1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.
980,000,000,000 YBN
3) All matter is made of particles of light. Light particles are the base unit
of all matter from the tiniest particles to the largest galaxies. In this sense
light particles are the most basic atoms.

970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.

960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.

950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of

940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.

935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from highly dense
volumes of space to volumes of less density. In low density volumes, light
particles slowly accumulate to form atoms of Hydrogen and Helium which exist as
gas clouds (like the Magellanic Clouds or Orion nebula). These gas clouds,
called nebulae continue to accumulate trapped light particles. At points of
high density planets and stars form and the cloud is eventually dense enough to
become a galaxy of stars. The stars emit light particles back out to the rest
of the universe, where the light again becomes trapped and forms new clouds.
Around each star are many planets and pieces of matter. On many of the planets
rotating around stars, living objects evolve that can copy themselves by
converting matter around them into more of them. Living objects need matter to
replace matter lost from the constant emitting of light particles (decay). Like
bacteria, these living objects grow in number, with the most successful
organisms occupying and moving around many stars. These advanced organisms then
move the groups of stars they control, as a globular cluster, away from the
plane of the spiral galaxy. As time continues, all of the stars of a galaxy are
occupied by living objects who have organized their stars into globular
clusters, and these globular clusters together, form a globular galaxy. The
globular galaxy may then exist for a long time living off the matter in stars,
in addition to matter from external sources.

So free light particles are trapped into volumes of space that grow in density
first forming atoms, then gas clouds, then stars, a spiral galaxy, and finally
a globular galaxy.

Stars at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale, just as light
particles at our scale may be stars at a much smaller scale. This system may go
on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.

930,000,000,000 YBN
8) An expanding universe seems unlikely to me. The supposed red-shifted calcium
absorption lines may be a mistaken observation, for one reason because spectrum
size changes the position of spectral lines, and because the distance of a
light source changes the position, but not the frequency of spectral lines.


165,000,000,000 YBN
13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to form.
33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.

Atoms may form near the surface of planets and stars.

22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship.
10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.
5,500,000,000 YBN
16) The star Earth orbits forms.
5,500,000,000 YBN
17) Planets form around our star. Like the star, they are red hot with liquid
rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the surface of the
planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.

4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.
4,600,000,000 YBN
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.

4,600,000,000 YBN
50) Start of the "Precambrian". The Hadean {HA DEen} Eon.
4,571,000,000 YBN
31) Oldest meteorite.
4,530,000,000 YBN
33) Oldest moon rock.
4,404,000,000 YBN
34) Oldest "terrestrial" zircon; evidence that the crust and liquid water are
on the surface of Earth.

4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth, like amino acids, phosphates, and sugars,
the components of living objects.

The initial building blocks of living objects are easily formed, but assembling
them into longer-chain molecules, or polymers, is more difficult.

Possibly all proteins, carbohydrates and lipids are strictly the products of
living objects.

4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) may be the first
nucleic acid to form. One of these RNA molecules may be the ancestor of all of
life on Earth.

4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amino acids into proteins using other RNA molecules ("messenger" or mRNA),
as a template.

4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA. This protein is called an RNA polymerase

For the first time, a nucleic acid functions both as a template for building
proteins (with the help of tRNA molecules) and also as a template for building
other nucleic acid molecules.

4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. First Ribosomal RNA (rRNA).

The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing a platform for more
efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all the instructions
needed to make more ribosomes.

Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry out protein synthesis, through
a process called translation.

4,365,000,000 YBN
166) The first Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule. A protein evolves that
allows DNA to be assembled from RNA.

4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules, a DNA polymerase {PoL-u-mu-rAS}.
4,360,000,000 YBN
6409) Transcription. A protein assembles RNA from DNA.
4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth (a bacterium). DNA is surrounded by a membrane made
of proteins. The first cytoplasm.

This cell may form in either fresh or salt water, near the sunlit water surface
or near underwater volcanoes on the ocean floor.

DNA protected by cytoplasm is more likely to survive and be copied.

Start of binary cell division.

This cell structure forms the basis of all future cells of every living object
on Earth.

4,350,000,000 YBN
183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, waxes).
4,345,000,000 YBN
27) A phospholipid bilayer evolves around the cell.
4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons allow selective protein assembly.
4,340,000,000 YBN
6340) Facilitated diffusion. Proteins in the cell membrane allow only certain
molecules to enter the cell.

4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves in the cytoplasm. Cells can make
ATP from glucose.

ATP is the molecule that drives most cellular work.

4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves. Cells can make lactic acid.
4,325,000,000 YBN
213) Fermentation of ethanol evolves.
4,315,000,000 YBN
196) Active transport evolves. Proteins transport molecules into and out of the

4,200,000,000 YBN
292) Prokaryote flagellum evolves.
4,193,000,000 YBN
77) Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve.
4,189,000,000 YBN
193) The Eubacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (Aquifex, Thermotoga).
4,187,000,000 YBN
180) Archaea: Crenarchaeota (Sulfolobus).
4,187,000,000 YBN
181) Archaea: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} (methanogens, halobacteria).

Earliest cell response to light.

4,112,000,000 YBN
58) The first autotrophic cells; cells that can produce some of their own food.
4,100,000,000 YBN
49) Photosynthesis.

Bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and a an electron
donor like Hydrogen sulfide into glucose, water, and sulfur. Also called
"Carbon fixation".

This is the ancestor of Photosystem I.

4,000,000,000 YBN
43) Photosynthesis Photosystem II evolves. Cells emit free Oxygen.

Bacteria use light particles to convert carbon dioxide gas and water into
glucose, releasing oxygen gas in the process.

This is the main system responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of

4,000,000,000 YBN
51) End of Hadean {HADEiN} start of Archean {oRKEiN} Eon.
3,950,000,000 YBN
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes. Photosynthetic
bacteria grow in filaments. Cells stay fastened together after cell division.

3,950,000,000 YBN
316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.

3,950,000,000 YBN
322) Nitrogen fixation. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia from
Nitrogen gas in the air.

West Africa  
3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration. First aerobic (or "oxygenic") cell. These
cells use oxygen to convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

3,850,000,000 YBN
36) Oldest physical evidence for life: ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12 in
grains of ancient minerals.

Life uses the lighter Carbon-12 isotope.

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
3,850,000,000 YBN
45) Oldest sediment, the Banded Iron Formation begins.
Banded Iron Formation is
sedimentary rock that spans from 3.8 to 1.8 billion years ago, made of
iron-rich silicates with alternating layers of black colored reduced iron and
red colored oxidized iron and represents a seasonal rise and fall of free
oxygen in the ocean, possibly linked to photosynthetic organisms.

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
3,500,000,000 YBN
39) Oldest fossil evidence of life: stromatolites.
Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa  
3,500,000,000 YBN
287) Oldest fossils of an organism, similar to cyanobacteria

2.8 billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.

Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa  
3,400,000,000 YBN
190) Earliest fossils of coccoid {KoKOED} (spherical) bacteria.
Kromberg Formation, Swaziland System, South Africa  
3,260,000,000 YBN
71) Prokaryote reproduction by budding.
Swartkoppie, South Africa  
3,200,000,000 YBN
66) Earliest acritarch fossils (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity). These acritarchs are also the earliest possible eukaryote fossils.

(Moodies Group) South Africa  
2,923,000,000 YBN
178) Eubacteria Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ) evolve (Gram positive bacteria: the
cause of botulism, tetanus, anthrax).

2,920,000,000 YBN
288) First endospores. The ability to form endospores evolves in firmicutes. An
endospore is a tough reduced dry form of a bacterium that can be revived after
long periods of time.

2,800,000,000 YBN
76) Eubacteria Proteobacteria evolve (Rickettsia {ancestor of all
mitochondria}, gonorrhea, Salmonella, E coli).

2,800,000,000 YBN
177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in Escherichia Coli {esRriKEo KOlI}
bacteria. Conjugation is the exchange of DNA (plasmids) by a donor {male}
bacterium through a pilus to a recipient {female} bacterium.

Proteins that can cut or connect strands of DNA evolve.

2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.

These cells depend on the DNA duplicating and protein producing systems of
other cells to copy themselves.

2,784,000,000 YBN
176) Eubacteria Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS} (or Planctobacteria).
2,784,000,000 YBN
179) Eubacteria Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu} (Gram positive, source of

2,775,000,000 YBN
174) Eubacteria Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ) (Syphilis, Lyme disease).
2,775,000,000 YBN
175) Eubacteria Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ}.
2,775,000,000 YBN
217) Eubacteria Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E} evolve.
2,775,000,000 YBN
6309) Eubacteria Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria).
2,775,000,000 YBN
6310) Eubacteria Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo).
2,730,000,000 YBN
80) Endo and exocytosis evolve. Cells can now eat other cells.

In endocytosis the plasma membrane folds inward to bring substances into the

In Exocytosis substances contained in vesicles are released from the cell.

2,700,000,000 YBN
60) Eukaryotic cell. The first cell with a nucleus. The first protist. The
nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.

In prokaryotic cells the DNA is not membrane enclosed while in eukaryotic cells
most of the DNA is contained in a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are generally much
larger than prokaryotic cells. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have
a cytoskeleton. Eukaryotic cells may have mitochondria and plastids, which
prokaryotic cells lack. DNA in prokaryotic cells is usually a single circular
chromosome, while DNA in the nucleus of eukaryotes contains linear

Like prokaryotes, this cell is probably haploid (a single unique DNA), most
eukaryotes are diploid (having two sets of DNA).

All protists, fungi, animals and plant cells descend from this common
eukaryotic cell.

2,700,000,000 YBN
62) Earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiRAN}

Northwestern Australia  
2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves, a membrane system that extends from the
nucleus, important in the synthesis of proteins and lipids.

2,690,000,000 YBN
207) Cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN} forms in eukaryote cytoplasm.
2,690,000,000 YBN
208) The eukaryote flagellum and cilia evolve.
2,680,000,000 YBN
65) The circular chromosome in the eukaryote nucleus changes into linear

2,670,000,000 YBN
199) Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves (packages proteins and lipids into
vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations).

2,670,000,000 YBN
290) The nucleolus evolves. The nucleolus is a sphere in the nucleus that makes
ribosomal RNA.

2,660,000,000 YBN
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.

Mitosis is the process in eukaryotic cell division in which the duplicated
chromosomes are separated and the nucleus divides resulting in two new nuclei,
each of which contains an identical copy of the parental chromosomes. Mitosis
is usually immediately followed by division of the cytoplasm.

2,640,000,000 YBN
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. Two identical cells fuse (isogamy). First diploid
cell. First zygote. Increase in genetic variety.

Because of sex, two cells with different DNA can mix providing more genetic
variety. Having two chromosome sets also provides a backup copy of important

All sexual species alternate between haploid and diploid.

This begins the haplontic life cycle: mitosis only occurs in the haploid phase;
the only diploid cell is the zygote.

2,640,000,000 YBN
206) Meiosis evolves (one-step meiosis: a single cell division of a diploid
cell into two haploid cells).

Meiosis, is similar to mitosis, but reduces the number of chromosomes from
diploid to haploid making gametes in animals and spores in plants.

2,610,000,000 YBN
296) Gender in eukaryotes evolves. Anisogamy {aNISoGomE}, sex (cell and nucleus
fusion) between two cells that are different in size or shape.

2,590,000,000 YBN
298) Oogamy {OoGomE}, a form of anisogamy, evolves in protists: sex between a
flagellated gamete and an unflagellated gamete.

2,570,000,000 YBN
295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides twice into
four haploid cells).

