TIMEEVENT DESCRIPTIONLOCATIONIMAGES

UNIVERSE
1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe
that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.

MORE INFO
[1]
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

980,000,000,000 YBN
3) All matter is made of particles of
light.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end.
The same light particles that have
always been, continue to move in the
space that has always been.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be
created or destroyed. Matter can never
be converted into motion, and motion
can never be converted into matter.2

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with
each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets,
stars, galaxies, and clusters of
galaxies.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we
see are only a tiny part of the
universe. We will never see most of the
universe because no light particles
from there can ever reach us.2

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington

MORE INFO
[1] Carl Sagan, "Cosmos", Carl
Sagan Productions, KCET Los Angeles,
(1980). (estimate of how many galaxies)
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe.
Light particles move from where there
is less space to where there is more
space. As an empty space becomes
filled, light particles form gas clouds
called nebuli, and then galaxies of
stars. Living objects grow around stars
and pull stars together to form
globular clusters and then form a
globular (also called "elliptical")
galaxy. Living objects need matter to
stop their decay. Globular galaxies
have a regular input and output of
light particles. When a volume of space
becomes very dense, more light
particles exit than enter the space.
Light particles that exit to more empty
spaces form new nebulae and galaxies
and so this cycle continues. Stars at
our scale may be light particles at a
much larger scale, just as light
particles at our scale may be stars at
a much smaller scale. This system may
go on infinitely in both larger and
smaller scale.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg


[2] LDN 1622: Dark Nebula in
Orion Data: Digitized Sky Survey
(POSS-II), Color Composite: Noel
Carboni Explanation: The silhouette
of an intriguing dark nebula inhabits
this cosmic scene, based on images from
the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey.
Lynds' Dark Nebula (LDN) 1622 appears
against a faint background of glowing
hydrogen gas only easily seen in long
telescopic exposures of the region. LDN
1622 lies near the plane of our Milky
Way Galaxy, close on the sky to
Barnard's Loop - a large cloud
surrounding the rich complex of
emission nebulae found in the Belt and
Sword of Orion. But the obscuring dust
of LDN 1622 is thought to be much
closer than Orion's more famous
nebulae, perhaps only 500 light-years
away. At that distance, this 1 degree
wide field of view would span less than
10 light-years. PD
source: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/
0705/ldn1622_carboni.jpg


LIFE
165,000,000,000 YBN
13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to
form.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Description This image is
mosaic of multiple shots on
large-format film. It comprises all 360
degrees of the galaxy from our vantage.
Photography was done in Ft. Davis,
Texas for the Northern hemisphere shots
and from Broken Hill, New South Wales,
Australia, for the southern portions.
Note the dust lanes, which obscure our
view of some features beyond them.
Infrared imaging reaches into these
regions, and radio astronomy can look
all the way through with less detail.
The very center, however, shows a
window to the farther side. In the
center, stars are mostly very old and
this causes the more yellow color. The
final file is 1.5GB, and resolves
details of less than one arcminute.
Faintest stars are magnitude 11. There
are 21 pixels of horizontal overlap at
the ends, with the right end slightly
brighter than the corresponding pixels
on the left. Date Source
http://www.digitalskyllc.com (The
image was uploaded to en.wiki at 17:16,
21 September 2006 by Twtunes. Author
Digital Sky LLC CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0a/Milkyway_pan1.jpg


[2] note
Hubble_ultra_deep_field_high_rez_edit1
is much larger [2] Hubble ultra deep
field high rez
edit1_small.jpg Deutsch: Das Hubble
Ultra Deep Field ist ein Bild einer
kleinen Himmelsregion aufgenommen vom
Hubble-Weltraumteleskop über einen
Zeitraum vom 3. September 2003 bis 16.
Januar 2004. Dabei wurde eine
Himmelsregion ausgewählt, die kaum
störende helle Sterne im Vordergrund
enthält. Man entschied sich für ein
Zielgebiet südwestlich von Orion im
Sternbild Chemischer Ofen. English:
The Hubble Ultra Deep Field, is an
image of a small region of space in the
constellation Fornax, composited from
Hubble Space Telescope data accumulated
over a period from September 3, 2003
through January 16, 2004. The patch of
sky in which the galaxies reside was
chosen because it had a low density of
bright stars in the
near-field. Español: El Campo Ultra
Profundo del Hubble, es una imagen de
una pequeña región del espacio en la
constelación Fornax, compuesta de
datos obtenidos por el telescopio
espacial Hubble durante el período
entre el 3 de Septiembre de 2003 y el
16 de Enero de 2004. Esta parte del
cielo fue escogida por su baja densidad
de estrellas brillantes en sus
proximidades. Français : Le champ
ultra profond de Hubble, une image
d'une petite portion du ciel dans la
constellation du Fourneau, prise par le
télescope spatial Hubble du 3
septembre 2003 au 16 juillet 2004. La
portion de ciel a été choisie car
elle possède peu d'étoiles brillantes
proches. Date 2003-09-03 -
2004-01-16 Source
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ar
chive/releases/2004/07/image/a/warn/ Au
thor NASA and the European Space
Agency. Edited by Noodle snacks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0d/Hubble_ultra_deep_fie
ld_high_rez_edit1.jpg

