity to PAS
domains, is fused to plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins.", Plant
Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/140/4/1142.full
8. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin. “A
Comprehensive Classification and Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/12/2775.short {1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown algae}
9. ^ Jongmin Nam, Claude W. dePamphilis, Hong
Ma, and Masatoshi Nei, "Antiquity and Evolution of the MADS-Box Gene Family
Controlling Flower Development in Plants", Mol Biol Evol (2003) 20(9):
1435-1447 first published online May 30, 2003 doi:10.1093/molbev/msg152
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/9/1435.abstract {1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown algae}
  
1,570,000,000 YBN
7 8
197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the eukaryote tree
pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

2. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
4. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

5. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
7. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf} {problem with 1250 my
bangia red algae fossils)1126 mybn}
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1570 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution", J Mol Evol
(2003) 56:540 563
[2] J Mol Evol (2003) 56:540 563 Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution Thomas
Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao
  
1,520,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
202) Protists Amoebozoa evolve (amoeba, slime molds).4 5 Feeding using
pseudopods.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p515.
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p515.
7. ^ Hackett
JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
{1520 mybn}
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p120. {1400 my}
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1587mybn)
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1400) {c1220}
11. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7,
2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c1090}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.unige.ch/sciences/biologie/biani/msg/Amoeboids/Amoebozoa/Conosea.html

  
1,520,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5 6 7
203) Colonialism (where cells form a colony1 ) evolves for the first time in
Eukaryotes.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "colonial." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
2. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {1956 mybn}
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1999 mybn}
6. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1600mybn)
7. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). (1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Biorealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
15) First "plastids". Cyanobacteria form plastids (chloroplasts) through
symbiosis, within a eukaryote cell (endosymbiosis). Like mitochondria, these
organelles copy themselves and are not made by the cell DNA.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya
D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {c1600 my}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see comments {1576 MYBN}
9. ^ Knoll A, Summons R,
Waldbauer J, Zumberge J, "The Geological Succession of Primary Producers in the
Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p152. {no later than) 1200 my}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see comments {1576 MYBN} {needs to be at
least as old as Euglenozoa since many have plastids)1956} {Euglenozoa)1956}

MORE INFO
[1] "Plastid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastid
[2] Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
21 22 23 24 25 26 27
86) First plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).11 12 13
14 15

This begins the plant kingdom. This first plant is unicellular.16 17 18 19 20

F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay,
Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton
reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
4. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay,
Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton
reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
9. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
13. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
14. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
16. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
18. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from
picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
19. ^ Elizabeth
Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
21. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1500)
22. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {first plastid) 1300mybn}
23. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {first plastid) c1600}
24. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120.
{1550 mybn}
25. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1609 mybn)
26. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{1580} http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
27. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf {fossil
Grypania) 1874my}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith and Ema E. -Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution", Springer New
York, (2003). file:///home/ted/ulsf/docs/cav-smith_apusozoa_fulltext.html
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).3
4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya
D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1380 mybn}
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1400mybn}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1600
mybn}
9. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{960 mybn}
  
1,400,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14 15
209) Plant Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu5 }.6 7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon,
Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1400)
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150 mybn}
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1290 mybn}
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1225 mybn}
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849
(2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (c1500my)
15. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(1558my)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P6064
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
188) Plants Chlorophyta {KlORoFiTu6 } evolve, Green Algae: (ancestor of Volvox,
Sea lettuce, Spirogyra, and Stoneworts).7 8 9 10 11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
4. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
5. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlorophyta&submit=Submit
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
10. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
11. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
13. ^ "algae." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 18
Dec. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/14828/algae>.
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150 mybn}
15. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450mybn}
16. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (968mybn)
17. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1
David M. Geiser,2 Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L.
Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and
Plants", Science 10 August 2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001). (1061?)
18. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2",
(London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1993). fr2b (1650-800mybn)
19. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html (1000my)
20. ^ Herman N,
"Organic World One Billion Years Ago", Nauka, Leningrad, 1990.
21. ^ Knoll A, Summons
R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J, "The Geological Succession of Primary Producers in
the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers
in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p150.
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
219) Plant Red Algae evolves (Rhodophyta {rODOFITu4 }).5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450 mybn}
9. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1428mybn)
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119.

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
323) Protists Excavates: includes Parabasalids {PaRu-BAS-a-liDS5 }, and
Diplomonads {DiP-lO-mO-naDZ6 } {like Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u7 }).8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=parabasalid&submit=Submit
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diplomonads&submit=Submit
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {2000 my}
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {2291} {2291 my}
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
{1600} {1600 my}
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{2230} {2230 my}
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1594 my}
17. ^ Cédric Berney
and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated
with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{1030 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Heterokonts". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterokonts
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12 13
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
2. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
3. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
4. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
5. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
6. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
7. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
9. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
10. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^
Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz
and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron formations,
Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting of
Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874 mybn}
12. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the
2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874
mybn}
13. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2009, p517.

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
[3] Ted huntington, Estimate based on origin
of brown algae around 1,973,000,000
(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada7
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
1 2 3
85) Differentiation in multicellular eukaryote. Gamete (or spore) cells and
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells are asexual (non-fusing).
Start of death by aging.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cell differentiation." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cell-differentiation
2. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
3. ^ Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of
Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
1 2 3
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -80mybn
guess}
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
301) Haplodiplontic life cycle (mitosis occurs in both haploid and diploid life
stages).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A
bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol
250 1990, p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905

MORE INFO
[1] Mark Kirkpatrick, "The evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles",
1994, p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
  
1,274,000,000 YBN
7 8
187) A captured red alga, through endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid in the
ancestor of all chromalveolates.3 4 5

This is a secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured
instead of a cyanobacterium.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
7. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {1274
mybn}
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {1280mybn}
  
1,250,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18 19 20
88) Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS8 } (ancestor of Chromista
{Cryptophytes, Haptophytes and Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ9 }} and
Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS10 }).11 12 13 14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
3. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
7. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626 (2003)
: 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
9. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
10. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
13. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
14. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
15. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin
of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004):
809 -818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract
{c1250 mybn}
16. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
17. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1665 mybn}
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1973mybn)
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
20. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1600mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Brown alga". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_alga
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science,
Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
  
1,250,000,000 YBN
9
201) Earliest certain eukaryote fossils and eukaryote filamentous
multicellularity: Rhodophyta (red algae) fossils.4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
2. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

3. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
4. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
5. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

6. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
7. ^ Science 1990 vol 250
Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
8. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

9. ^ Science 1990 vol 250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A
bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science 250:
104-107 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {1250 mybn}
(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada7 8   
1,200,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11
221) First fungi. This begins the Fungi Kingdom.5 6

Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic (cannot photosynthesize) and so must feed
on other living things.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf}
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1200 mybn}
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1368
mybn}
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1513mybn) {1513 mybn}
11. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c1200) {c1100} {c1100 mybn}
  
1,180,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
6280) Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS6 } (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS7 }).8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
2. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
7. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
10. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1180 mybn}
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1480 my}
13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956 my}
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
15. ^ Emmanuelle J.
Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{1000 my}
16. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c820 my}
17. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1628}
  
1,100,000,000 YBN
5 6
75) Oldest extant fungi phylum "Microsporidia".3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (>1460mybn)
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=93911
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
  
1,100,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
313) Protists "Dinoflagellata" (Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS5 }).6 7 8
FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
7. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before ciliophora and
apicomplexa branch
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
9. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and
Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of
Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{Dinosterane molecular fossils)1100 my}
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {DNA)1040 mybn}
11. ^ A. H. Knoll,
E. J. Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic Organisms in Proterozoic
Oceans", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470,
Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological, Molecular and Cellular
Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp.
1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209698 {1.8 bybn} {Dinosterane
molecular fossils)1100 my}
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {940 mybn}
13. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7,
2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{430 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch (1600mybn)
[3] Pratt, L. M., Summons, R. E. and
Hieshima, G. B.: 1991, Sterane and Triterpane Biomarkers in the Precambrian
Nonesuch Formation, North American Midcontinent Rift, Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta
55, 911–916
[4] J.J. Brocks, R.E. Summons, 8.03 - Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers
for Early Life, In: Editors-in-Chief: Heinrich D. Holland and Karl K.
Turekian, Editor(s)-in-Chief, Treatise on Geochemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, 2003,
Pages 63-115, ISBN 9780080437514,
10.1016/B0-08-043751-6/08127-5. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/p
ii/B0080437516081275)

[5] Moldowan, J. Michael et al. “Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of
biofacies: Molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with
pre-Triassic ancestors.” Geology 24.2 (1996): 159 -162.
http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/24/2/159.abstract
AND http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/24/2/159.full.pdf
[6] Raven, Evert, Eichhorn, "Biology of Plants", (New York: Worth Publishers,
1992). p98-99
[7] "coenocyte." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 23 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/coenocyte
  
1,080,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15
87) Excavate Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS}, ancestor of protists which have
mitochondria with discoidal shaped cristae (includes euglenids, leishmanias
{lEsmaNEuZ4 }, trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ5 }, and acrasid {oKrASiD6 } slime
molds).7 8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
4. ^
"leishmanias." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/leishmanias>.
5. ^ "trypanosome." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trypanosome>.
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=acrasiomycetes&submit=Submit
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
10. ^
Baldauf, "An overview of the phylogeny and diversity of eukaryotes", Journal of
Systematics and Evolution 46 (3): 263–273
(2008). http://www.plantsystematics.com/qikan/manage/wenzhang/jse08060.pdf
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {1956 mybn}
13. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1999 mybn}
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1600mybn)
15. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). (1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Biorealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,080,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.7 8
9

The earliest eye probably evolves from a plastid in a unicellular eukaryote.10
11

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

3. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
4. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

5. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

6. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
7. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

8. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

9. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
10. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

11. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
13. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline
for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution
21.5 (2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {guess based on
earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {guess based on
earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}
15. ^ my own estimate
based on where euglenozoa genetically appear to evolve {guess based on earliest
secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Peter Hegemann, "Algal Sensory Photoreceptors", Annual Review of
Plant Biology, Vol. 59: 167 -189 (Volume publication date June 2008)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092847
%40recept.2009.1.issue-1

[2] Trevor D. Lamb, Detlev Arendt, and Shaun P. Collin, "The evolution of
phototransduction and eyes", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B October 12, 2009
364:2791-2793;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0106 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1
531/2791.full

[3] Kreimer, G. (2009) The green algal eyespot apparatus: a primordial visual
system and more? Current Genetics 55:19-43 doi:10.007/s00294-008-0224-8 PMID
19107486 http://www.springerlink.com/content/v54v124mxg52r091/
  
1,050,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
169) Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ5 } (also called Heterokonts)
(ancestor of all brown and golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu6
)).7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
3. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
5. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
7. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
9. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {1050
mybn}
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1180 mybn}
11. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1480my}
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
13.
^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956my} {Alveolates and Plant split)1956my}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600 my}
{Chromalveolates)1600 my}
15. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf} {c775my} {c754my}
16. ^
Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and
Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of
Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{c1000my}
17. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste,
Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic evolution:
Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad
Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{872 my}
  
1,000,000,000 YBN
5
324) Protists Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u3 } (also called DRIPS).4
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {1000 MYBN (end of Mesoproterozoic}

MORE INFO
[1] Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, Orr R, Ruden T, et al.
2008 Multigene Phylogeny of Choanozoa and the Origin of Animals. PLoS ONE 3(5):
e2098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098
[2] Leonel Mendoza, John W. Taylor, and Libero Ajello, "THE CLASS
MESOMYCETOZOEA: A Heterogeneous Group of Microorganisms at the Animal-Fungal
Boundary", Annual Review of Microbiology October 2002, Vol. 56:
315-344. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.
160950

  
985,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
309) Protists Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu6 } (Water molds).7 8 9 10
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {985}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.ilmyco.gen.chicago.il.us/Terms/coeno128.html#coeno128
[2] "Coenocyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenocyte
[3]
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Protists.html#Water_Mol
ds

[4] http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/16protists.htm
  
900,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
6281) Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u3 } (ancestor of all Radiolaria,
Foraminifera and Cercozoa).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Medlin, L. , Kooistra, W. , Potter, D. , Saanders, G. and
Wandersen, R. (1997): Phylogenetic relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids , The origin of the
algae and their plastids (D Bhattacharya, ed ) Plant systematics and evolution
(Suppl ) http://epic.awi.de/2100/ AND http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf
{900 my}
6. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_a=rhizaria&taxon_b=haptophyta&submit=Sea
rch
{900 my}
7. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my} {754 my}
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Moreira D, von der Heyden S, Bass D, López-García P, Chao E,
Cavalier-Smith T (July 2007). "Global eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small- and
large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and
Excavata". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44 (1): 255–66.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1055-7903(06)00433-7
[2]
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_a=rhizaria&taxon_b=alveolates&submit=Sea
rch

[3] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
  
850,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12
224) Fungi "Zygomycota" (bread molds, pin molds).5 6 7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1250mybn)
10. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2
Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular
Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10
August 2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001). (1107mybn)
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19,
Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003). (1107mybn)
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c850m)
  
767,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
312) Protists Ciliates (paramecium).4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
7. ^ Emmanuelle J.
Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{750 my}
8. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric
Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
9. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
  
767,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
314) Protists "Apicomplexa" {a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su5 } (Malaria).6 7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
9. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery,
Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The
timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile
proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
10. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}
11. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm
Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{api+dino and ciliate split)1100 my}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003, p135
  
680,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20
326) Protists "Choanoflagellates" {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS8 }.9 10 11 12 13 14
Choanoflagellates are the closest relatives to the animals and may be direct
ancestors of sponges.15

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
12. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

13. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p502.
16. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000 drips and 900 choano) {900 MYBN}
18. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {900 MYBN}
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1020 mybn}
20. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450
choano) {1450 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003)
[2] "Ichthyosporea".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthyosporea
  
670,000,000 YBN
10 11 12
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist.7 8 This allows larger
free moving organisms to evolve.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506.
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)

MORE INFO
[1] Nicholas H. Barton, "Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225
[2] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, 188-191
  
670,000,000 YBN
297) Diplontic life cycle; organism is predominantly diploid, mitosis in the
haploid phase does not occur.1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
  
660,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18 19
81) The first animal and first metazoan, sponges (Porifera). Metazoans are
multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform different
functions). There are only three major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians,
and bilaterians.7 8 9

Sponges have different cell types: some form a body wall, some secrete
skeleton, some contract, and some digest food.10 11 12 13

All sponge cells are totipotent {TOTiPiTeNT}; capable of regrowing a new
sponge.14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p497-501.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
13. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
188-191.
14. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
15. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {c800my}
18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
19. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] Müller, Werner E. G. “The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera
as Integrated Animals.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 43.1 (2003):
3–10. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3884834
  
660,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
517) Male gonad (testis {TeSTiS3 } or testicle) evolves in a sponge.4
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
3. ^ "testis." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 21 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/testis
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {based on evolution of sponge) c850my}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
8. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglycan
[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p17
  