2,558,000,000 YBN
171) Eubacteria "Deinococcus-Thermus".
2,558,000,000 YBN
172) Eubacteria Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u} (ancestor of all plastids).
2,558,000,000 YBN
315) Eubacteria Chloroflexi, (Green Non-Sulphur bacteria).
2,500,000,000 YBN
52) End of the Archean and start of the Proterozoic {PrOTReZOiK or ProTReZOiK}

The Proterozoic spans from 2,500 to 542 million years ago, and represents 42%
of Earth's history.

2,480,000,000 YBN
170) Bacteria live on land.
2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of 200 million year ice age.
2,300,000,000 YBN
48) The oldest "Red Beds", iron oxide formed on land, begin here, and are also
evidence of more free oxygen in the air of Earth.

2,000,000,000 YBN
63) A parasitic bacterium, closely related to Rickettsia (an aerobic
proteobacteria) is captured by a eukaryote and through endosymbiosis, becomes
the mitochondria.

Mitochondria are organelles in most eukaryotic cells, and are where cellular
respiration occurs and most of the ATP is produced.

1,874,000,000 YBN
61) Earliest large filamentous fossil (Grypania). Grypania spiralis is about 10
cm long, and is thought to be either a green alga or a large cyanobacterium. If
eukaryote, Grypania would be the earliest eukaryote fossil.

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA  
1,800,000,000 YBN
46) End of the Banded Iron Formation.
1,570,000,000 YBN
99) First homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts in algae, plants, fungi and animals.

1,570,000,000 YBN
197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.

1,520,000,000 YBN
202) Protists Amoebozoa evolve (amoeba, slime molds). Feeding using pseudopods.
1,520,000,000 YBN
203) Colonialism (where cells form a colony) evolves for the first time in

1,500,000,000 YBN
15) First "plastids". Cyanobacteria form plastids (chloroplasts) through
symbiosis, within a eukaryote cell (endosymbiosis). Like mitochondria, these
organelles copy themselves and are not made by the cell DNA.

1,500,000,000 YBN
86) First plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).

This begins the plant kingdom. This first plant is unicellular.

1,500,000,000 YBN
220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).
1,400,000,000 YBN
209) Plant Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu}.
1,300,000,000 YBN
188) Plants Chlorophyta {KlORoFiTu} evolve, Green Algae: (ancestor of Volvox,
Sea lettuce, Spirogyra, and Stoneworts).

1,300,000,000 YBN
219) Plant Red Algae evolves (Rhodophyta {rODOFITu}).
1,300,000,000 YBN
323) Protists Excavates: includes Parabasalids {PaRu-BAS-a-liDS}, and
Diplomonads {DiP-lO-mO-naDZ} {like Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u}).

1,280,000,000 YBN
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.
(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
1,280,000,000 YBN
85) Differentiation in multicellular eukaryote. Gamete (or spore) cells and
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells are asexual (non-fusing).
Start of death by aging.

1,280,000,000 YBN
210) Mitosis of diploid cells evolves.
1,280,000,000 YBN
301) Haplodiplontic life cycle (mitosis occurs in both haploid and diploid life

1,274,000,000 YBN
187) A captured red alga, through endosymbiosis, becomes a plastid in the
ancestor of all chromalveolates.

This is a secondary plastid endosymbiosis, where an algae cell is captured
instead of a cyanobacterium.

1,250,000,000 YBN
88) Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS} (ancestor of Chromista
{Cryptophytes, Haptophytes and Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ}} and
Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS}).

1,250,000,000 YBN
201) Earliest certain eukaryote fossils and eukaryote filamentous
multicellularity: Rhodophyta (red algae) fossils.

(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada  
1,200,000,000 YBN
221) First fungi. This begins the Fungi Kingdom.

Like animals, fungi are heterotrophic (cannot photosynthesize) and so must feed
on other living things.

1,180,000,000 YBN
6280) Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS} (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS}).

1,100,000,000 YBN
75) Oldest extant fungi phylum "Microsporidia".
1,100,000,000 YBN
313) Protists "Dinoflagellata" (Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS}).
1,080,000,000 YBN
87) Excavate Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS}, ancestor of protists which have
mitochondria with discoidal shaped cristae (includes euglenids, leishmanias
{lEsmaNEuZ}, trypanosomes {TriPaNiSOMZ}, and acrasid {oKrASiD} slime molds).

1,080,000,000 YBN
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.

The earliest eye probably evolves from a plastid in a unicellular eukaryote.

1,050,000,000 YBN
169) Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ} (also called Heterokonts)
(ancestor of all brown and golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu)).

1,000,000,000 YBN
324) Protists Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u} (also called DRIPS).
985,000,000 YBN
309) Protists Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu} (Water molds).
900,000,000 YBN
6281) Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u} (ancestor of all Radiolaria, Foraminifera
and Cercozoa).

850,000,000 YBN
224) Fungi "Zygomycota" (bread molds, pin molds).
767,000,000 YBN
312) Protists Ciliates (paramecium).
767,000,000 YBN
314) Protists "Apicomplexa" {a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su} (Malaria).
680,000,000 YBN
326) Protists "Choanoflagellates" {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS}. Choanoflagellates are
the closest relatives to the animals and may be direct ancestors of sponges.

670,000,000 YBN
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist. This allows larger free
moving organisms to evolve.

670,000,000 YBN
297) Diplontic life cycle; organism is predominantly diploid, mitosis in the
haploid phase does not occur.

660,000,000 YBN
81) The first animal and first metazoan, sponges (Porifera). Metazoans are
multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform different
functions). There are only three major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians,
and bilaterians.

Sponges have different cell types: some form a body wall, some secrete
skeleton, some contract, and some digest food.

All sponge cells are totipotent {TOTiPiTeNT}; capable of regrowing a new

660,000,000 YBN
517) Male gonad (testis {TeSTiS} or testicle) evolves in a sponge.
650,000,000 YBN
41) Start of 60 million year (Varanger) Ice Age (650-590 mybn).
650,000,000 YBN
69) Cells that group as tissues that are arranged in layers evolve in

650,000,000 YBN
79) The Metazoans "Placozoa" evolve.
650,000,000 YBN
223) Fungi "Chytridiomycota" {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu) (includes Chytridiomycetes

Northern Russia  
640,000,000 YBN
83) First nerve cell (neuron), and nervous system evolves in the ancestor of
the Ctenophores and Cnidarians. This will lead to the first ganglion and brain.
Earliest touch and sound detection and memory.

640,000,000 YBN
96) Muscle cells evolve in metazoans. Both the earliest known muscle and nerve
cells are found in Ctenophores and Cnidarians.

640,000,000 YBN
225) Closeable mouth evolves in metazoans.
640,000,000 YBN
414) Female gonad (ovary) evolves in metazoans.
640,000,000 YBN
523) Animals Ctenophores {TeN-o-FORZ} evolve (comb jellies).
630,000,000 YBN
82) Animals Cnidarians {NIDAREeNS} evolve (ancestor of sea anemones, sea pens,
corals, and jellyfish). Earliest animal eye.

600,000,000 YBN
91) Start of Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN} soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.

The sudden appearance of Ediacaran fossils may relate to the accumulation of
free oxygen in the atmosphere and sea, which may permit an oxidative

Sonora, Mexico|Adelaide, Australia| Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
600,000,000 YBN
107) Bilateral species evolve (two sided symmetry).
Earliest animal brain. First
triploblastic species (third embryonic layer: the mesoderm {meZuDRM}).

In most bilaterians food enters in one end (the mouth) and waste exits at the
opposite end (the anus). There is an advantage for sense organs like light,
sound, touch, smell, and taste detection to be located on the head near the
mouth to help with getting food.

600,000,000 YBN
403) Earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and

Acoelomorpha lack a digestive track, anus and coelom.

600,000,000 YBN
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian.
600,000,000 YBN
532) Cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian;
found in all bilaterians except Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes.

600,000,000 YBN
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.
600,000,000 YBN
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.
590,000,000 YBN
70) End of Varanger Ice Age (650-590 mybn).
590,000,000 YBN
95) Fluid filled cavity, the coelom (SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.
590,000,000 YBN
98) The first circulatory system; blood vessels, and blood evolve in a
bilaterian. First blood cells.

Cnidarians and flatworms are no more than two sheets of tissue thick and so
allow gas exchange and nutrient distribution by diffusion, but larger animals
with thicker tissues require a circulatory system to distribute materials.

580,000,000 YBN
93) Bilaterians Protostomes evolve. Ancestor of all Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu}
and Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu}.

580,000,000 YBN
105) Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve. Ancestor of all Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS
}, Hemichordates, and Chordates.

580,000,000 YBN
131) The first shell (or skeleton) evolves; in ciliates. Skeletons evolve
independently in different groups.

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
570,000,000 YBN
311) Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu} evolve (Arrow Worms).

Earliest teeth. Animals start to eat other animals.

The evolution of teeth and animal predation starts an "arms race" that rapidly
transforms ecosystems around the Earth.

565,000,000 YBN
345) Deuterostome Hemichordates evolve (pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS}, acorn

Adult Pterobranchs are sessile, fastening to solid structures, but the younger
(or larval) form is free swimming, and is thought to have evolved into
tunicates and then the first fish.

565,000,000 YBN
347) Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves. Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds. Chordates get their name from the notochord {nOTe-KORD}, the
cartilage rod that runs along the back of the animal, in the embryo if not in
the adult.

The ancestor of all chordates evolves "upside-down". Unlike earlier
invertebrates, this ancestor and all vertebrates have their nerve cord near
their back and their heart near their front.

565,000,000 YBN
348) Earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (sea squirts).
560,000,000 YBN
117) Earliest animal shell (or skeleton).
Earliest evidence of animals eating other
animals (predation).
Appearance of small shelly fossils and deep burrows correlated with a
decline in stromatolites, possibly from feeding.

(Ara Formation) Oman|Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province  
560,000,000 YBN
318) Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} evolve. Ecdysozoa are animals that
molt (lose their outer skin) as they grow. This is the ancestor of round worms,
and arthropods (which includes insects and crustaceans).

560,000,000 YBN
331) Protostomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} evolve. Ancestor of
rotifers, phoronids, brachiopods {BrA-KE-O-PoDZ}, entoprocts {eNTuProKS},
bryozoans {BrI-u-ZO-iNZ}, platyhelminthes, gastrotrichs, nemertea, molluscs and

560,000,000 YBN
349) First fish.
560,000,000 YBN
6290) Earliest extant fish, Lancelets {laNSleTS}. First liver and kidney.
550,000,000 YBN
328) Ecdysozoa Aschelminthes {aSKHeLmiNtEZ} (worms: nematodes and priapulids).
547,000,000 YBN
334) Lophotrochozoa Brachiopods {BrAKEOPoDZ}.
543,000,000 YBN
101) Segmentation evolves (body parts are repeated serially).
542,000,000 YBN
53) End of the "Precambrian". End of the Proterozoic and start of the
Phanerozoic {FaNReZOiK} Eon. Start of the Paleozoic {PAlEuZOiK} Era and the
Cambrian Period.

542,000,000 YBN
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many (between 20 and 35) of the major phyla
of animals. An increase of animals with shells.

540,000,000 YBN
104) Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ} evolve

540,000,000 YBN
319) Protists "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo}.
540,000,000 YBN
321) Protists "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu}.
540,000,000 YBN
340) Lophotrochozoa Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu} (ribbon worms).
540,000,000 YBN
341) Ecdysozoa Tardigrades {ToRDiGRADZ}.
540,000,000 YBN
342) Ecdysozoa Onychophorans {oniKoFereNS} evolve. Onychophorans are a
transition between worms and arthropods: they have segmented worm-like bodies
but with appendages like arthropods.

535,000,000 YBN
114) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.
533,000,000 YBN
343) Lophotrochozoa Mollusks evolve.