33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way
Galaxy forms.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Description English: M8 Lagoon
Nebula in Sagittarius Date 26 June
2009 Source Own
work Author Hewholooks CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2f/M8HunterWilson.jpg


[2] NGC 7023: The Iris Nebula Credit
& Copyright: Daniel López,
IAC Explanation: Like delicate cosmic
petals, these clouds of interstellar
dust and gas have blossomed 1,300
light-years away in the fertile star
fields of the constellation Cepheus.
Sometimes called the Iris Nebula and
dutifully cataloged as NGC 7023, this
is not the only nebula in the sky to
evoke the imagery of flowers. Still,
this beautiful digital image shows off
the Iris Nebula's range of colors and
symmetries in impressive detail. Within
the Iris, dusty nebular material
surrounds a hot, young star. The
dominant color of the brighter
reflection nebula is blue,
characteristic of dust grains
reflecting starlight. Central filaments
of the dusty clouds glow with a faint
reddish photoluminesence as some dust
grains effectively convert the star's
invisible ultraviolet radiation to
visible red light. Infrared
observations indicate that this nebula
may contain complex carbon molecules
known as PAHs. As shown here, the
bright blue portion of the Iris Nebula
is about six light-years across. PD
source: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/
1011/IRIS_IAC80_DLopez900c.jpg

22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way
Galaxy reach another star using a
ship.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] close up
of: Description English: M8 Lagoon
Nebula in Sagittarius Date 26 June
2009 Source Own
work Author Hewholooks CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2f/M8HunterWilson.jpg


[2] Description The photograph,
taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope,
captures a small region within M17, a
hotbed of star formation. M17, also
known as the Omega or Swan Nebula, is
located about 5500 light-years away in
the constellation Sagittarius. The
wave-like patterns of gas have been
sculpted and illuminated by a torrent
of ultraviolet radiation from young,
massive stars, which lie outside the
picture to the upper left. The glow of
these patterns accentuates the
three-dimensional structure of the
gases. The ultraviolet radiation is
carving and heating the surfaces of
cold hydrogen gas clouds. The warmed
surfaces glow orange and red in this
photograph. The intense heat and
pressure cause some material to stream
away from those surfaces, creating the
glowing veil of even hotter greenish
gas that masks background structures.
The pressure on the tips of the waves
may trigger new star formation within
them. The image, roughly 3
light-years across, was taken May
29-30, 1999, with the Wide Field
Planetary Camera 2. The colors in the
image represent various gases. Red
represents sulfur; green, hydrogen; and
blue, oxygen. Date 24 April
2003 Source
http://spacetelescope.org/images/html/he
ic0305a.html (direct link)
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive
/releases/2003/13/image/a/ Author
NASA, ESA and J. Hester (ASU) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/72/Omega_Nebula.jpg

10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of
100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Description The globular
cluster Omega Centauri — with as many
as ten million stars — is seen in all
its splendour in this image captured
with the WFI camera from ESO's La Silla
Observatory. The image shows only the
central part of the cluster — about
the size of the full moon on the sky
(half a degree). North is up, East is
to the left. This colour image is a
composite of B, V and I filtered
images. Note that because WFI is
equipped with a mosaic detector, there
are two small gaps in the image which
were filled with lower quality data
from the Digitized Sky Survey. Date
2008 Source
http://www.eso.org/public/outreach/
press-rel/pr-2008/phot-44-08.html Autho
r ESO CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Omega_Centauri_
by_ESO.jpg/638px-Omega_Centauri_by_ESO.j
pg


[2] Description This image is
mosaic of multiple shots on
large-format film. It comprises all 360
degrees of the galaxy from our vantage.
Photography was done in Ft. Davis,
Texas for the Northern hemisphere shots
and from Broken Hill, New South Wales,
Australia, for the southern portions.
Note the dust lanes, which obscure our
view of some features beyond them.
Infrared imaging reaches into these
regions, and radio astronomy can look
all the way through with less detail.
The very center, however, shows a
window to the farther side. In the
center, stars are mostly very old and
this causes the more yellow color. The
final file is 1.5GB, and resolves
details of less than one arcminute.
Faintest stars are magnitude 11. There
are 21 pixels of horizontal overlap at
the ends, with the right end slightly
brighter than the corresponding pixels
on the left. Date Source
http://www.digitalskyllc.com (The
image was uploaded to en.wiki at 17:16,
21 September 2006 by Twtunes. Author
Digital Sky LLC CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0a/Milkyway_pan1.jpg

5,500,000,000 YBN
3
16) The star Earth orbits forms.2
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington
2. ^ Ted Huntington
3. ^ Ted Huntington,
guess

MORE INFO
[1]
http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~imamura/208/mar
1/nucleo.html
(with image of onion
skin layers)
[2] another person declares star
inside to be similar to planets: iron,
oxygen, nickel, etc. do not support
standard solar
model. star_inside_iron.pdf
 
[1] Description English: The Sun
photographed by the Atmospheric Imaging
Assembly (AIA 304) of NASA's Solar
Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This is
a false color image of the sun observed
in the extreme ultraviolet region of
the spectrum. For example,similar
image Français : Le soleil,
photographié depuis le Solar Dynamics
Observatory de la NASA. Date
2010-08-19T00:32:21Z (ISO
8601) Source NASA/SDO
(AIA). Author NASA/SDO (AIA). PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/The_Sun_by_the_
Atmospheric_Imaging_Assembly_of_NASAs_So
lar_Dynamics_Observatory_-_20100819.jpg/
628px-The_Sun_by_the_Atmospheric_Imaging
_Assembly_of_NASAs_Solar_Dynamics_Observ
atory_-_20100819.jpg