650,000,000 YBN
41) Start of 60 million year (Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July 1994 "Proterozoic
and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating evolutionary
tempo" Andrew H Knoll
  
650,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
69) Cells that group as tissues that are arranged in layers evolve in
metazoans.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750) {c750MYBN (Ctenophores are first metazoans
with tissues}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1
  
650,000,000 YBN
5 6
79) The Metazoans "Placozoa" evolve.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {780 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Srivastava, Mansi et al. “The Trichoplax genome and the nature of
placozoans.” Nature 454.7207 (2008) :
955-960. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v454/n7207/abs/nature07191.html
[2] Dellaporta, Stephen L. et al. “Mitochondrial genome of Trichoplax
adhaerens supports Placozoa as the basal lower metazoan phylum.” Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences 103.23 (2006) : 8751 -8756.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/23/8751.full
  
650,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
223) Fungi "Chytridiomycota" {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) (includes Chytridiomycetes
{KI-TriDEO-mI-SE-TEZ}3 )).4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
"Chytridiomycetes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chytridiomycetes-1
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2008/browse_taxa.php?path=0,5597
&selected_taxon=5597

7. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
8. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
(1460mybn)
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=71577&tree=0.1
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomycota
[3] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chytridiomycetes&submit=Submit
[4] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
Northern Russia7   
640,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
83) First nerve cell (neuron), and nervous system evolves in the ancestor of
the Ctenophores and Cnidarians.5 6 This will lead to the first ganglion and
brain.7 Earliest touch and sound detection and memory.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
6. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2,30.
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (presumably)
8. ^ Ted Huntington.
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN (estimate
based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn}
11. ^ S OOta and N Saitou, "Phylogenetic relationship of muscle tissues deduced
from superimposition of gene trees.", Mol Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/856.abstract {Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
12. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
13. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {574mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Ghysen, A. (2003). The origin and evolution of the nervous system.
The International journal of developmental biology , 47 (7-8),
555-562. http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14756331
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750mybn)
  
640,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
96) Muscle cells evolve in metazoans.3 Both the earliest known muscle and
nerve cells are found in Ctenophores and Cnidarians.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
2. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
3. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
4. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
(c750mybn) {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN (estimate
based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
8. ^ S OOta and N Saitou, "Phylogenetic
relationship of muscle tissues deduced from superimposition of gene trees.",
Mol Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/856.abstract {Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
  
640,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
225) Closeable mouth evolves in metazoans.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3. {c750MYBN (all metazoans but sponges have a closable
mouth}
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750) {c750MYBN (all metazoans but sponges have a
closable mouth}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1
  
640,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
414) Female gonad (ovary) evolves in metazoans.5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
2. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
4. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
6. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
8. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
{based on evolution of cnidaria) 580my}
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
11. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglycan
[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p17
[4] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c850my)
[5] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
[6] Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)
  
640,000,000 YBN
5 6
523) Animals Ctenophores {TeN-o-FORZ3 } evolve (comb jellies).4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophore>.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
3. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 02 May. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophore>.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750)
  
630,000,000 YBN
19 20 21 22
82) Animals Cnidarians {NIDAREeNS} evolve (ancestor of sea anemones, sea pens,
corals, and jellyfish).13 14 15 16 Earliest animal eye.17 18

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
6. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
11. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
12. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

13. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
14. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
15. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
16. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
17. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
18. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

19. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
21. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
22. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] Collins, A.G. (2002). "Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the Evolution of
Cnidarian Life Cycles" (PDF). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15 (3):
418–432.
doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00403.x. http://cima.uprm.edu/~n_schizas/CMOB_8676
/Collins2002.pdf

[2] Philippe, H. (April 2009). "Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep
Animal Relationships". Current Biology 19: 706–712.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052. PMID
19345102. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982209008057
[3] doi:10.1038/4631003b; Published online 24 February
2010 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/4631003b.html
  
600,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
91) Start of Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN3 } soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.4

The sudden appearance of Ediacaran fossils may relate to the accumulation of
free oxygen in the atmosphere and sea, which may permit an oxidative
metabolism.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
3. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
5. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
6. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996). "Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/content/93/10/4990.full.pdf
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Meert, J.
G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.; Grice, W. C.; Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin, A.
(2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser Karatau
Microcontinent, Kazakhstan". Gondwana Research 19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005

9. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996). "Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/content/93/10/4990.full.pdf
10. ^ Ben Waggoner, "The Ediacaran Biotas in Space and Time", Integrative and
Comparative Biology , Vol. 43, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp.
104-113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3884845 {Waggoner_200302xx.pdf}
11. ^ H. J. Hofmann, G. M. Narbonne and J. D. Aitken, "Ediacaran remains from
intertillite beds in northwestern Canada", Geology, December, 1990, v. 18, p.
1199-1202. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/18/12/1199.abstract {Hofmann_Edi
acaran_Fossils_1990.pdf}
12. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
13. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
14. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329. {630 mybn}
15. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). {575 mybn}
16. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
{670 mybn}
17. ^ Meert, J. G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.; Grice, W. C.;
Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin, A. (2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?)
Fossils from the Lesser Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan". Gondwana Research
19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005


MORE INFO
[1] Ivantsov, A. Yu (2004). "New Proarticulata from the Vendian of the
Arkhangel'sk Region" (PDF). Paleontological Journal 38 (3): 247–253
[2] Peterson, Kevin
J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005): 9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.short
Sonora, Mexico6 |Adelaide, Australia7 | Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
Kazakhsta8   
600,000,000 YBN
23 24 25
107) Bilateral species evolve (two sided symmetry).15 16 17
Earliest animal
brain.18 19 First triploblastic species (third embryonic layer: the mesoderm
{meZuDRM20 }).21

In most bilaterians food enters in one end (the mouth) and waste exits at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an advantage for sense organs like light,
sound, touch, smell, and taste detection to be located on the head near the
mouth to help with getting food.22

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
6. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
9. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
13. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
14. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
16. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
18. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
20. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
21. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p396.
23. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
24. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
25. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
403) Earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and
nemertodermatida).4 5 6

Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track, anus and coelom.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p472-476.
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
8. ^ "Acoelomorpha". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoelomorpha
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p396
  
600,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
532) Cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian;3
found in all bilaterians except Acoelomorpha4 and Platyhelminthes.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
5. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my) {630my (first bilateral species-acoelomates}
8. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older) {575
(first bilateral species-acoelomates)(fossil record is older}
  
600,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p58-79.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
2. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
3. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology",
2004.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my) {based on some Platyhelminthes have a penis)
630my}
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575
(fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001
  
590,000,000 YBN
70) End of Varanger Ice Age (650-590 mybn).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol 91, pp 6743-6750, July 1994 "Proterozoic
and Early Cambrian protists: Evidence for accelerating evolutionary
tempo" Andrew H Knoll
  
590,000,000 YBN
3 4
95) Fluid filled cavity, the coelom (SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.2
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {estimate based on coelom being before protostome-deutostome
division, after acoelomorph) 630-590 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "coelom." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 24 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/body-cavity
  
590,000,000 YBN
9 10
98) The first circulatory system; blood vessels, and blood evolve in a
bilaterian.4 First blood cells.5

Cnidarians and flatworms are no more than two sheets of tissue thick and so
allow gas exchange and nutrient distribution by diffusion, but larger animals
with thicker tissues require a circulatory system to distribute materials.6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p81.
4. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p81.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p327.
6. ^ Solomon, E., L. Berg, and D.W. Martin. Biology.
Cengage Learning, 2010. Available Titles CourseMate Series,
p938-939. http://books.google.com/books?id=itHVNZicPgwC
7. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p299.
8. ^ Cowen, R. History of Life.
John Wiley & Sons, 2009,
p46. http://books.google.com/books?id=Z-Tam4XuXLkC&pg=PA46
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on}
  
580,000,000 YBN
21 22 23 24
93) Bilaterians Protostomes evolve.13 14 Ancestor of all Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu15 } and Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu16 }.17 18 19 20

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
3. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE;
Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
4. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
11. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
12. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
14. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
15. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
16. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
17. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
18. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
19. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
20. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
21. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
22. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (590my) {590 mybn}
23. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins.
“Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of evidence to
investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages.” Integrative and
Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {543 mybn}
24. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {910 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=priapulids
[2] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide
Pisani, "The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic
and the geological fossil records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April 27, 2008 363
(1496) 1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

  
580,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
105) Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve. Ancestor of all Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS 6
}, Hemichordates, and Chordates.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {570 mybn}
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {910 mybn}
12. ^ Cartwright,
Paulyn, and Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple
lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan
lineages.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {367 mybn}
13. ^ Jun-Yuan
Chen, David J. Bottjer, Paola Oliveri,Stephen Q. Dornbos, Feng Gao, Seth
Ruffins, Huimei Chi, Chia-Wei Li, Eric H. Davidson, "Small Bilaterian Fossils
from 40 to 55 Million Years Before the Cambrian", Science, Vol 305, Issue 5681,
218-222, 9 July
2004 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;305/5681/218

MORE INFO
[1] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide Pisani,
"The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the
geological fossil records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April 27, 2008 363 (1496)
1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

  
580,000,000 YBN
6 7
131) The first shell (or skeleton) evolves; in ciliates.3 Skeletons evolve
independently in different groups.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
2. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
3. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
4. ^ "skeleton." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 25 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/547371/skeleton>.
5. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
6. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf} {earliest hard shell fossil -
ciliate) 580 mybn}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {Euglenozoa -pellicle) 1956 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Hamm, Smetacek, "Armor: Why, When, and How", in Falkowski, Knoll,
"Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea", 2007, p311-332, p323
[2] Bengtson, S.
(2004), Early skeletal fossils, in Lipps, J.H., and Waggoner, B.M.,
"Neoproterozoic- Cambrian Biological Revolutions" (PDF), Paleontological
Society Papers 10: 67–78, retrieved
2008-07-18 http://www.nrm.se/download/18.4e32c81078a8d9249800021554/Bengtson200
4ESF.pdf

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China5   
570,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17
311) Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu8 9 } evolve (Arrow Worms).10

Earliest teeth. Animals start to eat other animals.11 12

The evolution of teeth and animal predation starts an "arms race" that rapidly
transforms ecosystems around the Earth.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
2. ^ Vannier, J.; Steiner, M.;
Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian origin of
modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of the Royal
Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC 2197202. PMID
17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

3. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
7. ^ Vannier, J.;
Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian
origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of
the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

8. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
12. ^ Vannier,
J.; Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early
Cambrian origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms".
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC 2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

13. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (570)
15. ^ Chen,
J.-Y.; Huang, D.-Y. (2002). "A possible Lower Cambrian chaetognath (arrow
worm)". Science 298 (5591): 187. doi:10.1126/science.1075059. PMID 12364798.
16. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
17. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", Oxford University
Press, New York., 2009, Chap 24, p224-225. http://timetree.org/book.php

MORE INFO
[1] Gonzalo Giribet, Daniel L. Distel, Martin Polz, Wolfgang Sterrer, and
Ward C. Wheeler Triploblastic Relationships with Emphasis on the Acoelomates
and the Position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and
Chaetognatha: A Combined Approach of 18S rDNA Sequences and Morphology Syst
Biol (2000) 49(3): 539-562 doi:10.1080/10635159950127385
[2] Martin Helmkampf, Iris Bruchhaus, Bernhard
Hausdorf, Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic
relationships, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 46, Issue 1,
January 2008, Pages 206-214, ISSN 1055-7903,
10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.004. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S105579030700317X)

[3] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
[4] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2002, p844
  
565,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
345) Deuterostome Hemichordates evolve (pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS5 }6 , acorn
worms).7

Adult Pterobranchs are sessile, fastening to solid structures, but the younger
(or larval) form is free swimming, and is thought to have evolved into
tunicates and then the first fish.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p201.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p203.
9. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
10. ^ Xian-guang Hou, Richard J. Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J. Siveter,
Mark Williams, Jan Zalasiewicz, Xiao-ya Ma. A pterobranch hemichordate zooid
from the lower Cambrian. Current Biology, 24 March 2011 DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.005 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096
0982211002776

11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p383.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126698
  
565,000,000 YBN
15 16
347) Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves. Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds.8 9 Chordates get their name from the notochord {nOTe-KORD10 }, the
cartilage rod that runs along the back of the animal, in the embryo if not in
the adult.11

The ancestor of all chordates evolves "upside-down". Unlike earlier
invertebrates, this ancestor and all vertebrates have their nerve cord near
their back and their heart near their front.12 13 14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p399-400.
6. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
7. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
10. ^
"notochord." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 Jun. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/notochord
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p399-400.
13. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
14. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
15. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381. {565 MYBN}
16. ^
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3208583.stm

MORE INFO
[1] Douzery, E. J. P., Snell, E. A., Bapteste, E., Delsuc, F., &
Philippe, H. (2004). The timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils? Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 101 (43),
15386-15391. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403984101
[2] Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho
and Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of
Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science New Series, Vol. 271, No. 5248
(Jan. 26, 1996), pp. 470-477. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2890144
[3] Pennisi, Elizabeth. “Drafting a Tree.” Science
300.5626 (2003) : 1694.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1694.summary
[4] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary Emergence of
Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION: EDUCATION AND
OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[5] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
565,000,000 YBN
4 5
348) Earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (sea squirts).3
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p377-381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381. {565 mybn}
5. ^ Chen, Jun-Yuan et al.
“The First Tunicate from the Early Cambrian of South China.” Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences 100.14 (2003): 8314 –8318.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/100/14/8314.full
  
560,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12 13
117) Earliest animal shell (or skeleton).2
Earliest evidence of animals eating
other animals (predation).3 4
Appearance of small shelly fossils and deep
burrows correlated with a decline in stromatolites, possibly from feeding.5

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210.
2. ^
Dzik, J (2007), "The Verdun Syndrome: simultaneous origin of protective armour
and infaunal shelters at the Precambrian–Cambrian transition", in
Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Komarower, Patricia, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran
Biota, Special publications, 286, London: Geological Society, pp. 405–414,
doi:10.1144/SP286.30, ISBN 9781862392335, OCLC 191881597 156823511 191881597
http://www.paleo.pan.pl/people/Dzik/Publications/Verdun.pdf
3. ^ Bengtson, S. and Zhao, Y. (17 July 1992). "Predatorial Borings in Late
Precambrian Mineralized Exoskeletons" (abstract). Science 257 (5068): 367.
doi:10.1126/science.257.5068.367. PMID 17832833.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/257/5068/367
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877345
4. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
5. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth",
sixth edition, 2002, p210.
6. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and distribution of
Cloudina, a potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic.",
Source: American journal of science (1990) volume: 290-A (Special volume)
page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf
7. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
8. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say
and Why It Matters", 2007, p163-170.
9. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th
edition 2002, p212.
10. ^ Adam C. Maloof, Susannah M. Porter, John L. Moore, Frank
Ö. Dudás, Samuel A. Bowring, John A. Higgins, David A. Fike, and Michael P.
Eddy, "The earliest Cambrian record of animals and ocean geochemical change",
Geological Society of America Bulletin, November 2010, v. 122, p. 1731-1774,
doi:10.1130/B30346.1 http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/122/11-12/1731.full

11. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a potential
index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic.", Source: American journal of
science (1990) volume: 290-A (Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf
12. ^ http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/neoproterozoic/ediacaran/ediacaran2.htm
13. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782

MORE INFO
[1] Philip W. Signor and Mark A. S. McMenamin "The Early Cambrian Worm
Tube Onuphionella from California and Nevada", Journal of Paleontology , Vol.
62, No. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 233-240 Published by: Paleontological
Society Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1305228
[2] MATTHEWS, S. C., AND V. V. MISSARZHEVSKY.
1975. "Small shelly fossils of late Precambrian and early Cambrian age: a
review of recent work." Journal of the Geological Society,
131:289-304 http://jgs.geoscienceworld.org/content/131/3/289.abstract
[3] GRANT, S. W. F. 1990. "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a
potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic." American Journal of
Science, 290(A):261-294
(Ara Formation) Oman6 |Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province7   
560,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12
318) Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu4 } evolve. Ecdysozoa are animals that
molt (lose their outer skin) as they grow.5 6 This is the ancestor of round
worms, and arthropods (which includes insects and crustaceans).7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
7. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198710
8. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c580) {c580 mybn}
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden,
MA: Blackwell, 2005),p388-394. (560) {560 mybn}
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {790 mybn}
12. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of
evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {530 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p390-394
[4] Telford, Maximilian J et al. “The Evolution of the Ecdysozoa.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1529 –1537.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1529.long
  
560,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14
331) Protostomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u4 } evolve. Ancestor of
rotifers, phoronids, brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ5 }, entoprocts {eNTuProKS6 },
bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ7 }, platyhelminthes, gastrotrichs, nemertea, molluscs
and annelids.8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brachiopods&submit=Submit
6. ^ "entoproct?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/entoproct?s=t
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=bryozoans&submit=Submit
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
10. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c547) {c580 mybn}
12. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003). (550) {550 mybn}
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {790 mybn}
14. ^
Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating
multiple lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan
lineages.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {538 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=202032
  
560,000,000 YBN
349) First fish.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
560,000,000 YBN
6290) Earliest extant fish, Lancelets {laNSleTS4 }.5 First liver and kidney.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Feb. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p205.
4. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Feb.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.
6. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p205.

MORE INFO
[1] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary
Emergence of Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION:
EDUCATION AND OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
550,000,000 YBN
7
328) Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes {aSKHeLmiNtEZ3 4 } (worms: nematodes and
priapulids).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
3. ^ "Aschelminthes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/aschelminthes
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=aschelminthes
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c550)
  
547,000,000 YBN
2
334) Lophotrochozoa Brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c547)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=202032
  
543,000,000 YBN
7
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts are repeated serially).5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {537 MYBN (based on Annaleda - segmented worns} {543 MYBN
(based on arthropods, annelids - segmented worns=537}
  
542,000,000 YBN
5
53) End of the "Precambrian". End of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK1 } Eon. Start of the Paleozoic {PAlEuZOiK2 } Era and the
Cambrian Period.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Phanerozoic." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/phanerozoic
2. ^ "Paleozoic." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 09 Mar.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Paleozoic>.
3. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
4. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic
and Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
5. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time
Scale.” Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
  
542,000,000 YBN
9 10
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many (between 20 and 35) of the major phyla
of animals.5 6 7 An increase of animals with shells.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
3. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
5. ^
"Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
6. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
7. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
8. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
9. ^
"Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>. {542-530
mybn}
10. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
{535 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Derek E. G. Briggs and Richard A. Fortey, "Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation", Paleobiology , Vol. 31, No. 2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency: Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp. 94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25482671
  
540,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
104) Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u3 } Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ}
evolve (flatworms).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)
6. ^ Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. et al. “The Timing of
Eukaryotic Evolution: Does a Relaxed Molecular Clock Reconcile Proteins and
Fossils?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386 -15391.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386
7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J et al. “The Ediacaran Emergence of Bilaterians:
Congruence Between the Genetic and the Geological Fossil Records.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1435 -1443.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1435.full
  
540,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
319) Protists "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo4 }.5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of
Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com
30 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales,
rhizaria, chromalveolates
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ A. Braun, J. Chen, D. Waloszek and A. Maas,
"First Early Cambrian Radiolaria", Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 2007, v. 286, p.
143-149. http://sp.lyellcollection.org/content/286/1/143.short
and http://www.core-orsten-research.de/Publications/PDF_Paper/ulm_team/2007b_Br
aun_etal.pdf {Earliest radiolaria fossils) 540 mybn}
8. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
9. ^ http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600my)
[2] Keeling, Patrick J. et al. "The tree of eukaryotes." Trends
in Ecology & Evolution 20.12 (2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534705003046
[3] Delsuc, Frederic, Henner Brinkmann, and Herve Philippe. "Phylogenomics and
the reconstruction of the tree of life." Nat Rev Genet 6.5 (2005):
361-375. http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v6/n5/abs/nrg1603.html
[4] http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/Bio-home/Pratt/boo305.htm
[5] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[6] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/radiolaria.html
[7] "Polycystine". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycystine
  
540,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
321) Protists "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu4 }.5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second
Edition, 2003, p165-167. {earliest fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
8. ^ Culver,
S. J. (1991) Science 254, 689–691.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=254/5032/68
9
and http://www.sciencemag.org/content/254/5032/689.full.pdf {earliest
fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
9. ^ Culver, S. J. (1994) J. Foraminiferal Res.
24,
191–202. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=gsjfr&resid
=24/3/191
{earliest fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
10. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
11. ^ http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600mybn)
[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[3] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/foram.html
[4] "Allogromiida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allogromiida
[5] "Fusulinid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusulinid
[6] "Globigerinida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globigerinida
[7] "Miliolid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miliolid
[8] "Rotaliida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotaliida
[9] "Textulariida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textulariida
[10]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P4356&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

[11]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2007&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

  
540,000,000 YBN
5
340) Lophotrochozoa Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu3 } (ribbon worms).4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c541)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
540,000,000 YBN
5
341) Ecdysozoa Tardigrades {ToRDiGRADZ3 }.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "tardigrade." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "tardigrade." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
540,000,000 YBN
6
342) Ecdysozoa Onychophorans {oniKoFereNS3 } evolve.4 Onychophorans are a
transition between worms and arthropods: they have segmented worm-like bodies
but with appendages like arthropods.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "onychophoran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ "onychophoran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
05 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils
Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p193.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
535,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
114) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p124-125.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p 73.
5. ^ Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.
6. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on} {539 MYBN (based on mollusca}
  
533,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
343) Lophotrochozoa Mollusks evolve.3

The phylum Mollusca is the second largest animal phylum after the arthropods,
and is divided into seven classes, three of which (Gastropoda {GaSTroPeDu4 }
(snails), Bivalvia (clams and muscles), and Cephalopoda {SeFeloPeDu5 } (squids
and octupuses) are of major importance.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=gastropoda&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cephalopoda&submit=Submit
6. ^ "Mollusca." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 18 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mollusca
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c539)
9. ^ Caron, Jean-Bernard et al. "A soft-bodied mollusc with
radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale." Nature 442.7099 (2006):
159-163. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v442/n7099/full/nature04894.html

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
530,000,000 YBN
3
338) Lophotrochozoa annelids (segmented worms).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c537)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
530,000,000 YBN
7 8
339) Ecdysozoa Arthropods evolve.3

Arthropods can be compared to a segmented worm encased in a rigid exoskeleton.4


The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. Arthropods
include the trilobites, the crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, and lobsters), the
Myriapoda (centipedes and millipedes), the Chelicerata (arachnids and horseshoe
crabs) and the insects.5 All arthropods have a segmented body covered by an
exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armor and as a surface for
muscle attachment.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p476.
5. ^
Hedges and Kumar, Time Tree, 2009,
p251. http://timetree.org/pdf/Pisani2009Chap29.pdf
6. ^ "arthropod." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/arthropod
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c543)
8. ^ Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
530,000,000 YBN
350) Chordata Vertebrates evolve.3 This Subphylum contains most fishes, and
all amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
  
530,000,000 YBN
3
6637) Vertebrates Jawless fishes evolve (agnatha).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
  
520,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
133) Arthropods Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo4 ) (eight legs, ancestor of horseshoe
crabs, mites, spiders, and scorpions).5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ J. W. Shultz
(2007). "A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological
characters". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150: 221–265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1096-3642.2007.00284.x
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
5. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
6. ^ D. Waloszek, J.A.
Dunlop, "A larval sea spider (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from the Upper Cambrian
‘Orsten’ of Sweden and the phylogenetic position of pycnogonids",
Palaeontology, 45 (2002), pp.
421–446 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-4983.00244/abstract
7. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p168.
8. ^
Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210-211.
9. ^ Palmer,
et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p66-67.
10. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
2009, p251-253.

MORE INFO
[1] Charbonnier, S, J Vannier, and B Riou. “New Sea Spiders from the
Jurassic La Voulte-sur-Rhône Lagerstätte.” Proceedings of the Royal Society
B: Biological Sciences 274, no. 1625 (October 22, 2007): 2555
–2561. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1625/2555.full
[2] Dunlop and Seldon, "The Early History and Phylogeny of the Chelicerates",
in Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relatioinships", 1997, p231
earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten, Sweden6   
520,000,000 YBN
2 3
148) Earliest color vision evolves in arthropods.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Koyanagi, M.; Nagata, T.; Katoh, K.; Yamashita, S.; Tokunaga, F. (2008).
"Molecular Evolution of Arthropod Color Vision Deduced from Multiple Opsin
Genes of Jumping Spiders". Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 (2): 130–137.
DOI:10.1007/s00239-008-9065-9. PMID
18217181. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e67h525378645572/?MUD=MP
2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p168.
3. ^
Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210-211.

MORE INFO
[1] Yokoyama, S., and B. F. Radlwimmer. 2001. The molecular genetics and
evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates. Genetics Society of
America. 158: 1697-1710
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004)
  
520,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
346) Deuterostome Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS 3 } (sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand
dollars, star fish).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Adam M. English, Loren E. Babcock, Census of the Indian
Springs Lagerstätte, Poleta Formation (Cambrian), western Nevada, USA,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 295, Issues 1–2, 1
September 2010, Pages 236-244, ISSN 0031-0182,
10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.05.041. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S0031018210003287)

6. ^ J. Wyatt Durham, "Notes on the Helicoplacoidea and Early Echinoderms",
Journal of Paleontology , Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1967), pp.
97-102 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1301905
7. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p66.
8. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p384.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126698
  
520,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12
6349) The arthropods trilobites evolve.5 6 7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998). Article
ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
2. ^ http://www.nature.com0/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
3. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
4. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
5. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998).
Article ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
6. ^ http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
7. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
8. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
9. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p168.
10. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
11. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental evolution: insights from studies of
insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my {510 mybn}
12. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html {540 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.trilobites.info/biostratigraphy.htm
[2] http://www.trilobites.info/origins.htm
[3] Babcock, L.E., S Peng, G. Geyer, & J.H. Shergold. 2005.
Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward
subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geosci. Journal
9(2):101-6. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t7062n5744462260/
[4] Niles Eldredge, "Trilobites and Evolutionary Patterns", p305-332 in Anthony
Hallam, "Patterns of evolution as illustrated by the fossil record, Volume 5",
1977, p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=q7GjDIyyWegC
[5] Hughes, N. 2007. The evolution of trilobite body patterning. Annu.
Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2007.
35:401–34. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.earth.35.0313
06.140258

[6] Richard A. Fortey "Trilobite Systematics: The Last 75 Years", Journal of
Paleontology , Vol. 75, No. 6, 75th Anniversary Issue (Nov., 2001), pp.
1141-1151 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1307082
[7] http://www.palaeos.org/Cambrian_Stage_3
  
513,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
6351) Ancestor of all Arthropod Crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, lobsters,
barnicles).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark Williams, and Dieter
Waloszek, "An early Cambrian phosphatocopid crustacean with three-dimensionally
preserved soft parts from Shropshire, England", Special Papers in Paleontology,
70, 2003
4. ^ Siveter, David J., Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek. “A
Phosphatocopid Crustacean with Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.” Science
293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001): 479
–481. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/479.abstract
5. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek, "An early Cambrian
phosphatocopid crustacean with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts from
Shropshire, England", Special Papers in Paleontology, 70, 2003
6. ^ Siveter, David
J., Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek. “A Phosphatocopid Crustacean with
Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.” Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001):
479 –481. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/479.abstract
7. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009, p66-67.
8. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
9. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395

MORE INFO
[1]
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Crustacea/fossils.html
[2] http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0719_crustacean.html
earliest fossils: Shropshire, England3 4   
501,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
6348) Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu3 } (centipedes and millipedes).4
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
2009, p251-253.
5. ^ Robison, Richard A. “Earliest-known Uniramous Arthropod.” Nature
343.6254 (1990): 163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html
{Robison_19900111.pdf}
6. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
7. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from the
Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596 {Budd_2001.pdf}
8. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A.
Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in the Silurian: Arachnids and
Myriapods from Shropshire, England.” Science 250, no. 4981 (November 2,
1990): 658 –661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;250/4981/658
9. ^ Robison, Richard A. “Earliest-known Uniramous Arthropod.”
Nature 343.6254 (1990): 163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html
{Robison_19900111.pdf}
10. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
11. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from the
Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596 {Budd_2001.pdf}
12. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B.,
Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and
Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land: Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern Ontario, Canada.” Geology
30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
13. ^ Budd, G.E., Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like
arthropod from the Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische
Zeitschrift, v. 75p. 37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596
14. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W.
Dalrymple, Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First
Steps on Land: Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
15. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A. Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in
the Silurian: Arachnids and Myriapods from Shropshire, England.” Science 250,
no. 4981 (November 2, 1990): 658
–661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;250/4981/658
16. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
17. ^ William A Shear, Andrew J Jeram and Paul Selden, "Centiped legs
(Arthropoda, Chilopoda, Scutigeromorpha) from the Silurian and Devonian of
Britain and the Devonian of North America.", American Museum novitates
3231:1-16 (1998) http://biostor.org/reference/30111
18. ^ Grimaldi, Engels, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p107-108.
19. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
20. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p111.
earliest possible fossils: (Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA5 6
and (Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia7 |(earliest fossils) Shropshire,
England8   
488,300,000 YBN
3
121) End of the Cambrian (542-488.3 mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN1 } (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
3. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
488,000,000 YBN
7
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN4 } radiation. During the Ordovician the number
of genera {JeN-R-u5 } will quadruple.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
3. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
4. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
5. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
6. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
7. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levine, "The Eath Through Time", 2006, p333
  
475,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
244) Non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo6 }, (Liverworts,
Hornworts, Mosses).7 8