The phylum Mollusca is the second largest animal phylum after the arthropods,
and is divided into seven classes, three of which (Gastropoda {GaSTroPeDu}
(snails), Bivalvia (clams and muscles), and Cephalopoda {SeFeloPeDu} (squids
and octupuses) are of major importance.

530,000,000 YBN
338) Lophotrochozoa annelids (segmented worms).
530,000,000 YBN
339) Ecdysozoa Arthropods evolve.

Arthropods can be compared to a segmented worm encased in a rigid exoskeleton.

The phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom. Arthropods
include the trilobites, the crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, and lobsters), the
Myriapoda (centipedes and millipedes), the Chelicerata (arachnids and horseshoe
crabs) and the insects. All arthropods have a segmented body covered by an
exoskeleton containing chitin, which serves as both armor and as a surface for
muscle attachment.

530,000,000 YBN
350) Chordata Vertebrates evolve. This Subphylum contains most fishes, and all
amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

530,000,000 YBN
6637) Vertebrates Jawless fishes evolve (agnatha).
520,000,000 YBN
133) Arthropods Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo) (eight legs, ancestor of horseshoe
crabs, mites, spiders, and scorpions).

earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten, Sweden  
520,000,000 YBN
148) Earliest color vision evolves in arthropods.
520,000,000 YBN
346) Deuterostome Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS } (sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand
dollars, star fish).

520,000,000 YBN
6349) The arthropods trilobites evolve.
513,000,000 YBN
6351) Ancestor of all Arthropod Crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, lobsters,

earliest fossils: Shropshire, England  
501,000,000 YBN
6348) Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu} (centipedes and millipedes).
earliest possible fossils: (Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA and
(Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia|(earliest fossils) Shropshire, England  
488,300,000 YBN
121) End of the Cambrian (542-488.3 mybn), and start of the Ordovician
{ORDiVisiN} (488.3-443.7 mybn) Period.

488,000,000 YBN
6314) The Ordovician (ORDeVisiN} radiation. During the Ordovician the number of
genera {JeN-R-u} will quadruple.

475,000,000 YBN
244) Non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo}, (Liverworts, Hornworts,

The Bryophytes are the simplest land plants, and reproduce with spores.

475,000,000 YBN
398) Plants live on land. Earliest fossil spores belonging to land plants.
earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya  
472,000,000 YBN
402) The first animals live on land, arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and

earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston, Ontario, Canada  
465,000,000 YBN
6636) The Jawless fishes lamprays evolve.
460,000,000 YBN
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo}. This large group
includes all jawed fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. First
vertebrate teeth.

The jaw evolves from parts of the gill skeleton.

460,000,000 YBN
404) Jawed fishes Chondrichthyes {KoN-DriK-tE-EZ} (Cartilaginous fishes:
ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates, and sawfishes).

460,000,000 YBN
458) Earliest fungi on land. Ancestor of all terrestrial fungi.
460,000,000 YBN
6414) Fungi "Glomeromycota" {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu} (Arbuscular {oRBuSKYUlR}
mycorrhizal {MIKerIZL} fungi).

earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA  
445,000,000 YBN
90) Mass extinction caused by ice age.
443,700,000 YBN
122) End of the Ordovician (488.3-443.7 mybn), and start of the Silurian
(443.7-416) Period.

440,000,000 YBN
236) Vascular plants evolve, Tracheophyta.
440,000,000 YBN
360) Jawed fishes, bony fishes evolve. Ray-finned fishes.
Ocean and fresh water  
440,000,000 YBN
6172) The first lung evolves from the swim bladder in ray-finned fishes.
Ocean (presumably)  
425,000,000 YBN
377) Jawed fishes, Lobe-fin fishes evolve. Coelacanths.
420,000,000 YBN
6350) Arthropods Hexapods (arthropods with six legs {3 pairs}, includes all

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Scotland  
417,000,000 YBN
378) Lobefin fishes, Lungfishes.
416,000,000 YBN
123) End of the Silurian (443.7-416 mybn), and start of the Devonian {DiVONEiN}
(416-359.2 mybn) Period.

416,000,000 YBN
6352) Hexapods: insects. Bristletail and Silverfish.
400,000,000 YBN
227) Fungi "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu} (ancestor of yeasts, truffles,
Penicillium, and morels {mu reLZ}).

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Aberdeenshire, Scotland  
400,000,000 YBN
237) Vascular plants ferns evolve (club mosses, ferns and horsetails).
392,000,000 YBN
359) Cartilaginous fishes: "Selachii" {SelAKEE or I} evolve, (ancestor of all
sharks: includes great white, hammerhead, mako, tiger and nurse sharks).

385,000,000 YBN
405) The first forests. Earliest large tree fossils.
earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York, USA  
385,000,000 YBN
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect. Ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu}) (Mayflies, Dragonflies, Damselflies).

earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic  
375,000,000 YBN
380) The first tetrapods (organisms with four feet), the amphibians, evolve in
fresh water. The first vertebrate limbs (arms and legs) and fingers. Ancestor
of caecillians, frogs, toads, and salamanders.

Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
367,000,000 YBN
408) Mass extinction caused by ice age.
363,000,000 YBN
379) The first vertebrates live on land (an amphibian).
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
360,000,000 YBN
226) Fungi "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu} (ancestor of many mushrooms:
button, chanterelle {saNTRreL}, cremini{KremENE}, enoki {inoKE}, fly agaric
{uGaRiK}, oyster, porcino {PORCEnO }, portabella, psilocybe, puffball,
shiitake {sEToKE}, woodear, rusts, and club fungi).

earliest fossils: Indiana  
360,000,000 YBN
6353) The Neoptera, folding wing insects.
earliest fossils: (Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK  
359,200,000 YBN
124) End of the Devonian (416-359.2 mybn), and start of the Carboniferous
(359.2-299 mybn) Period.

359,000,000 YBN
243) The first plant seed evolves. Ancestor of all seed plants.

The earliest fossil seed is from a seed fern (Pteridosperm {TARiDOSPRM}).

earliest fossils: Scotland  
350,000,000 YBN
361) Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and Paddlefish.
350,000,000 YBN
6355) The Neoptera: Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu} (ancestor of Cockroaches,
Termites, and Mantises).

340,000,000 YBN
384) The hard-shell egg evolves. The Amniota {aMnEOtu} (ancestor of reptiles,
mammals and birds). The hard-shell egg is waterproof. This is the start of
vertebrate internal fertilization, because on land the egg cannot be fertilized
as most fishes and amphibians do, by a male swimming near the eggs and spraying
them with sperm.

earliest fossils: Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland  
335,000,000 YBN
6331) The tetrapod Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu} (which
includes reptiles and birds) and the Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du} (which includes

The Sauropsids have two major lineages: the Parareptilia (turtles) and the
Eureptilia (dinosaurs, crocodiles and birds). The Synapsids also have two major
lineages: pelycosaurs (sail-backed) and therapsids (mammal-like).

earliest possible Synapsid fossils: (Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada  
330,000,000 YBN
6307) The Synapsids Pelycosauria {PeLiKuSOREu} evolve (includes Edaphosaurus
{eDaFoSORuS} and Dimetrodon).

325,000,000 YBN
381) Earliest extant Amphibians: Caecilians evolve.
320,000,000 YBN
238) Seed plants: Gymnosperms (ancestor of all Cycads, Ginkgos and the

The most primitive extant Gymnosperms, the Cycads evolve now.

320,000,000 YBN
6356) The Neoptera: Orthoptera evolve (ancestor of crickets, grasshoppers,
locusts, and walking sticks).

317,000,000 YBN
385) Sauropsids Reptiles evolve (ancestor of all turtles, crocodiles,
pterosaurs, dinosaurs and birds).

Reptiles are a group of air-breathing amniotes with internal fertilization and
scales covering part or all of their body. Like amphibians, the earliest
reptiles are cold-blooded.

earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada  
314,000,000 YBN
240) Gymnosperms: Pinophyta {PInoFiTu} (ancestor of the Conifers: includes
Pine, Fir, Spruce, Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, Hemlock, Larch, Yew, and Cypress.).

earliest fossils: Wakefield, Yorkshire, England  
310,000,000 YBN
6357) The Neoptera: Paraneoptera (ancestor of lice, thrips, and the Hemiptera
{HemiPTRu} piercing and sucking insects: cicadas, aphids, bed bugs, and stink

310,000,000 YBN
6359) Neoptera Holometabola {HoLomeTaBolu or HOlOmeTABolu}: Holometabolous
insects: (complete metamorphosis, ancestor of beetles, bees, true flies, and

305,000,000 YBN
242) Amphibians: Anura {unRu} (Frogs and Toads) evolve.
300,000,000 YBN
1310) Stramenopiles Golden algae (Chrysophyta {KriSoFiTu}).
299,000,000 YBN
125) End of the Carboniferous (359.2-299 mybn), and start of the Permian
(299-251 mybn) Period.

299,000,000 YBN
6360) Holometabola: Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu} (Beetles).
earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA  
290,000,000 YBN
239) Gymnosperms: Ginkgos.
290,000,000 YBN
6358) Holometabola: Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps).
287,000,000 YBN
6308) Synapsid Therapsids evolve (Cynodonts).
274,000,000 YBN
307) Protists: Phaeophyta {FEoFiTu} (Brown Algae) (includes many seaweeds like
the giant kelps).

266,000,000 YBN
308) Protists: Diatoms.
260,000,000 YBN
232) Earliest endothermic (or "warm-blooded") and hair growing animal, a

Endothermy is the physiological maintenance by a body, of a constant
temperature independent of the external environmental temperature. Hair for
insulation is correlated to endothermy.

Both birds and mammals are endothermic (also called "warm blooded") as opposed
to many other vertebrates which are ectothermic (or "cold blooded) and cannot
internally generate heat.

256,000,000 YBN
6362) Holometabola: Diptera {DiPTRe} true flies, single pair of wings: ancestor
of mosquito, gnat, fruit fly, and house fly).

251,400,000 YBN
102) Largest mass extinction of history.
251,000,000 YBN
54) End of the Paleozoic and start of the Mesozoic Era, and the end of the
Permian (299-251 mybn) and start of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn) period.

251,000,000 YBN
452) The supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe) forms.
235,000,000 YBN
304) Protists "Haptophyta" {HaPTuFITu} (Coccolithophores) {KoK-o-lit-u-FORZ}.
228,000,000 YBN
412) Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina  
228,000,000 YBN
6282) Dinosaurs divide into two major lines: Ornithischians {ORnitiSKEiNZ}
(Bird-hipped dinosaurs) and Saurischians {SoriSKEiNZ} (Lizard-hipped

228,000,000 YBN
6283) Saurischian {SoriSKEiN} Dinosaurs split into two major lines: The
Sauropodomorpha (SoroPiDimORFu} and the Therapoda {tiRoPiDu}.

Sauropodomorphs are divided into prosauropods and sauropods, are mostly
plant-eating, and include the large, long-necked dinosaurs like Apatosaurus.

Theropod {tERePoD} dinosaurs are bipedal and carnivorous and include
Allosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, and Velociraptor. All birds descend from a Therapod

earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina  
225,000,000 YBN
126) Mammals evolve. First mammary gland.
earliest fossils: (Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA  
225,000,000 YBN
369) Ancestor of all (Ray-Finned) teleost (TeLEoST) fishes evolves.
220,000,000 YBN
387) Reptiles Testudines {TeSTUDinEZ}: Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins.
220,000,000 YBN
389) Reptiles: Tuataras {TUeToRoZ}.
(Islands of) New Zealand  
220,000,000 YBN
428) The first flying vertebrate (Pterosaur).
210,000,000 YBN
390) Reptiles Iguania evolve: (iguanas, chameleons, and spiny lizards).
210,000,000 YBN
391) Reptiles: Scleroglossa evolve (snakes, skinks, and geckos).
210,000,000 YBN
6313) Teleosts: Bonytongues.
201,600,000 YBN
127) Mass extinction.
201,600,000 YBN
228) End of the Triassic (251-201.6 mybn), and start of the Jurassic
(201.6-145.5 mybn) Period.