[2] Summary Description The star
formation region N11B in the LMC taken
by WFPC2 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space
Telescope. Date Source
http://www.spacetelescope.org/image
s/html/heic0411a.html Author
NASA/ESA and the Hubble Heritage
Team
(AURA/STScI)/HEIC Permission (Reusing
this file) ESA Public Domain, as
per
http://www.spacetelescope.org/copyright.
html PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6c/Heic0411a.jpg

5,500,000,000 YBN
3
17) Planets form around our star. Like
the star, they are red hot with liquid
rock and metals on the surface. Lighter
atoms move to the surface of the
planets. Larger planets are surrounded
by gas.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] an 19, 2005 � For the past five
days, forecasters at the NOAA Space
Environment Center in Boulder, Colo.,
have observed all types of space
weather: radio blackouts, solar
radiation storms and geomagnetic
storms. Currently, space weather
forecasters are observing a moderate
geomagnetic storm (G-2 on the NOAA
Space Weather Scales) and a minor (S-1)
solar radiation storm. Earlier
Wednesday an X-class flare produced a
strong (R-3) radio blackout. (Click
image for larger view of the sun taken
on Jan. 19, 2005, at 2:19 p.m. EST.
Click here for high resolution version,
which is a large file. Please credit
European Space Agency-NASA.) PD
source: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/sto
ries2005/images/sun-soho011905-1919z.jpg


[2] This artist’s impression shows
the disk of gas and cosmic dust around
the young star HD 142527. Astronomers
using the Atacama Large
Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)
telescope have seen vast streams of gas
flowing across the gap in the disc
UNKNOWN
source: http://l2.yimg.com/bt/api/res/1.
2/kB0xEBWbOe3fUGcRF7Y3RA--/YXBwaWQ9eW5ld
3M7Zmk9aW5zZXQ7aD00MDg7cT03OTt3PTU3NQ--/
http://media.zenfs.com/en_US/News/SPACE.
com/Never-Before-Seen_Stage_of_Planet_Bi
rth-893372caafae611ec5e71458c2f79fb8

4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.1
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Image of moon superimposed on
Venus PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dd/Full_Moon_Luc_Viatour
.jpg


[2] an 19, 2005 � For the past five
days, forecasters at the NOAA Space
Environment Center in Boulder, Colo.,
have observed all types of space
weather: radio blackouts, solar
radiation storms and geomagnetic
storms. Currently, space weather
forecasters are observing a moderate
geomagnetic storm (G-2 on the NOAA
Space Weather Scales) and a minor (S-1)
solar radiation storm. Earlier
Wednesday an X-class flare produced a
strong (R-3) radio blackout. (Click
image for larger view of the sun taken
on Jan. 19, 2005, at 2:19 p.m. EST.
Click here for high resolution version,
which is a large file. Please credit
European Space Agency-NASA.) PD
source: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/sto
ries2005/images/sun-soho011905-1919z.jpg

4,600,000,000 YBN
3 4
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid
rock turns into a solid thin crust.
Water condenses and falls to the
surface, filling the lowest parts of
the land to make the first Earth
oceans, lakes, and rivers.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ part about rain and streams going
to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_
htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm

2. ^ part about rain and streams going
to bottom of land:
http://www.ersdac.or.jp/Others/geoessay_
htm/geoessay_e/geo_text_09_e.htm

3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] USGS Photo by Tim Orr Pahoehoe
lava breaks out of the crust along a
flow margin PD
source: http://www.nps.gov/havo/parkmgmt
/upload/havo_manage_usgs_20080304_tro381
7_x800.jpg


[2] English: Ultraviolet image of
Venus' clouds as seen by the Pioneer
Venus Orbiter (February 26, 1979). The
immense C- or Y-shaped features which
are visible only in these wavelengths
are individually short lived, but
reform often enough to be considered a
permanent feature of Venus' clouds. The
mechanism by which Venus' clouds absorb
ultraviolet is not well understood. PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/bc/Venuspioneeruv.
jpg/953px-Venuspioneeruv.jpg

4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth,
like amino acids, phosphates, and
sugars, the components of living
objects.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] The two optical isomers of alanine,
D-Alanine and
L-Alanine D-glucose BOTH PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/65/D%2BL-Alanine.gif
and http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped
ia/commons/thumb/5/5a/D-glucose-chain-3D
-balls.png/640px-D-glucose-chain-3D-ball
s.png

4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth.2
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Ribonucleic acid (English
pronunciation:
/raɪbɵ.njuːˌkleɪ.ɨk ˈæsɪd/),
or RNA, is one of the three major
macromolecules (along with DNA and
proteins) that are essential for all
known forms of life. UNKNOWN
source: http://dna-rna.net/wp-content/up
loads/2011/07/rna.jpg

4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth.
Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA),
and link amino acids into proteins
using other RNA molecules as a
template.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Description English:
Illustration of tRNA building peptide
chain Date 1 March 2009 Source
Own work Author
Boumphreyfr CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Peptide_syn.png


[2] Source : ''Role of the
Ribosome'' University of Texas Medical
Branch UNKNOWN
source: http://ead.univ-angers.fr/~jaspa
rd/Page2/COURS/7RelStructFonction/2Bioch
imie/1SyntheseProteines/3Figures/4Organi
tes/2Ribosomes/6Polysome.gif

4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA.