The Bryophytes are the simplest land plants, and reproduce with spores.9 10

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ "Bryophyta."
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
6. ^ "Bryophyta."
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^ Peter Robert
Bell, Alan R. Hemsley, "Green Plants: Their Origin and Diversity", 2000,
p102. http://books.google.com/books?id=HYkTvGq_RccC&pg=PA102
10. ^ Diego Fontaneto, "Biogeography of Microscopic Organisms: Is Everything
Small Everywhere?", 2011,
p211. http://books.google.com/books?id=QdcLHCPgG-wC&pg=PA211
11. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
12. ^ S26 (c475)
13. ^ S15 (c475)

MORE INFO
[1] "Bryophyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryophyte
[2] "Bryophyta." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bryophyta-1
  
475,000,000 YBN
11 12
398) Plants live on land. Earliest fossil spores belonging to land plants.7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
2. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
5. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
8. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
10. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
11. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
{475 MYBN}
12. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya10   
472,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
402) The first animals live on land, arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and
millipedes).7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
2. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
3. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
4. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
6. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
7. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
9. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
10. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
11. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
12. ^ Heather M. Wilson and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of
Paleozoic Millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland",
Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
13. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p67.
earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston, Ontario, Canada10   
465,000,000 YBN
3
6636) The Jawless fishes lamprays evolve.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution. What the Fossils Have to Say and Why
It Matters", 2007, p198.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution. What the Fossils Have to Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p198.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
[3] "ostracoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jan.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/ostracoderm
  
460,000,000 YBN
9
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo4 }.5 This large
group includes all jawed fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.
First vertebrate teeth.6

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill skeleton.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^ "Gnathostomata." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostomata-1
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
4. ^ "Gnathostomata." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostomata-1
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
9. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p360-363. {460 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p106,110
[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl
Oceans8   
460,000,000 YBN
4 5
404) Jawed fishes Chondrichthyes {KoN-DriK-tE-EZ2 } (Cartilaginous fishes:
ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates, and sawfishes).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chondrichthyes&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
4. ^ Miller, Randall F., Richard Cloutier, and Susan Turner.
“The Oldest Articulated Chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian Period.”
Nature 425.6957 (2003): 501–504. Web. 23 May
2012. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html {M
iller_Chondrichthyans_2003.pdf}
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
  
460,000,000 YBN
3 4
458) Earliest fungi on land. Ancestor of all terrestrial fungi.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
2. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
3. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
4. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
  
460,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15
6414) Fungi "Glomeromycota" {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu5 } (Arbuscular {oRBuSKYUlR6 }
mycorrhizal {MIKerIZL7 } fungi).8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycota&submit=Submit
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=arbuscular&submit=Submit
7. ^ "mycorrhiza." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 09 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mycorrhiza
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
10. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
11. ^
Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician".
Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
12. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c750mybn)
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). (c1460 to 1210mybn)
15. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (estimate that between 947 and 968)

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycetes&submit=Submit
[2] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
[3] Redecker, Dirk,
and Philipp Raab. "Phylogeny of the Glomeromycota (arbuscular Mycorrhizal
Fungi): Recent Developments and New Gene Markers." Mycologia 98.6 (November):
2006, p885 –895. http://www.mycologia.org/content/98/6/885.abstract
earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA11   
445,000,000 YBN
3 4
90) Mass extinction caused by ice age.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
2. ^ THE LATE ORDOVICIAN MASS EXTINCTION - Annual Review of
Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29(1):331 - Abstract".
Arjournals.annualreviews.org. 2003-11-28.
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.earth.29.1.331?jou
rnalCode=earth

3. ^ Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p83.
4. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148 {439 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
[2] David Jablonski, "Lessons from the Past: Evolutionary Impacts of
Mass Extinctions", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America, Vol. 98, No. 10 (May 8, 2001), pp.
5393-5398. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3055638
  
443,700,000 YBN
2
122) End of the Ordovician (488.3-443.7 mybn), and start of the Silurian
(443.7-416) Period.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
440,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
236) Vascular plants evolve, Tracheophyta.5 6 7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline
for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution,
(2004).
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
6. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
7. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
8. ^ McElwain, Jenny C.; Willis, K. G.;
Willis, Kathy; McElwain, J. C. (2002). The evolution of plants. Oxford
Oxfordshire. ^: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850065-3.
9. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive
Life", 2009, p96.
10. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The
plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c400)
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
11. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c390)
  
440,000,000 YBN
5 6
360) Jawed fishes, bony fishes evolve. Ray-finned fishes.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
4. ^ "bony fish." Britannica
Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/osteichthyes
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363. {440 MYBN}
6. ^ Palmet et al, "Primitive Life",
2009, p97.

MORE INFO
[1] "teleost." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/teleost
Ocean and fresh water3 4   
440,000,000 YBN
5
6172) The first lung evolves from the swim bladder in ray-finned fishes.3
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p338-363. {440 MYBN (guess based on ray-finned fish evolving}

MORE INFO
[1] Farmer, C.G. 1999. The evolution of the vertebrate cardio-pulmonary
system. Annual Review of Physiology
61:573-592 http://biologylabs.utah.edu/farmer/publications%20pdf/1999%20AnnuRev
Physiol61.pdf

Ocean (presumably)4   
425,000,000 YBN
3
377) Jawed fishes, Lobe-fin fishes evolve. Coelacanths.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p335-338.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p335-338.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p335-338.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=89942
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=42376
  
420,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9
6350) Arthropods Hexapods (arthropods with six legs {3 pairs}, includes all
insects).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Timothy Duane Schowalter, "Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Timothy Duane Schowalter,
"Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p66,116.
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects,
2005, p146.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p66,116.
8. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
9. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395

MORE INFO
[1] Blaxter, Mark. “Evolutionary Biology: Sum of the Arthropod
Parts.” Nature 413.6852 (2001):
121–122. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v413/n6852/full/413121a0.html
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Scotland5   
417,000,000 YBN
2 3
378) Lobefin fishes, Lungfishes.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=42316&tree=0.1
  
416,000,000 YBN
3
123) End of the Silurian (443.7-416 mybn), and start of the Devonian {DiVONEiN1
} (416-359.2 mybn) Period.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Devonian." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/devonian
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
3. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
416,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
6352) Hexapods: insects.4 5 Bristletail and Silverfish.6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
2. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
5. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
8. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
9. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p250-254.
10. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p1. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA1
  
400,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16
227) Fungi "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu6 } (ancestor of yeasts, truffles,
Penicillium, and morels {mu reLZ7 }).8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ "morel." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomycota&submit=Submit
7. ^ "morel." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
11. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp, "The oldest fossil
ascomycetes", Nature 399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

12. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp, "The oldest fossil ascomycetes", Nature
399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

13. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
14. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1009my)
15. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1140my)
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Aberdeenshire, Scotland11   
400,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
237) Vascular plants ferns evolve (club mosses, ferns and horsetails).2
FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
3. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p110.
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points
of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c390 (360
for living species)
5. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c390)
6. ^ Taylor, Thomas N.;
Edith L. Taylor. (1993). The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 332–334. ISBN 0-13-651589-4.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
(318mybn)
[2] Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (350mybn)
  
392,000,000 YBN
4 5
359) Cartilaginous fishes: "Selachii" {SelAKEE1 or I2 } evolve, (ancestor of
all sharks: includes great white, hammerhead, mako, tiger and nurse sharks).3

F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=selachii&submit=Submit
2. ^ "Selachii." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 26 Aug. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/selachii-2
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Prothero, D.R., and C.D. Buell. Evolution: What the Fossils Say
and Why It Matters. Columbia University Press, 2007, p198.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {190 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=selachimorpha&submit=Submit
  
385,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
405) The first forests. Earliest large tree fossils.5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed Landing2
& Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the
Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
4. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
5. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
6. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
7. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
8. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed Landing2
& Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the
Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
{385 mybn}
9. ^ Palmet et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p111.
10. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {380mybn}
earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York, USA7   
385,000,000 YBN
14 15 16 17 18 19 20
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect. Ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu8 }) (Mayflies, Dragonflies, Damselflies).9 10 11

F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
2. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
3. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterygota&submit=Submit
5. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
6. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
7. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
8. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterygota&submit=Submit
9. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
10. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
11. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
12. ^ Knecht, R. J., Engel, M. S., & Benner, J. S. (2011). Late carboniferous
paleoichnology reveals the oldest full-body impression of a flying insect.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 108 (16),
6515-6519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015948108
13. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I (2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in
the Lower Carboniferous of the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic
(Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

14. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146
15. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p163. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA163
16. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p142.
17. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
18. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {315 MYBN}
19. ^ Regier,
et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and
maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561):
395–401. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
20. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p142.

MORE INFO
[1] Engel MS, Grimaldi DA (2004) New light shed on the oldest insect.
Nature 427: 627–630
[2] Grimaldi D, Engel MS (2005) Evolution of the Insects (Cambridge
Univ. Press, Cambridge)
[3] Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I (2005) Discovery of the oldest known
Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech
Republic (Insecta: Archoaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

[4] "Orthoptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/orthoptera-1
[5] David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p159. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA159
earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts12 and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic13   
375,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
380) The first tetrapods (organisms with four feet), the amphibians, evolve in
fresh water.5 The first vertebrate limbs (arms and legs) and fingers.6
Ancestor of caecillians, frogs, toads, and salamanders.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
6. ^ Ted
Huntington.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and
evolution of model organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} {375(360+-15) mybn}
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329. {340 mybn}
11. ^ P. E. Ahlberg, "Tetrapod
or near-tetrapod fossils from the Upper Devonian of Scotland", Nature 354, 298
- 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html {368
mybn (fossil}
12. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibfr.html
{368 mybn (fossil}
13. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{368 mybn (fossil}
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)8   
367,000,000 YBN
2 3
408) Mass extinction caused by ice age.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
2. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record
(and Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344,
No. 1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting
(Apr. 29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148 {367 mybn}
3. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {360 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] David Jablonski, "Lessons from the Past: Evolutionary Impacts of Mass
Extinctions", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America, Vol. 98, No. 10 (May 8, 2001), pp.
5393-5398. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3055638
  
363,000,000 YBN
5 6
379) The first vertebrates live on land (an amphibian).3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
5. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{363mybn}
6. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/tetrafr.html {360mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] P. E. Ahlberg, "Tetrapod or near-tetrapod fossils from the Upper
Devonian of Scotland", Nature 354, 298 - 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html
[2] http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibfr.html
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)4   
360,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20
226) Fungi "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu5 } (ancestor of many mushrooms:
button, chanterelle {saNTRreL6 }, cremini{KremENE7 }, enoki {inoKE8 }, fly
agaric {uGaRiK9 }, oyster, porcino {PORCEnO 10 }, portabella, psilocybe,
puffball, shiitake {sEToKE11 }, woodear, rusts, and club fungi).12 13 14

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidiomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidiomycota&submit=Submit
6. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chanterelle&submit=Submit
7. ^ "cremini." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
04 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cremini
8. ^ "enoki?s=t". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random
House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/enoki?s=t
9. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=agaric&submit=Submit
10. ^ "porcino." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
04 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/porcino
11. ^ "shiitake." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
04 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/shiitake
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
15. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck CB (1985) Studies of
Paleozoic fungi. V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon newberryi from
the Upper Devonian. Am J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.ku.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734
16. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck CB (1985)
Studies of Paleozoic fungi. V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon newberryi
from the Upper Devonian. Am J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.ku.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734
17. ^ Michael Krings, Nora Dotzler, Jean Galtier and
Thomas N. Taylor, "Oldest fossil basidiomycete clamp connections", Mycoscience,
Volume 52, Number 1 (2011), 18-23, DOI:
10.1007/s10267-010-0065-4 http://www.springerlink.com/content/725614321xj0604w/

18. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (968my)
19. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1210my)
20. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Basidiomycota". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basidiomycota
[2] McLAUGHLIN, DAVID J., ALAN BECKETT, and KWON S. YOON. “Ultrastructure and
Evolution of Ballistosporic Basidiospores.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society 91.1-2 (1985):
253–271. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1985.tb01149.
x/abstract

earliest fossils: Indiana15   
360,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
6353) The Neoptera, folding wing insects.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
2. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
3. ^ Garwood, Russell, and Mark Sutton. “X-ray Micro-tomography of
Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: New Insights into Early Insects.” Biology
Letters 6.5 (2010): 699 –702.
Print. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/5/699.full
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
5. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
6. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
7. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
8. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
9. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
10. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
11. ^ Garwood, Russell, and Mark Sutton. “X-ray Micro-tomography of
Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: New Insights into Early Insects.” Biology
Letters 6.5 (2010): 699 –702.
Print. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/5/699.full

MORE INFO
[1] Video: Virtual fossil of Archimylacris eggintoni,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yR-_nq2UsOc
earliest fossils: (Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK3   
359,200,000 YBN
2
124) End of the Devonian (416-359.2 mybn), and start of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn) Period.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
359,000,000 YBN
20 21
243) The first plant seed evolves. Ancestor of all seed plants.9 10 11 12

The earliest fossil seed is from a seed fern (Pteridosperm {TARiDOSPRM13 }).14
15 16 17

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler. “The
earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
2. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
3. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64, 29,
201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
4. ^ "Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
5. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and
Stephen E. Scheckler. “The earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
6. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
7. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64, 29,
201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
8. ^ "Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
9. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and
Stephen E. Scheckler. “The earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
10. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
11. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64,
29, 201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
12. ^ "Pteridosperms."
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
13. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pteridospermae
14. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler.
“The earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
15. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
16. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64,
29, 201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
17. ^ "Pteridosperms."
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
18. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
19. ^ "Genomosperma kidstonii." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia
Britannica, 2011. Web. 27 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/229254/Genomosperma-kidstonii>.
20. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577 {359
MYBN (Lower Carboniferous}
21. ^ "Genomosperma kidstonii." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica,
2011. Web. 27 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/229254/Genomosperma-kidstonii>. {359
MYBN (Lower Carboniferous}

MORE INFO
[1] "Gymnosperms". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperms
[2] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
[3] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal
of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 (c320 (360 for living species)
[4] Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)
[5] Dr. Singh, Dr. Pande & Dr.
Jain, "Diversity and Systematics of Seed Plants",
2005. http://books.google.com/books?id=GTUgfghg80gC
[6] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
earliest fossils: Scotland18 19   
350,000,000 YBN
3
361) Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and Paddlefish.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {350 MYBN}
  
350,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11 12
6355) The Neoptera: Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu4 } (ancestor of Cockroaches,
Termites, and Mantises).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dictyoptera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
3. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001.
Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dictyoptera&submit=Submit
5. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
6. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001.
Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
8. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
9. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
10. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
11. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
12. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.