201,600,000 YBN
6372) Ornithischians Thyreophora {tIRrEoFeru} evolve; ancestor of the armored
ankylosaurs {ANKilOSORZ} and the plated stegosaurs {STeGeSORZ}.

(Kayenta Formation) Arizona, USA  
200,000,000 YBN
370) Teleosts: eels and tarpons evolve.
200,000,000 YBN
392) Reptiles: Crocodilia {KroKoDiLEu} evolve (Crocodiles, allegators, and
caimans {KAmeNS}).

195,000,000 YBN
246) Sauropods {SoRuPoDZ} evolve; ancestor of the large, long-necked dinosaurs
like Apatosaurus {uPaTuSORuS}, Brachiosaurus {BrAKEuSORuS}, and Diplodocus

western USA  
195,000,000 YBN
6373) Ornithischians Ornithopoda {ORnitoPiDu} evolve; the duck-billed
dinosaurs, ancestor of the Hadrosaurs.

190,000,000 YBN
371) Teleosts: herrings and anchovies.
190,000,000 YBN
6289) Supercontinent Pangea splits into Laurasia and Gondwana. The northern
part, Laurasia will form North America and Europe. The southern part, Gondwana
will form South America and Africa.

190,000,000 YBN
6347) Holometabola Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu} evolve (moths, butterflies,

earliest fossils: Dorset, England  
180,000,000 YBN
456) Earliest extant mammals, Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ} evolve.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
170,000,000 YBN
372) Teleosts: carp, minnows, piranhas.
170,000,000 YBN
373) Teleosts: salmon, trout, pike.
170,000,000 YBN
383) Amphibians: Salamanders evolve.
165,000,000 YBN
358) Cartilaginous fishes: batoidea {BuTOEDEu} evolve, ancestor of all rays,
skates, and sawfishes.

150,000,000 YBN
374) Teleosts: Lightfish and Dragonfish.
150,000,000 YBN
393) Birds evolve. The first feather.
145,000,000 YBN
245) Seed plants angiosperms. The first flowering plant.

Almost all grains, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices come from
plants with flowers. Much of our clothing, and many commercial dyes and drugs
come from flowering plants.

Angiosperms represent approximately 80 percent of all the known green plants
now living. The fruit is the ovary of a plant which encloses seeds.

Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly China  
144,000,000 YBN
128) End of the Jurassic (201.6-145.5 mybn), and start of the Cretaceous
(145.5-65.5 mybn) Period.

143,000,000 YBN
6288) Earliest extant flower "Amborella".
140,000,000 YBN
247) Flowers: Nymphaeales {niM-FE-A-lEZ} (water lilies).
140,000,000 YBN
421) The Ornithiscian Ceratopsian dinosaurs evolve (ancestor of Triceratops).
Mongolia, China  
140,000,000 YBN
457) Ancestor of all Marsupials. First nipple and breast.
136,000,000 YBN
460) Birds Enantiornithes {iNaNTEORNitEZ} evolve.
134,000,000 YBN
250) Flowers: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ} evolve (ancestor of nutmeg, avocado,
sassafras, cinnamon, black and white pepper, camphor, bay (or laurel) tree, and

133,000,000 YBN
253) Flowers Eudicots {YUDIKoTS} evolve (the largest lineage of flowers).

The two main groups of the Eudicots are the "rosids" and the "asterids".

130,000,000 YBN
375) Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying fish, pufferfish, and barracuda.
130,000,000 YBN
376) Teleosts: cod, anglerfish.
125,000,000 YBN
163) The Eutheria. Placental mammals evolve.
earliest fossils: (Daxigou) Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China  
120,000,000 YBN
463) Neornithes {nEORnitEZ} evolve (modern birds: the most recent common
ancestor of all living birds).

112,000,000 YBN
252) Flowers Monocotyledons (or "Monocots") evolve: Flowering plants that have
a single cotyledon (or seed leaf) in the embryo.

Monocots are the second largest lineage of flowers after the Eudicots, and
include lilies, palms, orchids, and grasses.

108,000,000 YBN
254) Flowers: "Basal Eudicots" evolve (includes buttercup, clematis, poppy,
macadamia, lotus, and sycamore).

106,000,000 YBN
267) Flowers "Core Eudicots" (cactus, caper, buckwheat, rhubarb, venus flytrap,
old world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa, spinach, grape plants).

105,000,000 YBN
491) Ancestor of all placental mammal Afrotheres evolves.

Afrotheres originate in Africa and are the earliest extant placental mammals.

100,000,000 YBN
465) Birds "Ratites" evolve (ostrich, emu, cassowary {KaSOwaRE}, kiwis).
95,000,000 YBN
498) Placental Mammals "Xenarthrans" {ZeNoRtreNZ} evolve (ancestor of Sloths,
Anteaters, and Armadillos).

South America  
93,000,000 YBN
256) Flowers: "Rosids" evolve (Basal Rosids include: pomegranate, clove,
guava, allspice, and eucalyptus).

93,000,000 YBN
261) Rosids "Fabales" {FoBAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of beans, pea, peanut, soy,
and lentil).

93,000,000 YBN
265) Flowers "Base Monocots" evolve (ancestor of vanilla, orchid, asparagus,
onion, garlic, agave, aloe, and lily).

93,000,000 YBN
266) Monocots "Commelinids" {KomelIniDZ} evolve (palms, coconut, corn, rice,
barley, oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo, grass, pineapple, papyrus, turmeric
{TRmRiK}, banana, ginger).

93,000,000 YBN
275) Basal Asterids "Ericales" {AReKAlEZ} (kiwi, ebony, persimmon, blueberry,
cranberry, brazil nut, new world pitcher plants, tea).

93,000,000 YBN
283) Asterids "Apiales" {APEAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of dill, celery, cilantro,
carrot, parsnip, fennel, parsley, and ivy).

93,000,000 YBN
285) Asterids "Asterales" {aSTRAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of tarragon, daisy,
artichoke, sunflower, lettuce, and dandelion).

91,000,000 YBN
259) Rosids: "Malpighiales" {maLPiGEAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of coca, rubber
tree, cassava, poinsettia, willow, poplar, and aspen).

90,000,000 YBN
270) Rosids "Brassicales" {BraSiKAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of horseradish,
mustard, cabbage, broccoli, radish, and papaya).

89,000,000 YBN
262) Rosids "Rosales" {ROZAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of hemp, hop, jackfruit, fig,
strawberry, rose, raspberry, apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach, and almond).

89,000,000 YBN
279) Asterids "Gentianales" {JeNsinAlEZ} evolve (includes oleander, and

86,000,000 YBN
278) Asterids "Solanales" {SOlanAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of bell pepper, tomato,
tobacco, potato, and eggplant).

85,000,000 YBN
263) Rosids "Cucurbitales" (KYUKRBiTAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of melon, cucumber,
pumpkin, squash, and zucchini).

85,000,000 YBN
264) Rosids "Fagales" {FaGAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of many flowers that produce
edible nuts: Birch, Hazel {nut}, Chestnut, Beech {nut}, Oak, Walnut, Pecan
{PEKoN}, and Hickory).

85,000,000 YBN
466) Birds "Galliformes" {GaLliFORmEZ} evolve (Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant,
Peacock, Quail).

85,000,000 YBN
467) Birds "Anseriformes" {aNSRiFORmEZ} evolve (ancestor of ducks, geese, and

85,000,000 YBN
499) Ancestor of all placental mammal "Laurasiatheres" evolves.
84,000,000 YBN
454) The Rocky mountains start to form.
82,000,000 YBN
271) Rosids "Malvales" {moLVAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of okra, marsh mallow
{malO}, durian {DUREiN}, cotton, balsa, and cacao {KoKoU}.

82,000,000 YBN
272) Rosids "Sapindales" {SaPiNDAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of maple, lychee,
mahogany, cashew, mango, pistachio, and the citrus trees: orange, lemon, and

82,000,000 YBN
420) Ornithopods {ORnitePoDZ} Hadrosaurs, (duck-billed) dinosaurs.
82,000,000 YBN
500) Laurasiatheres "Insectivora" evolves (ancestor of shrews, moles, and

80,000,000 YBN
422) Therapod {tERePoD} Dromaeosaurs {DrOmEoSORZ} evolve: Raptors.
80,000,000 YBN
482) Marsupials: New World Opossums.
75,000,000 YBN
492) Afrotheres: Aardvark.
74,000,000 YBN
280) Asterids "Lamiales" {lAmEAlEZ} evolve (ancestor of many spices: mint,
basil, marjoram {moRJ uruM}, oregano, rosemary, sage, savory, thyme, teak,
sesame, olive, ash, lilac and jasmine).

73,000,000 YBN
484) Marsupials: Bandicoots and Bilbies {BiLBEZ}.
70,000,000 YBN
424) Two Therapods {tERePoDZ} are top predators: Tyrannosaurus rex {TiraNiSORuS
reKS} in North America and Giganotosaurus {JiGuNOTuSORuS} in South America.

70,000,000 YBN
426) Marine reptiles Mosasaurs {mOSeSORZ} evolve.
70,000,000 YBN
469) Birds "Podicipediformes" {PoDiSiPeDeFORmEZ} (grebes {GreBS}).
70,000,000 YBN
507) Placental Mammals: Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas {PIKuZ}.
70,000,000 YBN
516) Placental Mammals: Tree Shrews and Colugos {KolUGOZ}.
66,000,000 YBN
120) Largest Pterosaur, Quetzalcoatlus {KeTZLKWoTLuS}.
65,500,000 YBN
129) Mass extinction.
65,500,000 YBN
397) End of the Mesozoic and start of the Cenozoic Era, and the end of the
Cretaceous (145.5-65.5 mybn), and start of the Tertiary {TRsEARE} (65.5-1.8
mybn) Period.

65,000,000 YBN
429) Start of rapid diversification of mammals.
65,000,000 YBN
468) Birds "Gruiformes" {GrUiFORmEZ} (cranes and rails).
65,000,000 YBN
485) Marsupial moles.
65,000,000 YBN
486) Marsupials: Tasmanian Devil, Numbat {nuMBaT}.
65,000,000 YBN
488) Marsupials "Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu} evolve (Wombats, Kangeroos,
Possums, Koalas).

65,000,000 YBN
508) Placental Mammals rodents evolve.
Rodents: "Myomorpha" {MIemORFu} (rats, mice,
gerbils, voles {VOLZ}, lemmings, hamsters).

63,000,000 YBN
587) Primates evolve. Opposable thumb.
Africa or India  
60,000,000 YBN
470) Birds "Strigiformes" {STriJiFORmEZ} evolve (owls).
60,000,000 YBN
504) Laurasiatheres "Carnivora" {KoRniVRu} (ancestor of Cats, Dogs, Bears,
Weasels, Hyenas, Seals, and Walruses).