MORE INFO
[1] Schuppli, Daniel et al.
“Altered 3′-terminal RNA Structure
in Phage Qβ Adapted to Host
Factor-less Escherichia Coli.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 94.19 (1997): 10239 –10242.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/94/1
9/10239.abstract

 
[1] RNA is a versatile molecule. In its
most familiar role, RNA acts as an
intermediary, carrying genetic
information from the DNA to the
machinery of protein synthesis. RNA
also plays more active roles,
performing many of the catalytic and
recognition functions normally reserved
for proteins. In fact, most of the RNA
in cells is found in ribosomes--our
protein-synthesizing machines--and the
transfer RNA molecules used to add each
new amino acid to growing proteins. In
addition, countless small RNA molecules
are involved in regulating, processing
and disposing of the constant traffic
of messenger RNA. The enzyme RNA
polymerase carries the weighty
responsibility of creating all of these
different RNA molecules. The RNA
Factory RNA polymerase is a huge
factory with many moving parts. The one
shown here, from PDB entry 1i6h, is
from yeast cells. It is composed of a
dozen different proteins. Together,
they form a machine that surrounds DNA
strands, unwinds them, and builds an
RNA strand based on the information
held inside the DNA. Once the enzyme
gets started, RNA polymerase marches
confidently along the DNA copying RNA
strands thousands of nucleotides
long. Accuracy As you might expect,
RNA polymerase needs to be accurate in
its copying of genetic information. To
improve its accuracy, it performs a
simple proofreading step as it builds
an RNA strand. The active site is
designed to be able to remove
nucleotides as well as add them to the
growing strand. The enzyme tends to
hover around mismatched nucleotides
longer than properly added ones, giving
the enzyme time to remove them. This
process is somewhat wasteful, since
proper nucleotides are also
occasionally removed, but this is a
small price to pay for creating better
RNA transcripts. Overall, RNA
polymerase makes an error about once in
10,000 nucleotides added, or about once
per RNA strand created. Poisoning
Polymerase Since RNA polymerase is
absolutely essential for the life of
the cell, it is a sensitive target for
poisons and toxins. The most powerful
of these poisons is alpha-amanitin, a
small circular peptide created by the
death cap mushroom. Eating even one of
these mushrooms will lead to coma and
death in a manner of days, as the
poison attacks RNA polymerase
throughout the body. Surprisingly, it
binds on the back side of RNA
polymerase, away from the active site
and away from the binding site for the
DNA and RNA. It does not physically
block the active site, like most
inhibitors, but instead jams the
mechanism of the enzyme. RNA polymerase
is a highly mobile enzyme, that flexes
and changes shape as it performs the
sequential steps of binding to DNA,
unwinding it, and then building the RNA
strand. As seen in PDB entry 1k83, the
poison binds between two subunits of
the protein, gluing them together and
blocking these essential motions. PD
source: http://www.pdb.org/pdb/education
_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/images
/1i6h-composite.gif


[2] [t Notice that many RNA molecules
are being produced all in sequence,
with each RNA molecule getting longer
as each protein reaches the end of the
DNA molecule.] Micrograph of gene
transcription of ribosomal RNA
illustrating the growing primary
transcripts. ''Begin'' indicates the 5'
end of the coding strand of DNA, where
new RNA synthesis begins; ''end''
indicates the 3' end, where the primary
transcripts are almost
complete. This is an alternate
version of
Image:RibosomaleTranskriptionsEinheit.jp
g, original author identified as Dr.
Hans-Heinrich Trepte, labeled in
German. This version with English
labels is from en:Image:Transcription
label fromcommons.jpg, by
en:UserOpabinia regalis, licensed under
GFDL. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/43/Transcription_label_e
n.jpg

4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. The ribosome
may function as a protocell, providing
a platform for more efficient protein
production. A single RNA may contain
all the instructions needed to make
more ribosomes.

 
[1] Description English:
Illustration of tRNA building peptide
chain Date 1 March 2009 Source
Own work Author
Boumphreyfr CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Peptide_syn.png


[2] Source : ''Role of the
Ribosome'' University of Texas Medical
Branch UNKNOWN
source: http://ead.univ-angers.fr/~jaspa
rd/Page2/COURS/7RelStructFonction/2Bioch
imie/1SyntheseProteines/3Figures/4Organi
tes/2Ribosomes/6Polysome.gif

4,365,000,000 YBN
166) First DNA. A protein allows DNA to
be made from RNA.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Elledge SJ, Zhou Z, Allen JB
(March 1992). "Ribonucleotide
reductase: regulation, regulation,
regulation". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17
(3): 119–23.
DOI:10.1016/0968-0004(92)90249-9. PMID
1412696.
 