MORE INFO
[1] "orthopteran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 06 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/433540/orthopteran/39576/Evoluti
on-and-paleontology
>
  
340,000,000 YBN
16 17 18 19 20 21 22
384) The hard-shell egg evolves.9 The Amniota {aMnEOtu10 } (ancestor of
reptiles, mammals and birds).11 The hard-shell egg is waterproof.12 This is
the start of vertebrate internal fertilization, because on land the egg cannot
be fertilized as most fishes and amphibians do, by a male swimming near the
eggs and spraying them with sperm.13

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p234.
5. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
7. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
8. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p234.
9. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
10. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
11. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
13. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p234.
14. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678
(07 December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html
15. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil Reported Found in Scotland",
NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html

16. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.
17. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678 (07
December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html {338
MYBN (oldest reptil fossil}
18. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil Reported
Found in Scotland", NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html
{338 MYBN (oldest reptil fossil}
19. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {310 MYBN}
20. ^
"Eryops". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eryops
{295 MYBN (verify}
21. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree", 2009.
22. ^ Benton, Michael J., and
Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.”
Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract

MORE INFO
[1] Romer, Alfred Sherwood, Price, Llewellyn Ivor, "The oldest vertebrate
egg", Am J Sci 1939 237:
826-829. http://www.ajsonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/237/11/826?maxtoshow=&hi
ts=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&title=The+oldest+vertebrate+egg&andorexacttitle=and&andorex
acttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevanc
e&resourcetype=HWCIT

[2] Karl F. Hirsch, "The Oldest Vertebrate Egg?", Journal of Paleontology, Vol.
53, No. 5 (Sep., 1979), pp. 1068-1084. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1304086
[3] Robert R. Reisz, Johannes Müller, Molecular
timescales and the fossil record: a paleontological perspective, Trends in
Genetics, Volume 20, Issue 5, 1 May 2004, Pages 237-241, ISSN 0168-9525,
10.1016/j.tig.2004.03.007. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
168952504000757)

[4] "fenestrae." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fenestrae>
[5] "orbit." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/orbit>
earliest fossils: Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland14 15   
335,000,000 YBN
10 11
6331) The tetrapod Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu4 } (which
includes reptiles and birds) and the Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du5 } (which includes
mammals).6

The Sauropsids have two major lineages: the Parareptilia (turtles) and the
Eureptilia (dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds).7 The Synapsids also have two
major lineages: pelycosaurs (sail-backed) and therapsids (mammal-like).8

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sauropsida&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=synapsida&submit=Submit
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sauropsida&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=synapsida&submit=Submit
6. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
7. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p108-109.
8. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p119.
9. ^ Carroll, R.L., 1964, The ear1iest
reptiles: Jour. Linn. Soc (Zool.), v. 45, p.
61-83. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1964.tb00488.x/ab
stract

10. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.
11. ^ Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological
Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1
(2007): 26 -53. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract

MORE INFO
[1] Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p271
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p263
[3] Reisz RR. Pelycosaurian reptiles from the Middle
Pennsylvanian of North America. Bull Mus Comp Zool Harv
1972;144:27-62. http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object
_id=47789&local_base=GEN01-MCG02

[4] "reptile." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/reptile
earliest possible Synapsid fossils: (Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada9   
330,000,000 YBN
4
6307) The Synapsids Pelycosauria {PeLiKuSOREu1 } evolve (includes Edaphosaurus
{eDaFoSORuS2 } and Dimetrodon).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Pelycosaur." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 10 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pelycosaur>.
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=edaphosaurus&submit=Submit
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p119-122.
4. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p119-122.
  
325,000,000 YBN
3 4
381) Earliest extant Amphibians: Caecilians evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {325 MYBN}
4. ^ Roelants, K., Gower, D.
J., Wilkinson, M., Loader, S. P., Biju, S. D., Guillaume, K., Moriau, L., &
Bossuyt, F. (2007). Global patterns of diversification in the history of modern
amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 104 (3),
887-892. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0608378104 {370 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Andrea E. Feller, S. Blair Hedges, Molecular Evidence for the Early
History of Living Amphibians, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 9,
Issue 3, June 1998, Pages 509-516, ISSN 1055-7903, DOI:
10.1006/mpev.1998.0500. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055
790398905000)

  
320,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14
238) Seed plants: Gymnosperms (ancestor of all Cycads, Ginkgos and the
Conifers5 6 ).7 8

The most primitive extant Gymnosperms, the Cycads evolve now.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
2. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia
Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2012.
Answers.com 23 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
6. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
8. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
9. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
10. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor, and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and
Evolution of Fossil Plants. Elsevier Science, 2008.
11. ^ Norstog K, Nicholls TJ.
1997.The biology of cycads. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
12. ^ Pant, D.D., R.
Osborne, and Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany. An Introduction to
Gymnosperms, Cycas, and Cycadales. Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany,
2002. BSIP Monograph. http://books.google.com/books?ei=twN6UJqpA5D2qQGvhYHoAQ
13. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The
plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf} (c320 (360 for
living species)
14. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)

MORE INFO
[1] "Gymnosperms". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperms
[2] Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler. “The
earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
[3] Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
[4] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Main/Overview/3213.htm
  
320,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
6356) The Neoptera: Orthoptera evolve (ancestor of crickets, grasshoppers,
locusts, and walking sticks).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
2. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
3. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
4. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
5. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p208.

MORE INFO
[1] "orthopteran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 06 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/433540/orthopteran/39576/Evoluti
on-and-paleontology
>
[2] http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/orthopteroids.html#A
  
317,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15
385) Sauropsids Reptiles evolve (ancestor of all turtles, crocodiles,
pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds3 ).4 5

Reptiles are a group of air-breathing amniotes with internal fertilization and
scales covering part or all of their body.6 7 8 Like amphibians, the earliest
reptiles are cold-blooded.9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Benton, Michael
J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of
Life.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
6. ^ "reptile". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 21 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/498684/reptile>.
7. ^ "reptile." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/reptile
8. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life",
2009, p163.
9. ^ Douglas Palmer, "The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs
and Prehistoric Animals", 1999, p59.
10. ^ Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J.
Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
11. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What The Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2009,
p232.
12. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678 (07
December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html
{338MYBN (oldest reptile fossil}
13. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil
Reported Found in Scotland", NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html
{338MYBN (oldest reptile fossil}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {310 MYBN}
15. ^
Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to
Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada10   
314,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12
240) Gymnosperms: Pinophyta {PInoFiTu1 } (ancestor of the Conifers: includes
Pine, Fir, Spruce, Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, Hemlock, Larch, Yew, and Cypress.2
3 ).4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pinophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
3. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2012. Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
6. ^ SCOTT,
ANDREW. “The Earliest Conifer.” Nature 251.5477 (1974):
707–708. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v251/n5477/abs/251707a0.html
7. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor, and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and
Evolution of Fossil Plants. Elsevier Science, 2008, p806.
8. ^ SCOTT, ANDREW. “The
Earliest Conifer.” Nature 251.5477 (1974):
707–708. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v251/n5477/abs/251707a0.html
9. ^ Lyons, Paul C. et al. “Radiometric Ages of the Fire Clay Tonstein
Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous), Westphalian, Duckmantian. ^: A Comparison
of U–Pb Zircon Single-crystal Ages and 40Ar/39Ar Sanidine Single-crystal
Plateau Ages.” International Journal of Coal Geology 67.4 (2006):
259–266. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166516206000140
10. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor, and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and
Evolution of Fossil Plants. Elsevier Science, 2008, p806.
11. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and
some points of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.abstract (c270 (290 for
living species)
12. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)

MORE INFO
[1] Burleigh J. G. S. Mathews 2004 Phylogenetic signal in nucleotide data
from seed plants: implications for resolving the seed plant tree of life.
American Journal of Botany 91:
1599-1613 http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1599.abstract?ijkey=b60985db66551
09e270893676c522743d400bc1e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

earliest fossils: Wakefield, Yorkshire, England6 7   
310,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10
6357) The Neoptera: Paraneoptera (ancestor of lice, thrips, and the Hemiptera
{HemiPTRu2 } piercing and sucking insects: cicadas, aphids, bed bugs, and stink
bugs).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=hemiptera&submit=Submit
3. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p261.
5. ^
David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
6. ^
Labandeira, Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence
Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola
Lineages.” Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
7. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
8. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p286.
10. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p321.
  
310,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
6359) Neoptera Holometabola {HoLomeTaBolu or HOlOmeTABolu4 5 }: Holometabolous
insects: (complete metamorphosis, ancestor of beetles, bees, true flies, and
butterflies).6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "holometabolous." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Jan.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/holometabolous>.
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=holometabolous+&submit=Submit
3. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p146,331.
4. ^ "holometabolous." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House,
Inc. 05 Jan. 2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/holometabolous>.
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=holometabolous+&submit=Submit
6. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p146,331.
7. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p146.
8. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
9. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
10. ^ Labandeira, Conrad
C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and the Early
Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages.”
Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
  
305,000,000 YBN
5
242) Amphibians: Anura {unRu2 } (Frogs and Toads) evolve.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anura&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ "frog." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 10 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/frog
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {305 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Neil H. Shubin and Farish A. Jenkins, Jr (7 September 1995). "An
Early Jurassic jumping frog". Nature 377 (6544): 49–52.
doi:10.1038/377049a0.http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v377/n6544/full/377049
a0.html

[2] "Pliensbachian Stage." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 27 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/464801/Pliensbachian-Stage>
  
300,000,000 YBN
3 4
1310) Stramenopiles Golden algae (Chrysophyta {KriSoFiTu1 }).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chrysophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ Brown JW, Sorhannus U (2010) A Molecular Genetic Timescale for the
Diversification of Autotrophic Stramenopiles (Ochrophyta): Substantive
Underestimation of Putative Fossil Ages. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12759.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012759
3. ^ Brown JW, Sorhannus U (2010) A Molecular Genetic Timescale for the
Diversification of Autotrophic Stramenopiles (Ochrophyta): Substantive
Underestimation of Putative Fossil Ages. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12759.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012759
4. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/chrysophyta.html
  
299,000,000 YBN
2
125) End of the Carboniferous (359.2-299 mybn), and start of the Permian
(299-251 mybn) Period.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
299,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11
6360) Holometabola: Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu4 5 } (Beetles).6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Coleoptera." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coleoptera-2
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=coleoptera&submit=Submit
3. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
4. ^ "Coleoptera."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coleoptera-2
5. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=coleoptera&submit=Submit
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
7. ^ Béthoux, Olivier.
“The Earliest Beetle Identified.” Journal of Paleontology 83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1666/08-158.1
8. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous
Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major
Holometabola Lineages.” Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
9. ^ Béthoux, Olivier. “The Earliest Beetle Identified.” Journal of
Paleontology 83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1666/08-158.1
10. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p146.
11. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA7   
290,000,000 YBN
3 4
239) Gymnosperms: Ginkgos.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c290 (300 for living species)
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah
D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)
  
290,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
6358) Holometabola: Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time
Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
3. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of
the Insects", 2005, p146.
4. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late
Carboniferous Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification
of Major Holometabola Lineages.” Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
5. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
7. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.
8. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.
9. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
  
287,000,000 YBN
2
6308) Synapsid Therapsids evolve (Cynodonts).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p119-122.
2. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p119-122.
  
274,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14
307) Protists: Phaeophyta {FEoFiTu4 } (Brown Algae) (includes many seaweeds
like the giant kelps5 ).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full {Baldauf_Doolittle_199911
17.pdf} has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=phaeophyta&submit=Submit
5. ^ "Phaeophyta." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 12 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/phaeophyta
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full {Baldauf_Doolittle_199911
17.pdf} has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
9. ^ Linda Medlin,
et al, "Phylogenic relationships of the 'golden algae' (haptophytes, heterokont
chromophytes) and their plastids", Plant Systematics and Evolution
(Supplement), v11, 1997, p187-219. http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf
{genetic) 274 mybn}
10. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale
for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{genetic) 200 mybn}
11. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
{Fossil) 1600-1800 mybn}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {Alveolates) 1956mybn} {Alveolates and
Plants) 1956mybn}
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009.
http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
14. ^ Cécile Gueidan, Constantino
Ruibal, G.S. de Hoog, Harald Schneider, Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during
periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic, Fungal
Biology, Volume 115, Issue 10, October 2011, Pages 987-996, ISSN 1878-6146,
10.1016/j.funbio.2011.04.002. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S1878614611000675)
{822.5 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science,
Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
[2] Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. et al. “The
timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile
proteins and fossils?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386
-15391. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386.long
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
[5] "Phaeophyta". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaeophyta
[6] Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989)
[7] "Brown algae". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_algae
[8] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
266,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
308) Protists: Diatoms.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883
2. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883
3. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883 {no
earlier than) 266 MYBN}
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf} (1973mybn) {Alveolates) 1956mybn}
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
  
260,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
232) Earliest endothermic (or "warm-blooded") and hair growing animal, a
therapsid.3 4

Endothermy is the physiological maintenance by a body, of a constant
temperature independent of the external environmental temperature. Hair for
insulation is correlated to endothermy.5

Both birds and mammals are endothermic (also called "warm blooded") as opposed
to many other vertebrates which are ectothermic (or "cold blooded) and cannot
internally generate heat.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

2. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

3. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

4. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids: Evidence for Late Permian
Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp.
207-229. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
5. ^ "mammal." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 07 Feb. 2012.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/360838/mammal>.
6. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids: Evidence for Late Permian
Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp.
207-229. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
7. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids:
Evidence for Late Permian Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48,
No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp. 207-229. Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
8. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441
{c250 MYBN (Late Permian}
9. ^ Ted Huntington. {230 MYBN (between crocodilia
240mybn and pterosaur 220mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Schweitzer, Mary Higby, and Cynthia Lee Marshall. “A molecular
model for the evolution of endothermy in the theropod-bird lineage.” Journal
of Experimental Zoology 291.4 (2001) :
317-338. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1132/abstract
  
256,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
6362) Holometabola: Diptera4 {DiPTRe5 } true flies, single pair of wings:
ancestor of mosquito, gnat, fruit fly, and house fly)6 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
2. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
3. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of
Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07
May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
5. ^ "Diptera."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
6. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
7. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
8. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C.
“Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and the Early
Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages.”
Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
9. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
10. ^ Wiegmann, Brian M. et al. “Episodic Radiations in the Fly Tree of
Life.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011): n.
pag. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/03/15/1012675108.full.pdf+html
11. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p469.

