TIMEEVENT DESCRIPTIONLOCATION

UNIVERSE
1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

  
990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.

MORE INFO
[1]
  
980,000,000,000 YBN
3) All matter is made of particles of light.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.2

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of
galaxies.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington

MORE INFO
[1] Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles,
(1980). (estimate of how many galaxies)
  
935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from where there is
less space to where there is more space. As an empty space becomes filled,
light particles form gas clouds called nebuli, and then galaxies of stars.
Living objects grow around stars and pull stars together to form globular
clusters and then form a globular (also called "elliptical") galaxy. Living
objects need matter to stop their decay. Globular galaxies have a regular input
and output of light particles. When a volume of space becomes very dense, more
light particles exit than enter the space. Light particles that exit to more
empty spaces form new nebulae and galaxies and so this cycle continues. Stars
at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale, just as light
particles at our scale may be stars at a much smaller scale. This system may go
on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  

LIFE
165,000,000,000 YBN
13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to form.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.2
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
5,500,000,000 YBN
3
16) The star Earth orbits forms.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington, guess

MORE INFO
[1] http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/208/mar1/nucleo.html (with image of
onion skin layers)
[2] another person declares star inside to be similar to planets:
iron, oxygen, nickel, etc. do not support standard solar
model. star_inside_iron.pdf
  
5,500,000,000 YBN
3
17) Planets form around our star. Like the star, they are red hot with liquid
rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the surface of the
planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,600,000,000 YBN
3 4
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
2. ^ part about rain and streams going to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth, like amino acids, phosphates, and sugars,
the components of living objects.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amino acids into proteins using other RNA molecules as a template.2

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA.

MORE INFO
[1] Schuppli, Daniel et al. “Altered 3′-terminal RNA Structure in
Phage Qβ Adapted to Host Factor-less Escherichia Coli.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 94.19 (1997): 10239 –10242.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/19/10239.abstract
  
4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing
a platform for more efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all
the instructions needed to make more ribosomes.

  
4,365,000,000 YBN
166) First DNA. A protein allows DNA to be made from RNA.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB (March 1992). "Ribonucleotide reductase:
regulation, regulation, regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID 1412696.
  
4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 04
Aug. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymerase
  
4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth (a bacterium). DNA is surrounded by a membrane made
of proteins.2

This cell may form near the sunlit water surface or near underwater volcanoes.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution: What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p145-154.
  
4,350,000,000 YBN
4
183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, waxes2 ).3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ find biomarker evidence
2. ^ "lipid." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
28 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
  
4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons allow selective protein assembly.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/TermPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

2. ^ http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gene-regulation.html#table
  
4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves. Cells can make ATP from glucose.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
  
4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves. Cells can make lactic acid.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+oldest&hl=en

  
4,325,000,000 YBN
213) Cells make alcohol.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
  
4,200,000,000 YBN
2 3
292) Prokaryote flagellum evolves.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
2. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Pallen MJ, Matzke NJ (October 2006). "From The Origin of Species to
the origin of bacterial flagella". Nature Reviews. Microbiology 4 (10):
784–90. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1493. PMID
16953248. http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v4/n10/full/nrmicro1493.html
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] Tree of life, http://tolweb.org/tree/
[4] David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia,
"Symbiosis Between methanogenic Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin
of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530.
eukorig6_jmol.pdf
[5] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
[6] "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>
  
4,193,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
77) Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/pdf/Hedges2009Chap05.pdf
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
5. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). 2142-1873my (2142-1873my)
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 2300my (2300my)
7. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4 eu) (4100my)
8. ^
Osawa, S., Honjo, "Archaebacteria vs Metabacteria : Phylogenetic tree of
organisms indicated by comparison of 5S ribosomal RNA sequences.", (Tokyo:
Springer, Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of Life", pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my
(1800my)
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). 4000my (4000my)
10. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
3970my (3970my)
  
4,189,000,000 YBN
3 4
193) Bacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (Aquifex, Thermotoga).1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of
Life", 2009, p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
  
4,187,000,000 YBN
3 4
180) Archaea: Crenarchaeota (Sulfolobus).1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
  
4,187,000,000 YBN
6 7
181) Archaea: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu2 } (methanogens, halobacteria).3 4


Earliest cell response to light.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryarchaeota&submit=Submit
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
5. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
7. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44

MORE INFO
[1] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November 2002),
doi:10.1038/nrg929 http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html#to
p

  
4,112,000,000 YBN
2
58) Cells produce their own food (autotrophy).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/44
  
4,000,000,000 YBN
4
43) Photosynthesis evolves in bacteria. Cells emit free Oxygen.2

This is the main system responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of
earth.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
2. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
3. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/458172/photosynthesis>.
4. ^ Olson JM (May 2006). "Photosynthesis in the Archean era". Photosyn. Res.
88 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID 16453059.

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology", 2009, 190-198
  
3,950,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

2. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol.
1, 27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

5. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Grosberg R. K., Strathmann R. R. 2007 The evolution of
multicellularity: a minor major transition? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 38,
621–654. (doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735
[2] Rokas A. 2008 The origins of multicellularity and the early history of the
genetic toolkit for animal development. Ann. Rev. Genet. 42, 235–251.
(doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.42.110807.091513) http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Inb
oundService.do?UT=000261767000011&IsProductCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord&product=WOS&
SID=1EHDdbNiNf4NO8nC299&smartRedirect=yes&SrcApp=CR&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.we
bofknowledge.com%3FDestApp%3DCEL%26DestParams%3D%253Faction%253Dretrieve%2526mod
e%253DFullRecord%2526product%253DCEL%2526UT%253D000261767000011%2526customersID%
253DHighwire%26e%3DQZIAIzGgKoYbxc_i_WNamlaqQ0.s968BNEwQvqhM9p.770dFYju0AbJCFAAcj
orA%26SrcApp%3DHighwire%26SrcAuth%3DHighwire&action=retrieve&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=Hi
ghwire&customersID=Highwire&Func=Frame

  
3,950,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
3. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238
4. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N. SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès: Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract


MORE INFO
[1] Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36. (doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=DEEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

  
3,950,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
322) Nitrogen fixation. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia from
Nitrogen gas in the air.1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fixation
2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
3. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
4. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/14/5442.full
5. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238
6. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N. SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès: Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract

West Africa3   
3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration. First aerobic cell. These cells use oxygen to
convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
  
3,850,000,000 YBN
7
36) Oldest physical evidence for life: ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12.3 4
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
2. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

3. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
4. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

5. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
6. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

7. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Banded iron formation." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 11 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/banded-iron-formation
[2] Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
AND http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
Akilia Island, Western Greenland5 6   
3,850,000,000 YBN
8
45) Oldest sediment, the "Banded Iron Formation" begins.2
Banded Iron Formation
is sedimentary rock that spans 2 billion years, made of silica with alternating
layers of black-colored reduced iron and red-colored oxidized iron,3 4 and
represents a seasonal rise and fall of free oxygen in the ocean, possibly
linked to photosynthetic organisms.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
2. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
3. ^ Cesare Emiliani, Plant Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel, New
Views on an Old Planet 2nd ed.
1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/books?id=R6b3skeNXrgC
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Konhauser,
Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have Formed the Precambrian Banded Iron
Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002): 1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/30/12/1079.abstract
6. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al. “Deposition of Banded Iron Formations by
Anoxygenic Phototrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology 33.11 (2005): 865
-868. Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/33/11/865.abstract
7. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
8. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102, {3850 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Roger Lewin, "Thread of Life", (New York: Smithsonian Books, 1982).
p102
[2]
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/RogueComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

[3] "Banded iron formation". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banded_iron_formation
Akilia Island, Western Greenland7   
3,500,000,000 YBN
7 8
39) Oldest fossil evidence of life: stromatolites.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
2. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
3. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
4. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
5. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
6. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
7. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S. R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area, Western Australia." Nature 284.5755 (1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html
8. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower, and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land, South
Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html
Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa5 6   
3,500,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12
287) Oldest fossils of an organism.3 4

2.8 billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
2. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
3. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
4. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life, Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Schopf, J. William
et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest Fossils." Nature 416.6876
(2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html
8. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
9. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R. Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from the
3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa." Nature
314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html
10. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
11. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260, 640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5108/640
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249
12. ^ Schopf, J. William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s Earliest
Fossils." Nature 416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

MORE INFO
[1] BIO415 (Author? University?) Multicelluarity.pdf (t3:
multicellularity of cyanobacteria)
[2] t3:
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol3018.htm multicellularity.
"Some cyanobacteria species exist in a truly, though primitive, multicellular
form in which cellular differentiation occurs."
Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia7 and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa8   
3,260,000,000 YBN
3
71) Budding evolves in prokaryotes.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research, Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

Swartkoppie, South Africa2   
3,200,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
66) Earliest acritarch fossil (unicellular microfossils with uncertain
affinity1 2 ).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
2. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin and Evolution of Dinoflagellates", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p194.
3. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html
4. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256: 622-627
5. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P.
Marshall, and Andrey Bekker. “Organic-walled microfossils in
3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits.” Nature 463.7283
(2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
6. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P. Marshall, and Andrey Bekker.
“Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature 463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
{3.2 bybn}
7. ^ A. H. Knoll, E. J. Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic
Organisms in Proterozoic Oceans", Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470, Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological,
Molecular and Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29,
2006), pp. 1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209698 {1.8 bybn}
8. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/dinoflagfr.html {1.8 bybn}
9. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/acritarch.html {1900-1600 mybn}
10. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p257. {1.6 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Knoll, Andrew H., Walter, Malcolm,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life
and Evolution of Biospheres, 2003-02-01, Springer Netherlands, Vol33, Iss1,
p75-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023992712071
[2] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean
Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
[3] Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A Molecular Time-Scale for Eukaryote
Evolution Recalibrated with the Continuous Microfossil Record", Proceedings:
Biological Sciences , Vol. 273, No. 1596 (Aug. 7, 2006), pp.
1867-1872 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25223537
[4] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Andrew H. Knoll, and Malcolm R. Walter.
“Morphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems.”
Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html
(Moodies Group) South Africa5   
2,923,000,000 YBN
6
178) Bacteria Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ1 ) evolve (Gram positive bacteria: cause
of botulism, tetanus, anthrax).2 3 4 First endospores.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=firmicutes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not TOL)
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges,
"A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds.
Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the
Environment, Washington DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacteria?topic=49480
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptidoglycan
[2] firmicutes only bacteria to make endospores
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes
[4] http://www.earthlife.net/prokaryotes/firmicutes.html
  
2,800,000,000 YBN
5
76) Proteobacteria evolve (Rickettsia {ancestor of all mitochondria},
gonorrhea, Salmonella, E. coli).1 2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
4. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] multicellularity.
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/biol3018.htm multicellularity.
Multicellularity.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacteria
[2] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
[3] "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>
[4] conjugation in protists, flagella in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa
and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward Arnold, 1989)
[5] prokaryote pili and
archaea flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cfm?meds=profile&profile=12
[6] Stackebrandt et al. Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the
phylogenetic taxon that includes the "purple bacteria and their relatives".
Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38,
321–325. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/38/3/321.full.pdf
  
2,800,000,000 YBN
13
177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in bacteria.7 8 9 10 11 12
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli",
Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
2. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
6. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
7. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM,
"Gene Recombination in Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October 1946)
doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html {Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
8. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/132820/conjugation>.
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
12. ^ David moreira, Purificacion Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between methanogenic
Archaea and delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998) 47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
13. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges,
"A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}
  
2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
2. ^ http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm
  
2,784,000,000 YBN
3
176) Bacteria Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planctomycetes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] s10 http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/6/1965
[2] http://genomebiology.com/2002/3/6/research/0031
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planctomycetes
[4] Lee, Kuo-Chang, Rick Webb, and John Fuerst. “The
Cell Cycle of the Planctomycete Gemmata Obscuriglobus with Respect to Cell
Compartmentalization.” BMC Cell Biology 10.1 (2009):
4. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2121/10/4/
  
2,784,000,000 YBN
7
179) Bacteria Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu1 } (source of streptomycin).2 3
4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=actinobacteria&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not TOL
4. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacteria
5. ^ http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archives/leprosy.htm
6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
7. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] "streptomyces." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 04 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/streptomyces
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
3
174) Bacteria Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ1 ) (Syphilis, Lyme disease).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunciation%20Guide.pdf
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ estimated from
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization
of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] "spirochete." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/spirochete
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
4 5
175) Bacteria Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ1 }.2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bacteroidetes+&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
4. ^ estimate
from Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale
of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidetes
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
3
217) Bacteria Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=chlamydiae&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicrobia
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
3 4
6309) Bacteria Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria).1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).. ^
3. ^ estimate from
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy,
and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidetes
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
  
2,775,000,000 YBN
3
6310) Bacteria Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo1 ).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=verrucomicrobia&submit=Submit
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicrobia
  
2,730,000,000 YBN
1 2
80) Endo and exocytosis. Cells can now eat other cells.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "endocytosis." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07 Mar.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis
2. ^ guess based on Cavalier-Smith stating that endocytosis occurs before
a cytoskeleton {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn guess and}
  
2,700,000,000 YBN
3
60) Eukaryotic cell. The first cell with a nucleus. The first protist. The
nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
2. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC
Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {split of archae and
eukaryote at c4.0 bybn, but eukaryote {with nucleus?} at) 2.7 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p256
[2] Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
[3] Alexey S. Kondrashov, "EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS OF LIFE CYCLES", Annual Review
of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 28: 391-435 (Volume publication date November
1997)
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.391;
jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

  
2,700,000,000 YBN
62) Earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiRAN1 }
molecules).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13
August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 1033-1036 , 13 August 1999 Archean Molecular Fossils and
the Early Rise of Eukaryotes Jochen J. Brocks, 1,2* Graham A. Logan, 2 Roger
Buick, 1 Roger E. Summons 2
Northwestern Australia4 5   
2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves, a membrane system that extends from the
nucleus, important in the synthesis of proteins and lipids.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic-reticulum
  
2,690,000,000 YBN
5 6
207) Cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN1 } forms in eukaryote cytoplasm.2 3 4
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12 Feb.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleton
2. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony 2005 vol95 issue 1
3. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman Inc,
New York. Margulis, L., Dolan, M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
4. ^ Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993 second
edition
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess
and }
6. ^ guess based on ER and golgi made of same material as cytoskeleton, and
after first eukaryote cell {Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess and}
  
2,690,000,000 YBN
1
208) Eukaryote flagellum evolves.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al., "Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
  
2,680,000,000 YBN
2
65) Circular chromosome in eukaryote nucleus changes into linear chromosomes.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 +20mybn
guess}

MORE INFO
[1] not all prokaryotes have circle of
DNA: http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.
391;jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

[2] Jumas-Bilak E, Maugard C, Michaux-Charachon S, Allardet-Servent A, Perrin
A, et al. 1995. Study of the organization of the genomes of Escherichia coli,
Brucella melitensis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens by insertion of a unique
restriction site. Microbiology 141:2425-32 (Medline)
[3] Lezhava A, Kameoka D, Sugino H,
Goshi K, Shinkawa H, et al. 1997. Chromosomal deletions in Streptomyces griseus
that remove the afsA locus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253:478-83
[4] Marconi RT, Casjens S,
Munderloh UG, Samuels DS. 1996. Analysis of linear plasmid dimers in Borrelia
burgdorferi sensu lato isolates: implications concerning the potential
mechanisms of linear plasmid replication. J. Bact. 178:3357-61
  
2,670,000,000 YBN
199) Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves (packages proteins and lipids into
vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/238044/Golgi-apparatus>.

MORE INFO
[1] "Endosome." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endosome
  
2,670,000,000 YBN
2
290) The nucleolus (a sphere in the nucleus that makes ribosomal RNA).1
FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus divides
2. ^ Ted Huntington guess

MORE INFO
[1] Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry Oxford University Press. Oxford
Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology © 1997, 2000, 2006 All rights
reserved. http://www.answers.com/topic/nucleolus#ixzz2VAspF99U
  
2,660,000,000 YBN
3
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).: types of mitosis, evolution of mitosis.
2. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel
YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin
of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -40mybn guess}
  
2,640,000,000 YBN
7
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. First diploid cell (2 sets of chromosomes). First
zygote.4 5 Increase in genetic variety.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
4. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of Evolution",
(London: Nelson, 1964).
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
6. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2008, p258.
7. ^ estimate
based on diplomonads having sex repro, and origin of euk being (is now)
{Nucleus 2700 -60mybn guess)(was 2710mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] J. William Schopf, "Major Events in the History of Life", (Boston,
MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 1992).p57 (was)
  
2,640,000,000 YBN
3
206) Meiosis (division of diploid into haploid cells).1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in one-division
3. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
  
2,610,000,000 YBN
7
296) Eukaryote gender.2 Anisogamy {aNISoGomE3 4 }, sex (cell and nucleus
fusion) between two cells that are different in size or shape.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989).
2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisogamy&submit=Submit
5. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
6. ^ "anisogamy." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar,
Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the
origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4, (2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -90mybn guess}
  
2,570,000,000 YBN
2
295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides twice into
four haploid cells).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/research/clevelan.html
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {Nucleus 2700 -130mybn
guess}
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
2
171) Bacteria "Deinococcus-Thermus".1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
4 5
172) Bacteria Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u1 } (ancestor of all plastids).2
3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cyanobacterium." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacteria
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in
Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC
Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC533871/ {2558 mybn}
5. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends
in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003). {2558 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life. http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004)
[3] Journal of Molecular Evolution Publisher:
Springer-Verlag New York ISSN: 0022-2844 (Paper) 1432-1432 (Online) Issue:
Volume 42, Number 2 Date: February 1996 Pages: 194 - 200
[4] Phylogenetic
Relationships of Nonaxenic Filamentous Cyanobacterial Strains Based on 16S rRNA
Sequence Analysis jme_42_2_1996.pdf
[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria
[6] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
  
2,558,000,000 YBN
2
315) Bacteria Chloroflexi evolve.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin
of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[2] Tree of Life http://tolweb.org/tree/
  
2,480,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11 12
170) Bacteria live on land.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
2. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
3. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

4. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
5. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
6. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

7. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V. Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto Pecoits,
Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J. Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E. Barley, Carlos
Rosìere, Phillip W. Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker. Aerobic bacterial
pyrite oxidation and acid rock drainage during the Great Oxidation Event.
Nature, 2011; 478 (7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10511
8. ^ University of Alberta. "New evidence for the oldest oxygen-breathing life
on land." ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14 Jul. 2012.
9. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let
there be life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/article.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

10. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary Biology, (2004). (2600-2700my)
11. ^ University of
Tennessee at Knoxville. "Bacteria's move from sea to land may have occurred
much later than thought." ScienceDaily, 22 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Jul.
2012. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111222195017.htm
12. ^ Florence Wisniewski-Dyé, Kirill Borziak, Gurusahai Khalsa-Moyers, Gladys
Alexandre, Leonid O. Sukharnikov, Kristin Wuichet, Gregory B. Hurst, W. Hayes
McDonald, Jon S. Robertson, Valérie Barbe, Alexandra Calteau, Zoé Rouy,
Sophie Mangenot, Claire Prigent-Combaret, Philippe Normand, Mickaël Boyer,
Patricia Siguier, Yves Dessaux, Claudine Elmerich, Guy Condemine, Ganisan
Krishnen, Ivan Kennedy, Andrew H. Paterson, Victor González, Patrick Mavingui,
Igor B. Zhulin. Azospirillum Genomes Reveal Transition of Bacteria from Aquatic
to Terrestrial Environments. PLoS Genetics, 2011; 7 (12): e1002430 DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1002430

MORE INFO
[1] "pyrite." The American Heritage� Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 May.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/pyrite
  
2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of 200 million year ice age.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
  
2,300,000,000 YBN
48) Oldest "Red Beds". Evidence of free oxygen in the air of Earth.3 4
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/lecture5.html
  
2,000,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
63) A bacterium related to Rickettsia, is captured by a eukaryote and through
endosymbiosis, becomes the mitochondria, organelles of most eukaryotes.2

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4
3. ^ B. Franz Lang, Michael W. Gray, and Gertraud Burger, "Mitochondrial Genome
Evolution and the Origin of Eukaryotes", Annu. Rev. Genet., V33, p351-397,
p385. 1999. {2 BYBN}
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {average of)
2230-1840 bybn} {earliest of) 2350-1640 bybn} {average of 1995my) 2350-1640
mybn}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the origin of eukaryotes", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2001, 1:4 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/1/4 {1.8 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Michael W. Gray, et al, "Genome structure and gene content in protist
mitochondrial DNAs", Nucl. Acids Res. (1998) 26(4): 865-878
doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865 http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/4/865.full
  
1,874,000,000 YBN
5
61) Earliest large filamentous fossil (Grypania).1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
2. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
3. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/257/5067/232
AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
4. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
5. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford,
W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and
syndepositional iron formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for
the tectonic setting of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior
region. Can. J. Earth Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Samuelsson, Joakim, Peter R Dawes, and Gonzalo Vidal.
“Organic-walled Microfossils from the Proterozoic Thule Supergroup, Northwest
Greenland.” Precambrian Research 96.1–2 (1999):
1–23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301926898001235
[2] Jacques Dumais, Kyle Serikawa and Dina F Mandoli, "Acetabularia: A
Unicellular Model for Understanding Subcellular Localization and Morphogenesis
during Development", Journal of Plant Growth Regulation Volume 19, Number 3
(2000), 253-264, DOI:
10.1007/s003440000035 http://www.oeb.harvard.edu/faculty/dumais/Publications/JP
GR2000.2.pdf

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA3 4   
1,800,000,000 YBN
46) End of the Banded Iron Formation.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
  
1,570,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
99) First homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005).
5. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin TR, "MEKHLA, a novel domain with similarity to PAS
domains, is fused to plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III proteins.", Plant
Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/140/4/1142.full
6. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin. “A
Comprehensive Classification and Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/12/2775.short {1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown algae}
7. ^ Jongmin Nam, Claude W. dePamphilis, Hong
Ma, and Masatoshi Nei, "Antiquity and Evolution of the MADS-Box Gene Family
Controlling Flower Development in Plants", Mol Biol Evol (2003) 20(9):
1435-1447 first published online May 30, 2003 doi:10.1093/molbev/msg152
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/9/1435.abstract {1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown algae}
  
1,570,000,000 YBN
4 5
197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T, "The root of the eukaryote tree
pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

2. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
4. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf} {problem with 1250 my
bangia red algae fossils)1126 mybn}
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1570 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution", J Mol Evol
(2003) 56:540 563
[2] J Mol Evol (2003) 56:540 563 Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution Thomas
Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao
  
1,520,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
202) Protists Amoebozoa (amoebas and slime molds).1 2 Feeding using
pseudopods.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p515.
4. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1520 mybn}
5. ^ Hackett JD,
Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1400 my}
6. ^
S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1587mybn)
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1400) {c1220}
8. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c1090}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.unige.ch/sciences/biologie/biani/msg/Amoeboids/Amoebozoa/Conosea.html

  
1,520,000,000 YBN
1 2 3 4 5 6
203) Colonialism evolves in Eukaryote.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "colonial." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
2. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1080 mybn}
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {1956 mybn}
4. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1999 mybn}
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
6. ^ Russell F.
Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining
Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein
Clock", Science, (1996). (1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Biorealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
15) First "plastids". Cyanobacteria form plastids through symbiosis, within a
eukaryote cell. Like mitochondria, these organelles copy themselves and are not
made by the cell DNA.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {c1600 my}
7. ^ S. Blair
Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics
3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see comments {1576 MYBN}
8. ^ Knoll A,
Summons R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p152. {no later than) 1200 my}
9. ^
S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see comments {1576 MYBN}
{needs to be at least as old as Euglenozoa since many have plastids)1956}
{Euglenozoa)1956}

MORE INFO
[1] "Plastid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastid
[2] Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
86) First plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).6 7 8 9
10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay,
Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton
reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
4. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
8. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der Staay,
Rupert De Wachter, Daniel Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton
reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
9. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1500)
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {first plastid) 1300mybn}
13. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {first plastid) c1600}
14. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120.
{1550 mybn}
15. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1609 mybn)
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{1580} http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html
17. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science
257 (1992), pp. 232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf {fossil
Grypania) 1874my}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith and Ema E. -Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early Eukaryote Megaevolution", Springer New
York, (2003). file:///home/ted/ulsf/docs/cav-smith_apusozoa_fulltext.html
  
1,500,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7
220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).1
2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007.
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya
D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1380 mybn}
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1400mybn}
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1600
mybn}
7. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{960 mybn}
  
1,400,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
209) Plant Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu1 }.2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glaucophytes&submit=Submit
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1400)
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the
major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150 mybn}
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1290 mybn}
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1225 mybn}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849
(2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (c1500my)
11. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(1558my)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P6064
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
188) Green Algae evolves (Volvox, Sea lettuce, Spirogyra).1 2 3 4 5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
4. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
5. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
7. ^ "algae." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 18 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/14828/algae>.
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1150 mybn}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450mybn}
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (968mybn)
11. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2
Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular
Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10
August 2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001). (1061?)
12. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record 2",
(London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1993). fr2b (1650-800mybn)
13. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/greenalgae.html (1000my)
14. ^ Herman N,
"Organic World One Billion Years Ago", Nauka, Leningrad, 1990.
15. ^ Knoll A, Summons
R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J, "The Geological Succession of Primary Producers in
the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers
in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p150.
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
219) Plant Red Algae evolves (Rhodophyta {rODOFITu1 }).2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450 mybn}
6. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1428mybn)
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119.

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,300,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
323) Protists Excavates (Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u1 }).2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardia&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {2000 my}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {2291} {2291 my}
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
{1600} {1600 my}
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{2230} {2230 my}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1594 my}
11. ^ Cédric Berney
and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated
with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{1030 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Heterokonts". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterokonts
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
2. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
3. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J.
Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
4. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar,
Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf
5. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
9. ^
Schneider et al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz
and M.A. Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron formations,
Marquette Range Supergroup; implications for the tectonic setting of
Paleoproterozoic iron formations of the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874 mybn}
10. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae from the
2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal_cysts.pdf {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874
mybn}
11. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition, 2009, p517.