[1] Description Crystallographic
structure of the ribonucleotide
reductase protein R1E from Salmonella
typhimurium. The protein is rainbow
colored (N-terminus = blue, C-terminus
= red) while deoxyadenosine
triphosphate is show as sticks and a
complexed magnesium ion as a grey
sphere.[1] ↑ PDB 1PEU; Uppsten M,
Färnegårdh M, Jordan A, Eliasson R,
Eklund H, Uhlin U (June 2003).
''Structure of the large subunit of
class Ib ribonucleotide reductase from
Salmonella typhimurium and its
complexes with allosteric effectors''.
J. Mol. Biol. 330 (1): 87–97. PMID
12818204. Date 28 February
2008 Source Own
work Author Boghog2 PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/1PEU_R1E.png/10
24px-1PEU_R1E.png


[2] Description English: The
reaction mechanism of ribonucleotide
reductase Date 14 January 2006
(original upload
date) Source Transferred from
en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by
User:Michał Sobkowski using
CommonsHelper. Author Original
uploader was BorisTM at
en.wikipedia PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2c/RNR_reaction.png

4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "DNA polymerase." Genetics. The
Gale Group, Inc, 2003. Answers.com 04
Aug. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dna-polymer
ase

 
[1] A look at DNA replication, with the
inset showing a larger and general
view. ''Pol'' stands for polymerase, a
key enzyme. Note how each enzyme works
in a 'biochemical team' to complete the
process efficiently COPYRIGHTED
source: http://genmed.yolasite.com/resou
rces/DNA20replication.jpg


[2] Description Diagram of DNA
polymerase extending a DNA strand and
proof-reading. Date Source Own
work Author Madprime GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6f/DNA_polymerase.svg

4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth (a
bacterium). DNA is surrounded by a
membrane made of proteins.2

This cell may form near the sunlit
water surface or near underwater
volcanoes.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Prothero,
"Evolution: What the Fossils Say and
Why It Matters", 2007, p145-154.
 
[1] Deutsch: Bild über den Reitenden
Urzwerg English: Image of Nanoarchaeum
equitans Date 2005-09-10 (original
upload date) Source Originally
from de.wikipedia; description page
is/was here. Author Original
uploader was Eber-Jimmy at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) This image is in the
public domain due to its
age. Licensing According to this
article, ''Es wurde von dem
Mikrobiologen Karl O. Stetter entdeckt.
Bildrechte: Public domain.'' PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dc/Urzwerg.jpg


[2] Hydrogenobacter thermophilus
(strain TK-6) is an obligately
chemolithoautotrophic, extremely (and
strictly) thermophilic
hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium whose
optimal growth temperature is around 70
to 75°C and was isolated from hot
springs. UNKNOWN
source: http://standardsingenomics.org/i
ndex.php/sigen/article/viewFile/146/534/
4368

4,350,000,000 YBN
4
183) Cells make the first lipids on
Earth; (fats, oils, waxes2 ).3

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ find biomarker evidence
2. ^ "lipid." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lipid
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
 
[1] Figure1: Lipid accumulation in
differentiating 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte
cell line (days in culture) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.emsdiasum.com/microsc
opy/products/sem/wet/images/lipid_accumu
lation.jpg


[2] Lipid Structures under the
microscope. Image by Alison North, The
Rockefeller University. UNKNOWN
source: http://selections.rockefeller.ed
u/cms/images/stories/2010/may/lipid.gif

4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons allow selective protein
assembly.1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://info.bio.cmu.edu/Courses/03441/Te
rmPapers/99TermPapers/GenEvo/operon.html

2. ^
http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/gen
e-regulation.html#table

 
[1] Figure 6 from: Jacob, F. & Monod,
J. Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the
synthesis of proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 3,
318–356 (1961)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_
ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B&_user
=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_alid=17
23143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&
_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi
=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&
_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlVe
rsion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c7c5bee
4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a {Jacob_F
rancois_19601228.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B
&_user=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_a
lid=1723143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=s
earch&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_ite
m&_cdi=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&v
iew=c&_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&
_urlVersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c
7c5bee4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a


[2] Figure 3 from: Jacob, F. & Monod,
J. Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the
synthesis of proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 3,
318–356 (1961)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_
ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B&_user
=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_alid=17
23143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&
_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi
=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&
_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&_urlVe
rsion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c7c5bee
4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a {Jacob_F
rancois_19601228.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WK7-4Y39HH7-B
&_user=4422&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1961&_a
lid=1723143833&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=s
earch&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_ite
m&_cdi=6899&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&v
iew=c&_ct=5&_acct=C000059600&_version=1&
_urlVersion=0&_userid=4422&md5=c2699b72c
7c5bee4e2c31224c6261556&searchtype=a

4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis
evolves. Cells can make ATP from
glucose.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162.
 
[1] Description English: Glycolysis
pathway overview. Date 3
September 2009 Source Own
work Author
WYassineMrabetTalk✉ Inkscape
Logo.svg This vector image was
created with
Inkscape. Permission (Reusing this
file) GFDL license (see below). GFDL
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/a0/Glycolysis.svg/
1024px-Glycolysis.svg.png


[2] Figure 9.6 from: Campbell, Reece,
et al, ''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p166. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p166.

4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves. Cells can
make lactic acid.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://216.239.63.104/search?q=cache:3s2
stckAJoMJ:www.nmc.edu/~ftank/115f04/Ch%2
5209%2520Notes.pdf+cellular+respiration+
oldest&hl=en

 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p178. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p178.