58,000,000 YBN
524) Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ}.
55,000,000 YBN
471) Birds "Apodiformes" {oPoD-i-FORmEZ} (hummingbirds, swifts).
55,000,000 YBN
476) Birds "Piciformes" {PESiFORmEZ} (woodpeckers, toucans).
55,000,000 YBN
477) Birds "Passeriformes" {PaSRiFORmEZ} (perching songbirds) evolve. This
order includes many common birds: crows, jays, sparrows, warblers,
mockingbirds, robins, orioles, bluebirds, vireos {VEREOZ}, larks, finches.

earliest fossils: Australia|Gondwana  
55,000,000 YBN
495) Afrotheres: Elephants.
Algeria, Africa|Africa  
55,000,000 YBN
497) Afrotheres: Manatee and Dugong.
55,000,000 YBN
502) Laurasiatheres "Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu} evolve (ancestor of all
Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu} also called "even-toed ungulates" {uNGYUlATS or
uNGYUliTS}: camels, pigs, ruminants {includes deer, giraffe, cattle, sheep, and
antelope}, hippos, and all Cetacea {SiTASEu or SiTAsEu}: Whales, and Dolphins).

55,000,000 YBN
503) Laurasiatheres "Perissodactyla" {PeriSODaKTilu} evolve (also called
"odd-toed ungulates) {uNGYUlATS or uNGYUliTS} (Horses, Tapirs {TAPRZ },

55,000,000 YBN
509) Rodents: Beavers.
55,000,000 YBN
511) Rodents: Dormouse, Mountain Beaver, Squirrel and Marmot {moRmuT}.
55,000,000 YBN
585) Birds Psittaciformes {SiTaS-iFORmEZ} (Parrots).
55,000,000 YBN
6381) Horses evolve.
54,000,000 YBN
810) Last common ancestor between hippos with dolphins and whales.
53,500,000 YBN
812) Earliest marine mammal.
earliest fossils: (Subathu Formation) Northern India  
52,000,000 YBN
501) Laurasiatheres "Chiroptera" {KIroPTRu} (fruit bats, echolocating bats).
51,000,000 YBN
513) Rodents: Old World Porcupines.
50,000,000 YBN
438) Himalayan {HiMolAYeN} mountains start to form.
Himalyia Mountains, India  
50,000,000 YBN
816) Ambulocetus (an early whale).
49,000,000 YBN
474) Birds "Falconiformes" {FaLKoNiFORmEZ} (falcons, hawks, eagles, Old World

49,000,000 YBN
515) Rodents: New World porcupines, guinea pigs, capybaras {KaPuBoRoZ}.
40,000,000 YBN
525) Ancestor of all Primates "New World Monkeys" (Sakis, Spider, Howler and
Squirrel monkeys, Capuchins {KaP YU CiNZ}, and Tamarins).

37,000,000 YBN
442) Dogs evolve.
37,000,000 YBN
475) Birds: Cuculiformes {KUKUliFORmEZ} evolve (cuckoos, roadrunners).
34,000,000 YBN
813) Toothed and Baleen whale lines split.

Toothed whales include dolphins, sperm, and killer whales. Baleen whales
include blue, humpback, and gray whales.

30,000,000 YBN
444) Cats evolve.
30,000,000 YBN
520) Primates: True Lemurs.
25,000,000 YBN
531) Ancestor of all Primates "Old World Monkeys" (Macaques, Baboons,
Mandrills, Proboscis and Colobus {KoLiBeS} monkeys).

(perhaps around Lake Victoria) Africa  
24,000,000 YBN
662) The ancestor of all Hominoids (Gibbons and Hominids) loses its tail.
23,000,000 YBN
478) Monotreme: Echidna.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
23,000,000 YBN
479) Monotreme: Duck-Billed Platypus.
Australia and Tasmania  
22,000,000 YBN
559) Hominoid Proconsul.
18,000,000 YBN
537) Primates: Gibbons.
South-East Asia  
14,000,000 YBN
542) Earliest extant Hominid: Orangutans.
South-East Asia  
10,000,000 YBN
543) Hominids: Gorillas evolve.
6,000,000 YBN
544) Hominids: Chimpanzees evolve. Last common ancestor of chimpanzees and

4,400,000 YBN
546) Hominid: Ardipithecus. Earliest bipedal primate.
Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya, Africa  
4,000,000 YBN
547) Hominid: Australopithecus (x-STrA-lO-PitiKuS}.
Sterkfontein, South Africa  

3,390,000 YBN
269) Hominids use stones as tools.
Dikika, Ethiopia  
2,700,000 YBN
564) Hominid: Paranthropus {Pa raN tru PuS}; a line of extinct early bipedal

2,500,000 YBN
455) Oldest formed stone tools.
Gona, Ethiopia  
2,200,000 YBN
447) Humans. Hominid: Homo habilis evolve (earliest member of the genus

This is when the human brain begins to get bigger.

(Kenya and Tanzania) Africa  
2,000,000 YBN
545) Hominids: Bonobos {BunOBOZ}.
1,800,000 YBN
130) End of the Tertiary {TRsEARE} (65-1.8 mybn), and start of the Quaternary
{KWoTRnARE or KWoTRNRE} (1.8 mybn-now) Period.

1,800,000 YBN
563) Homo erectus {hOmO ireKTuS} evolves in Africa.
Lake Turkana, East Africa  
1,700,000 YBN
449) Homo erectus moves into Eurasia from Africa.
1,500,000 YBN
583) Controlled use of fire.
(Swartkrans cave) Swartkrans, South Africa  
1,000,000 YBN
589) Homo erectus evolves less body hair.
970,000 YBN
200) Humans wear clothing.
Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK  
400,000 YBN
615) Spear.
Kathu Pan 1, South Africa|(Schöningen, Germany.)  
302,000 YBN
6517) There are 1 million humans on Earth, all hunter-gathering people.
200,000 YBN
548) Homo sapiens evolve in Africa.
Ethiopia, Africa  
200,000 YBN
590) Human language of thirty short sounds begins to develop. All words are
single syllable.

130,000 YBN
450) Homo Neanderthalensis evolves in Eurasia.
Europe and Western Asia  
101,000 YBN
[99000 BC]
594) Homo sapiens move out of Africa into Eurasia. This is the beginning of
differences in race within the human species.

100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
257) Oldest Homo sapiens skull outside Africa; in Israel.
(Skhul Cave) Mount Carmel, Israel  
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
6333) Theory of Gods.
(Es-Skhul) Mount Carmel, Israel  
61,000 YBN
[59000 BC]
614) Bow and arrows.
Sibudu Cave, South Africa  
53,300 YBN
[51300 BC]
557) Homo Erectus extinct.
Ngandong, Indonesia  
50,000 YBN
[48000 BC]
6399) Start of mass extinction of large mammals due in part to humans.
46,000 YBN
[44000 BC]
577) Earliest water ship. Sapiens reach Australia from Southeast Asia.
43,000 YBN
[41000 BC]
1187) Earliest mine.
Swaziland, Africa  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
598) Earliest sapiens fossils in Europe.
Peştera cu Oase, Romania (and baby tooth: Grotta del Cavallo, Italy, jaw:
Kent's Cavern, UK)  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
604) Oil lamp.
Southwest France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
1262) Painting.
(The Panel de las Manos) El Castillo Cave, Spain|Southern France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
5871) Earliest musical instrument, a flute.
Hohle Fels Cave, Germany  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
6483) Humans catch fish.
Peçstera cu Oase, Romania  
39,000 YBN
[37000 BC]
599) Sapiens reach China.
(Tianyuan Cave) Zhoukoudian, China (Tongtianyan Cave, Liujiang County, Guangxi
32,000 YBN
[30000 BC]
602) Weaving, textiles and coloring dyes.
Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia  
31,700 YBN
[29700 BC]
42) Humans raise dogs.
Goyet cave, Belgium  
29,000 YBN
[27000 BC]
6215) Earliest ceramic object, the Venus figurines.
Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia  
28,000 YBN
[26000 BC]
451) Neanderthals extinct.
Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, Spain  
26,000 YBN
[24000 BC]
6224) "Fired" clay (clay dried and hardened by fire).
Dolní Věstonice, Pavlov, Czech Republic  
23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6231) Stone wall.
(Theopetra Cave) Kalambaka, Greece  
19,000 YBN
[17000 BC]
6175) Cereal gathering.
Near East (Southwest Asia Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi
18,000 YBN
[16000 BC]
603) Pottery.
(Yuchanyan cave), Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6225) Rope.
Lascaux, France  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6516) There are 10 million humans on Earth, all hunter-gathering people.
14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6227) Map.
Mezhirich, Ukraine  
14,000 YBN
[12000 BC]
6439) Cement.
Geometric Kebaran site Lagama North VIII, Gebel Maghara, Northern Sinai,
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
578) Humans enter America.
Mexico City and Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA  
11,500 YBN
[9500 BC]
829) Humans shape metal objects.
(Shanidar Cave) North East Iraq|(Çayönü) Anatolia (modern Turkey)|Northern
Iraq|Eastern Anatolia  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
606) Oldest city, Jericho.
Jericho, (modern West Bank) Palestine  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
608) Saddle quern {KWRN} (a flat stone and rounded stone used to grind grain
into flour).

Abu Hureyra, Syria  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
617) Goats raised.
Euphrates river valley at Nevali Çori, Turkey| (11,000 bp), and the Zagros
Mountains of Iran at Ganj Dareh (10,000).  
10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
610) Flax grown.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria  
10,500 YBN
[8500 BC]
6315) Sheep raised.
Northern Zagros to southeastern Anatolia|(Middle East) Eastern
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
205) Pigs raised.
(Near East) Eastern Mediterranean and Island South East Asia|southeastern
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
1259) Clay tokens that represent products used in Mesopotamia.
eastern Iran, southern Turkey, Israel, Sumer (modern Iraq)|Babylonia|Syria,
Sumer and Highland Iran  
10,000 YBN
[8000 BC]
6316) Cows raised.
upper Euphrates Valley  
9,800 YBN
[7800 BC]
607) Flint sickle.
Tell Aswad (modern Syria)|Palestine  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
612) Wheat grown.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria|southeastern Turkey and northern Syria (Nevali Cori,
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
613) Millet grown.
Cishan, North China  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
6185) Barley grown.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria  
9,240 YBN
[7240 BC]
1478) Squash grown in Peru.
Paiján, Peru  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
605) Oldest known boat, a dug-out boat.
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
6220) Earliest drum.
Moravia, Czeck Republic  
7,700 YBN
[5700 BC]
719) Rice grown in China.
Kuahuqiao, Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang Province|Yangtze (in Hubei and Hunan
provinces), China  
7,100 YBN
[5100 BC]
720) Corn grown in Mexico.
San Andrés, Mexico|(Oaxaca, Mexico)  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
627) Metal melting and casting (copper).
Belovode, Eastern Serbia  
6,900 YBN
[4900 BC]
648) Sail boat.
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6232) Sun-dried mud brick and mud-brick house.
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
233) Writing (on clay objects). First numbers. First stamp (or seal).

The first writing begins as symbols for numbers on clay bulla (hollow clay
containers that hold clay tokens). These symbols represent the quantity and
kind of tokens inside the bulla.

Mesopotamia (Babylonia)|Sumer (Syria, Sumer, Highland Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
294) Sundial, earliest timekeeping device.
China and Chaldea  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
621) Earliest plow.
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
622) Irrigation.
Middle east (eastern part of Mediterranean)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
625) Donkeys raised and used for transport.
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
634) The Egyptian calendar (12 months of 30 days, plus 5 extra days).
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
646) The earliest known wheel, a pottery wheel.
Mesopotamia (and a similar pottery wheel from Choga Mish, Iran)  
5,490 YBN
[3490 BC]
702) Cotton grown.
Northwestern Peru|Indus valley  
5,350 YBN
[3350 BC]
1261) Writing on clay tablets.

Symbols that represent a product (such as cows, sheep, and cereals), drawn with
a stylus on clay tablets, are the earliest record of what will become the
modern alphabet.

Training of scribes is an early school.