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
[3] Ted huntington, Estimate based on origin
of brown algae around 1,973,000,000
(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada5
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
1 2 3
85) Differentiation in multicellular eukaryote. Gamete (or spore) cells and
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells are asexual (non-fusing).
Start of death by aging.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cell differentiation." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cell-differentiation
2. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
3. ^ Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of
Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {Bangia) 1250 mybn}
  
1,280,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
301) Haplodiplontic life cycle (mitosis occurs in both haploid and diploid life
stages).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of
Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905

MORE INFO
[1] Mark Kirkpatrick, "The evolution of haploid-diploid life cycles",
1994, p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=XsgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10
  
1,274,000,000 YBN
3 4
187) A captured red alga becomes a plastid in the ancestor of all
chromalveolates.1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS. “Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion.”
Annals of Botany 95.1 (2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.short
3. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {1274
mybn}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {1280mybn}
  
1,250,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12 13
88) Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS1 } (ancestor of Chromista
{Cryptophytes, Haptophytes and Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ2 }} and
Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS3 }).4 5 6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chromalveolates&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
3. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p540.
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
7. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626 (2003)
: 1703 -1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1703.short
8. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {c1250
mybn}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1300 mybn}
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1665 mybn}
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1973mybn)
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1600mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Brown alga". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_alga
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science,
Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
  
1,250,000,000 YBN
6
201) Earliest certain eukaryote fossils (red algae).1 2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
2. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

3. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer, Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
4. ^ Science 1990 vol 250
Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
5. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3 (September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

6. ^ Science 1990 vol 250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A
bangiophyte red alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science 250:
104-107 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905 {1250 mybn}
(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada4 5   
1,200,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
221) First fungi.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf}
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1200 mybn}
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1368 mybn}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 (1513mybn) {1513 mybn}
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c1200) {c1100} {c1100 mybn}
  
1,180,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
6280) Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS1 } (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS2 }).3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=alveolates&submit=Submit
2. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagellate
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1180 mybn}
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1480 my}
8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956 my}
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
10. ^ Emmanuelle J.
Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{1000 my}
11. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c820 my}
12. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1628}
  
1,100,000,000 YBN
3 4
75) Fungi Microsporidia.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (>1460mybn)
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=93911
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
  
1,100,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
313) Protists Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS1 }.2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinoflagellates&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
5. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and
Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of
Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{Dinosterane molecular fossils)1100 my}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {DNA)1040 mybn}
7. ^ A. H. Knoll,
E. J. Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic Organisms in Proterozoic
Oceans", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470,
Major Steps in Cell Evolution: Palaeontological, Molecular and Cellular
Evidence of Their Timing and Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp.
1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/20209698 {1.8 bybn} {Dinosterane
molecular fossils)1100 my}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {940 mybn}
9. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7,
2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{430 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch (1600mybn)
[3] Pratt, L. M., Summons, R. E. and
Hieshima, G. B.: 1991, Sterane and Triterpane Biomarkers in the Precambrian
Nonesuch Formation, North American Midcontinent Rift, Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta
55, 911–916
[4] J.J. Brocks, R.E. Summons, 8.03 - Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers
for Early Life, In: Editors-in-Chief: Heinrich D. Holland and Karl K.
Turekian, Editor(s)-in-Chief, Treatise on Geochemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, 2003,
Pages 63-115, ISBN 9780080437514,
10.1016/B0-08-043751-6/08127-5. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/p
ii/B0080437516081275)

[5] Moldowan, J. Michael et al. “Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of
biofacies: Molecular evidence linking cyst-forming dinoflagellates with
pre-Triassic ancestors.” Geology 24.2 (1996): 159 -162.
http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/content/24/2/159.abstract
AND http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/24/2/159.full.pdf
[6] Raven, Evert, Eichhorn, "Biology of Plants", (New York: Worth Publishers,
1992). p98-99
[7] "coenocyte." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 23 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/coenocyte
  
1,080,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
87) Excavate Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS} (includes euglenids).1 2 3
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
4. ^ Hackett
JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
{1080 mybn}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {1956 mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1999 mybn}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
8. ^ Russell F.
Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining
Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein
Clock", Science, (1996). (1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Biorealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
1,080,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.4 5
6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364 (October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

3. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
4. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of phototaxis."
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364
(October 2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

5. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/Labs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

6. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy, Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome Miniaturization and Expansion", * Oxford
Journals * Life Sciences * Annals of Botany * Volume 95, Number
1 *, (2005). http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/1/147.abstract
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
8. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline
for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution
21.5 (2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {guess based on
earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {guess based on
earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}
10. ^ my own estimate
based on where euglenozoa genetically appear to evolve {guess based on earliest
secondary plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Peter Hegemann, "Algal Sensory Photoreceptors", Annual Review of
Plant Biology, Vol. 59: 167 -189 (Volume publication date June 2008)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092847
%40recept.2009.1.issue-1

[2] Trevor D. Lamb, Detlev Arendt, and Shaun P. Collin, "The evolution of
phototransduction and eyes", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B October 12, 2009
364:2791-2793;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0106 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1
531/2791.full

[3] Kreimer, G. (2009) The green algal eyespot apparatus: a primordial visual
system and more? Current Genetics 55:19-43 doi:10.007/s00294-008-0224-8 PMID
19107486 http://www.springerlink.com/content/v54v124mxg52r091/
  
1,050,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
169) Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ1 } (also called Heterokonts)
(ancestor of all brown and golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu2
)).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=stramenopiles
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
3. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
5. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818. Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {1050
mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier;
2007, p119. {1180 mybn}
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1480my}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
9. ^
S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2 {Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956my} {Alveolates and Plant split)1956my}
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600 my}
{Chromalveolates)1600 my}
11. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf} {c775my} {c754my}
12. ^
Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and
Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of
Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{c1000my}
13. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste,
Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic evolution:
Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad
Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{872 my}
  
1,000,000,000 YBN
3
324) Protists Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u1 } (or DRIPs).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomycetozoea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1000 MYBN (end of Mesoproterozoic}

MORE INFO
[1] Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, Orr R, Ruden T, et al.
2008 Multigene Phylogeny of Choanozoa and the Origin of Animals. PLoS ONE 3(5):
e2098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098
[2] Leonel Mendoza, John W. Taylor, and Libero Ajello, "THE CLASS
MESOMYCETOZOEA: A Heterogeneous Group of Microorganisms at the Animal-Fungal
Boundary", Annual Review of Microbiology October 2002, Vol. 56:
315-344. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.
160950

  
985,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
309) Protists Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu1 } (Water molds).2 3 4 5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {985}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.ilmyco.gen.chicago.il.us/Terms/coeno128.html#coeno128
[2] "Coenocyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenocyte
[3]
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Protists.html#Water_Mol
ds

[4] http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1116/16protists.htm
  
900,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
6281) Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u1 } (ancestor of all Radiolaria,
Foraminifera and Cercozoa).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhizaria&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Medlin, L. , Kooistra, W. , Potter, D. , Saanders, G. and
Wandersen, R. (1997): Phylogenetic relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids , The origin of the
algae and their plastids (D Bhattacharya, ed ) Plant systematics and evolution
(Suppl ) http://epic.awi.de/2100/ AND http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf
{900 my}
4. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_a=rhizaria&taxon_b=haptophyta&submit=Sea
rch
{900 my}
5. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my} {754 my}
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Moreira D, von der Heyden S, Bass D, López-García P, Chao E,
Cavalier-Smith T (July 2007). "Global eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small- and
large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and
Excavata". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 44 (1): 255–66.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1055-7903(06)00433-7
[2]
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_a=rhizaria&taxon_b=alveolates&submit=Sea
rch

[3] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll
A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
  
850,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
224) Fungi "Zygomycota" (bread molds).1 2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for
the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1250mybn)
6. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2
Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular
Evidence for the Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and Plants", Science 10
August 2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001). (1107mybn)
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary timescales", Trends in Genetics Volume 19,
Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003). (1107mybn)
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c850m)
  
767,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
312) Protists Ciliates (paramecium).1 2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew
H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early
Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1,
75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{750 my}
5. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric
Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
6. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
  
767,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
314) Protists "Apicomplexa" {a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su1 } (Malaria).2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicomplexa&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
5. ^ Emmanuel J. P. Douzery,
Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The
timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile
proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
6. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}
7. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm
Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{api+dino and ciliate split)1100 my}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe,
"A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003, p135
  
680,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12
326) Protists Choanoflagellates {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS1 }.2 3 4 5 6 7
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choanoflagellate&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=114293
4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1000 drips and 900 choano)
8. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000 drips and 900 choano) {900 MYBN}
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources
and timing of the major events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {900 MYBN}
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1020 mybn}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1513 (drips?) and 1450
choano) {1450 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003)
[2] "Ichthyosporea".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthyosporea
  
670,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist.4 5 This allows larger
free moving organisms to evolve.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506.
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason
L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)

MORE INFO
[1] Nicholas H. Barton, "Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225
[2] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, 188-191
  
660,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
81) First animal and first metazoan, sponges (Porifera). Metazoans are
multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform different
functions). There are only three major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians,
and bilaterians.4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p497-501.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {c800my}
10. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] Müller, Werner E. G. “The Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera
as Integrated Animals.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 43.1 (2003):
3–10. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3884834
  
660,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
517) Male gonad evolves in a sponge.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p20.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {based on evolution of sponge) c850my}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
6. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglycan
[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p17
  
650,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
69) Cells that group as tissues evolve in metazoans.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750) {c750MYBN (Ctenophores are first metazoans
with tissues}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1
  
650,000,000 YBN
3 4
79) Metazoan "Placozoa".1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {780 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Srivastava, Mansi et al. “The Trichoplax genome and the nature of
placozoans.” Nature 454.7207 (2008) :
955-960. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v454/n7207/abs/nature07191.html
[2] Dellaporta, Stephen L. et al. “Mitochondrial genome of Trichoplax
adhaerens supports Placozoa as the basal lower metazoan phylum.” Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences 103.23 (2006) : 8751 -8756.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/23/8751.full
  
650,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
223) Fungi Chytridiomycota {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu).1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
4. ^ http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
(1460mybn)
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=71577&tree=0.1
[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomycota
[3] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chytridiomycetes&submit=Submit
[4] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
Northern Russia3   
640,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
83) First nerve cell (neuron), and nervous system evolve in a metazoan.3
Earliest touch and sound detection and memory.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN (estimate
based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn}
7. ^ S OOta and N Saitou, "Phylogenetic relationship of muscle tissues deduced
from superimposition of gene trees.", Mol Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/856.abstract {Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
8. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (presumably) {574mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Ghysen, A. (2003). The origin and evolution of the nervous system.
The International journal of developmental biology , 47 (7-8),
555-562. http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14756331
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750mybn)
  
640,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
96) Muscle cells evolve in metazoans.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
2. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf}
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid, Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish and
the origin of triploblasty, Developmental Biology, Volume 282, Issue 1, 1 June
2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN 0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn}
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
(c750mybn) {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN (estimate
based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
6. ^ S OOta and N Saitou, "Phylogenetic
relationship of muscle tissues deduced from superimposition of gene trees.",
Mol Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/6/856.abstract {Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
  
640,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
225) Closeable mouth evolves in metazoans.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3. {c750MYBN (all metazoans but sponges have a closable
mouth}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750) {c750MYBN (all metazoans but sponges have a
closable mouth}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1
  
640,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
414) Female gonad (ovary) evolves in metzoans.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
2. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p48.
4. ^
http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
{based on evolution of cnidaria) 580my}
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
9. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglycan
[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p17
[4] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c850my)
[5] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1351my)
[6] Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)
  
640,000,000 YBN
3 4
523) Animals Ctenophores {TeN-o-FORZ1 } evolve (comb jellies).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02 May. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ctenophore>.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750)
  
630,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16
82) Animals Cnidarians {NIDAREeNS} evolve (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish).7 8
9 10 Earliest animal eye.11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
6. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p477-490.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^ "Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
11. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p41.
12. ^ Megan O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie.",
Journal Of Comparative Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral
Physiology (2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/research/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

13. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
15. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
16. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] Collins, A.G. (2002). "Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the Evolution of
Cnidarian Life Cycles" (PDF). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15 (3):
418–432.
doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00403.x. http://cima.uprm.edu/~n_schizas/CMOB_8676
/Collins2002.pdf

[2] Philippe, H. (April 2009). "Phylogenomics Revives Traditional Views on Deep
Animal Relationships". Current Biology 19: 706–712.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052. PMID
19345102. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982209008057
[3] doi:10.1038/4631003b; Published online 24 February
2010 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v463/n7284/full/4631003b.html
  
600,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
91) Start of Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN1 } soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.2
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ "Ediacaran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
3. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996). "Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/content/93/10/4990.full.pdf
4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Meert, J.
G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.; Grice, W. C.; Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin, A.
(2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser Karatau
Microcontinent, Kazakhstan". Gondwana Research 19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005

6. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996). "Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/content/93/10/4990.full.pdf
7. ^ Ben Waggoner, "The Ediacaran Biotas in Space and Time", Integrative and
Comparative Biology , Vol. 43, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp.
104-113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3884845 {Waggoner_200302xx.pdf}
8. ^ H. J. Hofmann, G. M. Narbonne and J. D. Aitken, "Ediacaran remains from
intertillite beds in northwestern Canada", Geology, December, 1990, v. 18, p.
1199-1202. http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/18/12/1199.abstract {Hofmann_Edi
acaran_Fossils_1990.pdf}
9. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
10. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/305/5684/621.short
11. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329. {630 mybn}
12. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). {575 mybn}
13. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
{670 mybn}
14. ^ Meert, J. G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.; Grice, W. C.;
Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin, A. (2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma Ediacara (?)
Fossils from the Lesser Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan". Gondwana Research
19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005


MORE INFO
[1] Ivantsov, A. Yu (2004). "New Proarticulata from the Vendian of the
Arkhangel'sk Region" (PDF). Paleontological Journal 38 (3): 247–253
[2] Peterson, Kevin
J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005): 9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.short
Sonora, Mexico3 |Adelaide, Australia4 | Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
Kazakhsta5   
600,000,000 YBN
15 16 17
107) Bilateral species evolve (two sided symmetry).8 9 10
Earliest animal
brain.11 12 First triploblastic species (third embryonic layer: the mesoderm
{meZuDRM13 }).14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
6. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p472-476.
9. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p69.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396-400.
13. ^ "mesoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of
the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 27 Dec. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
14. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001, p59.
15. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
17. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
403) Earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and
nemertodermatida).1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p396
  
600,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
532) Cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian.2
F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p4.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my) {630my (first bilateral species-acoelomates}
5. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older) {575
(first bilateral species-acoelomates)(fossil record is older}
  
600,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p58-79.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is older)
  
600,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
2. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my) {based on some Platyhelminthes have a penis)
630my}
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575
(fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001
  
590,000,000 YBN
2 3
95) Fluid filled cavity, the coelom (SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.1
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {estimate based on coelom being before protostome-deutostome
division, after acoelomorph) 630-590 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "coelom." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 24 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/body-cavity
  
590,000,000 YBN
4 5
98) The first circulatory system; blood vessels and blood evolve in a
bilaterian.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second Edition,
2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p81.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks
Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on}
  
580,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16
93) Bilaterians Protostomes evolve.5 6 Ancestor of all Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu7 } and Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu8 }.9 10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
3. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE;
Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
4. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
7. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=198701
11. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne,
WE; Smith, SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling
improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
12. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
13. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (590my) {590 mybn}
15. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins.
“Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of evidence to
investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages.” Integrative and
Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {543 mybn}
16. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {910 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=priapulids
[2] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide
Pisani, "The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic
and the geological fossil records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April 27, 2008 363
(1496) 1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

  
580,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
105) Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve. Ancestor of all Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS 3
}, Hemichordates, and Chordates.4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com
29 Dec. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {570 mybn}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {910 mybn}
9. ^ Cartwright,
Paulyn, and Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple
lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan
lineages.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {367 mybn}
10. ^ Jun-Yuan
Chen, David J. Bottjer, Paola Oliveri,Stephen Q. Dornbos, Feng Gao, Seth
Ruffins, Huimei Chi, Chia-Wei Li, Eric H. Davidson, "Small Bilaterian Fossils
from 40 to 55 Million Years Before the Cambrian", Science, Vol 305, Issue 5681,
218-222, 9 July
2004 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;305/5681/218

MORE INFO
[1] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide Pisani,
"The Ediacaran emergence of bilaterians: congruence between the genetic and the
geological fossil records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April 27, 2008 363 (1496)
1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

  
580,000,000 YBN
4 5
131) First shell (or skeleton) evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
2. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
3. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf}
4. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007). "Ciliated protozoans from the Precambrian
Doushantuo Formation, Wengan, South China". Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144%2FSP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580mybn.pdf} {earliest hard shell fossil -
ciliate) 580 mybn}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {Euglenozoa -pellicle) 1956 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Hamm, Smetacek, "Armor: Why, When, and How", in Falkowski, Knoll,
"Evolution of Primary Producers in the Sea", 2007, p311-332, p323
[2] Bengtson, S.
(2004), Early skeletal fossils, in Lipps, J.H., and Waggoner, B.M.,
"Neoproterozoic- Cambrian Biological Revolutions" (PDF), Paleontological
Society Papers 10: 67–78, retrieved
2008-07-18 http://www.nrm.se/download/18.4e32c81078a8d9249800021554/Bengtson200
4ESF.pdf

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China3   
570,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11
311) Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu3 4 } (Arrow Worms).5

Earliest teeth. Animals start to eat other animals.6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
2. ^ Vannier, J.; Steiner, M.;
Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian origin of
modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of the Royal
Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC 2197202. PMID
17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

3. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012. Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognatha
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaetognatha&submit=Submit
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
7. ^ Vannier, J.;
Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian
origin of modern food webs: evidence from predator arrow worms". Proceedings of
the Royal Society B 274 (1610): 627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (570)
9. ^ Chen, J.-Y.; Huang, D.-Y. (2002). "A possible Lower
Cambrian chaetognath (arrow worm)". Science 298 (5591): 187.
doi:10.1126/science.1075059. PMID 12364798.
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", Oxford University
Press, New York., 2009, Chap 24, p224-225. http://timetree.org/book.php

MORE INFO
[1] Gonzalo Giribet, Daniel L. Distel, Martin Polz, Wolfgang Sterrer, and
Ward C. Wheeler Triploblastic Relationships with Emphasis on the Acoelomates
and the Position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and
Chaetognatha: A Combined Approach of 18S rDNA Sequences and Morphology Syst
Biol (2000) 49(3): 539-562 doi:10.1080/10635159950127385
[2] Martin Helmkampf, Iris Bruchhaus, Bernhard
Hausdorf, Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic
relationships, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 46, Issue 1,
January 2008, Pages 206-214, ISSN 1055-7903,
10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.004. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S105579030700317X)

[3] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
[4] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2002, p844
  
565,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
345) Deuterostomes Hemichordates evolve (pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS1 }2 , acorn
worms).3

The free swimming younger form of Pterobranch may evolve into tunicates and
then the first fish.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterobranchs&submit=Submit
2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Xian-guang Hou, Richard J. Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J. Siveter,
Mark Williams, Jan Zalasiewicz, Xiao-ya Ma. A pterobranch hemichordate zooid
from the lower Cambrian. Current Biology, 24 March 2011 DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.005 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096
0982211002776

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p383.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126698
  
565,000,000 YBN
8 9
347) Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves.2
Chordates are a very large group
that include all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals,
and birds.3 4

Chordates evolve upside down compared to invertebrates, having nerve chord on
back and heart on front.5 6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381.
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p399-400.
6. ^ "ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
7. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004. Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p368-p381. {565 MYBN}
9. ^
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3208583.stm

MORE INFO
[1] Douzery, E. J. P., Snell, E. A., Bapteste, E., Delsuc, F., &
Philippe, H. (2004). The timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils? Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 101 (43),
15386-15391. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0403984101
[2] Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho
and Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of
Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science New Series, Vol. 271, No. 5248
(Jan. 26, 1996), pp. 470-477. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2890144
[3] Pennisi, Elizabeth. “Drafting a Tree.” Science
300.5626 (2003) : 1694.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1694.summary
[4] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary Emergence of
Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION: EDUCATION AND
OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[5] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
565,000,000 YBN
3 4
348) Earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (sea squirts).2
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p377-381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381. {565 mybn}
4. ^ Chen, Jun-Yuan et al.
“The First Tunicate from the Early Cambrian of South China.” Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences 100.14 (2003): 8314 –8318.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/100/14/8314.full
  
560,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9
117) Start of small shelly fossils.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210.
2. ^ SW
Grant, "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a potential index fossil
for the terminal Proterozoic.", Source: American journal of science (1990)
volume: 290-A (Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf
3. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina Shells:
Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic", PALAIOS,
October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782
4. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say
and Why It Matters", 2007, p163-170.
5. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", 6th
edition 2002, p212.
6. ^ Adam C. Maloof, Susannah M. Porter, John L. Moore, Frank Ö.
Dudás, Samuel A. Bowring, John A. Higgins, David A. Fike, and Michael P. Eddy,
"The earliest Cambrian record of animals and ocean geochemical change",
Geological Society of America Bulletin, November 2010, v. 122, p. 1731-1774,
doi:10.1130/B30346.1 http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/122/11-12/1731.full

7. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a potential index
fossil for the terminal Proterozoic.", Source: American journal of science
(1990) volume: 290-A (Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf
8. ^ http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/neoproterozoic/ediacaran/ediacaran2.htm
9. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2 http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782

MORE INFO
[1] Philip W. Signor and Mark A. S. McMenamin "The Early Cambrian Worm
Tube Onuphionella from California and Nevada", Journal of Paleontology , Vol.
62, No. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp. 233-240 Published by: Paleontological
Society Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1305228
[2] MATTHEWS, S. C., AND V. V. MISSARZHEVSKY.
1975. "Small shelly fossils of late Precambrian and early Cambrian age: a
review of recent work." Journal of the Geological Society,
131:289-304 http://jgs.geoscienceworld.org/content/131/3/289.abstract
[3] GRANT, S. W. F. 1990. "Shell structure and distribution of Cloudina, a
potential index fossil for the terminal Proterozoic." American Journal of
Science, 290(A):261-294
(Ara Formation) Oman2 |Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province3   
560,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
318) Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu1 } (animals that molt {lose their
outer skin} as they grow).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdysozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the
Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c580) {c580 mybn}
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden,
MA: Blackwell, 2005),p388-394. (560) {560 mybn}
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {790 mybn}
8. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating multiple lines of
evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {530 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html
[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241 http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p390-394
[4] Telford, Maximilian J et al. “The Evolution of the Ecdysozoa.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1529 –1537.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1529.long
  
560,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
331) Protostomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u1 } evolve.2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
4. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa:
Testing Ecological Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic
Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c547) {c580 mybn}
6. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003). (550) {550 mybn}
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009, p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {790 mybn}
8. ^
Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins. “Fossils and phylogenies: integrating
multiple lines of evidence to investigate the origin of early major metazoan
lineages.” Integrative and Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/5/744.full {538 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=202032
  
560,000,000 YBN
349) First fish.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
560,000,000 YBN
6290) Earliest extant fish, Lancelets {laNSleTS1 }.2 First liver and kidney.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "lancelet." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11 Feb. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p205.

MORE INFO
[1] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary
Emergence of Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION:
EDUCATION AND OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41451
  
550,000,000 YBN
3
328) Ecdysozoa Round worms.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126691
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c550)
  
543,000,000 YBN
5
101) Segmentation evolves.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {537 MYBN (based on Annaleda - segmented worns} {543 MYBN
(based on arthropods, annelids - segmented worns=537}
  
542,000,000 YBN
5 6
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many of the major phyla of animals.1 2 3 An
increase of animals with shells.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Cambrian Explosion." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Dec.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-explosion
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006,
p329-333.
3. ^ "Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>.
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
5. ^
"Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/90620/Cambrian-explosion>. {542-530
mybn}
6. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
{535 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Derek E. G. Briggs and Richard A. Fortey, "Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation", Paleobiology , Vol. 31, No. 2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency: Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp. 94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/25482671
  
540,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
104) Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u1 } Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ}
(flatworms).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophotrochozoa&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)
4. ^ Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. et al. “The
Timing of Eukaryotic Evolution: Does a Relaxed Molecular Clock Reconcile
Proteins and Fossils?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386 -15391.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J et al. “The Ediacaran Emergence of Bilaterians:
Congruence Between the Genetic and the Geological Fossil Records.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1435 -1443.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1496/1435.full
  
540,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
319) Protists "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo1 }.2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-2
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ A. Braun, J. Chen, D. Waloszek and A. Maas,
"First Early Cambrian Radiolaria", Geological Society, London, Special
Publications 2007, v. 286, p.
143-149. http://sp.lyellcollection.org/content/286/1/143.short
and http://www.core-orsten-research.de/Publications/PDF_Paper/ulm_team/2007b_Br
aun_etal.pdf {Earliest radiolaria fossils) 540 mybn}
5. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
6. ^ http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600my)
[2] Keeling, Patrick J. et al. "The tree of eukaryotes." Trends
in Ecology & Evolution 20.12 (2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534705003046
[3] Delsuc, Frederic, Henner Brinkmann, and Herve Philippe. "Phylogenomics and
the reconstruction of the tree of life." Nat Rev Genet 6.5 (2005):
361-375. http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v6/n5/abs/nrg1603.html
[4] http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/Bio-home/Pratt/boo305.htm
[5] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[6] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/radiolaria.html
[7] "Polycystine". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycystine
  
540,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
321) Protists "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu1 }.2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=foraminifera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second
Edition, 2003, p165-167. {earliest fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
5. ^ Culver,
S. J. (1991) Science 254, 689–691.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=254/5032/68
9
and http://www.sciencemag.org/content/254/5032/689.full.pdf {earliest
fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
6. ^ Culver, S. J. (1994) J. Foraminiferal Res.
24,
191–202. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=gsjfr&resid
=24/3/191
{earliest fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
7. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
8. ^ http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600mybn)
[2] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
[3] http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/foram.html
[4] "Allogromiida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allogromiida
[5] "Fusulinid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusulinid
[6] "Globigerinida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globigerinida
[7] "Miliolid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miliolid
[8] "Rotaliida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotaliida
[9] "Textulariida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textulariida
[10]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P4356&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

[11]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protist.php?func=integrate&myID=P2007&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&excludeNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

  
540,000,000 YBN
3
340) Lophotrochozoa Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu1 } (ribbon worms).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemertea&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c541)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
540,000,000 YBN
3
341) Ecdysozoa Tardigrades {ToRDiGRADZ1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "tardigrade." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
540,000,000 YBN
3
342) Ecdysozoa Onychophorans {oniKoFereNS1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "onychophoran." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
535,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
114) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p124-125.
2. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford University
Press, Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
3. ^ Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003, p
73.
4. ^ Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological Predictions of
Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on} {539 MYBN (based on mollusca}
  
533,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
343) Lophotrochozoa Mollusks evolve. Mollusks includes snails, clams, mussels,
and the cephalopods: squids and octopuses.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009, p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.php
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c539)
5. ^ Caron, Jean-Bernard et al. "A soft-bodied mollusc
with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale." Nature 442.7099 (2006):
159-163. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v442/n7099/full/nature04894.html

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
530,000,000 YBN
2
338) Lophotrochozoa annelids (segmented worms).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c537)

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201563
  
530,000,000 YBN
3 4
339) Ecdysozoa Arthropods evolve (crustaceans, insects).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)
4. ^ Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?pos=0
  
530,000,000 YBN
350) Vertebrates evolve.2 This Subphylum contains most fishes, and all
amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
  
530,000,000 YBN
2
6637) Jawless fishes.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p364-371.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New Series,
Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19, 1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1655241
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=41579
  
520,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
133) Arthropods Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo1 ) (horseshoe crabs, mites, spiders,
scorpions).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelicerata&submit=Submit
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ J. W. Shultz
(2007). "A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological
characters". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150: 221–265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1096-3642.2007.00284.x
4. ^ D. Waloszek, J.A. Dunlop, "A larval sea spider (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida)
from the Upper Cambrian ‘Orsten’ of Sweden and the phylogenetic position of
pycnogonids", Palaeontology, 45 (2002), pp.
421–446 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1475-4983.00244/abstract
5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p168.
6. ^
Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210-211.
7. ^ Palmer,
et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p66-67.
8. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
2009, p251-253.

MORE INFO
[1] Charbonnier, S, J Vannier, and B Riou. “New Sea Spiders from the
Jurassic La Voulte-sur-Rhône Lagerstätte.” Proceedings of the Royal Society
B: Biological Sciences 274, no. 1625 (October 22, 2007): 2555
–2561. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1625/2555.full
[2] Dunlop and Seldon, "The Early History and Phylogeny of the Chelicerates",
in Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relatioinships", 1997, p231
earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten, Sweden4   
520,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7
346) Deuterostome Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS 1 } (sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand
dollars, star fish).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "echinoderm." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Adam M. English, Loren E. Babcock, Census of the Indian Springs
Lagerstätte, Poleta Formation (Cambrian), western Nevada, USA,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 295, Issues 1–2, 1
September 2010, Pages 236-244, ISSN 0031-0182,
10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.05.041. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S0031018210003287)

4. ^ J. Wyatt Durham, "Notes on the Helicoplacoidea and Early Echinoderms",
Journal of Paleontology , Vol. 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1967), pp.
97-102 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1301905
5. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p66.
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p384.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=126698
  
520,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
6349) The arthropods trilobites evolve.1 2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H. Nature 391, 553-558 (1998). Article
ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
2. ^ http://www.nature.com0/nature/journal/v427/n6971/full/427205a.html (here
it is claimed they are trilobite embryos)
3. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
4. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html
5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It
Matters", 2007, p168.
6. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of the Earth", sixth
edition, 2002, p210-211.
7. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental evolution: insights from
studies of insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/266/5185/581.abstract {science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my {510 mybn}
8. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/trilobita/trilobitafr.html {540 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.trilobites.info/biostratigraphy.htm
[2] http://www.trilobites.info/origins.htm
[3] Babcock, L.E., S Peng, G. Geyer, & J.H. Shergold. 2005.
Changing perspectives on Cambrian chronostratigraphy and progress toward
subdivision of the Cambrian System. Geosci. Journal
9(2):101-6. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t7062n5744462260/
[4] Niles Eldredge, "Trilobites and Evolutionary Patterns", p305-332 in Anthony
Hallam, "Patterns of evolution as illustrated by the fossil record, Volume 5",
1977, p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=q7GjDIyyWegC
[5] Hughes, N. 2007. The evolution of trilobite body patterning. Annu.
Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2007.
35:401–34. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.earth.35.0313
06.140258

[6] Richard A. Fortey "Trilobite Systematics: The Last 75 Years", Journal of
Paleontology , Vol. 75, No. 6, 75th Anniversary Issue (Nov., 2001), pp.
1141-1151 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1307082
[7] http://www.palaeos.org/Cambrian_Stage_3
  
513,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
6351) Arthropods Crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, lobsters, barnicles).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
2. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark
Williams, and Dieter Waloszek, "An early Cambrian phosphatocopid crustacean
with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts from Shropshire, England",
Special Papers in Paleontology, 70, 2003
3. ^ Siveter, David J., Mark Williams, and
Dieter Waloszek. “A Phosphatocopid Crustacean with Appendages from the Lower
Cambrian.” Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001): 479
–481. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/479.abstract
4. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek, "An early Cambrian
phosphatocopid crustacean with three-dimensionally preserved soft parts from
Shropshire, England", Special Papers in Paleontology, 70, 2003
5. ^ Siveter, David
J., Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek. “A Phosphatocopid Crustacean with
Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.” Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001):
479 –481. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5529/479.abstract
6. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009, p66-67.
7. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
8. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395

MORE INFO
[1]
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Crustacea/fossils.html
[2] http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0719_crustacean.html
earliest fossils: Shropshire, England2 3   
501,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
6348) Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu1 } (centipedes and millipedes).2
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Robison, Richard A.
“Earliest-known Uniramous Arthropod.” Nature 343.6254 (1990): 163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html
{Robison_19900111.pdf}
4. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
5. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from the
Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596 {Budd_2001.pdf}
6. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A.
Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in the Silurian: Arachnids and
Myriapods from Shropshire, England.” Science 250, no. 4981 (November 2,
1990): 658 –661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;250/4981/658
7. ^ Robison, Richard A. “Earliest-known Uniramous Arthropod.”
Nature 343.6254 (1990): 163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html
{Robison_19900111.pdf}
8. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
9. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from the
Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596 {Budd_2001.pdf}
10. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B.,
Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and
Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land: Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern Ontario, Canada.” Geology
30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
11. ^ Budd, G.E., Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like
arthropod from the Upper Cambrian of East Siberia: Paläontologische
Zeitschrift, v. 75p. 37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03022596
12. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W.
Dalrymple, Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First
Steps on Land: Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
13. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A. Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in
the Silurian: Arachnids and Myriapods from Shropshire, England.” Science 250,
no. 4981 (November 2, 1990): 658
–661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmgr?gca=sci;250/4981/658
14. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
15. ^ William A Shear, Andrew J Jeram and Paul Selden, "Centiped legs
(Arthropoda, Chilopoda, Scutigeromorpha) from the Silurian and Devonian of
Britain and the Devonian of North America.", American Museum novitates
3231:1-16 (1998) http://biostor.org/reference/30111
16. ^ Grimaldi, Engels, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p107-108.
17. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
18. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p111.
earliest possible fossils: (Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA3 4
and (Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia5 |(earliest fossils) Shropshire,
England6   
488,000,000 YBN
4
6314) During the Ordovician (ORDeVisiN1 } the number of genera {JeN-R-u2 } will
quadruple.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/genera>.
3. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.
4. ^ "Ordovician radiation." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1312376/Ordovician-radiation>.