MORE INFO
[1] Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p197
  
251,400,000 YBN
3 4 5
102) Largest mass extinction of history.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
2. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the
Fossil Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences, Vol. 344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks
Anniversary Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
3. ^ Jin YG, Wang Y, Wang W, Shang QH, Cao CQ, Erwin DH (2000). "Pattern of
Marine Mass Extinction Near the Permian–Triassic Boundary in South China".
Science 289 (5478): 432–436. Bibcode 2000Sci...289..432J.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5478.432. PMID 10903200. {251.4 MYBN}
4. ^ Bowring SA, Erwin
DH, Jin YG, Martin MW, Davidek K, Wang W (1998). "U/Pb Zircon Geochronology and
Tempo of the End-Permian Mass Extinction". Science 280 (5366): 1039–1045.
doi:10.1126/science.280.5366.1039. {251.4 MYBN}
5. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148 {245 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
[2] http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/06/060601174729.htm
[3] http://www.ia.ucsb.edu/pa/display.aspx?pkey=1073
  
251,000,000 YBN
2
54) End of the Paleozoic and start of the Mesozoic Era, and the end of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) and start of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn) period.1

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
2. ^ USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
251,000,000 YBN
452) The supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe) forms.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
  
235,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
304) Protists "Haptophyta" {HaPTuFITu6 } (Coccolithophores) {KoK-o-lit-u-FORZ7
}.8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=haptophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=coccolithophores&submit=Submit
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=haptophyta&submit=Submit
7. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=coccolithophores&submit=Submit
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
10. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
11. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor,
and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants.
Elsevier Science, 2008, p145. http://books.google.com/books?id=_29tNNeQKeMC
12. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution
21.5 (2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {c1050 mybn}
13. ^
Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{920 mybn}
14. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {genetic)1382 mybn}
15. ^ De
Vargas, Aubry, Probert, Young, "Origin and Evolution of Cocolithophores: From
Coastal Hunters to Oceanic Farmers", Chapter 12, p251. in: Paul G. Falkowski,
Andrew H. Knoll, "Evolution of primary producers in the sea",
2007. http://books.google.com/books?id=5tRSAr1JMhwC {DNA)1900mybn}
{genetic)1900mybn}
16. ^ Linda Medlin, et al, "Phylogenic relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids", Plant Systematics
and Evolution (Supplement), v11, 1997,
p187-219. http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf {DNA)1750 mybn} {genetic)1750
mybn}
17. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/prymnesiophyta.html {possible
fossil) 318mybn}
18. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{genetic) 920 mybn}
19. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
{possible fossil) 318mybn}
20. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/prymnesiophyta.html {certain fossil)
201mybn}
21. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/ {certain fossil) 201mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). (has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch)
[4]
http://www.life.umd.edu/labs/delwiche/PSlife/lectures/Haptophyta.html
  
228,000,000 YBN
14 15 16
412) Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.8 9 10 11
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154.
2. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and
the early evolution of Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
4. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154.
5. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
6. ^ "dinosaur." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dinosaur
7. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and
the early evolution of Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
8. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154.
9. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
10. ^ "dinosaur." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dinosaur
11. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and
the early evolution of Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
12. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and
the early evolution of Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
13. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154.
14. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al.
“Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html {228
MYBN}
15. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {228 MYBN}
16. ^ Benton,
"Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154. {230-220 MYBN}
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina12 13   
228,000,000 YBN
5
6282) Dinosaurs divide into two major lines: Ornithischians {ORnitiSKEiNZ1 }
(Bird-hipped dinosaurs) and Saurischians {SoriSKEiNZ2 } (Lizard-hipped
dinosaurs).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ornithischian." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 10 Jun.
2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ornithischian>.
2. ^ "saurischian." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/saurischian
3. ^ James O. Farlow, M. K. Brett-Surman, "The Complete Dinosaur", 1999,
p210. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=FOViD-lDPy0C
4. ^ Harold Levine, "The Earth Through Time", 2006, p417.
5. ^ James O. Farlow, M. K.
Brett-Surman, "The Complete Dinosaur", 1999,
p210. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=FOViD-lDPy0C {Carnian:
average of) 235-228 mybn}
  
228,000,000 YBN
11 12 13
6283) Saurischian {SoriSKEiN1 } Dinosaurs split into two major lines: The
Sauropodomorpha (SoroPiDimORFu2 } and the Therapoda {tiRoPiDu3 }.4

Sauropodomorphs are divided into prosauropods and sauropods, are mostly
plant-eating, and include the large, long-necked dinosaurs like Apatosaurus.5

Theropod {tERePoD6 } dinosaurs are bipedal and carnivorous and include
Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Velociraptor. All birds descend from a Therapod
ancestor.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "saurischian." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/saurischian
2. ^ "sauropod." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 15 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/sauropod
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=theropoda
4. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p115-116.
5. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates",
2002, p115-116.
6. ^ "theropod." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 15 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/theropod
7. ^ "theropod." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 15 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/theropod
8. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p115-116.
9. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al. “Primitive
dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of Dinosauria.”
Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
10. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154.
11. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al.
“Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html {228
MYBN}
12. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {228 MYBN}
13. ^ Benton,
"Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154. {230-220 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sauropodomorpha&submit=Submit
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina9 10   
225,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
126) Mammals evolve.4 First mammary gland.5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic of
West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 13,
No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on
behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
2. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic of
West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 13,
No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on
behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper
Triassic of West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology,
Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis,
Ltd. on behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
5. ^ Ted Huntington.
6. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper
Triassic of West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology,
Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis,
Ltd. on behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
7. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic of
West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 13,
No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on
behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514 {225 MYBN}
8. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p197.
9. ^ Palmer, Tree of Life,
2009. http://timetree.org/pdf/Shedlock2009Chap52.pdf

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.abqtrib.com/albq/nw_science/article/0,2668,ALBQ_21236_4546322,00.html

earliest fossils: (Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA6   
225,000,000 YBN
3 4
369) Ancestor of all (Ray-Finned) teleost (TeLEoST) fishes evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p197.
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Inoue, JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M (2003) "Basal
actinopterygian relationships: A mitogenomic perspective on the phylogeny of
the ldquoancient fish.rdquo" Mol Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790302003317
  
220,000,000 YBN
5 6
387) Reptiles Testudines {TeSTUDinEZ2 }: Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins.3 4
F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=testudines&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p261-301.
4. ^ "turtle." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 10 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/turtle
5. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p196.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p262. {300
MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "terrapin." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/terrapin
  
220,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
389) Reptiles: Tuataras {TUeToRoZ}.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ "tuatara." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth
Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tuatara
3. ^ "tuatara." Encyclop�dia Britannica. Encyclop�dia Britannica Online.
Encyclop�dia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/608113/tuatara>.
4. ^ Cracraft, J., and M.J. Donoghue. Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford
University Press, USA, 2004. Nueva Colecci�n Labor,
p452. http://books.google.com/books?id=6lXTP0YU6_kC&pg=PA452
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301. {255 MYBN}
(Islands of) New Zealand2   
220,000,000 YBN
9 10
428) The first flying vertebrate (Pterosaur).7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Éric Buffetaut, "Evolution and palaeobiology of pterosaurs", Geological
Society, 2003, p107. http://books.google.com/books?id=8CKYxcylOycC
2. ^ Steven M. Stanley, "Earth System History", Third edition,
2009, p390.
3. ^ Unwin, David M. “Pterosaurs: back to the traditional model?”
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14.7 (1999) :
263-268. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534799016055
4. ^ Éric Buffetaut, "Evolution and palaeobiology of pterosaurs", Geological
Society, 2003, p107. http://books.google.com/books?id=8CKYxcylOycC
5. ^ Steven M. Stanley, "Earth System History", Third edition,
2009, p390.
6. ^ Unwin, David M. “Pterosaurs: back to the traditional model?”
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14.7 (1999) :
263-268. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534799016055
7. ^ Éric Buffetaut, "Evolution and palaeobiology of pterosaurs", Geological
Society, 2003, p107. http://books.google.com/books?id=8CKYxcylOycC
8. ^ Steven M. Stanley, "Earth System History", Third edition,
2009, p390.
9. ^ Peter Wellnhofer, "Pterosaurs", 1991, p59-60,166. {220MYBN}
10. ^
http://www.dinodata.net/DNM/dallav.htm {215 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] http://dipbsf.uninsubria.it/paleo/dvecchia.htm
[2] Eberhard Frey, Helmut Tischlinger, Marie-Céline Buchy, and David
M. Martill, "New specimens of Pterosauria (Reptilia) with soft parts with
implications for pterosaurian anatomy and locomotion ", Geological Society,
London, Special Publications 2003, 217:233-266;
doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.217.01.14
  
210,000,000 YBN
3
390) Reptiles Iguania evolve: (iguanas, chameleons, and spiny lizards).2
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p261-301.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p261-301. {210 MYBN}
  
210,000,000 YBN
3
391) Reptiles: Scleroglossa evolve (snakes, skinks, and geckos).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {210 MYBN}
  
210,000,000 YBN
2
6313) Teleosts: Bonytongues.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Inoue, JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M (2003) "Basal
actinopterygian relationships: A mitogenomic perspective on the phylogeny of
the ldquoancient fish.rdquo" Mol Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790302003317
  
201,600,000 YBN
2 3 4
127) Mass extinction.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
2. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
3. ^ Whiteside, Jessica H.; Paul E. Olsen, Timothy Eglinton, Michael E.
Brookfield, and Raymond N. Sambrotto (March 22, 2010). "Compound-specific
carbon isotopes from Earth's largest flood basalt eruptions directly linked to
the end-Triassic mass extinction". PNAS 107 (15): 6721–5.
doi:10.1073/pnas.1001706107. PMC 2872409. PMID 20308590. {201.4 MYBN}
4. ^ David
Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148 {208 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] David Jablonski, "Lessons from the Past: Evolutionary Impacts of Mass
Extinctions", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America, Vol. 98, No. 10 (May 8, 2001), pp.
5393-5398. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3055638
  
201,600,000 YBN
2
228) End of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn), and start of the Jurassic
(201.6-145.5 mybn) Period.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
2. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] USGS "Divisions of Geologic Time— Major Chronostratigraphic and
Geochronologic Units", July
2010. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3059/pdf/FS10-3059.pdf
  
201,600,000 YBN
6 7
6372) Ornithischians Thyreophora {tIRrEoFeru1 } evolve; ancestor of the armored
ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ2 } and the plated stegosaurs {STeGeSORZ3 }.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=thyreophora&submit=Submit
2. ^ "ankylosaur." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 16 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/ankylosaurus
3. ^ "stegosaur." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 16 Jun.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/stegosaur
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p271.
5. ^ Colbert, "A primitive
ornithischian dinosaur from the Kayenta Formation of Arizona", Bulletin (Museum
of Northern Arizona), No 53, 1981.
6. ^ Colbert, "A primitive ornithischian dinosaur
from the Kayenta Formation of Arizona", Bulletin (Museum of Northern Arizona),
No 53, 1981, p56-57.
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p224.

MORE INFO
[1] Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. pp. 134–135.
ISBN 1-84028-152-9
(Kayenta Formation) Arizona, USA5   
200,000,000 YBN
3
370) Teleosts: eels and tarpons evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {200 MYBN}
  
200,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
392) Reptiles: Crocodilia {KroKoDiLEu2 } evolve (Crocodiles, allegators, and
caimans {KAmeNS}).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=crocodilia&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p261-301.
4. ^ "crocodile." Encyclop�dia Britannica.
Encyclop�dia Britannica Online. Encyclop�dia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 29
Jan. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143679/crocodile>.
5. ^ Cracraft, J., and M.J. Donoghue. Assembling the Tree of Life.
Oxford University Press, USA, 2004. Nueva Colecci�n Labor,
p452. http://books.google.com/books?id=6lXTP0YU6_kC&pg=PA452
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301. {245 MYBN}
  
195,000,000 YBN
9 10
246) Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ1 } evolve; ancestor of the large, long-necked
dinosaurs like Apatosaurus {uPaTuSORuS2 }, Brachiosaurus {BrAKEuSORuS3 }, and
Diplodocus {DiPloDiKuS4 }.5 6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Sauropod." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 14 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Sauropod>.
2. ^ "apatosaur." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/apatosaurus
3. ^ "brachiosaur." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/brachiosaurus
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diplodocus&submit=Submit
5. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
6. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", p115-116, 2002.
7. ^ Palmer et al, "Primative
Life", 2009, p224.
8. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
9. ^ Palmer et al, "Primative Life", 2009, p224.
10. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {150 MYBN}
western USA8   
195,000,000 YBN
4
6373) Ornithischians Ornithopoda {ORnitoPiDu1 } evolve; the duck-billed
dinosaurs, ancestor of the Hadrosaurs.2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ornithopoda
2. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p224.
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates",
p115-116, 2002.
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p224.
  
190,000,000 YBN
3
371) Teleosts: herrings and anchovies.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {190 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201773&tree=0.1
  
190,000,000 YBN
4
6289) Supercontinent Pangea splits into Laurasia and Gondwana. The northern
part, Laurasia will form North America and Europe. The southern part, Gondwana
will form South America and Africa.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375.
2. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375.
3. ^ Harold Levin, "The
Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375.
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth
Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375. {190 mybn}
Pangea3   
190,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12 13
6347) Holometabola Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu4 } evolve (moths, butterflies,
caterpillars).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lepidoptera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
3. ^ Douzery et al., "The timing of eukaryotic evolution: does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
2004. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386.abstract
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lepidoptera&submit=Submit
5. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
6. ^ Douzery et al., "The timing of eukaryotic evolution: does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
2004. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386.abstract
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p556.
8. ^ Palmer, et al,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p224.
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p556.
10. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p469.
11. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p262.
12. ^ Douzery et al., "The timing of
eukaryotic evolution: does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and
fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
2004. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386.abstract
13. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
earliest fossils: Dorset, England7   
180,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
456) Earliest extant mammals, Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ3 } evolve.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "monotreme." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/monotreme
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 238-260.
3. ^ "monotreme." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
06 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/monotreme
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), 238-260.
5. ^ "monotreme." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/monotreme
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {180 MYBN}
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
8. ^
Hedges, Tree of Life, 2009 http://timetree.org/pdf/Madsen2009Chap68.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Monotremata". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotremata
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea5   
170,000,000 YBN
3
372) Teleosts: carp, minnows, piranhas.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {170 MYBN}
  
170,000,000 YBN
3
373) Teleosts: salmon, trout, pike.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
  
170,000,000 YBN
3 4
383) Amphibians: Salamanders evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p225.
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
{305 MYBN}
  
165,000,000 YBN
5 6
358) Cartilaginous fishes: batoidea {BuTOEDEu1 } evolve, ancestor of all rays,
skates, and sawfishes.2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=batoidea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
3. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl
4. ^ Douady, Christophe J. et al. “Molecular
Phylogenetic Evidence Refuting the Hypothesis of Batoidea (rays and Skates) as
Derived Sharks.” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26.2 (2003):
215–221. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790302003330
5. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363. {190
MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?name=Elasmobranchii
  
150,000,000 YBN
3
374) Teleosts: Lightfish and Dragonfish.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {150 MYBN}
  
150,000,000 YBN
4
393) Birds evolve. The first feather.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {245 MYBN} {245 MYBN (bird and croc split}