5,310 YBN
[3310 BC]
704) Ox pulled vehicles with wheels.
(TRB - Funnel Beaker culture) Bronocice, Krakow, Poland  
5,100 YBN
[3100 BC]
641) The earliest record of a belief in Gods and Goddesses.
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
569) Stringed musical instrument (lyre and harp).
Sumer (modern Iraq)  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
596) Written symbols combined to form words. Transition from word-writing to

Jemdet Nasr  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
628) Bronze (copper and tin) melted and casted.
Tell Judaidah, Turkey|Egypt  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6222) Inclined plane (ramp).
4,980 YBN
[2980 BC]
654) The earliest pyramid in Egypt, designed by the earliest known scientist,

Sakkara, Egypt  
4,800 YBN
[2800 BC]
6565) Musical reed instruments.
4,750 YBN
[2750 BC]
320) Earliest metal saw.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
635) Iron melted and casted.
Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia (modern Turkey)|Palestine|Tell Hammeh
(az-Zarqa), Jordan|Central Europe and north Assyria  
4,345 YBN
[2345 BC]
800) Writing on papyrus.
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
667) Glass making; glass beads.
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
1271) The earliest written stories. These consist of epics and myths, hymns and
laments, proverbs and wisdom.

These stories record a belief in a Heaven and an Under World and include the
Sumerian flood myth.

4,130 YBN
[2130 BC]
6234) Musical horn.
Lagash, Mesopotamia  
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
1279) Health science text.
4,100 YBN
[2100 BC]
6376) The first place value number system, a sexagesimal (base 60) number

4,050 YBN
[2050 BC]
1278) Recorded laws.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
706) Horse riding.
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
733) Lock and key.
Nineveh, Assyria on the Tigris River  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
6236) Metal traded as money.
3,531 YBN
[1531 BC]
639) First planet recognized, Venus.
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
624) Oven-baked mud brick ("burned brick").
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
723) Pulley.
Nimroud, Assyria  
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
6228) Water clock (Clepsydra {KlePSi-Dru}).
3,000 YBN
[1000 BC]
6237) Lens.
Nimrud, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
2,785 YBN
[785 BC]
771) Eclipses predicted.
2,690 YBN
[690 BC]
1066) Aquaduct, a channel to move water from one place to another.
Jerwan, Nineveh  
2,690 YBN
[690 BC]
6378) Concrete.
Jerwan, Nineveh  
2,651 YBN
[651 BC]
6337) All planets visible to the naked eye (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and
Saturn) are clearly distinguished from stars.

2,622 YBN
[622 BC]
826) Old Testament.
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
630) Metal coin money.
Lydia, Anatolia  
2,600 YBN
[600 BC]
762) Universe explained without theory of Gods.
Miletus, Greece  
2,580 YBN
[580 BC]
764) Earth-centered Universe theory. Theory that humans evolved from fish.
2,529 YBN
[529 BC]
772) Earth described as a sphere.
Croton, Italy  
2,500 YBN
[500 BC]
6518) There are 100 million humans on Earth.
2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
836) That stars are other Suns and made of red-hot metal is recognized.
Clazomenae (75 miles/120 km north of Miletus)|Athens|Did not move to Athens
until around 462 bce  
2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
1894) Particle (or wireless) communication. The optical telegraph.
Argos, Greece  
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
841) Theory that all matter is made of atoms.
2,387 YBN
[387 BC]
851) Plato's Academy.
Athens, Greece  
2,358 YBN
[358 BC]
856) Theory that Earth rotates.
(Academy) Athens, Greece (presumably)  
2,297 YBN
[297 BC]
902) Museum of Alexandria.
2,285 YBN
[285 BC]
1028) Musical organ.
Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
663) Lever.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
822) Screw.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
882) The rotation of the Earth around its own axis once a day and around the
Sun once a year is understood.

(Mousion of Alexandria) Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,246 YBN
[246 BC]
898) The size of Earth is correctly calculated.
Alexandria, Egypt  
2,240 YBN
[240 BC]
1325) Earliest observation of a comet.
2,231 YBN
[231 BC]
833) Earliest gears.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,160 YBN
[160 BC]
6477) Law of inertia (a body preserves its motion).
(before 141 BC) Bithynia (presumably Nicaea)|(observatory on) Island of Rhodes,
2,140 YBN
[140 BC]
1070) Paper.
Pa-chhiao near Sian in the Shensi province of China|Xian, China  
2,075 YBN
[75 BC]
1116) Negative numbers.
2,056 YBN
[56 BC]
1045) The theory that light is made of atoms that move very fast.
Rome, Italy  
2,040 YBN
[40 BC]
1058) Waterwheel and elevator (vertical lift).
1,950 YBN
[50 AD]
1078) Steam engine.
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,935 YBN
[65 AD]
6432) Glass prism.
1,923 YBN
[77 AD]
1083) Encyclopedia.
1,917 YBN
[83 AD]
766) Compass.
China (more specific)  
1,609 YBN
[391 AD]
1003) Library in Alexandria destroyed.
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,471 YBN
[529 AD]
1014) Plato's Academy is closed.
Athens, Greece (and Alexandria,Egypt)  
1,400 YBN
[600 AD]
1111) Windmill.
Persia (Iran)  
1,300 YBN
[700 AD]
1118) Numerals (0 through 9), and decimal notation.
Bakhshali (near modern Peshawar, Pakistan)  
1,249 YBN
[751 AD]
1253) Acids prepared.
Kufa, (now Iraq)  
1,230 YBN
[770 AD]
1060) Wood-cut Printing.
1,219 YBN
[781 AD]
1254) Lower case letters.
Aachen, in north-west Germany, or York, England  
1,200 YBN
[800 AD]
6221) Bowed string instrument.
River Oxus (modern) Turkmenistan (Central Asia)  
1,185 YBN
[815 AD]
1021) "Bayt al-Hikma" (House of Wisdom).
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1144) Gunpowder.
1,080 YBN
[920 AD]
6183) Norwegian explorers reach North America.
L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland  
1,040 YBN
[960 AD]
6186) Earliest rocket.
1,000 YBN
[1000 AD]
1054) Paper money.
962 YBN
[1038 AD]
1308) The pin-hole camera.
Cairo, Egypt  
959 YBN
[1041 AD]
1124) Movable type printing.
912 YBN
[1088 AD]
1339) University of Bologna.
Bologna, Italy  
868 YBN
[1132 AD]
1146) First cannon and gun.
Ta-tsu, Szechuan Province, China  
833 YBN
[1167 AD]
1340) University of Oxford.
Oxford, England (now: United Kingdom)  
830 YBN
[1170 AD]
1319) University of Paris.
Paris, France  
816 YBN
[11/??/1184 AD]
1153) Start of the Inquisition.
Verona, Italy  
772 YBN
[1228 AD]
1392) Theory that all matter is made of light.
Oxford, England  
700 YBN
[1300 AD]
1121) Mechanical clock.
560 YBN
[02/12/1440 AD]
1437) Space described as infinite in size, and stars described as other suns
with inhabited planets.

Cusa, Germany  
550 YBN
[1450 AD]
1171) Wound spiral spring driven clocks.
southern Germany or northern Italy  
508 YBN
[10/12/1492 AD]
1450) Humans from Europe reach America.
(probably) San Salvador  
478 YBN
[09/08/1522 AD]
1475) Humans circumnavigate the Earth.
Seville, Spain  
457 YBN
[1543 AD]
1482) Sun centered theory revived.
(presumably) written in (Frauenburg, East Prussia now:)Frombork, Poland;
(printed in)Nuremberg, Germany  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1613) Thermometer.
Padua, Italy  
392 YBN
[1608 AD]
1618) Telescope.
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland) (modern: Netherlands)  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1619) That planets have elliptical orbits is understood.
Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of
Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center)  
390 YBN
[01/??/1610 AD]
1605) Moons of Jupiter seen and their period determined.
(University of Padua) Padua, Venice, Italy  
390 YBN
[1610 AD]
6488) Microscope.
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland) (modern: Netherlands)  
389 YBN
[06/13/1611 AD]
1617) That the Sun rotates is known.
Osteel, East Frisia (now northwest Germany and northeast Netherlands)  
386 YBN
[1614 AD]
1584) Exponential notation and logarithms.
Scotland (presumably)  
384 YBN
[1616 AD]
1831) Reflecting telescope.
Rome, Italy  
376 YBN
[1624 AD]
6241) Submarine.
Thames River, England  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1664) Speed of sound measured.
Paris, France (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1660) Frequencies of sounds measured.
Paris, France (presumably)  
363 YBN
[1637 AD]
1668) Cartesian coordinate system.
Netherlands (presumably)  
361 YBN
[11/24/1639 AD]
1708) Transit of Venus observed.
Hoole, Lancashire, England (presumably)  
359 YBN
[1641 AD]
6244) Repeating gun.
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
1692) Earliest vacuum.
Florence, Italy  
350 YBN
[1650 AD]
1675) The first air pump.
Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
345 YBN
[03/25/1655 AD]
1763) Moon of Saturn, Titan seen.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
338 YBN
[1662 AD]
1739) That pressure and volume of a gas are inversely related is known.
Oxford, England (presumably)  
337 YBN
[1663 AD]
2247) Static electricity generator.
Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
336 YBN
[1664 AD]
1666) Theory that light is made of particles is revived.
(in 1633:) Netherlands (presumably)  
334 YBN
[10/??/1666 AD]
1827) Calculus: differentiation and integration.
Cambridge, England  
331 YBN
[1669 AD]
1735) "Double refraction" is observed.
Copenhagen, Denmark  
328 YBN
[02/19/1672 AD]
1829) The theory that light is made of material particles is firmly
established. Color determined to be a property of light, not of objects. White
light separated into and recreated from primary colors.

Cambridge, England  
328 YBN
[1672 AD]
1731) The scale of our star system is measured.
Paris, France;Guiana, South America  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1851) Humans measure the speed of light.
(Paris Observatory) Paris, France  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
3592) Direct neuron activation (neuron writing). Human contracts muscle with

Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
318 YBN
[03/03/1682 AD]
1788) Cell nucleus described.
Delft, Netherlands  
317 YBN
[09/12/1683 AD]
1785) The first picture of bacteria.
Delft, Netherlands  
313 YBN
[1687 AD]
1845) Law of gravitation, matter attracts other matter with a force that is the
product of their masses, and the inverse of their distance squared.

Cambridge, England (presumably)  
302 YBN
[1698 AD]
1777) The size and distance of other stars is measured.
The Hague, Netherlands (presumably)  
287 YBN
[03/28/1713 AD]
6594) The mass of the planets is determined and the theory that the Universe is
made of mostly empty space.

(Dabam) London, England  
282 YBN
[1718 AD]
1876) The movement of the stars over long periods of time is proven.
265 YBN
[1735 AD]
1996) Life of Earth is systematically categorized.
255 YBN
[11/04/1745 AD]
1972) Storage of electricity. The capacitor.
(University of Wittenburg) Wittenburg, Germany(was for von Kleist: Pomerania?,
Prussia) (coast of Baltic Sea between Germany and Poland)  
253 YBN
[1747 AD]
3452) Basis of refrigeration understood.
(Academy of Petersburg) Petersburg, Russia  
240 YBN
[1760 AD]
2122) Electrolysis. Molecules are split using electricity. Water is separated
into hydrogen and oxygen gases using electricity.