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levine, "The Eath Through Time", 2006, p333
  
475,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
244) Non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo3 }, (Liverworts,
Hornworts, Mosses).4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ "Bryophyta."
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01 Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Bryophyta>.
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
6. ^ Palmer, et
al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
7. ^ S26 (c475)
8. ^ S15 (c475)

MORE INFO
[1] "Bryophyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryophyte
[2] "Bryophyta." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bryophyta-1
  
475,000,000 YBN
8 9
398) Plants live on land.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
2. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
5. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
8. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L. Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin. “Fragments
of the earliest land plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html
{475 MYBN}
9. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya7   
472,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
402) The first animals live on land, arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and
millipedes).4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
2. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
3. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
4. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p109-110.
6. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
7. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
8. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone, Southeastern
Ontario, Canada.” Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391
9. ^ Heather M. Wilson and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of
Paleozoic Millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland",
Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
10. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p67.
earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston, Ontario, Canada7   
460,000,000 YBN
5
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo2 } First vertebrate
teeth.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^ "Gnathostomata." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and
Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 29 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostomata-1
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363. {460 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p106,110
[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl
Oceans4   
460,000,000 YBN
2 3
404) Jawed fishes Cartilaginous fishes (ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates,
and sawfishes).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^ Miller, Randall F., Richard Cloutier, and Susan Turner.
“The Oldest Articulated Chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian Period.”
Nature 425.6957 (2003): 501–504. Web. 23 May
2012. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html {M
iller_Chondrichthyans_2003.pdf}
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
  
460,000,000 YBN
2 3
458) Earliest fungi on land. Ancestor of all terrestrial fungi.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
2. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
3. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
  
460,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9
6414) Fungi "Glomeromycota" {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu1 }.2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex multicellular life",
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^ Redecker
D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician". Science
289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
6. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c750mybn)
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). (c1460 to 1210mybn)
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (estimate that between 947 and 968)

MORE INFO
[1] http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomeromycetes&submit=Submit
[2] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
[3] Redecker, Dirk,
and Philipp Raab. "Phylogeny of the Glomeromycota (arbuscular Mycorrhizal
Fungi): Recent Developments and New Gene Markers." Mycologia 98.6 (November):
2006, p885 –895. http://www.mycologia.org/content/98/6/885.abstract
earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA5   
440,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
236) Vascular plants evolve.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline
for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution,
(2004).
5. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p96.
6. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points
of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c400)
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
7. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c390)
  
440,000,000 YBN
4 5
360) Bony fishes.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
3. ^ "bony fish." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/osteichthyes
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363. {440 MYBN}
5. ^ Palmet et al, "Primitive Life",
2009, p97.

MORE INFO
[1] "teleost." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/teleost
Ocean and fresh water2 3   
440,000,000 YBN
4
6172) The first lung evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p338-363. {440
MYBN (guess based on ray-finned fish evolving}

MORE INFO
[1] Farmer, C.G. 1999. The evolution of the vertebrate cardio-pulmonary
system. Annual Review of Physiology
61:573-592 http://biologylabs.utah.edu/farmer/publications%20pdf/1999%20AnnuRev
Physiol61.pdf

Ocean (presumably)3   
425,000,000 YBN
2
377) Lobe-fin fishes.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p335-338.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p335-338.

MORE INFO
[1] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=89942
[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=42376
  
420,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
6350) Arthropod Hexapods (six legs, includes all insects).1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Timothy Duane Schowalter, "Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p66,116.
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects,
2005, p146.
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p66,116.
6. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.
7. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395

MORE INFO
[1] Blaxter, Mark. “Evolutionary Biology: Sum of the Arthropod
Parts.” Nature 413.6852 (2001):
121–122. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v413/n6852/full/413121a0.html
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Scotland3   
416,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
6352) Insects.1 2 Bristletail and Silverfish.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
2. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
5. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny:
hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic",
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p250-254.
7. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p1. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA1
  
400,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
227) Fungi "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu1 } (yeasts, truffles, Penicillium,
morels {mu reLZ2 }).3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ "morel." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp, "The oldest fossil ascomycetes",
Nature 399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

7. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp, "The oldest fossil ascomycetes", Nature
399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

8. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486): 1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077684
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1009my)
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1140my)
11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of Fungi", 2008, p142
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Aberdeenshire, Scotland6   
400,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5
237) Vascular plants ferns evolve.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p110.
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points
of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c390 (360
for living species)
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c390)
5. ^ Taylor, Thomas N.;
Edith L. Taylor. (1993). The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 332–334. ISBN 0-13-651589-4.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.full
(318mybn)
[2] Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (350mybn)
  
385,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
405) The first forests.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed Landing2
& Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the
Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
4. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
5. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma
of the Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
6. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed Landing2
& Christopher M. Berry3, "Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the
Earth's earliest forest stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html
{385 mybn}
7. ^ Palmet et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p111.
8. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {380mybn}
earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York, USA5   
385,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect. Ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu4 }) (Mayflies, Dragonflies, Damselflies).5 6 7

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
2. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
3. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
4. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterygota&submit=Submit
5. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157
6. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
7. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
8. ^ Knecht, R. J., Engel, M. S., & Benner, J. S. (2011). Late carboniferous
paleoichnology reveals the oldest full-body impression of a flying insect.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 108 (16),
6515-6519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1015948108
9. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I (2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in
the Lower Carboniferous of the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic
(Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

10. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146
11. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p163. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA163
12. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p142.
13. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
14. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {315 MYBN}
15. ^ Regier,
et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and
maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February 22; 272(1561):
395–401. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
16. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p142.

MORE INFO
[1] Engel MS, Grimaldi DA (2004) New light shed on the oldest insect.
Nature 427: 627–630
[2] Grimaldi D, Engel MS (2005) Evolution of the Insects (Cambridge
Univ. Press, Cambridge)
[3] Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I (2005) Discovery of the oldest known
Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech
Republic (Insecta: Archoaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

[4] "Orthoptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/orthoptera-1
[5] David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p159. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA159
earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts8 and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic9   
375,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
380) The first tetrapods evolve (organisms with four feet), the amphibians.3
First limbs (arms and legs) and fingers.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
6. ^ S. Blair
Hedges, "The origin and evolution of model organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics
3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} {375(360+-15) mybn}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329. {340 mybn}
8. ^ P. E. Ahlberg, "Tetrapod
or near-tetrapod fossils from the Upper Devonian of Scotland", Nature 354, 298
- 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html {368
mybn (fossil}
9. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibfr.html {368
mybn (fossil}
10. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{368 mybn (fossil}
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)5   
363,000,000 YBN
4 5
379) The first vertebrates live on land (an amphibian).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{363mybn}
5. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/tetrafr.html {360mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] P. E. Ahlberg, "Tetrapod or near-tetrapod fossils from the Upper
Devonian of Scotland", Nature 354, 298 - 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html
[2] http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/tetrapods/amphibfr.html
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)3   
360,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
226) Fungi "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu1 } (most mushrooms, rusts, club
fungi).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidiomycota&submit=Submit
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck CB (1985) Studies of
Paleozoic fungi. V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon newberryi from
the Upper Devonian. Am J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.ku.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734
6. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck CB (1985)
Studies of Paleozoic fungi. V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon newberryi
from the Upper Devonian. Am J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.ku.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734
7. ^ Michael Krings, Nora Dotzler, Jean Galtier and
Thomas N. Taylor, "Oldest fossil basidiomycete clamp connections", Mycoscience,
Volume 52, Number 1 (2011), 18-23, DOI:
10.1007/s10267-010-0065-4 http://www.springerlink.com/content/725614321xj0604w/

8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (968my)
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1210my)
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Basidiomycota". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basidiomycota
[2] McLAUGHLIN, DAVID J., ALAN BECKETT, and KWON S. YOON. “Ultrastructure and
Evolution of Ballistosporic Basidiospores.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society 91.1-2 (1985):
253–271. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1985.tb01149.
x/abstract

earliest fossils: Indiana5   
360,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
6353) Folding wing insects.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig,
and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
2. ^ Garwood, Russell, and Mark Sutton. “X-ray Micro-tomography of
Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: New Insights into Early Insects.” Biology
Letters 6.5 (2010): 699 –702.
Print. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/5/699.full
3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
4. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
5. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
6. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
7. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
8. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
9. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005 February
22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/272/1561/395
10. ^ Garwood, Russell, and Mark Sutton. “X-ray Micro-tomography of
Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: New Insights into Early Insects.” Biology
Letters 6.5 (2010): 699 –702.
Print. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/6/5/699.full

MORE INFO
[1] Video: Virtual fossil of Archimylacris eggintoni,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yR-_nq2UsOc
earliest fossils: (Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK2   
359,000,000 YBN
11 12
243) The first plant seed evolves. Ancestor of all seed plants.5 6 7 8
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler. “The
earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
2. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
3. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64, 29,
201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
4. ^ "Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
5. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and
Stephen E. Scheckler. “The earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
6. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
7. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc. Edinburgh V64, 29,
201, 261 (1960); ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
8. ^ "Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosperms
9. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science,
New Series, Vol. 142, No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
10. ^ "Genomosperma kidstonii." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 27
Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/229254/Genomosperma-kidstonii>.
11. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577 {359
MYBN (Lower Carboniferous}
12. ^ "Genomosperma kidstonii." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica,
2011. Web. 27 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/229254/Genomosperma-kidstonii>. {359
MYBN (Lower Carboniferous}

MORE INFO
[1] "Gymnosperms". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperms
[2] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
[3] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal
of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 (c320 (360 for living species)
[4] Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)
[5] Dr. Singh, Dr. Pande & Dr.
Jain, "Diversity and Systematics of Seed Plants",
2005. http://books.google.com/books?id=GTUgfghg80gC
[6] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
earliest fossils: Scotland9 10   
350,000,000 YBN
2
361) Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and Paddlefish.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {350 MYBN}
  
350,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9
6355) Insects Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu1 } (Cockroaches, Termites).2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dictyoptera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
3. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001.
Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
5. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
6. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p143.
7. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous of
the Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
8. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
9. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.

MORE INFO
[1] "orthopteran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 06 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/433540/orthopteran/39576/Evoluti
on-and-paleontology
>
  
340,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
384) The hard-shell egg evolves.5 The Amniota {aMnEOtu6 } (ancestor of
reptiles, mammals and birds).7
Start of vertebrate internal fertilization.8

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p234.
5. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
6. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=amniota&submit=Submit
7. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1
8. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p234.
9. ^
T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678 (07
December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html
10. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil Reported Found in Scotland",
NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html

11. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.
12. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678 (07
December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html {338
MYBN (oldest reptil fossil}
13. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil Reported
Found in Scotland", NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html
{338 MYBN (oldest reptil fossil}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {310 MYBN}
15. ^
"Eryops". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eryops
{295 MYBN (verify}
16. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree", 2009.
17. ^ Benton, Michael J., and
Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.”
Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract

MORE INFO
[1] Romer, Alfred Sherwood, Price, Llewellyn Ivor, "The oldest vertebrate
egg", Am J Sci 1939 237:
826-829. http://www.ajsonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/237/11/826?maxtoshow=&hi
ts=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&title=The+oldest+vertebrate+egg&andorexacttitle=and&andorex
acttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevanc
e&resourcetype=HWCIT

[2] Karl F. Hirsch, "The Oldest Vertebrate Egg?", Journal of Paleontology, Vol.
53, No. 5 (Sep., 1979), pp. 1068-1084. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1304086
[3] Robert R. Reisz, Johannes Müller, Molecular
timescales and the fossil record: a paleontological perspective, Trends in
Genetics, Volume 20, Issue 5, 1 May 2004, Pages 237-241, ISSN 0168-9525,
10.1016/j.tig.2004.03.007. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
168952504000757)

[4] "fenestrae." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fenestrae>
[5] "orbit." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/orbit>
earliest fossils: Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland9 10   
335,000,000 YBN
5 6
6331) The tetrapod Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu1 } (which
includes reptiles and birds) and the Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du2 } (which includes
mammals).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sauropsida&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=synapsida&submit=Submit
3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002, p108.
4. ^ Carroll, R.L., 1964, The
ear1iest reptiles: Jour. Linn. Soc (Zool.), v. 45, p.
61-83. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1964.tb00488.x/ab
stract

5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007, p232.
6. ^
Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to
Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract

MORE INFO
[1] Prothero, "Evolution What the Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p271
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p263
[3] Reisz RR. Pelycosaurian reptiles from the Middle
Pennsylvanian of North America. Bull Mus Comp Zool Harv
1972;144:27-62. http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object
_id=47789&local_base=GEN01-MCG02

[4] "reptile." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/reptile
earliest possible Synapsid fossils: (Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada4   
325,000,000 YBN
2 3
381) Amphibians: Caecilians.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {325 MYBN}
3. ^ Roelants, K., Gower, D. J.,
Wilkinson, M., Loader, S. P., Biju, S. D., Guillaume, K., Moriau, L., &
Bossuyt, F. (2007). Global patterns of diversification in the history of modern
amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 104 (3),
887-892. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0608378104 {370 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Andrea E. Feller, S. Blair Hedges, Molecular Evidence for the Early
History of Living Amphibians, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 9,
Issue 3, June 1998, Pages 509-516, ISSN 1055-7903, DOI:
10.1006/mpev.1998.0500. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055
790398905000)

  
320,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
238) Seed plants: Gymnosperms (ancestor of all Cycads, Ginkgos and the
Conifers: Pine, Fir, Spruce, Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, and Cypress1 2 ).3 4

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
2. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia
Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2012.
Answers.com 23 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes",
Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor, and M. Krings.
Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Elsevier Science,
2008.
6. ^ Norstog K, Nicholls TJ. 1997.The biology of cycads. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press.
7. ^ Pant, D.D., R. Osborne, and Birbal Sahni Institute of
Palaeobotany. An Introduction to Gymnosperms, Cycas, and Cycadales. Birbal
Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, 2002. BSIP
Monograph. http://books.google.com/books?ei=twN6UJqpA5D2qQGvhYHoAQ
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf} (c320 (360 for
living species)
9. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto
and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350 (300 for radiation)

MORE INFO
[1] "Gymnosperms". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperms
[2] Gillespie, William H., Gar W. Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler. “The
earliest seeds.” Nature 293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html
[3] Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142, No.
3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp. 925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711577
[4] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Main/Overview/3213.htm
  
320,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
6356) Insects Orthoptera (crickets, grasshoppers).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
2. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191
3. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
4. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p208.

MORE INFO
[1] "orthopteran". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 06 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/433540/orthopteran/39576/Evoluti
on-and-paleontology
>
[2] http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/orthopteroids.html#A
  
317,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
385) Reptiles evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue.
“Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and
Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What The Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2009, p232.
5. ^
T. R. Smithson, "The earliest known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678 (07
December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html
{338MYBN (oldest reptile fossil}
6. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil
Reported Found in Scotland", NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html
{338MYBN (oldest reptile fossil}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {310 MYBN}
8. ^
Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence to
Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/1/26.abstract
earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada3   
310,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5 6 7
6357) Insects Paraneoptera (Lice, cicadas, aphids).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
2. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p146.
3. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous
Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major
Holometabola Lineages.” Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
4. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/hemipteroids.html
5. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p286.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p321.
  
310,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
6359) Holometabolous {HoLomeTaBoluS or HOlOmeTABoluS1 2 } insects (ancestor of
beetles, bees, true flies, and butterflies). Complete metamorphosis.3

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ "holometabolous." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Jan.
2013. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/holometabolous>.
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=holometabolous+&submit=Submit
3. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p146,331.
4. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p146.
5. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
7. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C.
“Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and the Early
Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages.”
Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
  
305,000,000 YBN
2
242) Amphibians: Frogs.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {305 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Neil H. Shubin and Farish A. Jenkins, Jr (7 September 1995). "An
Early Jurassic jumping frog". Nature 377 (6544): 49–52.
doi:10.1038/377049a0.http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v377/n6544/full/377049
a0.html

[2] "Pliensbachian Stage." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 27 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/464801/Pliensbachian-Stage>
  
299,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
6360) Insects Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu1 2 } (Beetles).3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Coleoptera." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coleoptera-2
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=coleoptera&submit=Submit
3. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
4. ^ Béthoux, Olivier.
“The Earliest Beetle Identified.” Journal of Paleontology 83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1666/08-158.1
5. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous
Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major
Holometabola Lineages.” Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
6. ^ Béthoux, Olivier. “The Earliest Beetle Identified.” Journal of
Paleontology 83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1666/08-158.1
7. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p146.
8. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA4   
290,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6358) Insects Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps).1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
2. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p146.
3. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C.
“Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and the Early
Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages.”
Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
4. ^ http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
5. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
6. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.
8. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/text02/holometabola.html
  
274,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9
307) Protists: Brown Algae evolve.1 2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle,
"A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full {Baldauf_Doolittle_199911
17.pdf} has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ Linda Medlin,
et al, "Phylogenic relationships of the 'golden algae' (haptophytes, heterokont
chromophytes) and their plastids", Plant Systematics and Evolution
(Supplement), v11, 1997, p187-219. http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf
{genetic) 274 mybn}
5. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale
for eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{genetic) 200 mybn}
6. ^ Zhu Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the 1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi Formation in
the Jixian Area, North China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270, No. 5236 (Oct.
27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2888330 {Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
{Fossil) 1600-1800 mybn}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). {Alveolates) 1956mybn} {Alveolates and
Plants) 1956mybn}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009.
http://www.timetree.org/book.php {1345 my}
9. ^ Cécile Gueidan, Constantino
Ruibal, G.S. de Hoog, Harald Schneider, Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during
periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic, Fungal
Biology, Volume 115, Issue 10, October 2011, Pages 987-996, ISSN 1878-6146,
10.1016/j.funbio.2011.04.002. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S1878614611000675)
{822.5 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science,
Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/5493/972.full has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
[2] Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. et al. “The
timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile
proteins and fossils?” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386
-15391. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386.long
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary producers in
the sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
[5] "Phaeophyta". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaeophyta
[6] Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989)
[7] "Brown algae". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_algae
[8] http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30.html
  
266,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
308) Protists: Diatoms.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883
2. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin, L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A reconstruction of their age from small subunit rRNA
coding regions and the fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790396900883 {no
earlier than) 266 MYBN}
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf} (1973mybn) {Alveolates) 1956mybn}
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/4/2
  
260,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
232) Earliest warm-blooded and hair growing animal.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

2. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

3. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates in Therapsids: Evidence for Late Permian
Origins of Mammalian Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2 (Apr., 1994), pp.
207-229. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
4. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of endothermy in
mammals and birds: from physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441
{c250 MYBN (Late Permian}
5. ^ Ted Huntington. {230 MYBN (between crocodilia
240mybn and pterosaur 220mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Schweitzer, Mary Higby, and Cynthia Lee Marshall. “A molecular
model for the evolution of endothermy in the theropod-bird lineage.” Journal
of Experimental Zoology 291.4 (2001) :
317-338. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1132/abstract
  
256,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
6362) Insects: Diptera1 {DiPTRe2 } true flies, single pair of wings: ancestor
of mosquito, gnat, fruit fly, and house fly)3 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
2. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
3. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of
Science and Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07
May. 2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of Life", 2009, p260-263.
5. ^ Labandeira,
Conrad C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and
the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages.”
Entomologica Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1664/10-RA-011.1
6. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
7. ^ Wiegmann, Brian M. et al. “Episodic Radiations in the Fly Tree of
Life.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2011): n.
pag. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/03/15/1012675108.full.pdf+html
8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p469.

MORE INFO
[1] Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p197
  
251,400,000 YBN
2 3 4
102) Largest mass extinction of history.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
2. ^ Jin YG, Wang Y, Wang W, Shang QH, Cao CQ, Erwin DH (2000).
"Pattern of Marine Mass Extinction Near the Permian–Triassic Boundary in
South China". Science 289 (5478): 432–436. Bibcode 2000Sci...289..432J.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5478.432. PMID 10903200. {251.4 MYBN}
3. ^ Bowring SA, Erwin
DH, Jin YG, Martin MW, Davidek K, Wang W (1998). "U/Pb Zircon Geochronology and
Tempo of the End-Permian Mass Extinction". Science 280 (5366): 1039–1045.
doi:10.1126/science.280.5366.1039. {251.4 MYBN}
4. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148 {245 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
[2] http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/06/060601174729.htm
[3] http://www.ia.ucsb.edu/pa/display.aspx?pkey=1073
  
251,000,000 YBN
452) Supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe) forms.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
  
235,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
304) Protists Haptophytes {HaPTuFITu1 } (Coccolithophores {KoK-o-lit-O-FORZ2
}).3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=haptophyta&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=coccolithophores&submit=Submit
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based
on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972, (2000).has
heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
6. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N. Taylor,
and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants.
Elsevier Science, 2008, p145. http://books.google.com/books?id=_29tNNeQKeMC
7. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and Evolution
21.5 (2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract {c1050 mybn}
8. ^
Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{920 mybn}
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.php {genetic)1382 mybn}
10. ^ De
Vargas, Aubry, Probert, Young, "Origin and Evolution of Cocolithophores: From
Coastal Hunters to Oceanic Farmers", Chapter 12, p251. in: Paul G. Falkowski,
Andrew H. Knoll, "Evolution of primary producers in the sea",
2007. http://books.google.com/books?id=5tRSAr1JMhwC {DNA)1900mybn}
{genetic)1900mybn}
11. ^ Linda Medlin, et al, "Phylogenic relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids", Plant Systematics
and Evolution (Supplement), v11, 1997,
p187-219. http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.pdf {DNA)1750 mybn} {genetic)1750
mybn}
12. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/prymnesiophyta.html {possible
fossil) 318mybn}
13. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with the continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{genetic) 920 mybn}
14. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/
{possible fossil) 318mybn}
15. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/prymnesiophyta.html {certain fossil)
201mybn}
16. ^ http://www.geosociety.org/science/timescale/ {certain fossil) 201mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of
Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). (has heterkonts before ciliophora and apicomplexa branch)
[4]
http://www.life.umd.edu/labs/delwiche/PSlife/lectures/Haptophyta.html
  
228,000,000 YBN
10 11 12
412) Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.4 5 6 7
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154.
2. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and
the early evolution of Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
4. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154.
5. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
6. ^ "dinosaur." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dinosaur
7. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and
the early evolution of Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
8. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and
the early evolution of Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
9. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154.
10. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al.
“Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html {228
MYBN}
11. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm {228 MYBN}
12. ^ Benton,
"Vertebrate Paleontology", 2005, p154. {230-220 MYBN}
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina8 9   
225,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
126) Mammals evolve.2 First mammary gland.3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic of
West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 13,
No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on
behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
2. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic of
West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 13,
No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on
behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper
Triassic of West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology,
Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis,
Ltd. on behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
5. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic of
West Texas: The Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 13,
No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp. 309-334 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on
behalf of The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514 {225 MYBN}
6. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p197.
7. ^ Palmer, Tree of Life,
2009. http://timetree.org/pdf/Shedlock2009Chap52.pdf

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.abqtrib.com/albq/nw_science/article/0,2668,ALBQ_21236_4546322,00.html

earliest fossils: (Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA4   
225,000,000 YBN
2 3
369) Teleost (TeLEoST) fishes evolve.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p197.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Inoue, JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M (2003) "Basal
actinopterygian relationships: A mitogenomic perspective on the phylogeny of
the ldquoancient fish.rdquo" Mol Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790302003317
  
220,000,000 YBN
2 3
387) Reptiles: Turtles.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p196.
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p262. {300 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "terrapin." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/terrapin
  
220,000,000 YBN
7 8
428) The first flying vertebrate (Pterosaur).4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Éric Buffetaut, "Evolution and palaeobiology of pterosaurs", Geological
Society, 2003, p107. http://books.google.com/books?id=8CKYxcylOycC
2. ^ Steven M. Stanley, "Earth System History", Third edition,
2009, p390.
3. ^ Unwin, David M. “Pterosaurs: back to the traditional model?”
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14.7 (1999) :
263-268. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534799016055
4. ^ Éric Buffetaut, "Evolution and palaeobiology of pterosaurs", Geological
Society, 2003, p107. http://books.google.com/books?id=8CKYxcylOycC
5. ^ Steven M. Stanley, "Earth System History", Third edition,
2009, p390.
6. ^ Unwin, David M. “Pterosaurs: back to the traditional model?”
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14.7 (1999) :
263-268. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169534799016055
7. ^ Peter Wellnhofer, "Pterosaurs", 1991, p59-60,166. {220MYBN}
8. ^
http://www.dinodata.net/DNM/dallav.htm {215 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] http://dipbsf.uninsubria.it/paleo/dvecchia.htm
[2] Eberhard Frey, Helmut Tischlinger, Marie-Céline Buchy, and David
M. Martill, "New specimens of Pterosauria (Reptilia) with soft parts with
implications for pterosaurian anatomy and locomotion ", Geological Society,
London, Special Publications 2003, 217:233-266;
doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.217.01.14
  
210,000,000 YBN
2
390) Reptiles: iguanas, chameleons, and spiny lizards.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p261-301. {210 MYBN}
  
210,000,000 YBN
2
391) Reptiles: snakes, skinks, and geckos.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {210 MYBN}
  
200,000,000 YBN
2
370) Teleosts: eels and tarpons.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {200 MYBN}
  
200,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
392) Reptiles: crocodiles, allegators, caimans {KAmeNS}.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ "crocodile." Encyclop�dia Britannica. Encyclop�dia
Britannica Online. Encyclop�dia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143679/crocodile>.
3. ^ Cracraft, J., and M.J. Donoghue. Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford
University Press, USA, 2004. Nueva Colecci�n Labor,
p452. http://books.google.com/books?id=6lXTP0YU6_kC&pg=PA452
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301. {245 MYBN}
  
190,000,000 YBN
2
371) Teleosts: herrings and anchovies.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {190 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=201773&tree=0.1
  