MORE INFO
[1] Xu, X., Z. Tang, and X. Wang. 1999a. A therizinosauroid dinosaur with
integumentary structures from China. Nature, 399350-354
[2] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and
RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves:
Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion.”
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149.1 (2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full
[3] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their
Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
[4] Hedges, S. Blair et al. “Continental breakup and the ordinal
diversification of birds and mammals.” Nature 381.6579 (1996) :
226-229. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v381/n6579/abs/381226a0.html
[5] Ivanov, M., Hrdlickova, S. & Gregorova, R. (2001) The Complete Encyclopedia
of Fossils. Rebo Publishers, Netherlands. pp. 312
[6] Zhang, Z., Gao, C., Meng, Q.,
Liu, J., Hou, L., & Zheng, G. (2009). Diversification in an early cretaceous
avian genus: evidence from a new species of Confuciusornis from china. Journal
of Ornithology , 150 (4), 783-790. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-009-0399-x
[7] Hou L, Zhou Z, Gu Y, Zhang H (1995a) Confuciusornis sanctus, a new Late
Jurassic sauriurine bird from China. Chin Sci Bull 40:1545–1551
  
145,000,000 YBN
15 16 17 18 19
245) Seed plants angiosperms. The first flowering plant.9 10 11

Almost all grains, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices come from
plants with flowers. Much of our clothing, and many commercial dyes and drugs
come from flowering plants.12

Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants
now living.13 The fruit is the ovary of a plant which encloses seeds.14

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.short
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1088868/
4. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/anthophyta.html
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
8. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/anthophyta.html
9. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
10. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
11. ^ N Wikstrom,
V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
12. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/anthophyta.html
13. ^ "Article". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
"angiosperm", Encyclopedia Britannica 2012.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/24667/angiosperm/24667main/Article
14. ^ "fruit". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
"fruit", Encyclopedia Britannica,
2012. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221056/fruit
15. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p607-613.
16. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
17. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.short (175mybn) {Gymno-angio spilt)
320 mybn (radiation at 180my}
18. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution,
(2004). http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract (c100mybn)
{320-290 mybn (radiation at 100 mybn}
19. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009,
p135. http://timetree.org/pdf/Magallon2009Chap11.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Fruit". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit
[2] THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP. “An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group Classification for the Orders and Families of Flowering Plants: APG
III.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161.2 (2009):
105–121. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339
[3] Kumar, Hedges, "Time Tree of Life", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly China  
144,000,000 YBN
128) End of the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 mybn), and start of the Cretaceous
(145.5-65.5 mybn) Period.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
  
143,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
6288) Earliest extant flower "Amborella".5 6 7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline
for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution,
(2004).
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
10. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
11. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (175mybn) {179mybn}
12. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal
of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (175mybn)
13. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(c100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] "Fruit". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit
[2] Sun, G. , Dilcher, D. L. , Zheng, S.-L. & Zhou, Z.-K. In search of the
first flower: A Jurassic angiosperm, Archaefructus, from northeast China.
Science 282, 1692–1695
(1998). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/282/5394/1692
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2896858
  
140,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
247) Flowers: Nymphaeales {niM-FE-A-lEZ4 } (water lilies).5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ based on: http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nymphaeaceae
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal
of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ based on:
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nymphaeaceae
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p612.
8. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
9. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (171mybn)
10. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points
of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (165mybn)
  
140,000,000 YBN
4 5
421) The Ornithiscian1 Ceratopsian dinosaurs evolve (ancestor of
Triceratops).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", p116, 2002.
2. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p282.
3. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
5. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {80 MYBN}
Mongolia, China3   
140,000,000 YBN
12 13 14 15 16 17
457) Ancestor of all Marsupials.6 First nipple and breast.7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p230-237.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p230-237.
4. ^ Williams, W.R. A Monograph
on Diseases of the Breast: Their Pathology and Treatment, with Special
Reference to Cancer. Bale, 1894,
p9. http://books.google.com/books?id=QB01AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA9
5. ^ Loke, Y.W. Life�s Vital Link: The Astonishing Role of the Placenta. OUP
Oxford, 2013. http://books.google.com/books?id=ELoP_omQfkoC&pg=PP34
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p230-237.
7. ^ Williams, W.R. A Monograph on Diseases of the
Breast: Their Pathology and Treatment, with Special Reference to Cancer. Bale,
1894, p9. http://books.google.com/books?id=QB01AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA9
8. ^ Loke, Y.W. Life�s Vital Link: The Astonishing Role of the
Placenta. OUP Oxford,
2013. http://books.google.com/books?id=ELoP_omQfkoC&pg=PP34
9. ^ Rincon, Paul (2003-12-12). "Rincon, P., Oldest Marsupial Ancestor Found,
BBC, Dec 2003". BBC News. Retrieved
2010-03-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3311911.stm
10. ^ "Pickrell, J., Oldest Marsupial Fossil Found in China, National
Geographic, December 2003". News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/12/1215_031215_oldestmarsupial.ht
ml

11. ^ "Vertebrate Paleontology: Sinodelphys szalayi". Carnegie Museum of
Natural History. Retrieved
2010-10-21. http://www.carnegiemnh.org/vp/sinodelphys.html
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237. {140 MYBN}
13. ^ Luo Z, Yuan C, Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), "A
Jurassic eutherian mammal and divergence of marsupials and placentals", Nature
476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf} {165MYBN}
14. ^ Hedges, Tree of Life,
2009 http://timetree.org/pdf/Madsen2009Chap68.pdf
15. ^ van Rheede, T. et al. The platypus is in its place: nuclear genes and
Indels confirm the sister group relation of monotremes and therians. Mol.
Biol. Evol. 23, 587–597 (2006). {143-178MYBN}
16. ^ Phillips, M. J., Bennett, T. H. & Lee,
M. S. Y. Molecules, morphology, and ecology indicate a recent, amphibious
ancestry for echidnas. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 17089–17094 (2009).
{193-186}
17. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
China9 10 11   
136,000,000 YBN
3
460) Birds Enantiornithes {iNaNTEORNitEZ1 } evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=enantiornithes&submit=Submit
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/350Aves/350.500.html#Enantiornithes
3. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/350Aves/350.500.html#Enantiornithes
{136 MYBN (estimate from}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.fossilmuseum.net/Fossil-Pictures/Birds/Protopteryx/Protopteryx-fengni
ngensis.htm

  
134,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
250) Flowers: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ4 } evolve (ancestor of nutmeg, avocado,
sassafras, cinnamon, black and white pepper, camphor, bay (or laurel) tree, and
magnolia.5 6 ).7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "magnoliid>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
"magnoliid." The American Heritage® Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 20 May. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/magnoliid>.
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.short
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1088868/
4. ^ "magnoliid>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. "magnoliid." The American Heritage® Science Dictionary. Houghton
Mifflin Company. 20 May. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/magnoliid>.
5. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1088868/
6. ^ "Magnoliid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnoliid
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). entire group is called magnoliids
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
10. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
11. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). entire group is called magnoliids {179 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
133,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
253) Flowers Eudicots {YUDIKoTS4 } evolve (the largest lineage of flowers).5 6


The two main groups of the Eudicots are the "rosids" and the "asterids".7

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ "eudicot>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
"eudicot." The American Heritage® Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 29 Dec. 2011. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/eudicot>.
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ "eudicot>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v
1.1). Random House, Inc. "eudicot." The American Heritage® Science
Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. 29 Dec. 2011.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/eudicot>.
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
9. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
10. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (153mybn) {155 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=eudicot&submit=Submit
  
130,000,000 YBN
5
375) Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying fish, pufferfish, and barracuda.3 4
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=44719&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=44719&tree=0.1
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {130 MYBN}
  
130,000,000 YBN
3
376) Teleosts: cod, anglerfish.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {130 MYBN}
  
125,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
163) The Eutheria. Placental mammals evolve.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
2. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon
Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major
Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
3. ^ Russell F.
Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining
Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein
Clock", Science, (1996).
4. ^ Luo Z, Yuan C, Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), "A Jurassic
eutherian mammal and divergence of marsupials and placentals", Nature
476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf}
5. ^ Luo Z, Yuan C, Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), "A Jurassic eutherian mammal and
divergence of marsupials and placentals", Nature 476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf} {160MYBN}
6. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen
Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of
Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). {130MYBN}
7. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p225.

MORE INFO
[1] Nature. "Ji, Q., et al., The Earliest Known Eutherian Mammal, Nature,
416, Pages 816-822, Apr 2002". Nature.com.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6883/full/416816a.html
earliest fossils: (Daxigou) Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China4   
120,000,000 YBN
5
463) Neornithes {nEORnitEZ3 } evolve (modern birds: the most recent common
ancestor of all living birds).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=neornithes&submit=Submit
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/350Aves/350.800.html#Neornithes
3. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=neornithes&submit=Submit
4. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/350Aves/350.800.html#Neornithes
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (estimate from) {120 MYBN (estimate from}

MORE INFO
[1] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order phylogeny
of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II.
Analysis and discussion.” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149.1
(2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full
[2] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their
Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
[3] Brown, Joseph, Joshua Rest, Jaime G. Moreno, Michael Sorenson, and David
Mindell. "Strong mitochondrial DNA support for a Cretaceous origin of modern
avian lineages." BMC Biology 6 (January 2008):
6:6. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/6/6
  
112,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
252) Flowers Monocotyledons (or "Monocots") evolve: Flowering plants that have
a single cotyledon (or seed leaf) in the embryo.4 5 6

Monocots are the second largest lineage of flowers after the Eudicots, and
include lilies, palms, orchids, and grasses.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
3. ^ "Monocotyledon", Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry,
http://www.answers.com/topic/monocotyledon
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
6. ^ "Monocotyledon", Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry,
http://www.answers.com/topic/monocotyledon
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p612.
10. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
11. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (154mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
108,000,000 YBN
9 10 11
254) Flowers: "Basal Eudicots" evolve (includes buttercup, clematis, poppy,
macadamia, lotus, and sycamore).5 6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
10. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
11. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (145mybn) {147 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] wiki
  
106,000,000 YBN
11 12
267) Flowers "Core Eudicots" (cactus, caper, buckwheat, rhubarb, venus flytrap,
old world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa, spinach, grape plants).6 7 8 9 10

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
5. ^ wiki
6. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An
update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and
families of flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
7. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
8. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract
9. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
10. ^ wiki
11. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
12. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract (145my)
{124 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 (128mybn)
  
105,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
491) Ancestor of all placental mammal Afrotheres evolves.3

Afrotheres originate in Africa and are the earliest extant placental mammals.4


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p224-229.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p224-229.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p224-229.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p224-229.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p224-229.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p224-229. {105 MYBN}
7. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy,
Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and
the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
8. ^
Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science,
(2003).
Africa5   
100,000,000 YBN
5
465) Birds "Ratites" evolve (ostrich, emu, cassowary {KaSOwaRE3 }, kiwis).4
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=cassowary&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (estimate from)
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=cassowary&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (estimate from)
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (estimate from) {100 MYBN (estimate from}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/350Aves/350.900.html#Ratites
[2] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order
phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative
anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion.” Zoological Journal of the Linnean
Society 149.1 (2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full
[3] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their
Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
  
95,000,000 YBN
10 11 12
498) Placental Mammals "Xenarthrans" {ZeNoRtreNZ5 } evolve (ancestor of Sloths,
Anteaters, and Armadillos).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=xenarthran
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p219-223.
3. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo
Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the
Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
4. ^ Michael
J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=xenarthran
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p219-223.
7. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and
Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the
Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
8. ^ Michael
J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
9. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p219-223.
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),219-223. {95 MYBN}
11. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy,
Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and
the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
12. ^
Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science,
(2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Cornelis, Guillaume et al. “Ancestral Capture of syncytin-Car1, a
Fusogenic Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene Involved in Placentation and
Conserved in Carnivora.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
109.7 (2012): E432–E441. http://www.pnas.org/content/109/7/E432.abstract
[2] Delsuc, Frédéric et al. “Molecular Phylogenetics Unveils
the Ancient Evolutionary Origins of the Enigmatic Fairy Armadillos.”
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62.2 (2012):
673–680. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790311004799
[3] Shattuck, Milena R., and Scott A. Williams. “Arboreality Has Allowed for
the Evolution of Increased Longevity in Mammals.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences 107.10 (2010): 4635–4639.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/107/10/4635.abstract
South America9   
93,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
256) Flowers: "Rosids" evolve (Basal Rosids include: pomegranate, clove,
guava, allspice, and eucalyptus).4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and
some points of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ N
Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating
the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
6. ^ THE
ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
9. ^ N
Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating
the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
(122mybn) {117} {109}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
9 10
261) Rosids "Fabales" {FoBAlEZ5 } evolve (ancestor of beans, pea, peanut, soy,
and lentil).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=fabaceae
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=fabaceae
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
7. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
10. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {94 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
265) Flowers "Base Monocots" evolve (ancestor of vanilla, orchid, asparagus,
onion, garlic, agave, aloe, and lily).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
4. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
7. ^
Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
8. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (153my) {141 MYBN} {154 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), Angiosperm
Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/welcome.html
  
93,000,000 YBN
9 10
266) Monocots "Commelinids" {KomelIniDZ5 } evolve (palms, coconut, corn, rice,
barley, oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo, grass, pineapple, papyrus, turmeric
{TRmRiK6 }, banana, ginger).7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Commelinidae." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/commelinidae
2. ^ "turmeric." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/turmeric
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
4. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
5. ^ "Commelinidae." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific
and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/commelinidae
6. ^ "turmeric." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/turmeric
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p612.
10. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (153my) {94 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
11 12
275) Basal Asterids "Ericales" {AReKAlEZ6 7 } (kiwi, ebony, persimmon,
blueberry, cranberry, brazil nut, new world pitcher plants, tea).8 9 10

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ericaceae&submit=Submit
2. ^ "Ericales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ericales-1
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
4. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ericaceae&submit=Submit
7. ^ "Ericales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ericales-1
8. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
9. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
10. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
11. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
12. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {113 MYBN} {100 MYBN} {114 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
9 10
283) Asterids "Apiales" {APEAlEZ5 } evolve (ancestor of dill, celery, cilantro,
carrot, parsnip, fennel, parsley, and ivy).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apiaceae+&submit=Submit
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apiaceae+&submit=Submit
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
7. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
10. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn) {95 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
9 10
285) Asterids "Asterales" {aSTRAlEZ5 } evolve (ancestor of tarragon, daisy,
artichoke, sunflower, lettuce, and dandelion).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Asterales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/asterales
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ "Asterales." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/asterales
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
7. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update
of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and
some points of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^
Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
10. ^ wiki

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
91,000,000 YBN
10 11
259) Rosids: "Malpighiales" {maLPiGEAlEZ5 } evolve 6 7 8 (ancestor of coca,
rubber tree, cassava, poinsettia, willow, poplar, and aspen).9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Malpighiaceae." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/malpighiaceae-1
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ "Malpighiaceae."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/malpighiaceae-1
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
7. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^ wiki
10. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {90 MYBN} {81
MYBN} {91 MYBN}
11. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
90,000,000 YBN
11
270) Rosids "Brassicales" {BraSiKAlEZ6 } evolve (ancestor of horseradish,
mustard, cabbage, broccoli, radish, and papaya).7 8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brassicacea
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ wiki
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis
and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of
view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brassicacea
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
8. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
9. ^ wiki
10. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis
and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of
view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
11. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {88 MYBN} {90
MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102my)
  