Turin, Italy  
234 YBN
[05/29/1766 AD]
2113) Hydrogen gas isolated.
London, England  
231 YBN
[1769 AD]
1206) The first self-propelled vehicle. A steam-engine powered automobile.
228 YBN
[1772 AD]
2285) Nitrogen gas isolated.
Edinburgh, Scotland  
226 YBN
[08/01/1774 AD]
2139) Oxygen gas isolated.
Calne, England  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2216) Combustion is shown to be a reaction with a gas in the air (later named

Paris, France (presumably)  
226 YBN
[1774 AD]
2664) Telegraph.
Switzerland (presumably)  
219 YBN
[03/13/1781 AD]
2840) Planet Uranus identified.
Bath, England  
217 YBN
[07/15/1783 AD]
2206) Steamboat.
Saône River, near Lyon, France  
217 YBN
[11/21/1783 AD]
2194) Human flight by balloon.
Paris, France  
216 YBN
[01/15/1784 AD]
2115) Water shown to be a compound, not an element. Fusion of molecules using
electricity. Water is synthesized by using an electric spark in hydrogen and
oxygen gases.

London, England  
216 YBN
[1784 AD]
2259) The first gas is liquefied, sulfur dioxide.
(École du génie) Angers, France  
215 YBN
[06/02/1785 AD]
2116) Air is shown to be a mixture of gases, and not a single element.
London, England  
215 YBN
[1785 AD]
2168) Electric and magnetic attraction and repulsion are proven to be both
proportional to amount of charge and inversely proportional to distance

Paris?, France (presumably)  
209 YBN
[1791 AD]
2175) Remote neuron activation (remote neuron writing). Muscle contracted
remotely by using an electric spark and metal connected to a nerve.

Bologna, Italy  
204 YBN
[07/01/1796 AD]
2280) Immunity by vaccination proven.
Berkeley, England (presumably)  
202 YBN
[1798 AD]
2117) The gravitational constant, the mass, and the density of the Earth are

London, England  
201 YBN
[1799 AD]
2315) Elements are shown to combine in definite proportions.
Segovia, Spain  
200 YBN
[03/20/1800 AD]
2250) Electric battery.
Pavia, Italy  
200 YBN
[03/27/1800 AD]
2179) Invisible light recognized.
Slough, England  
200 YBN
[09/17/1800 AD]
2436) Hydrogen and oxygen gas collected separately from electrolysis of water.
Jena, Germany (presumably)  
199 YBN
[02/22/1801 AD]
2167) The invisible light, ultra-violet light is discovered.
Jena, Germany (presumably)  
199 YBN
[11/12/1801 AD]
2405) Frequencies and wavelengths (or particle intervals) of light determined.
Glass diffraction gratings.

London, England  
198 YBN
[1802 AD]
2365) Spectral lines identified.
London, England  
197 YBN
[10/21/1803 AD]
2375) That atoms of different elements vary in size and mass is shown. Table of
elements by atomic mass.

Manchester, England  
196 YBN
[1804 AD]
6519) There are 1 billion humans on Earth.
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2466) Gases shown to combine in small whole number ratios by volume.
Paris, France (presumably)  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2481) Electric light.
London, England  
189 YBN
[1811 AD]
2432) The concept of molecules.
Vercelli, Italy  
186 YBN
[1814 AD]
2571) The spectroscope. That substances emit specific spectral lines is known.
Benedictbeuern (near Munich), Germany  
185 YBN
[11/??/1815 AD]
2544) Theory that all atomic masses are a multiple of hydrogen.
London, England (presumably)  
180 YBN
[04/21/1820 AD]
2454) Electricity understood to cause magnetism. First electromagnet.
Copenhagen, Denmark  
180 YBN
[09/25/1820 AD]
2424) Magnetism identified as electricity.
Paris, France  
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
3374) Gas combustion engine.
(Magdalen College) Cambridge, England  
179 YBN
[09/11/1821 AD]
2701) Electric motor.
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
2355) The first photograph.
Chalon-sur-Saône, France  
173 YBN
[1827 AD]
3591) Electric printer.
New York City NY (presumably)  
172 YBN
[02/??/1828 AD]
2857) The first "organic" molecule produced from inorganic sources (urea).
(Berlin Gewerbeschule (trade school)) Berlin, Germany  
171 YBN
[03/27/1829 AD]
2844) Electricity produced by moving a wire near a magnet.
Pavia, Italy  
170 YBN
[1830 AD]
4003) Sound vibrations are recorded by a tuning fork with an attached whisker
that marks a sooted glass plate.

(University of) Göttingen, Germany  
169 YBN
[02/17/1831 AD]
2702) The electrical transformer.
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
169 YBN
[09/??/1831 AD]
2705) The (dynamic) electric generator (constant current produced).
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2514) Plastic. (Nitrocellulose).
Nancy, France  
166 YBN
[01/01/1834 AD]
1247) Mechanical reaper.
Rockbridge County, Virginia, USA  
166 YBN
[06/19/1834 AD]
2899) Speed of electricity in wire measured.
(King's College) London, England  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2540) Parallax of a different star measured. Parallax is the difference in the
direction of an object as seen from two widely separated points; used to
measure the distance to an object.

Königsberg, (Prussia now:) Germany  
162 YBN
[1838 AD]
2934) Cell theory: the principle that all living objects are made of cells.
(University of Jena) Jena, Germany  
161 YBN
[07/29/1839 AD]
3308) Light converted to electricity (photoelectric effect).
(University of Paris) Paris, France  
158 YBN
[03/30/1842 AD]
3171) Anesthesia used for surgery.
Jefferson, Georgia  
155 YBN
[04/??/1845 AD]
2839) The spiral shape of other galaxies is recognized.
(Birr Castle) Parsonstown, Ireland  
154 YBN
[09/23/1846 AD]
3073) Planet Neptune is observed.
Berlin, Germany (and Paris, France)  
152 YBN
[08/10/1848 AD]
2880) High voltage applied to gas-filled evacuated tubes.
London, England (presumably)  
150 YBN
[05/06/1850 AD]
3281) Light shown to move more slowly in water than in air.
Paris, France (presumably)  
149 YBN
[02/03/1851 AD]
3282) Earth rotation around its own axis proven experimentally with a pendulum.
Paris, France (presumably)  
142 YBN
[07/01/1858 AD]
3033) Theory of evolution. Humans understand their descent from a single
ancestor and the process of natural selection.

(Linnean Society), London, England  
141 YBN
[10/20/1859 AD]
3087) Humans understand that light spectra can be used to determine atomic

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
139 YBN
[10/26/1861 AD]
3997) Microphone, speaker, and telephone. Sound converted to electricity and
back to sound again. Quietly sending sound over longer distance is possible.

(built in workshop behind Reis's house and cabinet in Garnier's Institute,
Friedrichsdorf, demonstrated before Physical Society) Frankfort, Germany  
125 YBN
[08/28/1875 AD]
5575) Direct neuron reading. Electricity in nerve cells measured.
Liverpool, England  
123 YBN
[12/24/1877 AD]
4002) Sound recording played out loud.
(private lab) Menlo Park, New Jersey, USA  
122 YBN
[1878 AD]
3790) Synthetic fabric.
Paris, France (presumably)  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
5839) Artificial muscle.
(University of Giessen) Giessen, Germany  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
6577) Slavery is ended.
119 YBN
[01/05/1881 AD]
3608) Electronic camera and image. Image captured and sent electronically.
London, England (presumably)  
118 YBN
[03/24/1882 AD]
3620) Invisible particle communication. Radio communication.
(employed at Tuft's College) Sommerville, Massachusetts, USA  
113 YBN
[1887 AD]
4369) Electricity of heart beat measured and recorded.
(St. Mary's Hospital) London, England  
111 YBN
[06/21/1889 AD]
4021) Motion picture camera and projector.
(Piccadilly) London, England  
111 YBN
[11/28/1889 AD]
3818) Planet of a different star detected.
(Astrophysical Observatory at Potsdam) Potsdam, Germany  
105 YBN
[01/31/1895 AD]
3842) Argon and inert gases identified.
(Own Laboratory) Terling, England  
105 YBN
[11/05/1895 AD]
3936) X-rays.
(University of Würzburg) Würzburg, Germany  
103 YBN
[1897 AD]
4088) Electric display.
(Physikal Institute) Strassburg, France  
102 YBN
[1898 AD]
4698) Magnetic writing and reading of data.
(Copenhagen Telephone Company) Copenhagen, Denmark  
99 YBN
[10/10/1901 AD]
4148) Protein synthesized.
(University of Berlin) Berlin, Germany  
97 YBN
[03/23/1903 AD]
4493) Airplane. The first powered, sustained, and controlled airplane flight.
Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, USA  
96 YBN
[1904 AD]
5099) Radar.
Düsselsorf, Germany (presumably)  
94 YBN
[12/21/1906 AD]
4788) Electric switch and amplifier.
(De Forest Radio Telephone Company) New York City, New York, USA  
93 YBN
[05/??/1907 AD]
4269) Mass spectrometer, atoms separated by mass.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
93 YBN
[11/13/1907 AD]
354) Helicopter.
92 YBN
[06/06/1908 AD]
3616) Image sent and received by radio.
London, England  
91 YBN
[1909 AD]
4899) Wireless telephone.
(Marconi Company) London, England (verify)  
88 YBN
[11/11/1912 AD]
4404) Diffraction explained as particle reflection.
(Cavindish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
86 YBN
[1914 AD]
4977) Theory that spiral "nebulae" are other galaxies.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
82 YBN
[04/??/1918 AD]
5008) The Sun is determined to be in the outer part of our galaxy.
(Mount Wilson Solar Observatory) Mount Wilson, California, USA  
82 YBN
[06/21/1918 AD]
6199) Electronic read and write memory.
(City and Guilds Technical College) London, UK  
81 YBN
[04/??/1919 AD]
4750) Atomic transmutation and atomic fusion. Atoms of Nitrogen changed into
atoms of Oxygen by high speed alpha particles colliding with Nitrogen gas.