190,000,000 YBN
3
6289) Supercontinent Pangea splits into Laurasia and Gondwana. The northern
part, Laurasia will form North America and Europe. The southern part, Gondwana
will form South America and Africa.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375.
2. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375.
3. ^ Harold Levin, "The
Earth Through Time", Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375. {190 mybn}
Pangea2   
190,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10
6347) Insects Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu1 } (moths, butterflies, caterpillars).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lepidoptera&submit=Submit
2. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol
Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
3. ^ Douzery et al., "The timing of eukaryotic evolution: does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
2004. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386.abstract
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p556.
5. ^ Palmer, et al,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p224.
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p556.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p469.
8. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009, p262.
9. ^ Douzery et al., "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: does a relaxed molecular clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
2004. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/43/15386.abstract
10. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/5/748.full.pdf {Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
earliest fossils: Dorset, England4   
180,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
456) Earliest extant mammals, Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ1 } evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "monotreme." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/monotreme
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 238-260.
3. ^ "monotreme." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/monotreme
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {180 MYBN}
5. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
6. ^ Hedges,
Tree of Life, 2009 http://timetree.org/pdf/Madsen2009Chap68.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Monotremata". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotremata
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea3   
170,000,000 YBN
2
372) Teleosts: carp, minnows, piranhas.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {170 MYBN}
  
170,000,000 YBN
2
373) Teleosts: salmon, trout, pike.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
  
170,000,000 YBN
2 3
383) Amphibians: Salamanders.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p225.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {305 MYBN}
  
150,000,000 YBN
2
374) Teleosts: Lightfish and Dragonfish.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {150 MYBN}
  
150,000,000 YBN
3
393) Birds evolve. The first feather.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {245 MYBN} {245 MYBN (bird and croc split}

MORE INFO
[1] Xu, X., Z. Tang, and X. Wang. 1999a. A therizinosauroid dinosaur with
integumentary structures from China. Nature, 399350-354
[2] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and
RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves:
Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion.”
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149.1 (2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full
[3] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their
Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
[4] Hedges, S. Blair et al. “Continental breakup and the ordinal
diversification of birds and mammals.” Nature 381.6579 (1996) :
226-229. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v381/n6579/abs/381226a0.html
[5] Ivanov, M., Hrdlickova, S. & Gregorova, R. (2001) The Complete Encyclopedia
of Fossils. Rebo Publishers, Netherlands. pp. 312
[6] Zhang, Z., Gao, C., Meng, Q.,
Liu, J., Hou, L., & Zheng, G. (2009). Diversification in an early cretaceous
avian genus: evidence from a new species of Confuciusornis from china. Journal
of Ornithology , 150 (4), 783-790. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-009-0399-x
[7] Hou L, Zhou Z, Gu Y, Zhang H (1995a) Confuciusornis sanctus, a new Late
Jurassic sauriurine bird from China. Chin Sci Bull 40:1545–1551
  
145,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
245) Seed plants angiosperms. The first flowering plant.5 6 7 Almost all
grains, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices come from plants with
flowers.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.short
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1088868/
4. ^ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/anthophyta.html
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
8. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/anthophyta.html
9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p607-613.
10. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
11. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.short (175mybn) {Gymno-angio spilt)
320 mybn (radiation at 180my}
12. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution,
(2004). http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/5/809.abstract (c100mybn)
{320-290 mybn (radiation at 100 mybn}
13. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009,
p135. http://timetree.org/pdf/Magallon2009Chap11.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Fruit". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit
[2] THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP. “An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group Classification for the Orders and Families of Flowering Plants: APG
III.” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161.2 (2009):
105–121. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339
[3] Kumar, Hedges, "Time Tree of Life", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly China  
143,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
6288) Earliest extant flower "Amborella".1 2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia,
Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
6. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (175mybn) {179mybn}
8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal
of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (175mybn)
9. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(c100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] "Fruit". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit
[2] Sun, G. , Dilcher, D. L. , Zheng, S.-L. & Zhou, Z.-K. In search of the
first flower: A Jurassic angiosperm, Archaefructus, from northeast China.
Science 282, 1692–1695
(1998). http://www.sciencemag.org/content/282/5394/1692
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2896858
  
140,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
247) Flowers: Nymphaeales {niM-FE-A-lEZ1 } (water lilies).2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ based on: http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nymphaeaceae
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal
of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (171mybn)
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (165mybn)
  
140,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14
457) Marsupials evolve.3 First nipple and breast.4 5
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p230-237.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p230-237.
4. ^ Williams, W.R. A Monograph
on Diseases of the Breast: Their Pathology and Treatment, with Special
Reference to Cancer. Bale, 1894,
p9. http://books.google.com/books?id=QB01AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA9
5. ^ Loke, Y.W. Life�s Vital Link: The Astonishing Role of the Placenta. OUP
Oxford, 2013. http://books.google.com/books?id=ELoP_omQfkoC&pg=PP34
6. ^ Rincon, Paul (2003-12-12). "Rincon, P., Oldest Marsupial Ancestor
Found, BBC, Dec 2003". BBC News. Retrieved
2010-03-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3311911.stm
7. ^ "Pickrell, J., Oldest Marsupial Fossil Found in China, National
Geographic, December 2003". News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/12/1215_031215_oldestmarsupial.ht
ml

8. ^ "Vertebrate Paleontology: Sinodelphys szalayi". Carnegie Museum of Natural
History. Retrieved 2010-10-21. http://www.carnegiemnh.org/vp/sinodelphys.html
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p230-237. {140 MYBN}
10. ^ Luo Z, Yuan C, Meng Q &
Ji Q (2011), "A Jurassic eutherian mammal and divergence of marsupials and
placentals", Nature 476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf} {165MYBN}
11. ^ Hedges, Tree of Life,
2009 http://timetree.org/pdf/Madsen2009Chap68.pdf
12. ^ van Rheede, T. et al. The platypus is in its place: nuclear genes and
Indels confirm the sister group relation of monotremes and therians. Mol.
Biol. Evol. 23, 587–597 (2006). {143-178MYBN}
13. ^ Phillips, M. J., Bennett, T. H. & Lee,
M. S. Y. Molecules, morphology, and ecology indicate a recent, amphibious
ancestry for echidnas. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 17089–17094 (2009).
{193-186}
14. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
China6 7 8   
134,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
250) Flowers: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ1 } evolve (magnolia, nutmeg, avocado,
cinnamon, black pepper).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "magnoliid>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
"magnoliid." The American Heritage® Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 20 May. 2012. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/magnoliid>.
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/1437.short
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1088868/
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and
Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). entire group is called magnoliids {179 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
133,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
253) Flowers Eudicots {YUDIKoTS1 } evolve (the largest lineage of flowers).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "eudicot>.". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
"eudicot." The American Heritage® Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 29 Dec. 2011. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/eudicot>.
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (153mybn) {155 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=eudicot&submit=Submit
  
130,000,000 YBN
3
375) Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying fish, pufferfish, barracuda.1 2
FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/TaxonTree.aspx?id=44719&tree=0.1
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {130 MYBN}
  
130,000,000 YBN
2
376) Teleosts: cod, anglerfish.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {130 MYBN}
  
125,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
163) The Eutheria. Placental mammals evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms
with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
2. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon
Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major
Kingdoms of Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
3. ^ Luo Z, Yuan
C, Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), "A Jurassic eutherian mammal and divergence of
marsupials and placentals", Nature 476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf}
4. ^ Luo Z, Yuan C, Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), "A Jurassic eutherian mammal and
divergence of marsupials and placentals", Nature 476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf} {160MYBN}
5. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen
Cho, Elizabeth Little, "Determining Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms of
Living Organisms with a Protein Clock", Science, (1996). {130MYBN}
6. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p225.

MORE INFO
[1] Nature. "Ji, Q., et al., The Earliest Known Eutherian Mammal, Nature,
416, Pages 816-822, Apr 2002". Nature.com.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6883/full/416816a.html
earliest fossils: (Daxigou) Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China3   
120,000,000 YBN
3
463) Neornithes {nEORnitEZ1 } evolve (modern birds).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=neornithes&submit=Submit
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/350Aves/350.800.html#Neornithes
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (estimate from) {120 MYBN (estimate from}

MORE INFO
[1] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order phylogeny
of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II.
Analysis and discussion.” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149.1
(2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full
[2] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their
Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
[3] Brown, Joseph, Joshua Rest, Jaime G. Moreno, Michael Sorenson, and David
Mindell. "Strong mitochondrial DNA support for a Cretaceous origin of modern
avian lineages." BMC Biology 6 (January 2008):
6:6. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/6/6
  
112,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
252) Flowers Monocots evolve: Flowering plants that have a single cotyledon
(seed leaf) in the embryo.1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
3. ^ "Monocotyledon", Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry,
http://www.answers.com/topic/monocotyledon
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and Hedges,
"Time Tree", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (154mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
108,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
254) Flowers: "Basal Eudicots" (buttercup, poppy, macadamia, sycamore).1 2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p612.
6. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (145mybn) {147 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] wiki
  
106,000,000 YBN
6 7
267) Flowers "Core Eudicots" (cactus, caper, buckwheat, rhubarb, venus flytrap,
old world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa, spinach, grape plants).1 2 3 4 5

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
5. ^ wiki
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract (145my)
{124 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 (128mybn)
  
105,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
491) Ancestor of all placental mammal Afrotheres evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p224-229.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p224-229.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p224-229.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p224-229. {105
MYBN}
5. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
6. ^ Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
Africa3   
100,000,000 YBN
3
465) Birds "Ratites" evolve (ostrich, emu, cassowary {KaSOwaRE1 }, kiwis).2
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=cassowary&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (estimate from)
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (estimate from) {100 MYBN
(estimate from}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/350Aves/350.900.html#Ratites
[2] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order
phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative
anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion.” Zoological Journal of the Linnean
Society 149.1 (2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full
[3] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their
Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
  
95,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
498) Placental Mammals "Xenarthrans" {ZeNoRtreNZ1 } evolve (Sloths, Anteaters,
Armadillos).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=xenarthran
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p219-223.
3. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo
Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the
Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
4. ^ Michael
J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
5. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p219-223.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),219-223. {95 MYBN}
7. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy,
Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and
the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
8. ^
Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science,
(2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Cornelis, Guillaume et al. “Ancestral Capture of syncytin-Car1, a
Fusogenic Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene Involved in Placentation and
Conserved in Carnivora.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
109.7 (2012): E432–E441. http://www.pnas.org/content/109/7/E432.abstract
[2] Delsuc, Frédéric et al. “Molecular Phylogenetics Unveils
the Ancient Evolutionary Origins of the Enigmatic Fairy Armadillos.”
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62.2 (2012):
673–680. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790311004799
[3] Shattuck, Milena R., and Scott A. Williams. “Arboreality Has Allowed for
the Evolution of Increased Longevity in Mammals.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences 107.10 (2010): 4635–4639.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/107/10/4635.abstract
South America5   
93,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
256) Flowers: "Rosids" (pomegranate, clove, guava, allspice, eucalyptus).1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (122mybn) {117} {109}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
5 6
261) Flowers "Fabales" {FoBAlEZ1 } evolve (beans, pea, peanut, soy, lentil).2 3
4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=fabaceae
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {94 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
265) Flowers "Base Monocots" (vanilla, orchid, asparagus, onion, garlic, agave,
aloe, lily).1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree
of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p612.
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and Hedges,
"Time Tree", 2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (153my) {141 MYBN} {154 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), Angiosperm
Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/welcome.html
  
93,000,000 YBN
5 6
266) Monocots "Commelinids" {KomelIniDZ1 } evolve (palms, coconut, corn, rice,
barley, oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo, grass, pineapple, papyrus, turmeric
{TRmRiK2 }, banana, ginger).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Commelinidae." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/commelinidae
2. ^ "turmeric." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/turmeric
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
4. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005,
p612.
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (153my) {94 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
6 7
275) Flowers: "Ericales" {AReKAlEZ1 2 } (kiwi, ebony, persimmon, blueberry,
cranberry, brazil nut, new world pitcher plants, tea).3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ericaceae&submit=Submit
2. ^ "Ericales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 02 Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ericales-1
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
4. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {113 MYBN} {100 MYBN} {114 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
5 6
283) Flowers "Apiales" {APEAlEZ1 } (dill, celery, cilantro, carrot, parsnip,
fennel, parsley, ivy).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apiaceae+&submit=Submit
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci.
2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn) {95 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
93,000,000 YBN
5 6
285) Flowers "Asterales" {aSTRAlEZ1 } (tarragon, daisy, artichoke, sunflower,
lettuce, dandelion).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Asterales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/asterales
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.
6. ^ wiki

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
91,000,000 YBN
5 6
259) Flowers: "Malpighiales" {maLPiGEAlEZ1 } (coca, rubber tree, cassava,
poinsettia, willow, poplar, aspen).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Malpighiaceae." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/malpighiaceae-1
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {90 MYBN} {81 MYBN} {91 MYBN}
6. ^
Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
90,000,000 YBN
6
270) Flowers "Brassicales" {BraSiKAlEZ1 } (horseradish, mustard, cabbage,
broccoli, radish, papaya).2 3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=brassicacea
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ wiki
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis
and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of
view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {88 MYBN} {90
MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102my)
  
89,000,000 YBN
5 6
262) Flowers "Rosales" {ROZAlEZ1 } (hemp, hop, jackfruit, fig, strawberry,
rose, raspberry, apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach, almond).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Rosales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/rosales-1
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {87 MYBN} {76 MYBN} {89 MYBN}
6. ^
Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
89,000,000 YBN
5
279) Flowers "Gentianales" {JeNsinAlEZ1 } evolve (oleander, coffee).2 3 4
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ "Gentianales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gentianales-1
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {87 MYBN} {89 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
  
86,000,000 YBN
5
278) Flowers "Solanales" {SOlanAlEZ1 } evolve (bell pepper, tomato, tobacco,
potato, eggplant).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=solanacea
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {87 MYBN} {86 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
Americas  
85,000,000 YBN
5 6
263) Flowers "Cucurbitales" (KYUKRBiTAlEZ1 } evolve (melon, cucumber, pumpkin,
squash, zucchini).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cucurbit." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cucurbit
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {85 MYBN} {65 MYBN}
6. ^ Grimaldi,
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
Americas  
85,000,000 YBN
5 6
264) Flowers "Fagales" {FaGAlEZ1 } (Birch, Hazel {nut}, Chestnut, Beech {nut},
Oak, Walnut, Pecan, Hickory).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Fagales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/fagales-1
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG II", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141
Page 399 - April 2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and
some points of view", American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
{85 MYBN} {61 MYBN}
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p612.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102my)
  
85,000,000 YBN
3
466) Birds "Galliformes" {GaLliFORmEZ1 } evolve (Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant,
Peacock, Quail).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=galliformes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {85 MYBN (estimate from}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/360Galloanserae/360.100.html#Galloanser
ae

  
85,000,000 YBN
3
467) Birds "Anseriformes" {aNSRiFORmEZ1 } evolve (ducks, geese, swans).2
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ "Anseriformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anseriformes-1 and
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anseriformes&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {85 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/360Galloanserae/360.500.html#Anseriform
es

  
85,000,000 YBN
4 5
499) The ancestor of all placental mammal "Laurasiatheres" evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p199-218.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p200. {85 MYBN}
5. ^
Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science,
(2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
Laurasia3   
82,000,000 YBN
6
271) Flowers "Malvales" {moLVAlEZ1 } evolve (okra, cotton, cacao {KoKoU2 }).3 4
5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Malvales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/malvales-1
2. ^ "cacao." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cacao
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
4. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {83 MYBN} {68 MYBN} {82 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102my)
[3] wiki
Americas  
82,000,000 YBN
6
272) Flowers "Sapindales" {SaPiNDAlEZ1 } (maple, citris, cashew, mango,
pistachio).2 3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Sapindales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sapindales-1
and http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=sapindaceae
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ wiki
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). {80 MYBN} {61
MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution
of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102mybn)
Americas  
82,000,000 YBN
3 4
500) Laurasiatheres "Insectivora" evolves (shrews, moles, hedgehogs).1 2
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p199-218.
2. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree
of Life", Science, (2003).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218. {82 MYBN}
4. ^ Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Laurasiatheria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurasiatheria
  
80,000,000 YBN
4
482) Marsupials: New World Opossums.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, Time Tree of Life,
2009. http://timetree.org/pdf/Springer2009Chap70.pdf
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p230-237. {80 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "Didelphimorphia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didelphimorphia
Americas3   
75,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
492) Afrotheres: Aardvark.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {75 MYBN}
4. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy,
Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and
the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
5. ^
Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science,
(2003).
Africa2   
74,000,000 YBN
5
280) Flowers "Lamiales" {lAmEAlEZ1 } (mint, basil, oregano, rosemary, sage,
thyme, sesame, olive, ash, lilac, jasmine).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Lamiales." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lamiales
2. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and
Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen,
MW Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms: calibrating the family tree", Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001). (102my) {74 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some points of view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (128mybn)
  
73,000,000 YBN
4
484) Marsupials: Bandicoots and Bilbies {BiLBEZ1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=bilby&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {73 MYBN}
Australia3   
70,000,000 YBN
3 4
507) Placental Mammals: Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas {PIKuZ1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "pika." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pika
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {70 MYBN}
4. ^ Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.

MORE INFO
[1] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
  
70,000,000 YBN
3
516) Placental Mammals: Tree Shrews and Colugos {KolUGOZ1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "colugo." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colugo-1
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {70 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] "Colugo". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colugo
[4] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
[5] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
[6] "Colugos". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colugos
  
65,500,000 YBN
2
129) Mass extinction.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G. Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil Record (and
Discussion)", Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 344, No.
1307, Estimating Extinction Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary Meeting (Apr.
29, 1994), pp. 11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/56148
2. ^ http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/16cm05/1116/16macro.htm
{65.5 MYBN}
  
65,000,000 YBN
3
468) Birds "Gruiformes" {GrUiFORmEZ1 } (cranes and rails).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Gruiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gruiformes-1
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
  
65,000,000 YBN
3
485) Marsupial moles.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {65 MYBN}
Australia2   
65,000,000 YBN
4
486) Marsupials: Tasmanian Devil, Numbat {nuMBaT1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=numbat&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {65 MYBN}
Australia3   
65,000,000 YBN
4
488) Marsupials "Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu1 } evolve (Wombats, Kangeroos,
Possums, Koalas).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=diprotodontia&submit=Submit
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {65 MYBN}
Australia3   
65,000,000 YBN
8 9
508) Placental Mammals Rodents evolve (rats, mice, gerbils, voles {VOLZ4 },
lemmings, hamsters).5 6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
4. ^ "vole." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/vole
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
{65 MYBN}
9. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[4] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
  
63,000,000 YBN
4
587) Primates evolve.2 Opposable thumb.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (=63my) {63 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] http://anthro.palomar.edu/earlyprimates/first_primates.htm
[2]
http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/fr/pres/compress/Toumai/Tounaigb/lienparengb.html
Africa or India3   
60,000,000 YBN
4 5
470) Birds "Strigiformes" {STriJiFORmEZ1 } evolve (owls).2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Strigiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/strigiformes-1
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
5. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {65 MYBN(need to check with fossil
record 2}

MORE INFO
[1] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
[2] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order phylogeny of
modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II.
Analysis and discussion.” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 149.1
(2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full
  
60,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
504) Laurasiatheres "Carnivora" {KoRniVRu1 } (Cats, Dogs, Bears, Weasels,
Hyenas, Seals, Walruses).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "carnivora?s=t&ld=1089". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House,
Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/carnivora?s=t&ld=1089
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the
Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009,
p360.
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {75 MYBN}
7. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the
Tree of Life", Science, (2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Laurasiatheria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurasiatheria
Laurasia4   
58,000,000 YBN
3
524) Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "tarsier." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tarsier
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {58 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
[3] "Euarchontoglires".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[4] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[5] "Tarsier". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarsier
  
55,000,000 YBN
4 5
471) Birds "Apodiformes" {oPoD-i-FORmEZ1 } (hummingbirds, swifts).2 3
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ "Apodiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/apodiformes-1 AND
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apodiformes&submit=Submit
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
5. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {37 MYBN (need to check with fossil
record 2}
  
55,000,000 YBN
4 5
476) Birds "Piciformes" {PESiFORmEZ1 } (woodpeckers, toucans).2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Piciformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/piciformes-1
AND http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=piciformes&submit=Submit
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p360.
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
5. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {37 MYBN (need to check with fossil
record 2}

MORE INFO
[1] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science 320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/320/5884/1763
  
55,000,000 YBN
7 8
477) Birds "Passeriformes" {PaSRiFORmEZ1 } (perching songbirds) evolve. This
order includes many common birds: crows, jays, sparrows, warblers,
mockingbirds, robins, orioles, bluebirds, vireos {VEREOZ2 }, larks, finches.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Passeriformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/passeriformes-1
AND http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=passeriformes&submit=Submit
2. ^ "vireo." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/vireo
3. ^ "Passeriformes". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passeriformes
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
5. ^ Boles, Walter E. (1997):
Fossil Songbirds (Passeriformes) from the Early Eocene of Australia. Emu
'97'(1): 43–50. doi:10.1071/MU97004
6. ^ L. Christidis, A. Cooper, M. Irestedt, et al., "A
Gondwanan origin of passerine birds supported by DNA sequences of the endemic
New Zealand wrens" Proceedings of the Royal Society B, February 2002:235–241.
7. ^ Palmer, et
al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
8. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)

MORE INFO
[1] Ericson, Per G. P. et al. “A Gondwanan Origin of Passerine Birds
Supported by DNA Sequences of the Endemic New Zealand Wrens.” Proceedings of
the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 269.1488 (2002):
235–241. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/269/1488/235.abstract

earliest fossils: Australia5 |Gondwana6   
55,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
495) Afrotheres: Elephants.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
2. ^ Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
3. ^ Delmer, C.,
Mahboubi, M., Tabuce, R. & Tassy, P. 2006. "A new species of Moeritherium
(Proboscidae, Mammalia) from the Eocene of Algeria: new perspectives on the
ancestral morphotype of the genus." Palaeontology 49 (2),
421-434. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2006.00548.x/ab
stract

4. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
5. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p360.
6. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and
Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the
Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003). {62
MYBN}
7. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003).
8. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 238. ISBN
1-84028-152-9.

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
Algeria, Africa3 |Africa4   
55,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
502) Laurasiatheres "Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu1 } evolve (ancestor of
all Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu2 }: camels, pigs, ruminants, hippos, and all
Cetacea {SiTASEu or SiTAsEu3 }: Whales, Dolphins).4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cetartiodactyla&submit=Submit
2. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=artiodactyla&submit=Submit
3. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cetacea&submit=Submit
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
5. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala,
"Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).
6. ^ "Cetartiodactyla", Oxford Dictionary
for Scientific Writers and Editors. New Oxford Dictionary for Scientific
Writers and Editors. © 1991 http://www.answers.com/topic/cetartiodactyla
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
8. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life", 2009,
p360.
9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p199-218. {78 MYBN}
10. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala,
"Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Laurasiatheria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurasiatheria
Laurasia7   
55,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
503) Laurasiatheres "Perissodactyla" {PeriSODaKTilu1 } (Horses, Tapirs {TAPRZ 2
}, Rhinos).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Perissodactyla." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/perissodactyla-2
2. ^ "tapir." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tapir
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p199-218.
4. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree
of Life", Science, (2003).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p199-218.
6. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life", 2009,
p360.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p199-218. {76 MYBN}
8. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala,
"Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Laurasiatheria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurasiatheria
Laurasia5   
55,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
509) Rodents: Beavers.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
{65 MYBN}
5. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003). {65 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
  
55,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
511) Rodents: Squirrels.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {58 MYBN}
4. ^
Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science,
(2003). {58 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
  
54,000,000 YBN
2 3
810) Last common ancestor between hippos with dolphins and whales.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (=54) {54 MYBN}
3. ^ Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy,
Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and
the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003).
(=53) {53 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
  
52,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
501) Laurasiatheres "Chiroptera" {KIroPTRu1 } (fruit bats, echolocating bats).2
3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Chiroptera." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chiroptera-1
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of
Life", Science, (2003).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p360.
6. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). {80 MYBN}
7. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of
Life", Science, (2003).

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Laurasiatheria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurasiatheria
Laurasia4   
51,000,000 YBN
2
513) Rodents: Old World Porcupines.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {51 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[4] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
  
49,000,000 YBN
3 4
474) Birds "Falconiformes" {FaLKoNiFORmEZ1 } (falcons, hawks, eagles, Old World
vultures).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Falconiformes." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 30 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/falconiformes-1
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p361.
4. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {49 MYBN (need to check with fossil
record 2}
  
49,000,000 YBN
3
515) Rodents: New World porcupines, guinea pigs, capybaras {KaPuBoRoZ1 }.2
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ "capybara." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/capybara
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {49 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[4] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
  
40,000,000 YBN
4
525) Primates: New World Monkeys (Sakis, Spider, Howler and Squirrel monkeys,
Capuchins {KaP YU CiNZ1 }, Tamarins).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "capuchin." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/capuchin
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p147 (guess is in Africa).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {40 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
[3] "Euarchontoglires".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[4] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[5] "New world monkey". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_world_monkey
Africa3   
37,000,000 YBN
3
475) Birds: Cuculiformes {KUKUliFORmEZ1 } evolve (cuckoos, roadrunners).2
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=cuculiformes&submit=Submit
2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2)
3. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/370Gruimorpha/370.100.html#Gruimorpha
(from need to check with fossil record 2) {37 MYBN (need to check with fossil
record 2}
  
30,000,000 YBN
2
520) Primates: True Lemurs.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (63 mybn)
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (63 mybn) {30 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[2] "Strepsirrhini". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strepsirrhini
[3] "Lemuridae". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemuridae
[4] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[5] "Lemur". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemur
[6] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (63 mybn) (=63 mybn)
[7] Mark S.
Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J. O'Brien,
"Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary",
PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003). (70 mybn) (=70 mybn)
[8] Michael J. Benton
and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003). (70 mybn)
(=70 mybn)
  
25,000,000 YBN
4
531) Primates: Old World Monkeys (Macaques, Baboons, Mandrills, Proboscis and
Colobus {KoLiBeS1 } monkeys).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "colobus monkey." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/black-and-white-colobus
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {25 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Michael J. Benton and Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003)
[2] "Euarchontoglires". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[3] Caro-Beth Stewart and Todd R. Disotell, "Primate evolution - in and out of
Africa", Current Biology Volume 8, Issue 16, 30 July 1998, Pages R582-R588,
(1998) . see image
[4] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[5] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
(perhaps around Lake Victoria) Africa3   
24,000,000 YBN
3
662) The ancestor of all Hominoids (Gibbons and Hominids) loses its tail.2
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (based on Aegyptopithecus=22my) {24 MYBN
(based on Aegyptopithecus=22my}
  
23,000,000 YBN
3
478) Monotreme: Echidna.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ "monotreme." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/monotreme
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {23 MYBN}
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea2   
23,000,000 YBN
3
479) Monotreme: Duck-Billed Platypus.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ "platypus." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30 Jul.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/platypus
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {23 MYBN}
Australia and Tasmania2   
18,000,000 YBN
4
537) Primates: Gibbons.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Caro-Beth Stewart and Todd R. Disotell, "Primate evolution - in
and out of Africa", Current Biology Volume 8, Issue 16, 30 July 1998, Pages
R582-R588, (1998) .
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {18 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
[3] "Euarchontoglires".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euarchontoglires
[4] "Old World monkey". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_World_monkey
[5] "Gibbon". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gibbon
[6] "Placentalia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Placentalia
[7] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
South-East Asia3   
14,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
542) Earliest extant Hominid: Orangutans.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Begun, "African and Eurasian Miocene hominoids and the origins of
the Hominidae", in Louis de Bonis, George D. Koufos, Peter Andrews, "Phylogeny
of the Neogene hominoid primates of Eurasia", p232.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {14 MYBN}
5. ^
Chan Y-C, Roos C, Inoue-Murayama M, Inoue E, Shih C-C, et al. (2010)
Mitochondrial Genome Sequences Effectively Reveal the Phylogeny of Hylobates
Gibbons. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14419.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014419 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10
.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0014419

6. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009, p442.
7. ^ P-.H. Fabre, A. Rodrigues, E.J.P.
Douzery, Patterns of macroevolution among Primates inferred from a supermatrix
of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume
53, Issue 3, December 2009, Pages 808-825, ISSN 1055-7903,
10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.004. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1055790309003169)


MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
South-East Asia3   
10,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8
543) Hominids: Gorillas evolve.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ P-.H. Fabre, A. Rodrigues, E.J.P. Douzery, Patterns of
macroevolution among Primates inferred from a supermatrix of mitochondrial and
nuclear DNA, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 53, Issue 3,
December 2009, Pages 808-825, ISSN 1055-7903,
10.1016/j.ympev.2009.08.004. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1055790309003169)

4. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009, p442.
5. ^ Suwa, Gen et al. "A New Species of
Great Ape from the Late Miocene Epoch in Ethiopia." Nature 448.7156 (2007):
921–924. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v448/n7156/full/nature06113.htm
l