[2] IUPAC
name[hide] 2-Hydroxypropanoic
acid Other names[hide] Milk
acid Description de: Struktur
von Milchsäure; en: Structure of
lactic acid Date 12 February
2007 Source Own work Author
NEUROtiker Permission (Reusing
this file) Own work, all rights
released (Public domain) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/59/Lactic-acid-3D-balls.
pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia
/commons/thumb/d/d3/Lactic-acid-skeletal
.svg/1000px-Lactic-acid-skeletal.svg.png

4,325,000,000 YBN
213) Cells make alcohol.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 8th edition, 2008,
p178. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p178.


[2] Ethanol Full structural
formula, Ball and Stick Model, and
Space-Filling Model of Ethanol PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/37/Ethanol-2D-flat.pnght
tp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm
ons/b/b0/Ethanol-3D-balls.pnghttp://uplo
ad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/
Ethanol-3D-vdW.png

4,200,000,000 YBN
2 3
292) Prokaryote flagellum evolves.1
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ conjugation in protists, flagella
in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
2. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree
of Life", 2009,
p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Pallen MJ, Matzke NJ (October
2006). "From The Origin of Species to
the origin of bacterial flagella".
Nature Reviews. Microbiology 4 (10):
784–90. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1493. PMID
16953248. http://www.nature.com/nrmicro
/journal/v4/n10/full/nrmicro1493.html

[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[4] David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
[5] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L.
TATUM, "Gene Recombination in
Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558
(19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0
Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html

[6] "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>
 
[1] Aquifex pyrophilus (platinum
shadowed). © K.O. Stetter & Reinhard
Rachel, University of Regensburg.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/aquifex/aquifex.ht
m


[2] Description English: A
Gram-negative bacterial flagellum. A
flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long,
slender projection from the cell body,
whose function is to propel a
unicellular or small multicellular
organism. The depicted type of
flagellum is found in bacteria such as
E. coli and Salmonella, and rotates
like a propeller when the bacterium
swims. The bacterial movement can be
divided in 2 kinds: run, resulting from
a counterclockwise rotation of the
flagellum, and tumbling, from a
clockwise rotation of the
flagellum. Français : Flagelle de
bactérie Gram-négative. Le flagelle
est une projection longue et fine hors
du corps cellulaire, dont la fonction
est de propulser l'organisme. Ce type
de flagelle est présent dans des
bactéries comme Escherichia coli et
Salmonella, et tourne comme une hélice
quand la bactérie se déplace. Le
flagelle peut provoquer deux types de
déplacement selon son sens de
rotation. Date November 2007 Source
self-made References: [1],[2], [3]
(main 3), [4], [5] (propeller
rotation), PMID 17142059
(bend). Author LadyofHats PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Flagellum_base_
diagram_en.svg/1000px-Flagellum_base_dia
gram_en.svg.png

4,193,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
77) Archaea (also called
archaebacteria) evolve.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/full/nrg929.html

2. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life",
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/pdf/H
edges2009Chap05.pdf

4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/full/nrg929.html

5. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times
of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock",
Science, (1996). 2142-1873my
(2142-1873my)
6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 2300my (2300my)
7. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). 4100my (has arche b4
eu) (4100my)
8. ^ Osawa, S., Honjo,
"Archaebacteria vs Metabacteria :
Phylogenetic tree of organisms
indicated by comparison of 5S ribosomal
RNA sequences.", (Tokyo: Springer,
Tokyo/ Berlin eds.:"Evolution of Life",
pp. 325-336,, 1991). 1800my (1800my)
9. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). 4000my
(4000my)
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics
Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003). 3970my (3970my)
 
[1] Deutsch: Bild über den Reitenden
Urzwerg English: Image of Nanoarchaeum
equitans Date 2005-09-10 (original
upload date) Source Originally
from de.wikipedia; description page
is/was here. Author Original
uploader was Eber-Jimmy at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) This image is in the
public domain due to its
age. Licensing According to this
article, ''Es wurde von dem
Mikrobiologen Karl O. Stetter entdeckt.
Bildrechte: Public domain.'' PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/dc/Urzwerg.jpg


[2] Figure 1) Changing views of the
tree and timescale of life. a) An
early-1990s view, with the tree
determined mostly from ribosomal RNA
(rRNA) sequence analysis. This tree
emphasizes vertical (as opposed to
horizontal) evolution and the close
relationship between eukaryotes and the
Archaebacteria. The deep branching
(>3.5 Giga (109) years ago, Gya) of
CYANOBACTERIA (Cy) and other Eubacteria
(purple), the shallow branching
(approx1 Gya) of plants (Pl), animals
(An) and fungi (Fu), and the early
origin of mitochondria (Mi), were based
on interpretations of the geochemical
and fossil record7, 8. Some deeply
branching amitochondriate (Am) species
were believed to have arisen before the
origin of mitochondria44. Major
symbiotic events (black dots) were
introduced to explain the origin of
eukaryotic organelles42, but were not
assumed to be associated with large
transfers of genes to the host nucleus.
They were: Eu, joining of an
archaebacterium host with a eubacterium
(presumably a SPIROCHAETE) to produce
an amitochondriate eukaryote; Mi,
joining of a eukaryote host with an
alpha-proteobacterium (Ap) symbiont,
leading to the origin of mitochondria,
and plastids (Ps), joining of a
eukaryote host with a cyanobacterium
symbiont, forming the origin of
plastids on the plant lineage and
possibly on other lineages. b) The
present view, based on extensive
genomic analysis. Eukaryotes are no
longer considered to be close relatives
of Archaebacteria, but are genomic
hybrids of Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria, owing to the transfer of
large numbers of genes from the
symbiont genome to the nucleus of the
host (indicated by coloured arrows).
Other new features, largely derived
from molecular-clock studies16, 39 (Box
1), include a relatively recent origin
of Cyanobacteria (approx2.6 Gya) and
mitochondria (approx1.8 Gya), an early
origin (approx1.5 Gya) of plants,
animals and fungi, and a close
relationship between animals and fungi.
Coloured dashed lines indicate
controversial aspects of the present
view: the existence of a
premitochondrial symbiotic event and of
living amitochondriate eukaryotes,
ancestors of which never had
mitochondria. c) The times of
divergence of selected model organisms
from humans, based on molecular clocks.
For the prokaryotes (red), because of
different possible origins through
symbiotic events, divergence times
depend on the gene of interest.
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/full/nrg929_fs.html