89,000,000 YBN
9 10
262) Rosids "Rosales" {ROZAlEZ5 } evolve (ancestor of hemp, hop, jackfruit,
fig, strawberry, rose, raspberry, apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach, and
almond).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Rosales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/rosales-1
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ "Rosales." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/rosales-1
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
7. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update
of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and
some points of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^ N
Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating
the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {87
MYBN} {76 MYBN} {89 MYBN}
10. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p612.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
89,000,000 YBN
9
279) Asterids "Gentianales" {JeNsinAlEZ5 } evolve (includes oleander, and
coffee).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Gentianales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gentianales-1
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ "Gentianales." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/gentianales-1
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
7. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update
of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and
some points of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^ N
Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating
the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {87
MYBN} {89 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
86,000,000 YBN
9
278) Asterids "Solanales" {SOlanAlEZ5 } evolve (ancestor of bell pepper,
tomato, tobacco, potato, and eggplant).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=solanacea
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=solanacea
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
7. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {87 MYBN} {86 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
Americas  
85,000,000 YBN
9 10
263) Rosids "Cucurbitales" (KYUKRBiTAlEZ5 } evolve (ancestor of melon,
cucumber, pumpkin, squash, and zucchini).6 7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cucurbit." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cucurbit
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ "cucurbit." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cucurbit
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
7. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An
update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and
families of flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
8. ^
Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
9. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {85 MYBN} {65 MYBN}
10. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution
of the Insects", 2005, p612.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
Americas  
85,000,000 YBN
10 11
264) Rosids "Fagales" {FaGAlEZ5 } evolve (ancestor of many flowers that produce
edible nuts: Birch, Hazel {nut}, Chestnut, Beech {nut}, Oak, Walnut, Pecan
{PEKoN6 }, and Hickory).7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Fagales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/fagales-1
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
5. ^ "Fagales." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/fagales-1
6. ^ "pecan." The American Heritage�
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 04 Jan. 2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/peca
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
8. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
9. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*,
"An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and
families of flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
10. ^
Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). {85 MYBN} {61 MYBN}
11. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of
the Insects", 2005, p612.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102my)
  
85,000,000 YBN
5
466) Birds "Galliformes" {GaLliFORmEZ3 } evolve (Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant,
Peacock, Quail).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=galliformes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=galliformes&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {85 MYBN (estimate from}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/360Galloanserae/360.100.html#Galloanser
ae

  
85,000,000 YBN
5
467) Birds "Anseriformes" {aNSRiFORmEZ3 } evolve (ancestor of ducks, geese, and
swans).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Anseriformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anseriformes-1 and
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anseriformes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "Anseriformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anseriformes-1 and
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anseriformes&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {85 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/360Galloanserae/360.500.html#Anseriform
es

  
85,000,000 YBN
5 6
499) Ancestor of all placental mammal "Laurasiatheres" evolves.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p199-218.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p200. {85 MYBN}
6. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of
Life", Science, (2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
Laurasia4   
84,000,000 YBN
454) The Rocky mountains start to form.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
  
82,000,000 YBN
13
271) Rosids "Malvales" {moLVAlEZ6 } evolve (ancestor of okra, marsh mallow
{malO7 }, durian {DUREiN8 }, cotton, balsa, and cacao {KoKoU9 }.10 11 12

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ "Malvales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/malvales-1
2. ^ "cacao." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cacao
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
4. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ "Malvales." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/malvales-1
7. ^ "mallow." Dictionary.com Unabridged.
Random House, Inc. 13 Jun. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mallow>.
8. ^ "Durian", The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Copyright ©
2004. Licensed from Columbia University Press
http://www.reference.com/browse/Durian?s=ts
9. ^ "cacao." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cacao
10. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
11. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
12. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
13. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {83 MYBN} {68 MYBN} {82 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102my)
[3] wiki
Americas  
82,000,000 YBN
11
272) Rosids "Sapindales" {SaPiNDAlEZ6 } evolve (ancestor of maple, lychee,
mahogany, cashew, mango, pistachio, and the citrus trees: orange, lemon, and
grapefruit).7 8 9 10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Sapindales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sapindales-1
and http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sapindaceae
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ wiki
6. ^ "Sapindales."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sapindales-1
and http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sapindaceae
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
8. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
9. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
10. ^ wiki
11. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {80 MYBN} {61
MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
Americas  
82,000,000 YBN
420) Ornithopods {ORnitePoDZ1 } Hadrosaurs, (duck-billed) dinosaurs.2
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ "ornithopod." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 16 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ornithopod
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
  
82,000,000 YBN
5 6
500) Laurasiatheres "Insectivora" evolves (ancestor of shrews, moles, and
hedgehogs).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p199-218.
2. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree
of Life", Science, (2003).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
4. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala,
"Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218. {82 MYBN}
6. ^ Michael
J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Laurasiatheria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurasiatheria
  
80,000,000 YBN
4
422) Therapod {tERePoD1 } Dromaeosaurs {DrOmEoSORZ2 } evolve: Raptors.3
FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ "theropod." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 15 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/theropod
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dromaeosaur&submit=Submit
3. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
4. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {80 MYBN}
  
80,000,000 YBN
6
482) Marsupials: New World Opossums.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, Time Tree of Life,
2009. http://timetree.org/pdf/Springer2009Chap70.pdf
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, Time Tree of Life,
2009. http://timetree.org/pdf/Springer2009Chap70.pdf
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p230-237. {80 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "Didelphimorphia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didelphimorphia
Americas5   
75,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
492) Afrotheres: Aardvark.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {75 MYBN}
5. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J.
Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal
diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4
2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
6. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating
the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
Africa3   
74,000,000 YBN
10
280) Asterids "Lamiales" {lAmEAlEZ5 } evolve (ancestor of many spices: mint,
basil, marjoram {moRJ uruM6 }, oregano, rosemary, sage, savory, thyme, teak,
sesame, olive, ash, lilac and jasmine).7 8 9

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Lamiales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lamiales
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ "Lamiales." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lamiales
6. ^ "marjoram." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 16 Jun. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/marjoram
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
8. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update
of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
9. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and
some points of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
10. ^ N
Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating
the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102my)
{74 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
73,000,000 YBN
6
484) Marsupials: Bandicoots and Bilbies {BiLBEZ3 }.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bilby&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bilby&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {73 MYBN}
Australia5   
70,000,000 YBN
6
424) Two Therapods {tERePoDZ1 } are top predators: Tyrannosaurus rex
{TiraNiSORuS reKS2 } in North America and Giganotosaurus {JiGuNOTuSORuS3 } in
South America.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "theropod." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 15 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/theropod
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=tyrannosaurus+rex&submit=Submit
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giganotosaurus&submit=Submit
4. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
5. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
6. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {70
MYBN}
Americas5   
70,000,000 YBN
426) Marine reptiles Mosasaurs {mOSeSORZ1 } evolve.2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "mosasaur." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 16 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mosasaur
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ "Mosasaurs". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosasaurs
  
70,000,000 YBN
4
469) Birds "Podicipediformes" {PoDiSiPeDeFORmEZ1 } (grebes {GreBS2 }).3
FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ "Podicipediformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/podicipediformes-1
2. ^ "grebe." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 03 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/grebe
3. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
4. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {70 MYBN (need to check with fossil
record 2}
  
70,000,000 YBN
5 6
507) Placental Mammals: Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas {PIKuZ3 }.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "pika." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pika
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "pika." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/pika
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {70 MYBN}
6. ^ Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.

MORE INFO
[1] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
  
70,000,000 YBN
5
516) Placental Mammals: Tree Shrews and Colugos {KolUGOZ3 }.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "colugo." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colugo-1
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "colugo." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/colugo-1
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {70 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] "Colugo". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colugo
[4] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
[5] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
[6] "Colugos". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colugos
  
66,000,000 YBN
3
120) Largest Pterosaur, Quetzalcoatlus {KeTZLKWoTLuS1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=quetzalcoatl
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ Wellnhofer, "Pterosaurs", 1991, p142.
  
65,500,000 YBN
3
129) Mass extinction.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
2. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the
Fossil Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences, Vol. 344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks
Anniversary Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
3. ^ http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16macro.htm {65.5 MYBN}
  
65,500,000 YBN
3
397) End of the Mesozoic and start of the Cenozoic Era, and the end of the
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 mybn), and start of the Tertiary {TRsEARE1 } (65.5-1.8
mybn) Period.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Tertiary period." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 17 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tertiary-1
2. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
3. ^ The geological Society of America 2009 Time
Scale http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/timescl.pdf
  
65,000,000 YBN
2 3
429) Start of rapid diversification of mammals.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
2. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {65 MYBN}
3. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
  
65,000,000 YBN
5
468) Birds "Gruiformes" {GrUiFORmEZ3 } (cranes and rails).4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Gruiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gruiformes-1
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^ "Gruiformes." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/gruiformes-1
4. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
5. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
  
65,000,000 YBN
4
485) Marsupial moles.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {65 MYBN}
Australia3   
65,000,000 YBN
6
486) Marsupials: Tasmanian Devil, Numbat {nuMBaT3 }.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=numbat&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=numbat&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {65 MYBN}
Australia5   
65,000,000 YBN
6
488) Marsupials "Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu3 } evolve (Wombats, Kangeroos,
Possums, Koalas).4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diprotodontia&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diprotodontia&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {65 MYBN}
Australia5   
65,000,000 YBN
13 14
508) Placental Mammals rodents evolve.
Rodents: "Myomorpha" {MIemORFu8 } (rats, mice,
gerbils, voles {VOLZ9 }, lemmings, hamsters).10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
4. ^ "vole." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/vole
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
8. ^ "Myomorpha."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myomorpha-2
9. ^ "vole." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth
Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/vole
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
11. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
12. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
13. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
{65 MYBN}
14. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[4] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
  
63,000,000 YBN
5
587) Primates evolve.3 Opposable thumb.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (=63my) {63 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] http://anthro.palomar.edu/earlyprimates/first_primates.htm
[2]
http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/fr/pres/compress/Toumai/Tounaigb/lienparengb.html
Africa or India4   
60,000,000 YBN
7 8
470) Birds "Strigiformes" {STriJiFORmEZ4 } evolve (owls).5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Strigiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/strigiformes-1
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
4. ^ "Strigiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/strigiformes-1
5. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
6. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
8. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {65 MYBN(need to check with fossil
record 2}

MORE INFO
[1] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
[2] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order phylogeny of
modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II.
Analysis and discussion.” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149.1
(2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full
  
60,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
504) Laurasiatheres "Carnivora" {KoRniVRu4 } (ancestor of Cats, Dogs, Bears,
Weasels, Hyenas, Seals, and Walruses).5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "carnivora?s=t&ld=1089". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carnivora?s=t&ld=1089
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the
Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
4. ^ "carnivora?s=t&ld=1089". Dictionary.com Unabridged
(v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carnivora?s=t&ld=1089
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of
Life", Science, (2003).
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
9. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). {75 MYBN}
10. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of
Life", Science, (2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Laurasiatheria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurasiatheria
Laurasia7   
58,000,000 YBN
5
524) Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ3 }.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "tarsier." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tarsier
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ "tarsier." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/tarsier
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {58 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
[3] "Euarchontoglires".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[4] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[5] "Tarsier". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarsier
  
55,000,000 YBN
7 8
471) Birds "Apodiformes" {oPoD-i-FORmEZ4 } (hummingbirds, swifts).5 6
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ "Apodiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/apodiformes-1 AND
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apodiformes&submit=Submit
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
4. ^ "Apodiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/apodiformes-1 AND
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apodiformes&submit=Submit
5. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
6. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
8. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {37 MYBN (need to check with fossil
record 2}
  
55,000,000 YBN
7 8
476) Birds "Piciformes" {PESiFORmEZ4 } (woodpeckers, toucans).5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Piciformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/piciformes-1
AND http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=piciformes&submit=Submit
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
4. ^ "Piciformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/piciformes-1
AND http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=piciformes&submit=Submit
5. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
6. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
8. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {37 MYBN (need to check with fossil
record 2}

MORE INFO
[1] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
  
55,000,000 YBN
11 12
477) Birds "Passeriformes" {PaSRiFORmEZ5 } (perching songbirds) evolve. This
order includes many common birds: crows, jays, sparrows, warblers,
mockingbirds, robins, orioles, bluebirds, vireos {VEREOZ6 }, larks, finches.7 8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Passeriformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/passeriformes-1
AND http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=passeriformes&submit=Submit
2. ^ "vireo." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/vireo
3. ^ "Passeriformes". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passeriformes
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
5. ^ "Passeriformes." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/passeriformes-1
AND http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=passeriformes&submit=Submit
6. ^ "vireo." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/vireo
7. ^ "Passeriformes". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passeriformes
8. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
9. ^ Boles, Walter E. (1997):
Fossil Songbirds (Passeriformes) from the Early Eocene of Australia. Emu
'97'(1): 43–50. doi:10.1071/MU97004
10. ^ L. Christidis, A. Cooper, M. Irestedt, et al., "A
Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic
New Zealand wrens" Proceedings of the Royal Society B, February 2002:235–241.
11. ^ Palmer,
et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
12. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)

MORE INFO
[1] Ericson, Per G. P. et al. “A Gondwanan Origin of Passerine Birds
Supported by DNA Sequences of the Endemic New Zealand Wrens.” Proceedings of
the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 269.1488 (2002):
235–241. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/269/1488/235.abstract

earliest fossils: Australia9 |Gondwana10   
55,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
495) Afrotheres: Elephants.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
2. ^ Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
3. ^ Mark S. Springer,
William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal
diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4
2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
4. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating
the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
5. ^ Delmer, C., Mahboubi, M., Tabuce, R. & Tassy,
P. 2006. "A new species of Moeritherium (Proboscidae, Mammalia) from the Eocene
of Algeria: new perspectives on the ancestral morphotype of the genus."
Palaeontology 49 (2),
421-434. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00548.x/ab
stract

6. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p360.
8. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and
Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the
Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003). {62
MYBN}
9. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003).
10. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 238. ISBN
1-84028-152-9.

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
Algeria, Africa5 |Africa6   
55,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
497) Afrotheres: Manatee and Dugong.1 2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen
J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
3. ^ Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
4. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {59 MYBN}
6. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J.
Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal
diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4
2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
7. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating
the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
  
55,000,000 YBN
18 19 20
502) Laurasiatheres "Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu7 } evolve (ancestor of
all Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu8 } also called "even-toed ungulates" {uNGYUlATS9
or uNGYUliTS10 }11 : camels, pigs, ruminants {includes deer, giraffe, cattle,
sheep, and antelope12 }, hippos, and all Cetacea {SiTASEu or SiTAsEu13 }:
Whales, and Dolphins).14 15