6. ^ Kunimatsu, Yutaka et al. "A New Late Miocene Great Ape from Kenya and Its
Implications for the Origins of African Great Apes and Humans." Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences 104.49 (2007): 19220 –19225.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/104/49/19220.abstract
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {7 MYBN}
8. ^ Chan Y-C, Roos C, Inoue-Murayama M, Inoue E, Shih C-C,
et al. (2010) Mitochondrial Genome Sequences Effectively Reveal the Phylogeny
of Hylobates Gibbons. PLoS ONE 5(12): e14419.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014419 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10
.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0014419


MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
[3] "Gorilla".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorilla
[4] Prothero, "Bring Fossils To Life", Second
Edition, 2004, p34
Africa2   
6,000,000 YBN
6 7
544) Chimpanzees evolve. Last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.3 4
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 6mybn
2. ^
http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/fr/pres/compress/Toumai/Tounaigb/lienparengb.html (8
mybn see image 4)
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 6mybn
4. ^
http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/fr/pres/compress/Toumai/Tounaigb/lienparengb.html (8
mybn see image 4)
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 6mybn
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). 6mybn (6mybn) {6 MYBN}
7. ^
http://www.cnrs.fr/cw/fr/pres/compress/Toumai/Tounaigb/lienparengb.html (8
mybn see image 4) (8mybn) {8 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
Africa5   
4,400,000 YBN
16 17
546) Hominid: Ardipithecus. 8 9 10 11 12 13 Earliest bipedal primate.14
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Pickford, M. & Senut, B. The geological and faunal context of Late
Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIa 332,
145-152
(2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015282
2. ^ B. Senut, M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi and Y. Coppens ,
First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C. R. Acad. Sci.
Paris, série IIa 332 (2001), pp.
137–144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015294
3. ^ Perlman, David (July 12, 2001). "Fossils From Ethiopia May Be Earliest
Human Ancestor". National Geographic News. Retrieved July 2009.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0712_ethiopianbones.html
4. ^ White, Tim D.; Asfaw, Berhane; Beyene, Yonas; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes;
Lovejoy, C. Owen; Suwa, Gen; WoldeGabriel, Giday (2009). "Ardipithecus ramidus
and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids.". Science 326 (5949):
75–86. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5949/64.abstract
5. ^ White, T. D.; Suwa, G.; Asfaw, B. (1994). "Australopithecus ramidus, a new
species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia". Nature 371 (6495): 306.
Bibcode 1994Natur.371..306W. doi:10.1038/371306a0.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5949/64.abstract
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p93.
7. ^ B. Senut, M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi and
Y. Coppens , First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C. R.
Acad. Sci. Paris, série IIa 332 (2001), pp.
137–144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015294
8. ^ Pickford, M. & Senut, B. The geological and faunal context of Late Miocene
hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIa 332, 145-152
(2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015282
9. ^ B. Senut, M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi and Y. Coppens ,
First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C. R. Acad. Sci.
Paris, série IIa 332 (2001), pp.
137–144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015294
10. ^ Perlman, David (July 12, 2001). "Fossils From Ethiopia May Be Earliest
Human Ancestor". National Geographic News. Retrieved July 2009.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0712_ethiopianbones.html
11. ^ White, Tim D.; Asfaw, Berhane; Beyene, Yonas; Haile-Selassie, Yohannes;
Lovejoy, C. Owen; Suwa, Gen; WoldeGabriel, Giday (2009). "Ardipithecus ramidus
and the Paleobiology of Early Hominids.". Science 326 (5949):
75–86. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5949/64.abstract
12. ^ White, T. D.; Suwa, G.; Asfaw, B. (1994). "Australopithecus ramidus, a
new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia". Nature 371 (6495): 306.
Bibcode 1994Natur.371..306W. doi:10.1038/371306a0.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5949/64.abstract
13. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p93.
14. ^ B. Senut, M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi and
Y. Coppens , First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C. R.
Acad. Sci. Paris, série IIa 332 (2001), pp.
137–144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015294
15. ^ B. Senut, M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi and Y. Coppens ,
First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C. R. Acad. Sci.
Paris, série IIa 332 (2001), pp.
137–144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015294
16. ^ Pickford, M. & Senut, B. The geological and faunal context of Late
Miocene hominid remains from Lukeino, Kenya. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIa 332,
145-152
(2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015282 {6
MYBN}
17. ^ B. Senut, M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi and Y. Coppens ,
First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). C. R. Acad. Sci.
Paris, série IIa 332 (2001), pp.
137–144. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1251805001015294
{6 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Haile-Selassie, Y. Late Miocene hominids from the Middle Awash,
Ethiopia. Nature 412, 178-181 (2001).
http://www.nature.com/uidfinder/10.1038/35084063
Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya, Africa15   
4,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
547) Hominid: Australopithecus (x-STrA-lO-PitiKuS1 }.2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Australopithecus." McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 31 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/australopithecus
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Clarke, R.J. and P.V. Tobias (1995). Sterkfontein Member 2 foot
bones of the oldest South African hominid. Science 269,
521–524. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/269/5223/521
4. ^ Partridge, T.C., Granger, D.E., Caffee, M.W. and Clarke, R.J. (2003),
"Lower Pliocene Hominid Remains from Sterkfontein", Science, Vol. 300, pp. pp.
607–612.
5. ^ Clarke, R.J. and P.V. Tobias (1995). Sterkfontein Member 2 foot bones of
the oldest South African hominid. Science 269,
521–524. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/269/5223/521
6. ^ Partridge, T.C., Granger, D.E., Caffee, M.W. and Clarke, R.J. (2003),
"Lower Pliocene Hominid Remains from Sterkfontein", Science, Vol. 300, pp. pp.
607–612.
7. ^ Partridge, T.C., Granger, D.E., Caffee, M.W. and Clarke, R.J. (2003),
"Lower Pliocene Hominid Remains from Sterkfontein", Science, Vol. 300, pp. pp.
607–612. {4MYBN}
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {4MYBN}
9. ^ "Australopithecus". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australopithecus {3.9 to 3my}
10. ^ "Australopithecus
afarensis". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australopithecus_afarensis (3.9 to 3my)

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
Sterkfontein, South Africa5 6   

SCIENCE
3,390,000 YBN
3
269) Hominids use stones as tools.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ McPherron, Shannon P. et al. “Evidence for stone-tool-assisted
consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika,
Ethiopia.” Nature 466.7308 (2010) :
857-860. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7308/full/nature09248.html
2. ^ McPherron, Shannon P. et al. “Evidence for stone-tool-assisted
consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika,
Ethiopia.” Nature 466.7308 (2010) :
857-860. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7308/full/nature09248.html
3. ^ McPherron, Shannon P. et al. “Evidence for stone-tool-assisted
consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika,
Ethiopia.” Nature 466.7308 (2010) :
857-860. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7308/full/nature09248.html
{3.39 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "Homo erectus". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_erectus
[2] "Stone Age". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Age
[3] "Paleolithic". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleolithic
Dikika, Ethiopia2   
2,700,000 YBN
4
564) Hominid: Paranthropus {Pa raN tru PuS1 } evolves.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=paranthropus&submit=Submit
2. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p445.
3. ^ "Paranthropus".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paranthropus
4. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p445.

MORE INFO
[1] Thure E. Cerling, Emma Mbua, Francis M. Kirera, Fredrick Kyalo
Manthi, Frederick E. Grine, Meave G. Leakey, Matt Sponheimer, and Kevin T. Uno.
Diet of Paranthropus boisei in the early Pleistocene of East Africa; PNAS 2011;
published ahead of print May 2, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1104627108
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/04/27/1104627108.full.pdf+html?sid=71bf86
4d-bcc2-420e-9c3d-6c390c4a31c3

[2] Dawkins, Richard (2004). The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage To the Dawn of
Life. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 90. ISBN 0-297-82503-8
Africa3   
2,500,000 YBN
4
455) Oldest formed stone tools.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Homo erectus". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_erectus
2. ^ "Homo erectus". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_erectus
3. ^ Semaw, S. et al. 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia.
Nature 385, 333–336 (1997)
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v385/n6614/abs/385333a0.html
4. ^ Semaw, S. et al. 2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia.
Nature 385, 333–336 (1997)
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v385/n6614/abs/385333a0.html {2.5 MYBN}
Gona, Ethiopia3   
2,200,000 YBN
11
447) Humans.4 Hominids: Homo habilis evolve (earliest member of the genus
"Homo"5 ).6

This is when the human brain begins to get bigger.7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "human." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 May. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/human-1
2. ^ http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p78
4. ^ "human." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 04 May.
2013. http://www.answers.com/topic/human-1
5. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p445.
6. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timeline2.htm
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p78
8. ^ F. Spoor, M. G. Leakey, P. N. Gathogo, F. H. Brown, S. C.
Antón, I. McDougall, C. Kiarie, F. K. Manthi & L. N. Leakey (2007-08-09).
"Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana,
Kenya". Nature 448 (7154): 688–691. doi:10.1038/nature05986. PMID
17687323 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v448/n7154/full/nature05986.html
9. ^ Donald C. Johanson, Fidelis T. Masao, Gerald G. Eck, Tim D. White, Robert
C. Walter, William H. Kimbel, Berhane Asfaw, Paul Manega, Prosper Ndessokia &
Gen Suwa (21 May 1987). "New partial skeleton of Homo habilis from Olduvai
Gorge, Tanzania". Nature 327 (6119): 205–209. doi:10.1038/327205a0. PMID
3106831
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p78
11. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p445.
(Kenya8 and Tanzania9 ) Africa10   
2,000,000 YBN
4
545) Hominids: Bonobos {BunOBOZ1 }.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "bonobo." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bonobo
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {2 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
[3] "Bonobo".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonobo
Africa3   
1,800,000 YBN
6 7 8
563) Homo erectus {hOmO ireKTuS3 }.4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Homo erectus." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 10 Sep.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/homo-erectus
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). p68-71
3. ^ "Homo erectus." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 10 Sep. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/homo-erectus
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston,
MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p68-71
5. ^ Brown, Frank et al. “Early Homo
Erectus Skeleton from West Lake Turkana, Kenya.” Nature 316.6031 (1985):
788–792. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v316/n6031/abs/316788a0.html
6. ^ "Homo ergaster 1.9-1.4 mybn". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_ergaster 1.9-1.4 mybn (1.9-1.4mybn) {1.9-1.4
MYBN}
7. ^ Palmer et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p445.
8. ^ "Homo ergaster 1.9-1.4 mybn".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_ergaster 1.9-1.4
mybn (1.9-1.4mybn) {1.9-1.4 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Donald Johanson, "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of
Africa?", ActionBioscience.org, May 2001
http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/johanson.html
[2] Palmer et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p416
[3] Templeton, Alan. “Out of Africa
again and again.” Nature 416.6876 (2002) :
45-51. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/full/416045a.html
[4] Vekua, Abesalom et al. “A New Skull of Early Homo from Dmanisi,
Georgia.” Science 297.5578 (2002): 85–89. Print. New Series
Lake Turkana, East Africa5   
1,700,000 YBN
7
449) Homo erectus moves into Eurasia from Africa.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Templeton, Alan. “Out of Africa again and again.” Nature
416.6876 (2002) :
45-51. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/full/416045a.html
3. ^ G. Philip Rightmire, "The Dispersal of Homo erectus from Africa and the
Emergence of More Modern Humans", Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 47,
No. 2, A Quarter Century of Paleoanthropology: Views from the U.S.A. (Summer,
1991), pp. 177-191 Published by: University of New Mexico Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3630324
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Templeton, Alan. “Out of Africa again and again.” Nature
416.6876 (2002) :
45-51. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/full/416045a.html
6. ^ G. Philip Rightmire, "The Dispersal of Homo erectus from Africa and the
Emergence of More Modern Humans", Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 47,
No. 2, A Quarter Century of Paleoanthropology: Views from the U.S.A. (Summer,
1991), pp. 177-191 Published by: University of New Mexico Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/3630324
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {1.7 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p69-77
[2] Parker, G. Compact History of the World. Barnes & Noble,
2001.
  
1,500,000 YBN
4
583) Controlled use of fire.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Brain, C. K., and A. Sillent. “Evidence from the Swartkrans cave for
the earliest use of fire.” Nature 336.6198 (1988) :
464-466. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v336/n6198/abs/336464a0.html
{Brain_Sillent_19881201.pdf}
2. ^ Brain, C. K., and A. Sillent. “Evidence from the Swartkrans cave for the
earliest use of fire.” Nature 336.6198 (1988) :
464-466. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v336/n6198/abs/336464a0.html
{Brain_Sillent_19881201.pdf}
3. ^ Brain, C. K., and A. Sillent. “Evidence from the Swartkrans cave for the
earliest use of fire.” Nature 336.6198 (1988) :
464-466. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v336/n6198/abs/336464a0.html
{1.0-1.5 MYBN} {Brain_Sillent_19881201.pdf}
4. ^ Brain, C. K., and A. Sillent. “Evidence from the Swartkrans
cave for the earliest use of fire.” Nature 336.6198 (1988) :
464-466. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v336/n6198/abs/336464a0.html
{1.0-1.5 MYBN} {Brain_Sillent_19881201.pdf}
(Swartkrans cave) Swartkrans, South Africa3   
1,000,000 YBN
3 4
589) Homo erectus evolves less body hair.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p69-70,273-275
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p69-70,273-275
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). p69-70,273-275 {1 MYBN}
4. ^ Rogers AR,
Iltis D, Wooding S, "Genetic variation at the MC1R locus and the time since
loss of human body hair." Curr Anthropol
2004;45:105-108. http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/381006 {1.2 MYBN}
  
970,000 YBN
6 7 8
200) Humans wear clothing.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Parfitt, Simon A., Nick M. Ashton, Simon G. Lewis, Richard L. Abel, G.
Russell Coope, Mike H. Field, and others, ‘Early Pleistocene Human Occupation
at the Edge of the Boreal Zone in Northwest Europe’, Nature, 466 (2010),
229-233 . http://nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/full/nature09117.html
2. ^ Pallab Ghosh, "Humans' early arrival in Britain", BBC News,
07/07/2010 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10531419
3. ^ Parfitt, Simon A., Nick M. Ashton, Simon G. Lewis, Richard L. Abel, G.
Russell Coope, Mike H. Field, and others, ‘Early Pleistocene Human Occupation
at the Edge of the Boreal Zone in Northwest Europe’, Nature, 466 (2010),
229-233 . http://nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/full/nature09117.html
4. ^ Pallab Ghosh, "Humans' early arrival in Britain", BBC News,
07/07/2010 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10531419
5. ^ Parfitt, Simon A., Nick M. Ashton, Simon G. Lewis, Richard L. Abel, G.
Russell Coope, Mike H. Field, and others, ‘Early Pleistocene Human Occupation
at the Edge of the Boreal Zone in Northwest Europe’, Nature, 466 (2010),
229-233 . http://nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/full/nature09117.html
6. ^ Parfitt, Simon A., Nick M. Ashton, Simon G. Lewis, Richard L.
Abel, G. Russell Coope, Mike H. Field, and others, ‘Early Pleistocene Human
Occupation at the Edge of the Boreal Zone in Northwest Europe’, Nature, 466
(2010), 229-233
. http://nature.com/nature/journal/v466/n7303/full/nature09117.html {970,000}
7. ^
Melissa A. Toups, Andrew Kitchen, Jessica E. Light, and David L. Reed, "Origin
of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in
Africa", Mol Biol Evol (2011) 28(1): 29-32 first published online September 7,
2010 doi:10.1093/molbev/msq234 {83,000-170,000YBN}
8. ^ Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser, Mark
Stoneking, Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing,
Current Biology, Volume 13, Issue 16, 19 August 2003, Pages 1414-1417, ISSN
0960-9822,
10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00507-4. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0960982203005074)
{72,000YBN +/- 42,000years}
Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK5   
400,000 YBN
5 6 7
615) Spear.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Wilkins, Jayne et al. “Evidence for Early Hafted Hunting Technology.”
Science 338.6109 (2012):
942–946. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6109/942
2. ^ Wilkins, Jayne et al. “Evidence for Early Hafted Hunting Technology.”
Science 338.6109 (2012):
942–946. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6109/942
3. ^ Wilkins, Jayne et al. “Evidence for Early Hafted Hunting Technology.”
Science 338.6109 (2012):
942–946. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6109/942
4. ^ Thieme, Hartmut, ‘Lower Palaeolithic Hunting Spears from Germany’,
Nature, 385 (1997), 807-810
. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v385/n6619/abs/385807a0.html {Thieme_19
970227.pdf} {400,000YBN}
5. ^ Wilkins, Jayne et al. “Evidence for Early Hafted Hunting
Technology.” Science 338.6109 (2012):
942–946. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6109/942
6. ^ Thieme, Hartmut, ‘Lower Palaeolithic Hunting Spears from Germany’,
Nature, 385 (1997), 807-810
. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v385/n6619/abs/385807a0.html {Thieme_19
970227.pdf} {400,000YBN}
7. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes
to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {8000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Germany. Hartmut Thieme.
Letters to Nature. Nature 385, 807 - 810 (27 February 1997);
doi:10.1038/385807a0
Kathu Pan 1, South Africa3 |(Schöningen, Germany.4 )  
200,000 YBN
12 13 14
548) Homo sapiens evolve.5 6 7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Day, M. H. "Omo human skeletal remains." Nature 222, 1135–1138 (1969)
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v222/n5199/pdf/2221135a0.pdf
2. ^ Ian McDougall, Francis H. Brown & John G. Fleagle, "Stratigraphic
placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia", Nature 433, 733-736
(17 February
2005). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7027/abs/nature03258.html
3. ^ University Of Utah. "The Oldest Homo Sapiens: Fossils Push Human Emergence
Back To 195,000 Years Ago." ScienceDaily, 28 Feb. 2005. Web. 9 Oct. 2011.
4. ^ Tim D.
White, Berhane Asfaw, David DeGusta, Henry Gilbert, Gary D. Richards, Gen Suwa
& F. Clark Howell, "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia",
Nature 423, 742-747 (12 June
2003) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6941/full/nature01669.html
5. ^ Day, M. H. "Omo human skeletal remains." Nature 222, 1135–1138 (1969)
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v222/n5199/pdf/2221135a0.pdf
6. ^ Ian McDougall, Francis H. Brown & John G. Fleagle, "Stratigraphic
placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia", Nature 433, 733-736
(17 February
2005). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7027/abs/nature03258.html
7. ^ University Of Utah. "The Oldest Homo Sapiens: Fossils Push Human Emergence
Back To 195,000 Years Ago." ScienceDaily, 28 Feb. 2005. Web. 9 Oct. 2011.
8. ^ Tim D.
White, Berhane Asfaw, David DeGusta, Henry Gilbert, Gary D. Richards, Gen Suwa
& F. Clark Howell, "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia",
Nature 423, 742-747 (12 June
2003) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6941/full/nature01669.html
9. ^ Day, M. H. "Omo human skeletal remains." Nature 222, 1135–1138 (1969)
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v222/n5199/pdf/2221135a0.pdf
10. ^ Ian McDougall, Francis H. Brown & John G. Fleagle, "Stratigraphic
placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia", Nature 433, 733-736
(17 February
2005). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7027/abs/nature03258.html
11. ^ McDougall, Ian, Francis H. Brown, and John G. Fleagle. “Sapropels and
the age of hominins Omo I and II, Kibish, Ethiopia.” Journal of Human
Evolution 55.3 (2008) :
409-420. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248408001024
12. ^ McDougall, Ian, Francis H. Brown, and John G. Fleagle. “Sapropels and
the age of hominins Omo I and II, Kibish, Ethiopia.” Journal of Human
Evolution 55.3 (2008) :
409-420. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047248408001024
13. ^ Ian McDougall, Francis H. Brown & John G. Fleagle, "Stratigraphic
placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia", Nature 433, 733-736
(17 February
2005). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7027/abs/nature03258.html
{200,000 YBN}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p65. (165,000 YBN) {200,000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Mark S. Springer, William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and Stephen J.
O'Brien, "Placental mammal diversification and the Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary", PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061, (2003)
[2] Michael J. Benton and
Francisco J. Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life", Science, (2003)
Ethiopia, Africa9 10 11   
200,000 YBN
590) Human language of thirty short sounds begins to develop.2 All words are
single syllable.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ (The vast majority of Sumerian language is made of
one-syllable words) Archaic Bookkeeping, Nisson, 1993, p117.
  
130,000 YBN
4 5
450) Homo Neanderthalensis.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Donald Johanson, "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of
Africa?", ActionBioscience.org, May 2001
http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/johanson.html
2. ^ Douglas Palmer, et al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p464.
3. ^ Donald Johanson,
"Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?",
ActionBioscience.org, May 2001
http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/johanson.html
4. ^Donald Johanson, "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of
Africa?", ActionBioscience.org, May 2001
http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/johanson.html {000}
5. ^
http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics/ancient-dna-and-neanderthals

MORE INFO
[1] "Neanderthal". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal
Europe and Western Asia3   
101,000 YBN
[99000 BC] 4 5 6
594) Homo sapiens move out of Africa into Eurasia.2 Beginning of differences
in race.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/johanson.html
2. ^ http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/johanson.html
3. ^ Cavalli-Sforza, L L et al. “Reconstruction of human
evolution: bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 85.16 (1988) : 6002
-6006. http://www.pnas.org/content/85/16/6002.short
4. ^ N. Mercier, H. Valladas, O. Bar-Yosef, B. Vandermeersch, C. Stringer,
J.-L. Joron, Thermoluminescence Date for the Mousterian Burial Site of
Es-Skhul, Mt. Carmel, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 20, Issue 2,
March 1993, Pages 169-174, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1006/jasc.1993.1012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S03054
40383710125

5. ^ http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/johanson.html {000 YBN}
6. ^
Cavalli-Sforza, L L et al. “Reconstruction of human evolution: bringing
together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data.” Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences 85.16 (1988) : 6002
-6006. http://www.pnas.org/content/85/16/6002.short {000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0908490.html
[2] Templeton, Alan. “Out of Africa again and again.” Nature
416.6876 (2002) :
45-51. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6876/abs/416045a.html
  
100,000 YBN
[98000 BC] 5 6 7
6333) Theory of Gods.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Stringer, C. B. et al. “ESR Dates for the Hominid
Burial Site of Es Skhul in Israel.” Nature 338.6218 (1989):
756–758. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v338/n6218/abs/338756a0.html
4. ^ N. Mercier, H. Valladas, O. Bar-Yosef, B. Vandermeersch, C. Stringer,
J.-L. Joron, Thermoluminescence Date for the Mousterian Burial Site of
Es-Skhul, Mt. Carmel, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 20, Issue 2,
March 1993, Pages 169-174, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1006/jasc.1993.1012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S03054
40383710125

5. ^ Philip Lieberman, "Uniquely human: the evolution of speech, thought, and
selfless behavior", 1993, p163.
6. ^ Stringer, C. B. et al. “ESR Dates for the
Hominid Burial Site of Es Skhul in Israel.” Nature 338.6218 (1989):
756–758. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v338/n6218/abs/338756a0.html
7. ^ N. Mercier, H. Valladas, O. Bar-Yosef, B. Vandermeersch, C. Stringer,
J.-L. Joron, Thermoluminescence Date for the Mousterian Burial Site of
Es-Skhul, Mt. Carmel, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 20, Issue 2,
March 1993, Pages 169-174, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1006/jasc.1993.1012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S03054
40383710125

(Es-Skhul) Mount Carmel, Israel3 4   
61,000 YBN
[59000 BC] 7 8 9 10 11
614) Bow and arrows.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Stone-Age arrows found", News, University of Johannesburg. See also
Antiquity
84:635-648 http://www.uj.ac.za/EN/Newsroom/News/Pages/Stone-Agearrowsfound.aspx

2. ^ Lucinda Backwella, Francesco d'Erricob and Lyn Wadley (june 2008). "Middle
Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South
Africa". ScienceDirect.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440307002142
3. ^ "Stone-Age arrows found", News, University of Johannesburg. See also
Antiquity
84:635-648 http://www.uj.ac.za/EN/Newsroom/News/Pages/Stone-Agearrowsfound.aspx

4. ^ Lucinda Backwella, Francesco d'Erricob and Lyn Wadley (june 2008). "Middle
Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South
Africa". ScienceDirect.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440307002142
5. ^ "Stone-Age arrows found", News, University of Johannesburg. See also
Antiquity
84:635-648 http://www.uj.ac.za/EN/Newsroom/News/Pages/Stone-Agearrowsfound.aspx

6. ^ Lucinda Backwella, Francesco d'Erricob and Lyn Wadley (june 2008). "Middle
Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South
Africa". ScienceDirect.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440307002142
7. ^ Lucinda Backwella, Francesco d'Erricob and Lyn Wadley (june 2008). "Middle
Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave, South
Africa". ScienceDirect.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440307002142
8. ^ "Modern culture emerged in Africa 20,000 years earlier than thought", LA
Times,
07/30/2012 http://www.latimes.com/news/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-modern-cult
ure-africa-20120730,0,4412702.story?track=rss

9. ^ Paola Villa, et al, "Border Cave and the beginning of the Later Stone Age
in South Africa", PNAS, July 30,
2012. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/07/23/1202629109.abstract
10. ^ Lucinda Backwella, Francesco d'Erricob and Lyn Wadley (june 2008).
"Middle Stone Age bone tools from the Howiesons Poort layers, Sibudu Cave,
South Africa". ScienceDirect. {10,000YBN}
11. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention
: from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {8000
YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jim Hamm, "The Traditional Bowyer's Bible", Volume 2, 2000,
p86. books.google.com/books?id=D9yQiKTtprAC&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86
[2] Collins, Desmond (1973). Background to archaeology: Britain in its European
setting (Revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521201551
Sibudu Cave, South Africa5 6   
46,000 YBN
[44000 BC] 5 6 7
577) Earliest water ship. Sapiens reach Australia.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,1169905,00.html
2. ^ Bowler, James M. et al 2003, "New ages for human occupation and
climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia", Nature 421, 837-840 (20 February
2003) http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v421/n6925/abs/nature01383.html
3. ^ http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,1169905,00.html
4. ^ Bowler, James M. et al 2003, "New ages for human occupation and
climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia", Nature 421, 837-840 (20 February
2003)
5. ^ Bowler, James M. et al 2003, "New ages for human occupation and climatic
change at Lake Mungo, Australia", Nature 421, 837-840 (20 February 2003)
6. ^
http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,1169905,00.html
7. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009, p471.