4,189,000,000 YBN
3 4
193) Bacteria "Hyperthermophiles"
evolve (Aquifex, Thermotoga).1 2

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Brocks, Buick, "A
reconstruction of Archean biological
diversity based on", Geochimica et
cosmochimica acta, (2003).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The Timetree of
Life", 2009,
p107-110. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] Aquifex pyrophilus (platinum
shadowed). © K.O. Stetter & Reinhard
Rachel, University of Regensburg.
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/aquifex/aquifex.ht
m

4,187,000,000 YBN
3 4
180) Archaea: Crenarchaeota
(Sulfolobus).1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] tree of archaea ?
source: http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gf126
5/GROUPS/KLUG/Stammbaum.html

4,187,000,000 YBN
6 7
181) Archaea: Euryarchaeota
{YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu2 } (methanogens,
halobacteria).3 4

Earliest cell response to light.5

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=euryar
chaeota&submit=Submit

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/44

5. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The Timetree of Life", 2009,
p102-103. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

7. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/44


MORE INFO
[1] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin
and evolution of model organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849
(November 2002),
doi:10.1038/nrg929 http://www.nature.co
m/nrg/journal/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html#to
p

 
[1] A timescale of prokaryote
evolution. Letters indicate nodes
discussed in the text. The last common
ancestor was arbitrarily placed at 4.25
Ga in the tree, although this placement
was not part of the analyses. The grey
rectangle shows the time prior to the
initial rise in oxygen (presumably
anaerobic conditions). Mtb:
Methanothermobacter, Tab:
Thermoanaerobacter, Tsc:
Thermosynechococcus. Battistuzzi et
al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 Table
1 Time estimates for selected nodes
in the tree of eubacteria (A-K) and
archaebacteria (L-P). Letters refer to
Fig. 3. Time (Ma)a CIb Node
A 102 57–176 Node
B 2508 2154–2928 Node
C 2800 2452–3223 Node
D 1039 702–1408 Node
E 2558 2310–2969 Node
F 2784 2490–3203 Node
G 2923 2587–3352 Node
H 3054 2697–3490 Node
I 3186 2801–3634 Node
J 3644 3172–4130 Node
K 3977 3434–4464 Node
L 233 118–386 Node
M 3085 2469–3514 Node
N 3566 2876–3948 Node
O 3781 3047–4163 Node
P 4112 3314–4486 a Averages of
the divergence times estimated using
the 2.3 Ga minimum constraint and the
five ingroup root constraints (nodes
A-K) and using the 1.198 ± 0.022 Ga
constraint and the five ingroup root
constraints (nodes L-P). b
Credibility interval (minimum and
maximum averages of the analyses under
the five ingroup root
constraints) Battistuzzi et al. BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004 4:44
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-44 COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-44-3-l.jpg


[2] tree of archaebacteria (archaea)
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gf126
5/GROUPS/KLUG/Stammbaum.html

4,112,000,000 YBN
2
58) Cells produce their own food
(autotrophy).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/44

 
[1] Description Methanopyrus
kandleri Date July
2006 Source ms:Imej:Arkea.jpg Auth
or ms:User:PM Poon GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/aa/Arkea.jpg

4,000,000,000 YBN
4
43) Photosynthesis evolves in bacteria.
Cells emit free Oxygen.2

This is the main system responsible for
producing the Oxygen now in the air of
earth.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/fara
bee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html
http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
2. ^
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/fara
bee/BIOBK/BioBookPS.html
http://www.ebi
.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2004_11/Page1.htm3
3. ^ "photosynthesis". Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2012. Web. 14 Jul.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecke
d/topic/458172/photosynthesis
>.
4. ^ Olson JM (May 2006).
"Photosynthesis in the Archean era".
Photosyn. Res. 88 (2): 109–17.
doi:10.1007/s11120-006-9040-5. PMID
16453059.