(University of Manchester) Manchester, England  
75 YBN
[10/22/1925 AD]
5292) Transistor.
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, USA  
70 YBN
[1930 AD]
6578) Women gain the right to vote.
69 YBN
[09/10/1931 AD]
5446) The electron microscope.
(Technischen Hochschule/Technical University) Berlin, Germany  
68 YBN
[04/16/1932 AD]
5182) Atomic fission. Lithium atoms split by protons.
(Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
63 YBN
[05/22/1937 AD]
5515) Image of individual atoms. Atoms confirmed to be about 0.1 nm in size.
(Siemens and Halske) Berlin, Germany  
62 YBN
[06/22/1938 AD]
5448) The first image of a virus.
(Berliner Medizinischen Gesellschaft/Berlin Medical Society) Berlin,
61 YBN
[04/30/1939 AD]
5835) Bipedal robot.
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation) Mansfield, Ohio, USA  
58 YBN
[12/02/1942 AD]
5277) Self-sustained atomic fission reaction.
(University of Chicago) Chicago, Illinois, USA  
55 YBN
[07/16/1945 AD]
5311) Atomic fission explosive.
(Alamogordo Test Range) Jornada del Muerto (Journey of Death) desert, New
Mexico, USA  
55 YBN
[10/08/1945 AD]
6272) Microwave oven.
(Raytheon Manufacturing Company) Newton, Massachusetts, USA  
47 YBN
[04/02/1953 AD]
5660) Double helix structure of DNA understood.
(Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
46 YBN
[05/05/1954 AD]
5649) The MASER.
(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
43 YBN
[10/04/1957 AD]
5486) The first human-made satellite.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam) Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
42 YBN
[08/01/1958 AD]
5606) The first atomic explosion in empty space.
(Johnson Island) Pacific Ocean  
42 YBN
[1958 AD]
6550) The integrated circuit (or IC).
(Texas Instruments and Fairchild Semiconductor)  
41 YBN
[09/14/1959 AD]
5597) A ship impacts the moon.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
41 YBN
[11/05/1959 AD]
191) A device inside the body is controlled remotely.
(Yale University School of Medicine) New Haven, New Jersey, USA  
40 YBN
[04/22/1960 AD]
5768) The LASER.
(Hughes Research Laboratories) Malibu, California  
39 YBN
[04/12/1961 AD]
5601) The first human to orbit the Earth.
Saratovskaya oblast, U.S.S.R.  
38 YBN
[10/26/1962 AD]
6201) Laser writing and reading of data.
(Winston Research Corporation) Los Angeles, California, USA  
35 YBN
[07/14/1965 AD]
5615) A ship from Earth reaches Mars.
Planet Mars  
34 YBN
[03/01/1966 AD]
5613) A ship from Earth impacts Venus.
Planet Venus  
31 YBN
[07/21/1969 AD]
655) Humans land and walk on the surface of the moon of Earth.
Moon of Earth  
31 YBN
[1969 AD]
5851) The Internet.
(University of California at Los Angeles) Los Angeles, California,
USA|(Stanford Research Institute) Stanford, California, USA|(University of
California Santa Barbara) Santa Barbara, California, USA|(University of Utah)
Salt Lake City, Utah, USA  
30 YBN
[01/29/1970 AD]
5836) Digital electric camera.
(Bell Telephone Laboratories) Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA  
30 YBN
[06/16/1970 AD]
5716) Artificial gene synthesized.
(University of Wisconsin) Madison, Wisconsin, USA  
29 YBN
[11/14/1971 AD]
5618) Ship orbits another planet (Mars).
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[11/27/1971 AD]
5619) Ship impacts Mars.
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[12/02/1971 AD]
5620) Ship lands on Mars.
Planet Mars  
28 YBN
[07/31/1972 AD]
5751) Proteins are synthesized by adding DNA to bacteria.
(Stanford University Medical Center) Stanford, California, USA  
27 YBN
[12/03/1973 AD]
5622) Ship reaches Jupiter and sends the first close-up images.
Planet Jupiter  
26 YBN
[1974 AD]
5846) Personal computer.
(Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems) Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
25 YBN
[10/20/1975 AD]
5623) Ship orbits and lands on Venus.
Planet Venus  
25 YBN
[1975 AD]
6371) External object moved by thought.
21 YBN
[09/01/1979 AD]
388) Ship reaches Saturn and sends close-up images.
Planet Saturn  
16 YBN
[03/10/1984 AD]
5814) Multicellular organism "cloned".
(AFRC Institute of Animal Physiology) Cambridge, UK  
14 YBN
[01/24/1986 AD]
5628) Ship reaches Uranus and sends close-up images.
Planet Uranus  
12 YBN
[12/14/1988 AD]
6194) Microscopic electric motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
11 YBN
[08/25/1989 AD]
5629) Ship reaches Neptune and sends close-up images.
Planet Neptune  
10 YBN
[01/17/1990 AD]
6191) Individual atoms moved.
(IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center) San Jose, California,
[12/07/1995 AD]
396) Ship orbits Jupiter.
[11/25/1996 AD]
186) Animal cloned from somatic cell.
(University of Edinburgh, Roslin Institute), Roslin Midlothian, UK  
[02/12/2001 AD]
5639) Ship lands on an asteroid.
Asteroid Eros  
[06/28/2001 AD]
6192) Microscopic radio chip (RFID).
(Hitachi) Japan  
[04/04/2003 AD]
6195) Nanometer scale electric motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
[07/01/2004 AD]
5641) Ship orbits Saturn.
Planet Saturn  
[11/29/2004 AD]
5832) Stem cells are used to repair damaged nerves.
(Chosun University) Kwangju, South Korea  
[01/14/2005 AD]
5642) Ship lands on a moon of Saturn (Titan).
Planet Saturn, moon Titan  
[12/10/2008 AD]
3886) Remote neuron reading. Image of what the eyes are seeing captured

(Collaboration between researchers at two Japanese Universities, two research
Institutes, and ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories) Kyoto, Japan  
15 YAN
[2015 AD]
332) Sound a brain hears is recorded remotely.
15 YAN
[2015 AD]
6394) Microscopic radio (particle transmitter and receiver).
18 YAN
[2018 AD]
6208) Radio device functions as cell organelle.
20 YAN
[2020 AD]
6197) Remote controlled microscopic flying device.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
337) Remote neuron writing using microscopic devices in neurons. Microscopic
devices enter the human body by the lung, enter the blood circulation, and
position themselves as organelles inside cells. External devices communicate
with the intracellular devices to make the neuron cell fire.

Sounds, images, smells, and muscle contractions can be remotely activated in a
brain by sending light particles to intracellular devices.

25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6193) Microscopic wireless camera and microphone.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6198) Remote controlled microscopic flying camera.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6375) Wireless microscopic maser.
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
365) Thought-audio recorded (Remote neuron reading) and played out loud
publicly. The first recorded thought audio may be the audio "1 2 3". Humans
start to communicate by thought-image and thought-sound only.

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
366) Artificial muscle bipedal robot, lighter than motor robots.
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
680) Thought-images are recorded remotely using remote neuron reading and shown

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
791) Bipedal robots start replacing humans in most low-skill jobs (for example
as walking security cameras, in fast-food, and fruit picking).

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
6391) Nanometer scale camera.
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
790) Humans walk around with robot servants. These robots clean and cook for
their owners.

50 YAN
[2050 AD]
6300) Bacteria identified and destroyed by microscopic device inside animal

51 YAN
[2051 AD]
6520) There are 10 billion humans on Earth.
55 YAN
[2055 AD]
6302) Cancer cell growth stopped by microscopic devices.
60 YAN
[2060 AD]
6301) Virus identified and destroyed by microscopic devices.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
367) Most humans communicate only by images and sounds of thought.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
793) Helicopter-cars form a second line of traffic above the streets.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
794) 100 ships with humans orbit Earth.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4575) Robots walk on the moon of Earth and build buildings.
moon of Earth  
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
4613) Humans conquer all bacteria and viruses. Microscopic devices can identify
and destroy all known bacteria and viruses anywhere inside or outside of the

120 YAN
[2120 AD]
4584) Robots walk and build buildings on Mars.
140 YAN
[2140 AD]
687) Large scale transmutation: Humans can convert most common atoms (like
Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, and Calcium) into much more useful atoms (like
Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen). This allows many humans to live independently
of Earth, in ships, and on planets and moons without air or water.

150 YAN
[2150 AD]
659) First major nation to be fully democratic.
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
4592) Humans land on Mars.
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
6223) The first "Moon colony".
150 YAN
[2150 AD]
6304) Nucleic Acid changed by remote control microscopic devices.
180 YAN
[2180 AD]
4594) Humans live on Mars.
190 YAN
[2190 AD]
4606) Humans land on Mercury.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
792) Robots and other machines have replaced humans in most manual labor tasks
(including driving, cleaning, and food planting, harvesting, preparing and

200 YAN
[2200 AD]
795) 1000 human-filled ships orbit earth.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
4607) Humans live on Mercury.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
6305) Microscopic devices repair, regrow, and reshape damaged cells.
250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4611) Humans land on a moon of Jupiter.
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4598) Human-filled ship orbits the Sun.
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4620) Humans land on a moon of Saturn.
300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4627) Humans land on a moon of Uranus.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4630) Humans orbit Neptune and land on a moon of Neptune.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
6393) A ship reaches other star (Alpha Centauri). The first close up pictures
of planets
of a different star.

370 YAN
[2370 AD]
6209) Living objects on planets of another star identified (bacteria made of

Alpha Centauri  
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
683) Removal of Venus atmosphere is started.
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
686) End of death by aging.
600 YAN
[2600 AD]
6547) Ship reaches Sirius.
650 YAN
[2650 AD]
4619) Humans create atoms from light particles. Photon fusion: the reverse of
separating atoms into light particles.

750 YAN
[2750 AD]
4622) The first large ship to reach a different star (Alpha Centauri).
Alpha Centauri  
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
24) Humans consume an asteroid.
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4615) Humans live on Venus.
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4628) Humans change the motion of a moon. (A moon of Jupiter).
850 YAN
[2850 AD]
4580) Humans change the motion of a planet (planet Earth).
900 YAN
[2900 AD]
29) Ship impacts the surface of Jupiter. First image of the surface of Jupiter.
The solid and liquid body of Jupiter is confirmed to be 6 times the diameter of

1,000 YAN
[3000 AD]
4631) Start of the removal of the Jupiter atmosphere.
1,150 YAN
[3150 AD]
4638) Ships with robots reach the second closest star, Barnard's star.
Barnard's Star  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4614) A ship from Centauri reaches Earth and returns the first objects from a
different star.

Earth System  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4637) Humans reach a different star (Alpha Centauri). Humans now live around
two star systems.

Alpha Centauri  
1,300 YAN
[3300 AD]
777) End of major religions.
1,400 YAN
[3400 AD]
4643) The motion of Mars is controlled by orbiting ships.
1,500 YAN
[3500 AD]
684) The Atmosphere of Venus is completely removed.
1,800 YAN
[3800 AD]
4645) The motion of Jupiter is controlled by orbiting ships.
2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4644) The atmosphere of Jupiter is completely removed.
2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4646) Humans have ships at 10 star systems.
2,200 YAN
[4200 AD]
4651) The rings of Saturn are consumed.
2,300 YAN
[4300 AD]
6379) Humans land on Jupiter.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4579) The Venus atmosphere is like the atmosphere of Earth.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4655) Humans live on Jupiter.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4662) Motion of all planets under human control.
3,100 YAN
[5100 AD]
4671) The first image of advanced living objects that evolved around a
different star.

3,500 YAN
[5500 AD]
6176) Motion of star controlled. Star of Earth moved in direction of Centauri.
4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4674) Centauri is moved towards the star of Earth.
4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4675) Humans touch advanced living objects that evolved around a different

4,500 YAN
[6500 AD]
4676) Humans form a cluster of 4 stars (the Sun and the three stars of

Sun-Centauri cluster  
5,000 YAN
[7000 AD]
678) One trillion humans.
25,000 YAN
[27000 AD]
4677) Humans inhabit 100 stars and form a globular cluster of 10 stars.
45,000 YAN
[47000 AD]
4679) Humans inhabit 1000 stars and form a globular cluster of 100 stars.
50,000 YAN
[52000 AD]
4658) All asteroids are consumed.
63,000 YAN
[65000 AD]
6171) Humans reach the center of the Earth.
65,000 YAN
[67000 AD]
6174) Earth is completely filled with living objects.

There is no more molten material inside the Earth. All the molten compressed
matter was extracted, cooled and consumed, mostly as building materials, fuel,
and food.

70,000 YAN
[72000 AD]
4684) Humans inhabit 10,000 stars and form a globular cluster of 1,000 stars.
90,000 YAN
[92000 AD]
6210) Human-made globular cluster of 10,000 stars leaves the plane of the Milky
Way Galaxy.

121,000 YAN
681) The Moon of Earth population reaches the maximum possible (200

Moon of Earth  
125,500 YAN
4672) Planet Mercury is completely filled with living objects.
127,000 YAN
682) The population of Mars reaches the maximum.
138,000 YAN
4678) All planets of Star of Earth consumed.
148,000 YAN
100) The star of Earth is consumed.
205,000 YAN
6317) Sirius consumed.
630,000 YAN
106) Ten to the power 100 humans.
1,000,000,000 YAN
4685) All the stars in the Milky Way Galaxy belong to a globular cluster.
Milky Way Galaxy  
30,000,000,000 YAN
4687) The Milky Way Globular Galaxy integrates the matter of the Magellanic
Cloud galaxies.

Milky Way Galaxy  
40,000,000,000 YAN
4688) The Milky Way and Andromeda globular galaxies join.
Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy  
"Universe, Life, Science, Future" is published under the GNU license, except where otherwise indicated or determined to be fair use, copyrighted, public domain, CC, GDFL or other license.
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