MORE INFO
[1] David B. Goldstein and Lounès Chikhi, "HUMAN MIGRATIONS AND
POPULATION STRUCTURE: What We Know and Why it Matters", Annual Review of
Genomics and Human Genetics, Vol. 3: 129 -152 (Volume publication date
September
2002) http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.genom.3.022502.10320
0

[2] Peter A. Underhill and Toomas Kivisild, "Use of Y Chromosome and
Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations", Annual
Review of Genetics, Vol. 41: 539 -564 (Volume publication date December
2007) http://www.annualreviews.org/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1146%2Fannurev.
genet.41.110306.130407

[3]
doi:10.1038/nature01383 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v421/n6925/abs/nat
ure01383.html

[4] http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0908490.html
  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC] 4 5 6
604) Oil lamp.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000).
2. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of
invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books,
2000).
3. ^ Sophie A. de Beaune and Randall White, "Ice Age Lamps", Scientific
American, March
1993. http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/42/17/69/PDF/Sc.Amer.1993.pdf
{Beaune_White_199303xx.pdf}
4. ^ Sophie A. de Beaune and Randall White, "Ice Age Lamps", Scientific
American, March
1993. http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/42/17/69/PDF/Sc.Amer.1993.pdf
{Beaune_White_199303xx.pdf} {40,000YBN}
5. ^ Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The
Timetables of Science", Second edition, Simon and Schuster, 1991, p5.
{79,000BCE}
6. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {8000YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "Ancient oil lamp". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_oil_lamp
Southwest France3   
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC] 7 8
1262) Painting.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ BBC News "Red dot becomes 'oldest cave art' ",
6/15/2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-18459492
2. ^ Pike, A. W. G. et al. “U-Series Dating of Paleolithic Art in 11 Caves in
Spain.” Science 336.6087 (2012): 1409 –1413.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6087/1409.abstract
3. ^ BBC News "Red dot becomes 'oldest cave art' ",
6/15/2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-18459492
4. ^ Pike, A. W. G. et al. “U-Series Dating of Paleolithic Art in 11 Caves in
Spain.” Science 336.6087 (2012): 1409 –1413.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6087/1409.abstract
5. ^ Pike, A. W. G. et al. “U-Series Dating of Paleolithic Art in 11 Caves in
Spain.” Science 336.6087 (2012): 1409 –1413.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6087/1409.abstract
6. ^ "Chauvet Cave". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chauvet_Cave
7. ^ Pike, A. W. G. et al. “U-Series Dating of Paleolithic Art in 11 Caves in
Spain.” Science 336.6087 (2012): 1409 –1413.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6087/1409.abstract
8. ^ "Chauvet Cave". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chauvet_Cave
(The Panel de las Manos) El Castillo Cave, Spain5 |Southern France6   
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC] 10 11 12
5871) Earliest musical instrument, a flute.5 6 7 8
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Daniel S. Adler, "Archaeology: The earliest musical tradition", Nature
460, 695-696(6 August
2009) doi:10.1038/460695a http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v460/n7256/full
/460695a.html?free=2

2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8117915.stm
3. ^ Mark Evan Bonds, "A History of Music in Western Culture", 2003, p1.
4. ^
http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5j6MhTK_oltyMTR7POcAgfbT5XeZQ
5. ^ Daniel S. Adler, "Archaeology: The earliest musical tradition", Nature
460, 695-696(6 August
2009) doi:10.1038/460695a http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v460/n7256/full
/460695a.html?free=2

6. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8117915.stm
7. ^ Mark Evan Bonds, "A History of Music in Western Culture", 2003, p1.
8. ^
http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5j6MhTK_oltyMTR7POcAgfbT5XeZQ
9. ^ Daniel S. Adler, "Archaeology: The earliest musical tradition", Nature
460, 695-696(6 August
2009) doi:10.1038/460695a http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v460/n7256/full
/460695a.html?free=2

10. ^ Daniel S. Adler, "Archaeology: The earliest musical tradition", Nature
460, 695-696(6 August
2009) doi:10.1038/460695a http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v460/n7256/full
/460695a.html?free=2
{40000YBN}
11. ^
http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5j6MhTK_oltyMTR7POcAgfbT5XeZQ
{35000BCE}
12. ^ Mark Evan Bonds, "A History of Music in Western Culture", 2003, p1.
{34000BCE}
Hohle Fels Cave, Germany9   
32,000 YBN
[30000 BC] 6 7 8 9 10
602) Weaving and textiles.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Eliso Kvavadze, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Elisabetta Boaretto,
Nino Jakeli, Zinovi Matskevich, and Tengiz Meshveliani, "30,000-Year-Old Wild
Flax Fibers", Science 11 September 2009: 325 (5946),
1359. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5946/1359
2. ^ Michael Balter, "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man", Science 11 September 2009:
325 (5946), 1329. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5946/1329.1
3. ^ Eliso Kvavadze, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Elisabetta
Boaretto, Nino Jakeli, Zinovi Matskevich, and Tengiz Meshveliani,
"30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers", Science 11 September 2009: 325 (5946),
1359. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5946/1359
4. ^ Michael Balter, "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man", Science 11 September 2009:
325 (5946), 1329. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5946/1329.1
5. ^ Eliso Kvavadze, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Elisabetta
Boaretto, Nino Jakeli, Zinovi Matskevich, and Tengiz Meshveliani,
"30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers", Science 11 September 2009: 325 (5946),
1359. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5946/1359
6. ^ Eliso Kvavadze, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anna Belfer-Cohen, Elisabetta Boaretto,
Nino Jakeli, Zinovi Matskevich, and Tengiz Meshveliani, "30,000-Year-Old Wild
Flax Fibers", Science 11 September 2009: 325 (5946),
1359. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/325/5946/1359 {32,000 YBN}
7. ^ ADOVASIO J.
M., SOFFER O., KLÍMA B., 1996: Upper Paleolithic fibre technology: Interlaced
woven finds from Pavlov I, Czech Republic, c. 26,000 years ago. Antiquity 70:
526–534. {000 YBN} {26,000 YBN}
8. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention :
from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {8000
YBN}
9. ^ {9000YBN}
10. ^ E. J. W. Barber, "Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in
the Neolithic and Bronze ...",
1991. http://books.google.com/books?id=HnSlynSfeEIC {7000YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "textile." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 31 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/589392/textile>
Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia5   
31,700 YBN
[29700 BC] 4 5
42) Humans raise dogs.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mietje Germonpré, Mikhail V. Sablin, Rhiannon E. Stevens, Robert E.M.
Hedges, Michael Hofreiter, Mathias Stiller, Viviane R. Després, Fossil dogs
and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia:
osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes, Journal of Archaeological Science,
Volume 36, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 473-490, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.033. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440308002380)

2. ^ Mietje Germonpré, Mikhail V. Sablin, Rhiannon E. Stevens, Robert E.M.
Hedges, Michael Hofreiter, Mathias Stiller, Viviane R. Després, Fossil dogs
and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia:
osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes, Journal of Archaeological Science,
Volume 36, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 473-490, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.033. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440308002380)

3. ^ Mietje Germonpré, Mikhail V. Sablin, Rhiannon E. Stevens, Robert E.M.
Hedges, Michael Hofreiter, Mathias Stiller, Viviane R. Després, Fossil dogs
and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia:
osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes, Journal of Archaeological Science,
Volume 36, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 473-490, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.033. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440308002380)

4. ^ Mietje Germonpré, Mikhail V. Sablin, Rhiannon E. Stevens, Robert E.M.
Hedges, Michael Hofreiter, Mathias Stiller, Viviane R. Després, Fossil dogs
and wolves from Palaeolithic sites in Belgium, the Ukraine and Russia:
osteometry, ancient DNA and stable isotopes, Journal of Archaeological Science,
Volume 36, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 473-490, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.033. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440308002380)
{31,700 YBN}
5. ^ Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables
of Science", Second edition, Simon and Schuster, 1991, p7. {10,000BCE}

MORE INFO
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestication
Goyet cave, Belgium3   
29,000 YBN
[27000 BC] 4 5
6215) Ceramics.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ O. Soffer, J. M. Adovasio, D. C. Hyland, "The “Venus” Figurines:
Textiles, Basketry, Gender, and Status in the Upper Paleolithic", Current
Anthropology, Vol. 41, No. 4 (August/October 2000), pp. 511-537 URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/317381
2. ^ O. Soffer, J. M. Adovasio, D. C. Hyland, "The “Venus” Figurines:
Textiles, Basketry, Gender, and Status in the Upper Paleolithic", Current
Anthropology, Vol. 41, No. 4 (August/October 2000), pp. 511-537 URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/317381
3. ^ PAMELA B. VANDIVER, OLGA SOFFER, BOHUSLAV KLIMA, and JIŘI SVOBODA, "The
Origins of Ceramic Technology at Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia", Science 24
November 1989: 246 (4933), 1002-1008.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/246/4933/1002.short
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/1704937
4. ^ O. Soffer, J. M. Adovasio, D. C. Hyland, "The “Venus” Figurines:
Textiles, Basketry, Gender, and Status in the Upper Paleolithic", Current
Anthropology, Vol. 41, No. 4 (August/October 2000), pp. 511-537 URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/317381 {29,000}
5. ^ PAMELA B. VANDIVER, OLGA
SOFFER, BOHUSLAV KLIMA, and JIŘI SVOBODA, "The Origins of Ceramic Technology
at Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia", Science 24 November 1989: 246 (4933),
1002-1008. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/246/4933/1002.short
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/1704937 {26,000}
Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia3   
23,000 YBN
[21000 BC] 3
6231) Stone wall.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://news.discovery.com/history/oldest-man-made-structure-found-in-greek-cave.
html

2. ^
http://news.discovery.com/history/oldest-man-made-structure-found-in-greek-cave.
html

3. ^
http://news.discovery.com/history/oldest-man-made-structure-found-in-greek-cave.
html
{23,000 YBN}
(Theopetra Cave) Kalambaka, Greece2   
19,000 YBN
[17000 BC] 3 4
6175) Cereal gathering.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tanno, Ken-ichi, and George Willcox. “How Fast Was Wild Wheat
Domesticated?” Science 311.5769 (2006) : 1886.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/311/5769/1886.short
2. ^ Tanno, Ken-ichi, and George Willcox. “How Fast Was Wild Wheat
Domesticated?” Science 311.5769 (2006) : 1886.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/311/5769/1886.short
3. ^ Tanno, Ken-ichi, and George Willcox. “How Fast Was Wild Wheat
Domesticated?” Science 311.5769 (2006) : 1886.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/311/5769/1886.short {19000 YBN}
4. ^
Zohary, Daniel; Maria Hopf (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World:
The Origin and Spread of Cultivated Plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile
Valley (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 67. ISBN
0-19-850357-1. http://books.google.com/?id=C1H6_XWJS_gC&pg=PA67.
{Zohary_Hopf_Domestication_of_Plants_in_the_Old_World_2000.pdf}
Near East (Southwest Asia Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia)2
  
18,000 YBN
[16000 BC] 5 6 7 8
603) Pottery.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000).
2. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of
invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books,
2000).
3. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8077168.stm
4. ^ Elisabetta Boaretto, Xiaohong Wu, Jiarong Yuan, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Vikki
Chu, Yan Pan, Kexin Liu, David Cohen, Tianlong Jiao, Shuicheng Li, Haibin Gu,
Paul Goldberg, and Steve Weiner, "Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone
collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China
PNAS 2009 106 (24) 9595-9600;" published ahead of print June 1, 2009,
doi:10.1073/pnas.0900539106
http://www.pnas.org/content/106/24/9595.full?sid=4a6f1743-94c2-4be8-b046-575b4
f27ab46

5. ^ Elisabetta Boaretto, Xiaohong Wu, Jiarong Yuan, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Vikki Chu,
Yan Pan, Kexin Liu, David Cohen, Tianlong Jiao, Shuicheng Li, Haibin Gu, Paul
Goldberg, and Steve Weiner, "Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen
associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China PNAS
2009 106 (24) 9595-9600;" published ahead of print June 1, 2009,
doi:10.1073/pnas.0900539106
http://www.pnas.org/content/106/24/9595.full?sid=4a6f1743-94c2-4be8-b046-575b4
f27ab46
{18,000}
6. ^ "pottery." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2011. Answers.com 31 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pottery {17,500YBN}
7. ^
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8077168.stm {17,500YBN}
8. ^ Trevor I. Williams,
"A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York:
Checkmark Books, 2000). {8000 YBN}
(Yuchanyan cave), Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China3 4   
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC] 7
6225) Rope.1 2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ LEROI-GOURHAN, A., Lascaux Inconnu (A. LEROIGOURHAN & J. ALLAIN, eds.),
Xlle Suppl. à Gallia Préhistoire, CNRS: Paris, 1979, p183.
2. ^ Alexander
Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second edition, Simon and
Schuster, 1991, p7.
3. ^ Bahn, Paul G., "Lascaux: ¿Composición o Acumulación?",
Zephyrus, 47 (1994) http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/handle/10366/71521
4. ^ LEROI-GOURHAN, A., Lascaux Inconnu (A. LEROIGOURHAN & J.
ALLAIN, eds.), Xlle Suppl. à Gallia Préhistoire, CNRS: Paris, 1979, p183.
5. ^
Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second edition,
Simon and Schuster, 1991, p7.
6. ^ Bahn, Paul G., "Lascaux: ¿Composición o
Acumulación?", Zephyrus, 47
(1994) http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/handle/10366/71521
7. ^ Bahn, Paul G., "Lascaux: ¿Composición o Acumulación?", Zephyrus, 47
(1994) http://gredos.usal.es/jspui/handle/10366/71521 {17000 YBN}
Lascaux, France4 5 6   
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC] 9 10 11
578) Humans enter America.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Eliza Barclay (September 3, 2008). "Oldest Skeleton in Americas Found in
Underwater Cave?". National Geographic News (National Geographic).
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/09/080903-oldest-skeletons.html
2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2538323.stm
3. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/NATURE/9906/08/ancient.woman/
4. ^ Eliza Barclay (September 3, 2008). "Oldest Skeleton in Americas
Found in Underwater Cave?". National Geographic News (National Geographic).
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/09/080903-oldest-skeletons.html
5. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2538323.stm
6. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/NATURE/9906/08/ancient.woman/
7. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2538323.stm
8. ^ Michael Vincent McGinnis, Negotiating ecology: Marine
bioregions and the destruction of the Southern California Bight, Futures,
Volume 38, Issue 4, Futures of Bioregions, May 2006, Pages 382-405, ISSN
0016-3287, DOI:
10.1016/j.futures.2005.07.016. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0016328705001382)

9. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2538323.stm {13000 YBN}
10. ^
http://edition.cnn.com/NATURE/9906/08/ancient.woman/ {13000 YBN}
11. ^ Michael
Vincent McGinnis, Negotiating ecology: Marine bioregions and the destruction of
the Southern California Bight, Futures, Volume 38, Issue 4, Futures of
Bioregions, May 2006, Pages 382-405, ISSN 0016-3287, DOI:
10.1016/j.futures.2005.07.016. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0016328705001382)
{13000 YBN}
Mexico City7 and Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA8
  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC] 5 6
606) Oldest city, Jericho.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000).
2. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of
invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books,
2000).
3. ^ "Jericho." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/302707/Jericho>. {9,000 BC}
4. ^
"Jericho." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology. Oxford University
Press, 2002, 2003. Answers.com 31 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/jericho
5. ^ "Jericho." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/302707/Jericho>. {9,000 BC}
6. ^ Trevor
I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New
York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {000 YBN} {8,000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Kathleen Kenyon, "Excavations at Jericho", 1981,
p6. {Kenyon_Excavations_At_Jericho_1981.pdf}
Jericho, (modern West Bank3 ) Palestine4   
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC] 6 7 8 9
612) Wheat grown.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Lev-Yadun, Simcha, Avi Gopher, and Shahal Abbo. "The Cradle of
Agriculture." Science 288.5471 (2000): 1602�1603.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/288/5471/1602.full
2. ^ Lev-Yadun, Simcha, Avi Gopher, and Shahal Abbo. "The Cradle of
Agriculture." Science 288.5471 (2000): 1602�1603.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/288/5471/1602.full
3. ^ Lev-Yadun, Simcha, Avi Gopher, and Shahal Abbo. "The Cradle of
Agriculture." Science 288.5471 (2000): 1602�1603.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/288/5471/1602.full
4. ^ Tanno, Ken-ichi, and George Willcox. "How Fast Was Wild Wheat
Domesticated?"� Science 311.5769 (2006) : 1886.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/311/5769/1886.short
5. ^ Which came first, monumental building projects or farming?". Archaeo News.
2008-12-14.
6. ^ Lev-Yadun, Simcha, Avi Gopher, and Shahal Abbo. "The Cradle of
Agriculture." Science 288.5471 (2000): 1602�1603.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/288/5471/1602.full
7. ^ Tanno, Ken-ichi, and George Willcox. "How Fast Was Wild Wheat
Domesticated?" Science 311.5769 (2006) : 1886.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/311/5769/1886.short {9300 YBN}
8. ^ Which
came first, monumental building projects or farming?". Archaeo News.
2008-12-14.
9. ^ "First farmers discovered". BBC News.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/489449.stm

MORE INFO
[1] Diamond, Jared. "Evolution, Consequences and Future of Plant and
Animal Domestication." Nature 418.6898 (2002):
700�707. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v418/n6898/full/nature01019.htm
l

[2] Moore, Andrew Michael Tangye, Gordon C. Hillman, and Anthony J. Legge.
Village on the Euphrates: from foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra. Oxford:
Oxford University Press xvii, 2000, p.
528. http://www.amazon.com/Village-Euphrates-Foraging-Farming-Hureyra/dp/019510
8078

[3] Ozkan, H; Brandolini, A; Sch�fer-Pregl, R; Salamini, F (October 2002).
"AFLP analysis of a collection of tetraploid wheats indicates the origin of
emmer and hard wheat domestication in southeast Turkey". Molecular Biology and
Evolution 19 (10): 1797�801. PMID 12270906
[4] Zohary, Daniel; Maria Hopf (2000).
Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of Cultivated
Plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley (3rd ed.). Oxford University
Press. pp. 67. ISBN
0-19-850357-1. http://books.google.com/?id=C1H6_XWJS_gC&pg=PA67
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria3 |southeastern Turkey and northern Syria4 (Nevali
Cori, Turkey5 )  
9,240 YBN
[7240 BC] 4 5
1478) Squash grown.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tom D. Dillehay, Jack Rossen, Thomas C. Andres, and David E. Williams,
"Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and Cotton in Northern Peru", Science
29 June 2007: 316 (5833),
1890-1893. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/316/5833/1890.abstract
2. ^ Tom D. Dillehay, Jack Rossen, Thomas C. Andres, and David E. Williams,
"Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and Cotton in Northern Peru", Science
29 June 2007: 316 (5833),
1890-1893. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/316/5833/1890.abstract
3. ^ Tom D. Dillehay, Jack Rossen, Thomas C. Andres, and David E. Williams,
"Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and Cotton in Northern Peru", Science
29 June 2007: 316 (5833),
1890-1893. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/316/5833/1890.abstract
4. ^ Tom D. Dillehay, Jack Rossen, Thomas C. Andres, and David E. Williams,
"Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and Cotton in Northern Peru", Science
29 June 2007: 316 (5833),
1890-1893. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/316/5833/1890.abstract {9240}
5. ^
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/28/science/28cnd-squash.html?_r=1&adxnnl=1&oref=s
login&adxnnlx=1183057296-Up92joKUeK1fZr+Wt4cXsQ
(10000ybn)
Paiján, Peru3   
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC] 3
6220) Earliest drum.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "drum." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/172045/drum>.
2. ^ "drum." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/172045/drum>.
3. ^ "drum." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 12 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/172045/drum>. {6000 BC}
Moravia, Czeck Republic2   
7,700 YBN
[5700 BC] 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
719) Rice grown.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Normile, Dennis. “Archaeology: Yangtze Seen as Earliest Rice Site.”
Science 275.5298 (1997) : 309.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/275/5298/309.full
{Normile_Earliest_Rice_1997.pdf}
2. ^ Normile, Dennis. “Archaeology: Yangtze Seen as Earliest Rice Site.”
Science 275.5298 (1997) : 309.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/275/5298/309.full
{Normile_Earliest_Rice_1997.pdf}
3. ^ Fuller, Dorian Q et al. “The Domestication Process and Domestication
Rate in Rice: Spikelet Bases from the Lower Yangtze.” Science 323.5921
(2009):
1607–1610. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/323/5921/1607.short {Fuller_Dom
estication_Rice_2009.pdf}
4. ^ Y. Zheng, G. Sun, X. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 52, 1654 (2007).
5. ^ Normile, Dennis.
“Archaeology: Yangtze Seen as Earliest Rice Site.” Science 275.5298 (1997)
: 309. Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/275/5298/309.full
{Normile_Earliest_Rice_1997.pdf}
6. ^ Fuller, Dorian Q et al. “The Domestication Process and Domestication
Rate in Rice: Spikelet Bases from the Lower Yangtze.” Science 323.5921
(2009):
1607–1610. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/323/5921/1607.short {Fuller_Dom
estication_Rice_2009.pdf}
7. ^ Y. Zheng, G. Sun, X. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 52, 1654 (2007).
8. ^ Domestication
and the origins of agriculture: an appraisal Progress in Physical Geography 1
March 1999: 37-56.
http://ppg.sagepub.com/content/23/1/37.short {Mannion_Agriculture_1999.pdf}
9. ^ Normile, Dennis. “Archaeology: Yangtze Seen as Earliest Rice Site.”
Science 275.5298 (1997) : 309.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/275/5298/309.full {11500}
{Normile_Earliest_Rice_1997.pdf}
10. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {3500 YBN}
11. ^ Zohary, Daniel; Maria
Hopf (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World: The Origin and Spread of
Cultivated Plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley (3rd ed.). Oxford
University Press. pp. 91. ISBN
0-19-850357-1. http://books.google.com/?id=C1H6_XWJS_gC&pg=PA91
{Zohary_Hopf_Domestication_of_Plants_in_the_Old_World_2000.pdf}
12. ^ Zohary, D., M. Hopf, and E. Weiss. Domestication of Plants in the Old
World: The Origin and Spread of Domesticated Plants in Southwest Asia, Europe,
and the Mediterranean Basin. OUP Oxford, 2012,
p74. http://books.google.com/books?id=tc6vr0qzk_4C
Kuahuqiao, Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang Province3 4 |Yangtze (in Hubei and Hunan
provinces), China5   
7,100 YBN
[5100 BC] 4 5
720) Corn grown.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Pope, Kevin O. et al. �Origin and Environmental Setting of Ancient
Agriculture in the Lowlands of Mesoamerica.� Science 292.5520 (2001):
1370�1373. Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/292/5520/1370.abstract
2. ^ Pope, Kevin O. et al. �Origin and Environmental Setting of
Ancient Agriculture in the Lowlands of Mesoamerica.� Science 292.5520 (2001):
1370�1373. Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/292/5520/1370.abstract
3. ^ Piperno, D. R., and K. V. Flannery. “The earliest
archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: New accelerator mass
spectrometry dates and their implications.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences 98.4 (2001) : 2101 -2103.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/98/4/2101.short
4. ^ Pope, Kevin O. et al. �Origin and Environmental Setting of Ancient
Agriculture in the Lowlands of Mesoamerica.� Science 292.5520 (2001):
1370�1373. Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/292/5520/1370.abstract
5. ^ Piperno, D. R., and K. V. Flannery. “The earliest
archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: New accelerator mass
spectrometry dates and their implications.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences 98.4 (2001) : 2101 -2103.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/98/4/2101.short {6250}

MORE INFO
[1] Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to
silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000)
San Andrés, Mexico2 |(Oaxaca, Mexico3 )  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC] 4 5 6 7
627) Metal melting and casting (copper).2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Ernst Pernicka, Dušan Šljivar,
Michael Brauns, Dušan Borić, On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new
evidence from Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 37, Issue 11,
November 2010, Pages 2775-2787, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440310001986)

2. ^ Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Ernst Pernicka, Dušan Šljivar,
Michael Brauns, Dušan Borić, On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new
evidence from Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 37, Issue 11,
November 2010, Pages 2775-2787, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440310001986)

3. ^ Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Ernst Pernicka, Dušan Šljivar,
Michael Brauns, Dušan Borić, On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new
evidence from Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 37, Issue 11,
November 2010, Pages 2775-2787, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440310001986)

4. ^ Miljana Radivojević, Thilo Rehren, Ernst Pernicka, Dušan Šljivar,
Michael Brauns, Dušan Borić, On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new
evidence from Europe, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 37, Issue 11,
November 2010, Pages 2775-2787, ISSN 0305-4403,
10.1016/j.jas.2010.06.012. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
305440310001986)
{c7000 YBN}
5. ^ P.t., Craddock. “From hearth to furnace :
evidences for the earliest metal smelting technologies in the Eastern
Mediterranean.” Paléorient (2000) : 151-165.
Print. http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/paleo_0153-9345_2
000_num_26_2_4716
{8000BCE} {article_paleo_0153-9345_2000_num_26_2_4716.pdf}
{5500BCE}
6. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (3500 BCE) (=3500bce)
7. ^ "Copper (5000
BCE)". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper (5000
BCE) (=5000bce) {5000BCE}

MORE INFO
[1] Metals and Metallurgy in the Chalcolithic Period Noël H.
Gale Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research No. 282/283,
Symposium: Chalcolithic Cyprus (May - Aug., 1991), pp. 37-61 Published by: The
American Schools of Oriental Research Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1357261
Belovode, Eastern Serbia3   
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC] 3
6232) Mud brick house.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "brick and tile." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/79195/brick>.
2. ^ "brick and tile." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/79195/brick>.
3. ^ "brick and tile." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 19 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/79195/brick>. {4000 BC}
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)2   
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC] 3 4 5 6 7
233) Writing (on clay objects). First numbers. First stamp (or seal).1
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Archaic Bookkeeping, Nissen, 1993, pp13-14.
2. ^ Archaic Bookkeeping, Nissen,
1993, pp13-14.
3. ^ http://www.earth-history.com/Clay-tablets.htm {5500 YBN}
4. ^ Denise
Schmandt-Besserat, "Reckoning Before Writing", Archaeology. May/June 1979, Vol.
32, No. 3, p. 22-31. http://en.finaly.org/index.php/Reckoning_before_writing
5. ^ "writing." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web.
20 Nov. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/649670/writing>. {3500
BC}
6. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {for stamp)3500BC}
7. ^ Schmandt-Besserat,
Denise. "Two Precursors of Writing: Plain and Complex Tokens", in The Origins
of Writing / edited by Wayne M. Senner. 1991: 27-41.
http://en.finaly.org/index.php/Two_precursors_of_writing:_plain_and_complex_to
kens#n_1_a


MORE INFO
[1] http://www.jstor.org/view/00030279/ap020117/02a00010/0
(sexagesimal.pdf)
[2] Barbara Watterson, "Introducing Egyptian hieroglyphs", (Edinburgh: Scottish
Academic Press, 1993)
[3] Roy MacLeod, "The Library of Alexandria Centre of Learning
in the Ancient World", (New York: I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, 2000)
[4] "sigillography."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/543584/sigillography>
[5]
http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Babylonian_numerals.html
[6] "Numeral system#History". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numeral_system#History
Mesopotamia (Babylonia)2 |Sumer (Syria, Sumer, Highland Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC] 5 6 7
294) Timekeeping device.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "sundial." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573826/sundial>.
2. ^ "sundial." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573826/sundial>.
3. ^ Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second
edition, Simon and Schuster, 1991, p10.
4. ^ "sundial." Encyclopædia Britannica.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica
Inc., 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573826/sundial>.
5. ^ "sundial." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573826/sundial>. {-3500 BCE}
6. ^
"sundial." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic
Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/573826/sundial>. {-3500 BCE}
7. ^
Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second edition,
Simon and Schuster, 1991, p10. {2600-2501 BC}

MORE INFO
[1] Yenne and Grosser, "100 Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993,
p15
China2 3 and Chaldea4   
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC] 9 10
646) The wheel (for pottery).4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Sir Leonard Woolley, "Ur 'of the Chaldees"', 1982, p27.
2. ^ Trevor I.
Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New
York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (3500BCE)
3. ^
http://inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventions/a/wheel.htm (3500BCE)
4. ^ Sir Leonard
Woolley, "Ur 'of the Chaldees"', 1982, p27.
5. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of
invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books,
2000). (3500BCE)
6. ^ http://inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventions/a/wheel.htm
(3500BCE)
7. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (3500BCE)
8. ^
http://inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventions/a/wheel.htm (3500BCE)
9. ^ Trevor I.
Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New
York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (3500BCE) (=3500BCE) {35000BCE}
10. ^
http://inventors.about.com/od/wstartinventions/a/wheel.htm (3500BCE) (=3500BCE)
{35000BCE}

MORE INFO
[1] Margaret Sax, Nigel D. Meeks and Dominique Collon , "The Early
Development of the Lapidary Engraving Wheel in Mesopotamia", Iraq, Vol. 62,
(2000), pp. 157-176 Published by: British Institute for the Study of
Iraq Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4200487
[2]
http://www.hartford-hwp.com/image_archive/ue/uea.html
[3] Stuart Piggott, "The earliest wheeled transport : from the Atlantic Coast
to the Caspian Sea", Thames and Hudson, 1983
[4] "WORLD'S OLDEST WHEEL FOUND IN
SLOVENIA" March
2003 http://www.ukom.gov.si/en/media_relations/background_information/culture/w
orlds_oldest_wheel_found_in_slovenia/

Mesopotamia7 8 (and a similar pottery wheel from Choga Mish, Iran)  
5,490 YBN
[3490 BC] 4 5
702) Cotton grown.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tom D. Dillehay, Jack Rossen, Thomas C. Andres, and David E. Williams,
"Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and Cotton in Northern Peru", Science
29 June 2007: 316 (5833),
1890-1893. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/316/5833/1890.abstract
2. ^ Tom D. Dillehay, Jack Rossen, Thomas C. Andres, and David E. Williams,
"Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and Cotton in Northern Peru", Science
29 June 2007: 316 (5833),
1890-1893. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/316/5833/1890.abstract
3. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000).
4. ^ Tom D. Dillehay, Jack Rossen, Thomas
C. Andres, and David E. Williams, "Preceramic Adoption of Peanut, Squash, and
Cotton in Northern Peru", Science 29 June 2007: 316 (5833),
1890-1893. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/316/5833/1890.abstract {5490 YBN}
5. ^
Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon chips
", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {4000 YBN}
Northwestern Peru2 |Indus valley3   
5,350 YBN
[3350 BC] 8 9 10 11
1261) Writing on clay tablets.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www.earth-history.com/Clay-tablets.htm
2. ^ "writing". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online.
3. ^ Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. "Two Precursors of Writing: Plain and Complex
Tokens", in The Origins of Writing / edited by Wayne M. Senner. 1991: 27-41.
http://en.finaly.org/index.php/Two_precursors_of_writing:_plain_and_complex_to
kens#n_1_a

4. ^ http://www.earth-history.com/Clay-tablets.htm
5. ^ "writing". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online.
6. ^ Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. "Two Precursors of Writing: Plain and Complex
Tokens", in The Origins of Writing / edited by Wayne M. Senner. 1991: 27-41.
http://en.finaly.org/index.php/Two_precursors_of_writing:_plain_and_complex_to
kens#n_1_a

7. ^ "Sumerian writing>.". Encyclopedia wrBritannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 15 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/649670/writing/53659/Sumerian-wr
iting
>.
8. ^ Denise Schmandt-Besserat, "The Earliest Precursor of Writing", Scientific
American. June 1977, Vol. 238, No. 6, p.
50-58. http://en.finaly.org/index.php/The_earliest_precursor_of_writing
9. ^ http://www.earth-history.com/Clay-tablets.htm (3300bce)
10. ^ Nissen, H.J. et al.
Archaic Bookkeeping: Early Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in
the Ancient Near East. University of Chicago Press,
1994. http://books.google.com/books?id=YBAzXV4YtQ8C&pg=PA5#v=onepage&q&f=false
11. ^ "writing". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

MORE INFO
[1] http://cdli.ucla.edu:16080/wiki/index.php/The_Late_Uruk_period
[2] Roy MacLeod, "The Library of Alexandria Centre of Learning in the
Ancient World", (New York: I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd, 2000)
[3] Archaic Bookkeeping,
Nissen, 1993, pp13-14
Uruk7   
5,310 YBN
[3310 BC] 4 5 6
704) Animal pulled vehicles.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000).
2. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of
invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books,
2000).
3. ^ Stuart and Piggott, "The Earliest Wheeled Transport", 1983, p40,62-63.
4. ^ Stuart
and Piggott, "The Earliest Wheeled Transport", 1983, p40,62-63. {c3530-3310 BC}
5.
^ Stuart and Piggott, "The Earliest Wheeled Transport", 1983, p40,62-63.
{Standard of Ur) 2600-2400 BC}
6. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention :
from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {4000
YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Zettler, Richard L.; Horne, Lee; Hansen, Donald P.; Pittman, Holly.
Treasures from the royal tombs of Ur, pp. 45-47. UPenn Museum of Archaeology,
1998. ISBN 9780924171543
[2]
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/t/the_stand
ard_of_ur.aspx

(TRB - Funnel Beaker culture) Bronocice, Krakow, Poland3   
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC] 4 5
569) Stringed musical instrument (lyre and harp).1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Curt Sachs, "The History of Musical Instruments", 1940, p78-80.
2. ^ Yenne and
Grosser, "100 Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993, p17.
3. ^ Curt Sachs,
"The History of Musical Instruments", 1940, p78-80.
4. ^ Curt Sachs, "The History of
Musical Instruments", 1940, p78-80. {-3000 BC}
5. ^ Yenne and Grosser, "100
Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993, p17. {-3000 BC}

MORE INFO
[1] C. Leonard Woolley, "Ur Excavations. Vol. II. The Royal Cemetery.",
1934 {Ur_Excavations_Royal_Cemetary_1934.pdf}
[2] http://www.penn.museum/long-term-exhibits/267-iraq.html
Sumer (modern Iraq)3   
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC] 3 4
596) Phonetic writing.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Fischer, S.R. A History of Writing. Reaktion, 2001. Globalities Series.
p47-48.
2. ^ Archaic Bookkeeping, Nisson, 1993, 9.
3. ^ Archaic Bookkeeping, Nisson, 1993
(during writing phase Uruk III 3000bce)
4. ^ "Sumer". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumer (3200bce)

MORE INFO
[1] encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761565349/Alphabet.html
Jemdet Nasr2   
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC] 5 6 7
628) Bronze casting.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Artifacts provide insights on Fertile Crescent", University of Chicago
News Office, Jan. 12,
2005 http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/05/050112.oi-objects.shtml
2. ^ Edwards I. E. S, "The Cambridge ancient history, Volumes 1-3", 1970.
http://books.google.com/books?id=slR7SFScEnwC&pg=PA342&lpg=PA342&dq=Tell+Judai
dah+bronze&source=bl&ots=nsUpGgmod8&sig=hHbgeyEJy95EC7mkTgsuvCaMFR0&hl=en&sa=X&e
i=MPkRT5anJamoiAKilaXXDQ&sqi=2&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Tell%20Judaidah%20bro
nze&f=false

3. ^ "Artifacts provide insights on Fertile Crescent", University of Chicago
News Office, Jan. 12,
2005 http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/05/050112.oi-objects.shtml
4. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (3500 BCE) (=3500bce)
5. ^ "Artifacts provide
insights on Fertile Crescent", University of Chicago News Office, Jan. 12,
2005 http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/05/050112.oi-objects.shtml
6. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (3500 BCE) (=3500bce)
7. ^ "Bronze (late 3000
BCE)". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze (late
3000 BCE) (late 3000bce) {Late 3000 BCE}

MORE INFO
[1] "Copper". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper
[2] V. Gordon Childe, "The Bronze Age", Cambridge University Press, 2011
http://books.google.com/books?id=Fxb9brYSPVYC
[3] "Bronze". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze
(late 3000 BCE)
[4] "Bronze Age". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age
[5] http://www.asa3.org/archive/ASA/199604/0288.html
Tell Judaidah, Turkey3 |Egypt4   
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC] 2 3 4
6222) Inclined plane.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Yenne and Grosser, "100 Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993, p9.
2. ^
Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon chips
", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {3000 BC}
3. ^ Alexander Hellemans, Bryan
Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second edition, Simon and Schuster, 1991,
p11. {2900 BCE (based on Pyramid of Giza}
4. ^ Yenne and Grosser, "100 Inventions
That Shaped World History", 1993, p9. {2.4 Million BC}
Egypt?  
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC] 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
635) Iron melted and casted.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Yalçın, Ünsal. “Early Iron Metallurgy in Anatolia.” Anatolian
Studies 49 (1999): 177–187. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3643073
2. ^ Wertime, Theodore A. “The Beginnings of
Metallurgy: A New Look.” Science 182.4115 (1973): 875–887.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1737722
3. ^ Arik, Remzi O. Les Fouilles D'alaca Höyük Entreprises Par La
Société D'histoire Turque: Rapport Préliminaire Sur Les Travaux En 1935.
Ankara, 1937.
4. ^ Yalçın, Ünsal. “Early Iron Metallurgy in Anatolia.”
Anatolian Studies 49 (1999): 177–187. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3643073
5. ^ Wertime, Theodore A. “The
Beginnings of Metallurgy: A New Look.” Science 182.4115 (1973): 875–887.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1737722
6. ^ Arik, Remzi O. Les Fouilles D'alaca Höyük Entreprises Par La
Société D'histoire Turque: Rapport Préliminaire Sur Les Travaux En 1935.
Ankara, 1937.
7. ^ Yalçın, Ünsal. “Early Iron Metallurgy in Anatolia.”
Anatolian Studies 49 (1999): 177–187. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3643073
8. ^ Wertime, Theodore A. “The
Beginnings of Metallurgy: A New Look.” Science 182.4115 (1973): 875–887.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1737722
9. ^ Arik, Remzi O. Les Fouilles D'alaca Höyük Entreprises Par La
Société D'histoire Turque: Rapport Préliminaire Sur Les Travaux En 1935.
Ankara, 1937.
10. ^ Petrie, W.M.F. Gerar. British School of Archaeology in Egypt,
1928. Egyptian Research Account.
11. ^ Rickard, T. A. “The Primitive Smelting of
Iron.” American Journal of Archaeology 43.1 (1939): 85–101.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/499136
12. ^ Veldhuijzen, HA and Rehren, T , "Iron Smelting Slag Formation at Tell
Hammeh (Al-Zarqa), Jordan". (2006), (Proceedings) 34th International Symposium
on Archaeometry, Zaragoza, 3-7 May 2004. (pp. 245 - 250). Institucion 'Fernando
el Catolico' (CSIC) Excma. Diputacion de Zaragoza:
Zaragoza. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/11494/
13. ^ Xander Veldhuijzen and Eveline van der Steen, "Iron Production Center
Found in the Jordan Valley", Near Eastern Archaeology, Vol. 62, No. 3 (Sep.,
1999), pp. 195-199 Published by: The American Schools of Oriental
Research Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3210714
14. ^ Richardson, Harry Craig. “Iron,
Prehistoric and Ancient.” American Journal of Archaeology 38.4 (1934):
555–583. http://www.jstor.org/stable/498191
15. ^ Yalçın, Ünsal. “Early Iron Metallurgy in Anatolia.”
Anatolian Studies 49 (1999): 177–187. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3643073
16. ^ Petrie, W.M.F. Gerar. British
School of Archaeology in Egypt, 1928. Egyptian Research Account, p14-16, Plate
25-32. {Petrie_Gerar_1928.pdf}
17. ^ Rickard, T. A. “The Primitive Smelting of Iron.” American Journal of
Archaeology 43.1 (1939): 85–101. http://www.jstor.org/stable/499136
18. ^ Veldhuijzen, HA and Rehren, T , "Iron
Smelting Slag Formation at Tell Hammeh (Al-Zarqa), Jordan". (2006),
(Proceedings) 34th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Zaragoza, 3-7 May
2004. (pp. 245 - 250). Institucion 'Fernando el Catolico' (CSIC) Excma.
Diputacion de Zaragoza: Zaragoza. http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/11494/ {930/910
BCE}
19. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (3500 YBN)
20. ^
http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/resource/ptable/fe.htm (3000 YBN) (3000)
21. ^ "Iron (3500
YBN)". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron (3500
YBN) (3500)
22. ^ "Iron Age". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 08 Nov.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/294368/Iron-Age>.
23. ^ Richardson, Harry Craig. “Iron, Prehistoric and Ancient.” American
Journal of Archaeology 38.4 (1934): 555–583.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/498191

MORE INFO
[1] "Iron age". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_age
Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia (modern Turkey)7 8 9 |Palestine10 11 |Tell
Hammeh (az-Zarqa), Jordan12 13 |Central Europe and north Assyria14   
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC] 4 5 6 7 8 9
667) Glass making.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ J. Henderson, J. Evans and K. Nikita, "ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE FOR THE PRIMARY
PRODUCTION, PROVENANCE AND TRADE OF LATE BRONZE AGE GLASS IN THE
MEDITERRANEAN", Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.
1‐24. 2010. http://www.rhodes.aegean.gr/maa_journal/Henderson%2010_1.pdf
2. ^ J. Henderson, J. Evans and K. Nikita, "ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE FOR THE
PRIMARY PRODUCTION, PROVENANCE AND TRADE OF LATE BRONZE AGE GLASS IN THE
MEDITERRANEAN", Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.
1‐24. 2010. http://www.rhodes.aegean.gr/maa_journal/Henderson%2010_1.pdf
3. ^ J. Henderson, J. Evans and K. Nikita, "ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE FOR THE
PRIMARY PRODUCTION, PROVENANCE AND TRADE OF LATE BRONZE AGE GLASS IN THE
MEDITERRANEAN", Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.
1‐24. 2010. http://www.rhodes.aegean.gr/maa_journal/Henderson%2010_1.pdf
4. ^ J. Henderson, J. Evans and K. Nikita, "ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE FOR THE
PRIMARY PRODUCTION, PROVENANCE AND TRADE OF LATE BRONZE AGE GLASS IN THE
MEDITERRANEAN", Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp.
1‐24. 2010. http://www.rhodes.aegean.gr/maa_journal/Henderson%2010_1.pdf
{4300 YBN}
5. ^ P. R. S. Moorey, "Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries.
The Archaeological Evidence", Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1994,
p190. {Mesopotamian_Materials_and_Industries_Moorey_1994.pdf}
AND {Moorey-Ancient_Mesopotamian_Materials_and_Industries-1994.pdf} {c4000YBN}
6. ^ James
Owen, "Ancient Egyptian City Yields World's Oldest Glassworks", National
Geographic News June 16,
2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/06/0616_050616_egyptglass.htm
l
{35000 YBN}
7. ^ Thilo Rehren and Edgar B. Pusch, "Late Bronze Age Glass
Production at Qantir-Piramesses, Egypt", Science New Series, Vol. 308, No. 5729
(Jun. 17, 2005), pp. 1756-1758 Published by: American Association for the
Advancement of Science Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3841666
{35000 YBN}
8. ^ http://glassonline.com/infoserv/history.html {5500YBN}
9. ^ Trevor I.
Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New
York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {5000YBN}
Mesopotamia3   
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC] 5 6 7 8 9
1271) Earliest written stories.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kramer, S.N. Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary
Achievement in the Third Millennium, B.C. c by. ^ S. N. Kramer ... American
Philosophical Society, 1944. Memoirs of the American Philosophical
Society. http://books.google.com/books?id=77aDgCLAZS8C
2. ^ Kramer, S.N. Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary
Achievement in the Third Millennium, B.C. c by. ^ S. N. Kramer ... American
Philosophical Society, 1944. Memoirs of the American Philosophical
Society. http://books.google.com/books?id=77aDgCLAZS8C
3. ^ Hayes, A Manual of Sumerian grammar and texts, 1990, p270.
4. ^ Kramer, S.N.
Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary Achievement in the Third
Millennium, B.C. c by. ^ S. N. Kramer ... American Philosophical Society, 1944.
Memoirs of the American Philosophical
Society. http://books.google.com/books?id=77aDgCLAZS8C
5. ^ Hayes, A Manual of Sumerian grammar and texts, 1990, p270. (there is also
a 2000 edition {Hayes_Sumerian_2000.pdf})
6. ^ Kramer, S.N. Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and
Literary Achievement in the Third Millennium, B.C. c by. ^ S. N. Kramer ...
American Philosophical Society, 1944. Memoirs of the American Philosophical
Society. http://books.google.com/books?id=77aDgCLAZS8C
7. ^ Kramer, Samuel N. Sumerian Mythology: A Study of Spiritual and Literary
Achievement in the Third Millennium B.c. New York: Harper, 1961.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/986108
8. ^ Thomson, G.A. First Writers-The Sumerians: They Wrote on Clay. iUniverse,
2011, p xi.
9. ^ Alexander, T.D., and D.W. Baker. Dictionary of the Old Testament:
Pentateuch: A Compendium of Contemporary Biblical Scholarship. InterVarsity
Press, 2002. The IVP Bible Dictionary Series, p608.

MORE INFO
[1] "Ancient literature". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_literature
[2] Arno Poebel, "Historical and grammatical texts", vols 1-5, 1914. vol 1:
http://books.google.com/books?id=tg0TAAAAYAAJ vol 4:
http://books.google.com/books?id=mxwYAAAAYAAJ vol 5:
http://books.google.com/books?id=_A0TAAAAYAAJ
[3] Jeffrey H. Tigay, "The evolution of the Gilgamesh epic",
http://books.google.com/books?id=cxjuHTH6I2sC
[4] Kramer, S. N. "Sumerian Literature; A Preliminary Survey of the Oldest
Literature in the World." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society
85.3 (1942): 293�323. http://www.jstor.org/stable/985008
Lagash3 |Nippur4   
4,130 YBN
[2130 BC] 3
6234) Musical horn.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Curt Sachs, "The History of Musical Instruments", 1940, p73.
2. ^
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/g/gudea,_king_of_l
agash.aspx

3. ^
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/g/gudea,_king_of_l
agash.aspx
{around) 2130 BCE}
Lagash, Mesopotamia2   
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC] 7 8
733) Lock and key.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "article 4263". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-4263
2. ^
http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/preservation/science/inventions/chpt8.htm
3. ^ "article 4263". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-4263
4. ^
http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/preservation/science/inventions/chpt8.htm
5. ^
http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/preservation/science/inventions/chpt8.htm
(=4000ybn/nineveh)
6. ^ "Nineveh." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 May. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/nineveh
7. ^
http://www.usgennet.org/usa/topic/preservation/science/inventions/chpt8.htm
(=4000ybn/nineveh) {4000 YBN(nineveh}
8. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention :
from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000).
(=1200bce/egypt) {1200 BCE (egypt}
Nineveh,5 Assyria on the Tigris River6   
3,531 YBN
[1531 BC] 6 7
639) Planets are recognized.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Russell Hobson, THE EXACT TRANSMISSION OF TEXTS IN THE FIRST MILLENNIUM
B.C.E., Published PhD Thesis. Department of Hebrew, Biblical and Jewish
Studies. University of Sydney, 2009,
p6. http://www.caeno.org/_Eponym/pdf/Gasche_Ammizaduga%20new%20chronology.pdf
2. ^ Evans, James (1998). The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford
University Press. pp. 296–7. ISBN 9780195095395.
http://books.google.com/books?id=nS51_7qbEWsC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=babylon+gree
k+astronomy&hl=en#v=onepage&q=babylon%20greek%20astronomy&f=false

3. ^ Russell Hobson, THE EXACT TRANSMISSION OF TEXTS IN THE FIRST MILLENNIUM
B.C.E., Published PhD Thesis. Department of Hebrew, Biblical and Jewish
Studies. University of Sydney, 2009,
p6. http://www.caeno.org/_Eponym/pdf/Gasche_Ammizaduga%20new%20chronology.pdf
4. ^ Evans, James (1998). The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford
University Press. pp. 296–7. ISBN 9780195095395.
http://books.google.com/books?id=nS51_7qbEWsC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=babylon+gree
k+astronomy&hl=en#v=onepage&q=babylon%20greek%20astronomy&f=false

5. ^ Russell Hobson, THE EXACT TRANSMISSION OF TEXTS IN THE FIRST MILLENNIUM
B.C.E., Published PhD Thesis. Department of Hebrew, Biblical and Jewish
Studies. University of Sydney, 2009,
p6. http://www.caeno.org/_Eponym/pdf/Gasche_Ammizaduga%20new%20chronology.pdf
6. ^ Russell Hobson, THE EXACT TRANSMISSION OF TEXTS IN THE FIRST MILLENNIUM
B.C.E., Published PhD Thesis. Department of Hebrew, Biblical and Jewish
Studies. University of Sydney, 2009,
p6. http://www.caeno.org/_Eponym/pdf/Gasche_Ammizaduga%20new%20chronology.pdf
7. ^ Evans, James (1998). The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford
University Press. pp. 296–7. ISBN 9780195095395.
http://books.google.com/books?id=nS51_7qbEWsC&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=babylon+gree
k+astronomy&hl=en#v=onepage&q=babylon%20greek%20astronomy&f=false

Babylon5   
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC] 4 5
723) Pulley.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000).
2. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of
invention : from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books,
2000).
3. ^ Sir Austen Henry Layard, "Nineveh and its remains: with an account of a
visit to the Chaldean ...", 1850,
p219. http://books.google.com/books?id=-J5CAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA219
4. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {1500 BC}
5. ^ Yenne and Grosser, "100
Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993, p21. {before 260 BC}
Nimroud, Assyria2 3   
2,785 YBN
[785 BC] 2
771) Eclipses predicted.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, "Who wrote the Bible?", (San Francisco: Summit
Books, 1987).
2. ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, "Who wrote the Bible?", (San Francisco:
Summit Books, 1987).
  
2,529 YBN
[529 BC] 6
772) Earth described as a sphere.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
2. ^ "Pythagoras." Biographies.
Answers Corporation, 2006. Answers.com 11 Nov. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pythagoras
3. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
4. ^ "Pythagoras." Biographies.
Answers Corporation, 2006. Answers.com 11 Nov. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pythagoras
5. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
6. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's
biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982). {529 BCE}

MORE INFO
[1] "Polycrates". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycrates
[2] "Pythagorean theorem". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pythagorean_theorem
Croton, Italy5   
2,467 YBN
[467 BC] 7 8
836) That stars are other Suns is known.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Diogenes Laertius, tr: R. D. Hicks, "Lives of Eminent Philosophers Books
I-V", 137-139. (similar
translation:) http://books.google.com/books?id=JkYzAAAAYAAJ
2. ^ Popkin, R.H., S.F. Brown, and D. Carr. The Columbia History of Western
Philosophy. Columbia University Press, 1999,
p17. http://books.google.com/books?id=ok4F_SawQaEC&pg=PA17
3. ^ Diogenes Laertius, tr: R. D. Hicks, "Lives of Eminent Philosophers Books
I-V", 137-139. (similar
translation:) http://books.google.com/books?id=JkYzAAAAYAAJ
4. ^ Popkin, R.H., S.F. Brown, and D. Carr. The Columbia History of Western
Philosophy. Columbia University Press, 1999,
p17. http://books.google.com/books?id=ok4F_SawQaEC&pg=PA17
5. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
6. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's
biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982), p8-9.
7. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of
science and technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), p8-9.
8. ^ Isaac Asimov,
"Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City,
NY: Doubleday, 1982). (450bc+30yrs estimate for science contributions)

MORE INFO
[1] "Anaxagoras". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaxagoras (=490?-430?)
Clazomenae (75 miles/120 km north of Miletus)|Athens5 |Did not move to Athens
until around 462 bce6   
2,467 YBN
[467 BC] 8
1894) Particle (or wireless) communication.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Aeschylus. Aeschylus, with an English translation by Herbert Weir Smyth,
Ph. D. in two volumes. 2.Agamemnon. Herbert Weir Smyth, Ph. D. Cambridge, MA.
Harvard University Press. 1926, lines 278-316.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0004%3Ac
ard%3D258

2. ^ "Optical telegraph#History". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_telegraph#History
3. ^ Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second
edition, Simon and Schuster, 1991, p33.
4. ^ Aeschylus. Aeschylus, with an English
translation by Herbert Weir Smyth, Ph. D. in two volumes. 2.Agamemnon. Herbert
Weir Smyth, Ph. D. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. 1926, lines
278-316.
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0004%3Ac
ard%3D258

5. ^ "Optical telegraph#History". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_telegraph#History
6. ^ Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second
edition, Simon and Schuster, 1991, p33.
7. ^ "Aeschylus." The Concise Oxford
Companion to Classical Literature. Oxford University Press, 1993, 2003.
Answers.com 14 Nov. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/aeschylus
8. ^ "Aeschylus." The Concise Oxford Companion to
Classical Literature. Oxford University Press, 1993, 2003. Answers.com 14 Nov.
2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/aeschylus {467 BCE}

MORE INFO
[1] Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982)
[2] "Robert Hooke". Encyclopedia
Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040979/Robert-Hooke
[3] "Robert Hooke". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Hooke
[4] http://www.answers.com/Robert+Hooke?cat=technology
[5] http://www.libraries.uc.edu/source/volfour/oesper2.html
[6] http://www.roberthooke.org.uk/
[7]
http://freespace.virgin.net/ric.martin/vectis/hookeweb/roberthooke.htm
[8] http://www.she-philosopher.com/gallery/cyclopaedia.html
[9] "Optical telegraph#History". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_telegraph#History (1684)
Argos, Greece7   
2,460 YBN
[460 BC] 5 6
841) Theory that all matter is made of atoms.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
2. ^ "Leucippus". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucippus
3. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of
science and technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
4. ^ "Leucippus".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucippus
5. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical
encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
(=~490bce)
6. ^ "Leucippus". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leucippus (=500-450bce)
  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC] 4
663) Lever.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Yenne and Grosser, "100 Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993, p16.
2. ^
Pappus, Collection, Synagogue, Book VIII, c. AD 340.
3. ^ Asimov, I. Asimov’s
Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology: The Lives and Achievements
of 1510 Great Scientists from Ancient Times to the Present Chronologically
Arranged. 1982, p29
4. ^ Yenne and Grosser, "100 Inventions That Shaped World
History", 1993, p16. {before) 260 BC}
Syracuse, Sicily3   
2,260 YBN
[260 BC] 3 4 5
822) Screw.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "hand tool." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/254115/hand-tool>.
2. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology; the lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists from ancient
times to the present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday,
1982).
3. ^ Yenne and Grosser, "100 Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993, p22.
{260 BC}
4. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to
silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (=500)
5. ^
http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Nineveh (=600)

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/enc1/hanging_gardens_of_babylon
[2] "screw." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 14 Nov.
2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/529876/screw>
[3] Technology and Culture Volume 44, Number 1, January 2003 (PDF)
Dalley, Stephanie. Oleson, John Peter. "Sennacherib, Archimedes, and the Water
Screw: The Context of Invention in the Ancient
World" http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/technology_and_culture/toc/tech44.1.html
Syracuse, Sicily2   
2,260 YBN
[260 BC] 4
882) The rotation of the Earth around its own axis once a day and around the
Sun once a year is understood.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
2. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's
biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982).
3. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science
and technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
4. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's
biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982). {c260 BCE}

MORE INFO
[1] "article 9009438". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9009438
[2] "Cleanthes". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleanthes
(Mousion of Alexandria) Alexandria, Egpyt3   
2,246 YBN
[246 BC] 8 9 10
898) The size of Earth correctly calculated.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology; the lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists from ancient
times to the present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday,
1982). (276-196,240BCE 246bce?)
2. ^ "Eratosthenes". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eratosthenes
3. ^ Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles, (1980).
4. ^ Isaac
Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and technology; the
lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists from ancient times to the
present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
(276-196,240BCE 246bce?)
5. ^ "Eratosthenes". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eratosthenes
6. ^ Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles, (1980).
7. ^ Isaac
Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and technology; the
lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists from ancient times to the
present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
(276-196,240BCE 246bce?)
8. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of
science and technology; the lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists
from ancient times to the present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982). (276-196,240BCE 246bce?)
9. ^ Mostafa El-Abbadi, "The Life and Fate of
the Ancient Library of Alexandria", (Paris: UNESCO, 1990). (c276-194BCE)
10. ^ Dutka,
Jacques. “‘Eratosthenes’ Measurement of the Earth Reconsidered’.”
Archive for History of Exact Sciences 46.1 (1993): 55–66. Web. 25 May
2012. http://www.springerlink.com/content/km185753675743p8/fulltext.pdf
(c230BCE {275-194BCE})
Alexandria, Egypt7   
2,231 YBN
[231 BC] 3
833) Earliest gears.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Dudás, I. The Theory And Practice Of Worm Gear Drives. Kogan Page
Science, 2004. Kogan Page Science,
p7. http://books.google.com/books?id=I2NnbsyJsvAC&pg=PA7
2. ^ Dudás, I. The Theory And Practice Of Worm Gear Drives. Kogan Page
Science, 2004. Kogan Page Science,
p7. http://books.google.com/books?id=I2NnbsyJsvAC&pg=PA7
3. ^ Dudás, I. The Theory And Practice Of Worm Gear Drives. Kogan Page
Science, 2004. Kogan Page Science,
p7. http://books.google.com/books?id=I2NnbsyJsvAC&pg=PA7

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/enc1/hanging_gardens_of_babylon
[2] "screw." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 14 Nov.
2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/529876/screw>
[3] Technology and Culture Volume 44, Number 1, January 2003 (PDF)
Dalley, Stephanie. Oleson, John Peter. "Sennacherib, Archimedes, and the Water
Screw: The Context of Invention in the Ancient
World" http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/technology_and_culture/toc/tech44.1.html
[4] "Archimedes screw." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/32831/Archimedes-screw>
[5] Yenne and Grosser, "100 Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993, p22
[6]
Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon chips
", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (=500)
[7]
http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Nineveh (=600)
Syracuse, Sicily2   
2,160 YBN
[160 BC] 7
6477) Law of inertia (a body preserves its motion1 ).2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "inertia." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine. Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 26 Nov. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/inertia http://www.answers.com/main/cite_this_answ
er.jsp#ixzz2DN5kNYiR
2. ^ Sambursky, S. The Physical World of Late Antiquity. Routledge and K. Paul,
1962, p74?.
3. ^ "John Philoponus". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter
2003 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/philoponus/#2.2
4. ^ Dimarogonas, A.D. Vibration for Engineers. Prentice Hall, 1996,
p5. http://books.google.com/books?ei=eWyyUITrL8f-2QXAroGQCQ
5. ^ American Council of Learned Societies. Concise Dictionary of Scientific
Biography. Scribner's, 2000, p425-426.
6. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical
encyclopedia of science and technology; the lives and achievements of 1195
great scientists from ancient times to the present, chronologically arranged",
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), p33-34.
7. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical
encyclopedia of science and technology; the lives and achievements of 1195
great scientists from ancient times to the present, chronologically arranged",
(Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), p33-34.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/people/ancient_epoch/hipparchus.html
[2] Narrien, J. An Historical Account of the Origin and Progress of Astronomy:
With Plates Illustrating, Chiefly, the Ancient Systems. Baldwin and Cradock,
1833, p206. books.google.com/books?id=gYYoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA206
[3] "Hipparchus." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 18 Nov. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/hipparchus-1
[4] Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology; the lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists from ancient
times to the present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday,
1982), p32
[5] Lucio Russo, "The Forgotten Revolution", (Berlin; New York:
Springer-Verlag, 2004), p88 Pliny, Naturalis historia, II 95
[6] Lucio Russo, "The
Forgotten Revolution", (Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag, 2004), p89
[7]
"inertia." The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford University Press,
1998, 2006, 2007. Answers.com 11 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/inertia
[8] Edward Grant, "Motion in the Void and the Principle of Inertia in the
Middle Ages", Isis, Vol. 55, No. 3 (Sep., 1964), pp. 265-292 Published by: The
University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science
Society http://www.jstor.org/stable/228571
[9] "Simplicius of Cilicia". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simplicius_of_Cilicia
(before 141 BC) Bithynia (presumably Nicaea)5 |(observatory on) Island of
Rhodes, Greece6   
2,140 YBN
[140 BC] 7 8 9
1070) Paper.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Paper and Printing. Joseph Needham, Science
and Civilisation in China, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Vol. 5 part 1.
Cambridge University Press, p38. {Needham_Vol5_Part1_1954CE.pdf}
2. ^
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-08/08/content_4937457.htm
3. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Paper and Printing. Joseph Needham, Science and
Civilisation in China, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Vol. 5 part 1.
Cambridge University Press, p38. {Needham_Vol5_Part1_1954CE.pdf}
4. ^
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-08/08/content_4937457.htm
5. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Paper and Printing. Joseph Needham, Science and
Civilisation in China, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Vol. 5 part 1.
Cambridge University Press, p38. {Needham_Vol5_Part1_1954CE.pdf}
6. ^ www.apio.org/chinese05.htm
7. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Paper and
Printing. Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Chemistry and
Chemical Technology. Vol. 5 part 1. Cambridge University Press,
p38. {Needham_Vol5_Part1_1954CE.pdf}
8. ^ www.apio.org/chinese05.htm (=140-87BCE)
9. ^
http://www.amateras.com/trip/china/xian-e.htm {140-87BCE}

MORE INFO
[1] David Buisseret (1998), Envisaging the City, U Chicago Press, p. 12,
ISBN 978-0-226-07993-6
Pa-chhiao near Sian in the Shensi province of China5 |Xian, China6   
2,056 YBN
[56 BC] 8
1045) Theory that light is made of atoms that move very fast.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Titus Carus Lucretius, "T. Lucreti Cari De rerum natura libri sex, Volume
1", 1866, lines 176-229, p530 http://books.google.com/books?id=oiUTAAAAQAAJ
2. ^ Titus Lucretius Carus, "T. Lucreti Cari De rerum
natura libri sex", J. Allyn, 1884,
p105. http://books.google.com/books?id=LCmRGMJBoYUC
3. ^ William Ellery Leonard, "De Rerum Natura: The Latin Text of Lucretius",
Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2008,
p439. http://books.google.com/books?id=mUsQtrxbfxIC
4. ^ Titus Carus Lucretius, "T. Lucreti Cari De rerum natura libri sex, Volume
1", 1866, lines 176-229, p530 http://books.google.com/books?id=oiUTAAAAQAAJ
5. ^ Titus Lucretius Carus, "T. Lucreti Cari De rerum
natura libri sex", J. Allyn, 1884,
p105. http://books.google.com/books?id=LCmRGMJBoYUC
6. ^ William Ellery Leonard, "De Rerum Natura: The Latin Text of Lucretius",
Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2008,
p439. http://books.google.com/books?id=mUsQtrxbfxIC
7. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), p36-37.
8. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's
biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982), pp36-37.

MORE INFO
[1] "Lucretius". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucretius (=(ca. 94 BC- ca. 49 BC)
[2] "Light".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light
[3] "didactic." The American Heritage® Dictionary
of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 07 Aug. 2011. http://www.answers.com/topic/didactic
[4] "hexameter." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of
Literary Terms. Oxford University Press, 2001, 2004. Answers.com 07 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/hexameter
Rome, Italy7   
1,950 YBN
[50 AD] 5 6
1078) Steam engine.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology; the lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists from ancient
times to the present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday,
1982), p40.
2. ^ "Hero of Alexandria". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hero_of_Alexandria
3. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology; the lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists from ancient
times to the present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday,
1982), p40.
4. ^ "Hero of Alexandria". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hero_of_Alexandria
5. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology; the lives and achievements of 1195 great scientists from ancient
times to the present, chronologically arranged", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday,
1982). (=c20-?)
6. ^ "Hero of Alexandria". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hero_of_Alexandria (=c.10-c.70(+40)

MORE INFO
[1] Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles,
(1980)
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,917 YBN
[83 AD] 3 4 5 6
766) Compass.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Needham, Joseph and Ronan, Colin A. (1986) The shorter Science and
civilisation in China : an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text, Vol.
3, Chapter 1: "Magnetism and Electricity", Cambridge University Press, p252.
ISBN 0-521-25272-5
2. ^ Needham, Joseph and Ronan, Colin A. (1986) The shorter Science and
civilisation in China : an abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text, Vol.
3, Chapter 1: "Magnetism and Electricity", Cambridge University Press, p252.
ISBN 0-521-25272-5
3. ^ Joseph Needham, "Science and Civilization in China", vol 4, part 1,
1962, p230-268. {Needham_China_compass_1962.pdf} {83 CE}
4. ^ Yenne and Grosser,
"100 Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993, p24. {83 CE}
5. ^ Needham, Joseph
and Ronan, Colin A. (1986) The shorter Science and civilisation in China : an
abridgement of Joseph Needham's original text, Vol. 3, Chapter 1: "Magnetism
and Electricity", Cambridge University Press, p252. ISBN 0-521-25272-5
{1040-1044}
6. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). {600 BC}
China2 (more specific)  
1,400 YBN
[600 AD] 3 4 5
1111) Windmill.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second
edition, Simon and Schuster, 1991, p63.
2. ^ Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The
Timetables of Science", Second edition, Simon and Schuster, 1991, p63.
3. ^
Alexander Hellemans, Bryan Bunch, "The Timetables of Science", Second edition,
Simon and Schuster, 1991, p63. {600}
4. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention
: from stone axes to silicon chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000). (6th
century) (6th century)
5. ^ "Wind mill". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_mill (6th century)

MORE INFO
[1] Yenne and Grosser, "100 Inventions That Shaped World History", 1993,
p25
Persia (Iran)2   
1,150 YBN
[850 AD] 7 8
1144) Gunpowder.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Buchanan, Brenda J., ed. (2006), "Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A
Technological History", Aldershot: Ashgate, ISBN 0754652599,
p3. {Gunpowder_Buchanan_2006.pdf}
2. ^ Joseph Needham, et al, "Science and Civilization in China", vol 5, part 7,
"Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic", Cambridge University Press, 1986,
p7.
3. ^ Buchanan, Brenda J., ed. (2006), "Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A
Technological History", Aldershot: Ashgate, ISBN 0754652599,
p3. {Gunpowder_Buchanan_2006.pdf}
4. ^ Joseph Needham, et al, "Science and Civilization in China", vol 5, part 7,
"Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic", Cambridge University Press, 1986,
p7.
5. ^ Buchanan, Brenda J., ed. (2006), "Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A
Technological History", Aldershot: Ashgate, ISBN 0754652599,
p3. {Gunpowder_Buchanan_2006.pdf}
6. ^ Joseph Needham, et al, "Science and Civilization in China", vol 5, part 7,
"Military Technology: The Gunpowder Epic", Cambridge University Press, 1986,
p7.
7. ^ Buchanan, Brenda J., ed. (2006), "Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A
Technological History", Aldershot: Ashgate, ISBN 0754652599,
p3. {Gunpowder_Buchanan_2006.pdf} {850}
8. ^ Joseph Needham, et al, "Science and
Civilization in China", vol 5, part 7, "Military Technology: The Gunpowder
Epic", Cambridge University Press, 1986, p7. {850}
China5 6   
1,080 YBN
[920 AD] 5
6183) Norwegian explorers reach North America.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Einar Haugen Reviewed work(s): The Discovery of a Norse Settlement in
America: Excavations at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, 1961-1968 by Anne
Stine Ingstad The Journal of Interdisciplinary History Vol. 10, No. 1
(Summer, 1979), pp. 176-178 Published by: The MIT Press Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/203319
2. ^ Helge Ingstad, "The Viking Discovery of America: The Excavation of a Norse
Settlement in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland", 2001.
3. ^ Einar Haugen Reviewed
work(s): The Discovery of a Norse Settlement in America: Excavations at L'Anse
aux Meadows, Newfoundland, 1961-1968 by Anne Stine Ingstad The Journal of
Interdisciplinary History Vol. 10, No. 1 (Summer, 1979), pp.
176-178 Published by: The MIT Press Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/203319
4. ^ Wallace, Birgitta. “L’Anse Aux Meadows, Leif Eriksson’s Home in
Vinland.” Journal of the North Atlantic 2.sp2 (2011) :
114-125. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3721/037.002.s212
5. ^ Einar Haugen Reviewed work(s): The Discovery of a Norse Settlement in
America: Excavations at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, 1961-1968 by Anne
Stine Ingstad The Journal of Interdisciplinary History Vol. 10, No. 1
(Summer, 1979), pp. 176-178 Published by: The MIT Press Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/203319 {920}
L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland3 4   
1,040 YBN
[960 AD] 5 6
6186) Rocket.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/rocket-history.txt
2. ^ http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/rocket-history.txt
3. ^ David Baker, "The rocket: the history and development of rocket
& missile technology", 1978, p10.
4. ^
http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/rocket-history.txt
5. ^ David Baker, "The rocket: the history and development of rocket & missile
technology", 1978, p10. {960 CE}
6. ^
http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/history/rocket-history.txt {1045} {1045 CE}

MORE INFO
[1] "military technology". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 23 Nov.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/382397/military-technology/57612
/The-gunpowder-revolution-c-1300-1650
>
China3 4   
868 YBN
[1132 AD] 7 8
1146) Gun.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Peter James, Nick Thorpe, "Ancient Inventions", 1994, p236-237.
2. ^ Gwei-Djen, Lu,
Joseph Needham, and Phan Chi-Hsing. “The Oldest Representation of a
Bombard.” Technology and Culture 29.3 (1988): 594–605.
Print. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3105275 {Gwei-Djen_1988.pdf}
3. ^ Peter James, Nick Thorpe, "Ancient Inventions", 1994, p236-237.
4. ^ Gwei-Djen, Lu,
Joseph Needham, and Phan Chi-Hsing. “The Oldest Representation of a
Bombard.” Technology and Culture 29.3 (1988): 594–605.
Print. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3105275 {Gwei-Djen_1988.pdf}
5. ^ Peter James, Nick Thorpe, "Ancient Inventions", 1994, p236-237.
6. ^ Gwei-Djen, Lu,
Joseph Needham, and Phan Chi-Hsing. “The Oldest Representation of a
Bombard.” Technology and Culture 29.3 (1988): 594–605.
Print. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3105275 {Gwei-Djen_1988.pdf}
7. ^ Peter James, Nick Thorpe, "Ancient Inventions", 1994, p236-237.
8. ^ Gwei-Djen, Lu,
Joseph Needham, and Phan Chi-Hsing. “The Oldest Representation of a
Bombard.” Technology and Culture 29.3 (1988): 594–605.
Print. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3105275 {Gwei-Djen_1988.pdf}

MORE INFO
[1] "gunpowder". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038534/gunpowder
[2] Needham, Joseph (1986), Science & Civilisation in China, V:7: The
Gunpowder Epic, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521303583
[3] "Gunpowder". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunpowder
Ta-tsu, Szechuan Province, China5 6   
772 YBN
[1228 AD] 8 9 10 11 12
1392) Theory that all matter is made of light.4 5 6
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Robert Grosseteste, tr: Clare C. Riedl, "On Light {De Luce}", 1942.
http://web.mit.edu/jwk/www/docs/Riedel%201942%20Grosseteste%20On%20Light.pdf
{Grosseteste_OnLight.pdf}
2. ^ http://www.grosseteste.com/cgi-bin/textdisplay.cgi?text=de-luce.xml
3. ^ http://www.colorado.edu/StudentGroups/lcm/lunch/deluce.html
4. ^ Robert Grosseteste, tr: Clare C. Riedl, "On Light {De Luce}",
1942.
http://web.mit.edu/jwk/www/docs/Riedel%201942%20Grosseteste%20On%20Light.pdf
{Grosseteste_OnLight.pdf}
5. ^ http://www.grosseteste.com/cgi-bin/textdisplay.cgi?text=de-luce.xml
6. ^ http://www.colorado.edu/StudentGroups/lcm/lunch/deluce.html
7. ^ Trevor Henry Aston, J. I. Catto, The Early Oxford Schools,
Volume 1, 1984, p442. http://books.google.com/books?id=AkJO3TAxMtwC&pg=PA442
8. ^ Trevor Henry Aston, J. I. Catto, The Early Oxford Schools,
Volume 1, 1984, p442. http://books.google.com/books?id=AkJO3TAxMtwC&pg=PA442
9. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of
science and technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982). (c1168-1253)
(c1168-1253)
10. ^ "Robert Grosseteste". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038191/Robert-Grosseteste (c1175-1253)
11. ^ "Robert
Grosseteste". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Grosseteste (c1175-1253)
12. ^
http://www.grosseteste.com/bio.htm (c1170-1253)
Oxford, England7   
508 YBN
[10/12/1492 AD] 3
1450) Humans from Europe reach America.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
2. ^ "Christopher Columbus".
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9109621/Christopher-Columbus
3. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982). (10/12/1492) (10/12/1492)

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.answers.com/christopher%20columbus
(probably) San Salvador2   
478 YBN
[09/08/1522 AD] 4 5 6
1475) Humans circumnavigate the Earth.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982).
2. ^ "Juan Sebastian de Elcano".
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9032242/Juan-Sebastian-de-Elcano
3. ^ http://www.answers.com/Juan%20Sebastian%20del%20Cano
4. ^ "Juan Sebastián Elcano". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Sebasti%C3%A1n_Elcano (09/08/1522)
5. ^ "Ferdinand
Magellan". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-225336/Ferdinand-Magellan (09/08/1522)
6. ^
http://www.answers.com/Juan%20Sebastian%20del%20Cano (09/06/1522)
Seville, Spain3   
408 YBN
[1592 AD] 3
1613) Thermometer.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "thermometer." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/591653/thermometer>.
2. ^ "Galileo". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105766/Galileo
3. ^ "thermometer." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/591653/thermometer>. {1592}

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.answers.com/Galileo+Galilei?cat=technology
[2] http://catalogue.museogalileo.it/indepth/Thermometer.html
[3] "Galileo Galilei". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo_Galilei (1593)
Padua, Italy2   
392 YBN
[1608 AD] 5 6
1618) Telescope.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), p105.
2. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's
biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982), p105.
3. ^ Dick, T. The Telescope and Microscope. Lane & Scott,
1852, p9-10. http://books.google.com/books?id=PjoIAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA9
4. ^ "Hans Lippershey". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9048449/Hans-Lippershey
5. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), p105. (1608) (1608)
6. ^ Dick, T. The
Telescope and Microscope. Lane & Scott, 1852,
p9-10. http://books.google.com/books?id=PjoIAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA9

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.answers.com/Hans+Lippershey?cat=technology
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland3 ) (modern: Netherlands)4   
391 YBN
[1609 AD] 4
1619) That planets have elliptical orbits is understood.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Johannes Kepler". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 26 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/315225/Johannes-Kepler>.
2. ^ Johannes Kepler, "Astronomia nova",
1609. http://www.e-rara.ch/zut/content/titleinfo/162514 {Astronomia_nova_seu_p
hysica_coelestis_tradita_commentariis_de_motibus_stellae_m.pdf}
3. ^ "Johannes Kepler". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler
4. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), pp105-108. (1609) (1609)

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.answers.com/Johannes+Kepler?cat=technology
Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of
Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center)3   
390 YBN
[01/??/1610 AD] 4
1605) Moons of Jupiter seen and their period determined.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Galileo". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105766/Galileo
2. ^ "Galileo". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105766/Galileo
3. ^ "Galileo". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105766/Galileo
4. ^ "Galileo". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105766/Galileo (01/1610)

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.answers.com/Galileo+Galilei?cat=technology
(University of Padua) Padua, Venice, Italy3   
390 YBN
[1610 AD] 5
6488) Microscope.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ King, H.C. The History of the Telescope. Dover Publications, 1955. Dover
Books on Astronomy Series,
p30-31. http://books.google.com/books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC&pg=PA30
2. ^ King, H.C. The History of the Telescope. Dover Publications, 1955. Dover
Books on Astronomy Series,
p30-31. http://books.google.com/books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC&pg=PA30
3. ^ Dick, T. The Telescope and Microscope. Lane & Scott, 1852,
p9-10. http://books.google.com/books?id=PjoIAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA9
4. ^ "Hans Lippershey". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9048449/Hans-Lippershey
5. ^ King, H.C. The History of the Telescope. Dover Publications,
1955. Dover Books on Astronomy Series,
p30-31. http://books.google.com/books?id=KAWwzHlDVksC&pg=PA30

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.answers.com/Hans+Lippershey?cat=technology
[2] Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), p105. (1608) (1608)
[3] "microscope".
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 04 Dec.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/380582/microscope>
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland3 ) (modern: Netherlands)4   
369 YBN
[1631 AD] 3
1664) Speed of sound measured.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), p115.
2. ^ "Pierre Gassendi".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Gassendi
3. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical
encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982),
p115. (1631) (1631)

MORE INFO
[1] "Pierre Gassendi". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9036159/Pierre-Gassendi
[2] http://www.answers.com/Pierre+Gassendi?cat=technology
Paris, France2 (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD] 3
1660) Frequencies of sounds measured.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Mersenne.html
2. ^ "Marin Mersenne". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9052176/Marin-Mersenne
3. ^ Marin Marsenne, tr: R. E. Chapman, "Harmonie
Universelle", 1635, 1957.

MORE INFO
[1] http://www.answers.com/Marin%20Mersenne
[2] "Marin Mersenne". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9052176/Marin-Mersenne
(1637)
Paris, France2 (presumably)  
357 YBN
[1643 AD] 4
1692) Vacuum.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Evangelista Torricelli". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9072977/Evangelista-Torricelli
2. ^ "Evangelista Torricelli". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9072977/Evangelista-Torricelli
3. ^ "Evangelista Torricelli". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9072977/Evangelista-Torricelli
4. ^ "Evangelista Torricelli". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9072977/Evangelista-Torricelli (1643)

MORE INFO
[1] "Evangelista Torricelli". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evangelista_Torricelli
[2] "atmospheric pressure." The American Heritage� Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05 Dec.
2012. http://www.answers.com/topic/atmospheric-pressure
Florence, Italy3   
337 YBN
[1663 AD] 3
2247) Static electricity generator.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Otto von Guericke". The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford
University Press, 1994, 1996, 2005. Answers.com.
http://www.answers.com/Otto+von+Guericke?cat=technology
2. ^ "Otto von Guericke". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038368/Otto-von-Guericke
3. ^ "Otto von Guericke". The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford
University Press, 1994, 1996, 2005. Answers.com.
http://www.answers.com/Otto+von+Guericke?cat=technology (1663)

MORE INFO
[1] "Otto von Guericke". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_von_Guericke
[2] http://books.google.com/books?id=R3Yt1N-qotsC
Magdeburg, Germany2 (presumably)  
324 YBN
[1676 AD] 7 8
1851) Speed of light measured.1 2 3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Olaus Roemer". The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford University
Press, 1994, 1996, 2005. Answers.com.
http://www.answers.com/Olaus+Roemer?cat=technology
2. ^ "Ole Romer". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9083854/Ole-Romer
3. ^ "Demonstration touchant le mouvement de la lumiere trouvé par M.
Römer de l' Academie Royale des Sciences", Journal des sçavans, December 7,
1676 http://books.google.com/books?id=5scUAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA484
4. ^ "A Demonstration concerning the Motion of Light, communicated from Paris"
is published in the "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society" (No. 136)
on June 25, 1677. http://books.google.com/books?id=juU4AAAAMAAJ&pg=118
5. ^ William Tobin, "The Life and Science of Léon Foucault",
Cambridge University Press, 2003, p118.
6. ^ "Olaus Roemer". The Oxford Dictionary of
Philosophy. Oxford University Press, 1994, 1996, 2005. Answers.com.
http://www.answers.com/Olaus+Roemer?cat=technology
7. ^ "Olaus Roemer". The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Oxford University
Press, 1994, 1996, 2005. Answers.com.
http://www.answers.com/Olaus+Roemer?cat=technology (1676)
8. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's
biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982), pp154-155. (1676) (1676)
(Paris Observatory5 ) Paris, France6   
322 YBN
[1678 AD] 4
3592) Direct neuron activation. Human contracts muscle with electricity.2
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ John Joseph Fahie, "A History of Electric Telegraphy, to the Year 1837",
E. & F. N. Spon,
1884. http://books.google.com/books?id=0Mo3AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+Hi
story+of+Electric+Telegraphy+to+the+year+1837&ei=esfUSJWpC6K-tgOhnYWOBA

2. ^ John Joseph Fahie, "A History of Electric Telegraphy, to the Year 1837",
E. & F. N. Spon,
1884. http://books.google.com/books?id=0Mo3AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+Hi
story+of+Electric+Telegraphy+to+the+year+1837&ei=esfUSJWpC6K-tgOhnYWOBA

3. ^ "Jan Swammerdam". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9070581/Jan-Swammerdam
4. ^ John Joseph Fahie, "A History of Electric Telegraphy, to the Year
1837", E. & F. N. Spon,
1884. http://books.google.com/books?id=0Mo3AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+Hi
story+of+Electric+Telegraphy+to+the+year+1837&ei=esfUSJWpC6K-tgOhnYWOBA
{1678}"

MORE INFO
[1] "Jan Swammerdam". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Swammerdam
[2] http://www.answers.com/Jan+Swammerdam+?cat=technology
[3] http://www.janswammerdam.net/portrait.html
[4] "Apothecary". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apothecary
[5] http://www.library.umass.edu/spcoll/exhibits/herbal/swammerdam.htm
[6] "Jan Swammerdam". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9070581/Jan-Swammerdam
(1672)
[7] "Electricity and Magnetism" Amédée Guillemin, translated by Silvanus P.
Thompson, B.A., D.Sc., F.R.A.S. Macmillan and Co., London, 1891.
http://books.google.com/books?id=iHg9AQAAIAAJ
[8] http://www.telephonecollecting.org/feeling.htm
Amsterdam, Netherlands3 (presumably)  
313 YBN
[1687 AD] 4
1845) Law of gravitation, matter attracts with a force that is the product of
their masses, and the inverse of their distance squared.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ (Liber I Prop. LXIX. Theor. XXIX.) Isaac Newton, Philosophiae Naturalis
Principia Mathematica. (London: 1687),
p190. http://books.google.com/books?id=qjEyAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA190
AND http://www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk/catalogue/record/NATP00071 English
(note: Third Edition): Newton, I., A. Motte, and J. Machin. The Mathematical
Principles of Natural Philosophy. B. Motte, 1729. The Mathematical Principles
of Natural Philosophy, Volume 1,
p259. http://books.google.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA259
2. ^ (Liber I Prop. LXIX. Theor. XXIX.) Isaac Newton, Philosophiae Naturalis
Principia Mathematica. (London: 1687),
p190. http://books.google.com/books?id=qjEyAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA190
AND http://www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk/catalogue/record/NATP00071 English
(note: Third Edition): Newton, I., A. Motte, and J. Machin. The Mathematical
Principles of Natural Philosophy. B. Motte, 1729. The Mathematical Principles
of Natural Philosophy, Volume 1,
p259. http://books.google.com/books?id=Tm0FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA259
3. ^ "Sir Isaac Newton". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9108764/Sir-Isaac-Newton
4. ^ Newton_isaac_letters_739364699_content.pdf Annals of Science, The
Newton Letters Vols I and II, G Burniston Brown, 06/01/1960 (publishes: 1687)

MORE INFO
[1] "Sir Isaac Newton". Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911.
http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Sir_Isaac_Newton
[2] "binomial theorem". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9079241/binomial-theorem
[3] http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Newton.html
[4] http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/newtlife.html
[5] http://www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk/prism.php?id=47
[6]
http://www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk/texts/viewtext.php?id=NATP00006&mode=norma
lized

[7] http://www.jstor.org/view/03702316/ap000007/00a00090/0
[8] "Niccolo Zucchi". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9078475/Niccolo-Zucchi
[9]
http://grus.berkeley.edu/~jrg/TelescopeHistory/Early_Period.html
[10] http://www.newtonproject.sussex.ac.uk/prism.php?id=15
[11] "acoustics". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-64048/acoustics
[12] (Scholium.) Newton, I., and A. Motte. The Principia. Prometheus
Books, 1848. Great Minds Series., p182
Cambridge, England3 (presumably)  
255 YBN
[11/04/1745 AD] 8 9 10
1972) Storage of electricity.1 2 3
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "E Georg von Kleist". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045738/E-Georg-von-Kleist
2. ^ Priestley, Joseph. The history and present state of electricity, with
original experiments, by Joseph Priestley, ... The third edition, corrected and
enlarged Vol. 1. London, 1775. 2 vols. Eighteenth Century Collections Online.
Gale Group, pp102-103. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO Gale Document
Number: CW3308601351
3. ^ Keithley, J.F. The Story of Electrical and Magnetic Measurements:
From 500 BC to the 1940s. Wiley, 1999,
p21. http://books.google.com/books?id=uwgNAtqSHuQC&pg=PA21
4. ^ Keithley, J.F. The Story of Electrical and Magnetic Measurements: From 500
BC to the 1940s. Wiley, 1999,
p21. http://books.google.com/books?id=uwgNAtqSHuQC&pg=PA21
5. ^ "E Georg von Kleist". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia
Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045738/E-Georg-von-Kleist
6. ^ http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/history/kleist.html
7. ^ "Pomerania". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomerania
8. ^ Keithley, J.F. The Story of Electrical and Magnetic Measurements: From 500
BC to the 1940s. Wiley, 1999,
p21. http://books.google.com/books?id=uwgNAtqSHuQC&pg=PA21
9. ^ Priestley, Joseph. The history and present state of electricity, with
original experiments, by Joseph Priestley, ... The third edition, corrected and
enlarged Vol. 1. London, 1775. 2 vols. Eighteenth Century Collections Online.
Gale Group, p102. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/ECCO Gale Document
Number: CW3308601351 (11/04/1745)
10. ^ "E Georg von Kleist". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008.
Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045738/E-Georg-von-Kleist (1745)

MORE INFO
[1] "Ewald Georg von Kleist". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ewald_Georg_von_Kleist
(University of Wittenburg) Wittenburg, Germany4 (was for von Kleist:
Pomerania?, Prussia5 6 ) (coast of Baltic Sea between Germany and Poland7
)  
231 YBN
[1769 AD] 4
1206) Self-propelled vehicle.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Trevor I. Williams, "A history of invention : from stone axes to silicon
chips ", (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000).
2. ^ "Cugnot". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cugnot
3. ^ "Cugnot". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cugnot
4. ^ "Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. 02 Jul. 2008
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/145966/Nicolas-Joseph-Cugnot>. {1769}
England3   
209 YBN
[1791 AD] 4
2175) Remote neuron activation (muscle contracted remotely by light
particles).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Luigi Galvani, Elizabeth Licht, Robert Green, "Commentary on the Effect
of Electricity on Muscular Motion", Waverly Press, 1953.
2. ^ Luigi Galvani,
Elizabeth Licht, Robert Green, "Commentary on the Effect of Electricity on
Muscular Motion", Waverly Press, 1953.
3. ^ "Luigi Galvani". Encyclopedia Britannica.
2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9035937/Luigi-Galvani
4. ^ "Luigi Galvani". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9035937/Luigi-Galvani (1791)

MORE INFO
[1] https://eee.uci.edu/clients/bjbecker/NatureandArtifice/lecture14.html
Bologna, Italy3   
200 YBN
[03/20/1800 AD] 4 5
2250) Electric battery.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), pp228-229.
2. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's
biographical encyclopedia of science and technology", (Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1982), pp228-229.
3. ^ "Conte Alessandro Volta". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008.
Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9075699/Conte-Alessandro-Volta
4. ^ Isaac Asimov, "Asimov's biographical encyclopedia of science and
technology", (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1982), pp228-229. (1800) (1800)
5. ^
"alessandro volta". Biographies. Answers Corporation, 2006. Answers.com.
http://www.answers.com/topic/alessandro-volta?cat=technology (03/20/1800(sends
letter to Banks secretary of royal society)

MORE INFO
[1] "Alessandro Volta". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta
[2]