MORE INFO
[1] Campbell, Reece, "Biology",
2009, 190-198
 
[1] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_1.gif


[2] Chemiosmosis as it operates in
photophosphorylation within a
chloroplast. Images from Purves et al.,
Life: The Science of Biology, 4th
Edition, by Sinauer Associates
(www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman
(www.whfreeman.com) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/facu
lty/farabee/biobk/0817_2.gif

3,950,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity
evolves in prokaryotes.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of
multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

2. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins of
multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Bonner J. T. 1998 The
origins of multicellularity. Integr.
Biol. 1, 27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

5. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] Grosberg R. K., Strathmann R.
R. 2007 The evolution of
multicellularity: a minor major
transition? Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.
38, 621–654.
(doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.1
14735)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/1
0.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.114735

[2] Rokas A. 2008 The origins of
multicellularity and the early history
of the genetic toolkit for animal
development. Ann. Rev. Genet. 42,
235–251.
(doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.42.110807.091
513) http://apps.webofknowledge.com/Inb
oundService.do?UT=000261767000011&IsProd
uctCode=Yes&mode=FullRecord&product=WOS&
SID=1EHDdbNiNf4NO8nC299&smartRedirect=ye
s&SrcApp=CR&DestFail=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.we
bofknowledge.com%3FDestApp%3DCEL%26DestP
arams%3D%253Faction%253Dretrieve%2526mod
e%253DFullRecord%2526product%253DCEL%252
6UT%253D000261767000011%2526customersID%
253DHighwire%26e%3DQZIAIzGgKoYbxc_i_WNam
laqQ0.s968BNEwQvqhM9p.770dFYju0AbJCFAAcj
orA%26SrcApp%3DHighwire%26SrcAuth%3DHigh
wire&action=retrieve&Init=Yes&SrcAuth=Hi
ghwire&customersID=Highwire&Func=Frame

 
[1] Microgram of filamentous bacteria
from flexible setae. (Courtesy
Zoosystema © 2005) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s
2009/decker_rour/images/yeti-crab-filame
ntous-bacteria.JPG


[2] Filamentous Bacteria Microthrix
Parvicella UNKNOWN
source: http://ebsbiowizard.com/wp-conte
nt/gallery/filamentous-bacteria-microthr
ix-parvicella/filamentous-bacteria-micro
thrix-parvicella.jpg

3,950,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
316) Cell differentiation evolves in
filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of
cells.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

3. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The
biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D
0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238

4. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N.
SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès:
Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.c
om/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract


MORE INFO
[1] Bonner J. T. 1998 The origins
of multicellularity. Integr. Biol. 1,
27–36.
(doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1<27::AID-INBI4>3.0
.CO;2-6)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.
1002/(SICI)1520-6602(1998)1:1%3C27::AID-
INBI4%3E3.0.CO;2-6/abstract;jsessionid=D
EEFA3C8E4647CC2CECE51E3692EAF4B.d01t03

 
[1] Adapted from: Anabaena smitthi
COPYRIGHTED FRANCE
source: http://www.ac-rennes.fr/pedagogi
e/svt/photo/microalg/anabaena.jpg


[2] Anabaena COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://home.manhattan.edu/~franc
es.cardillo/plants/monera/anabaena.gif

3,950,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
322) Nitrogen fixation. Cells can make
nitrogen compounds like ammonia from
Nitrogen gas in the air.1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Nitrogen fixation". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_fi
xation

2. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

3. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

4. ^ Tomitani, Akiko et al. “The
Evolutionary Diversification of
Cyanobacteria: Molecular–phylogenetic
and Paleontological Perspectives.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.14 (2006): 5442
–5447. http://www.pnas.org/content/10
3/14/5442.full

5. ^ N. G. Carr, B. A. Whitton, "The
biology of blue-green algae", p238.
http://books.google.com/books?id=fSRPg-D
0Jk0C&pg=PA238&lpg=PA238

6. ^ GOLUBIC, STJEPKO, VLADIMIR N.
SERGEEV, and ANDREW H. KNOLL.
“Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoidès:
Akinetes of Heterocystous
Cyanobacteria.” Lethaia 28.4 (1995):
285–298. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.c
om/doi/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1995.tb01817.
x/abstract

West Africa3  
[1] Fig. 2. Modern cyanobacterial
akinetes and Archaeoellipsoides
fossils. (A) Three-month-old culture of
living A. cylindrica grown in a medium
without combined nitrogen. A, akinete;
H, heterocyst; V, vegetative cells.
(B–D) Shown are Archaeoellipsoides
fossils from 1,500-Ma Billyakh Group,
northern Siberia (B); 1,650-Ma McArthur
Group, northern Australia (C); and
2,100-Ma Franceville Group, Gabon (D).
(Scale bars, 10 μm.) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/
14/5442/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Modern cyanobacterial
akinetes and Archaeoellipsoides
fossils. (A) Three-month-old culture of
living A. cylindrica grown in a medium
without combined nitrogen. A, akinete;
H, heterocyst; V, vegetative cells.
(B–D) Shown are Archaeoellipsoides
fossils from 1,500-Ma Billyakh Group,
northern Siberia (B); 1,650-Ma McArthur
Group, northern Australia (C); and
2,100-Ma Franceville Group, Gabon (D).
(Scale bars, 10 μm.) COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.pnas.org/content/103/
14/5442/F2.large.jpg

3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration. First
aerobic cell. These cells use oxygen to
convert glucose into carbon dioxide,
water, and ATP.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 8th edition, 2008, p162-184.
2. ^
Campbell, Reece, et al, "Biology", 8th
edition, 2008, p162-184.
 
[1] purple aerobic bacteria UNKNOWN
source: http://endosymbiotichypothesis.f
iles.wordpress.com/2010/09/rain-bacteria
.jpg


[2] Organisms of Rickettsia conorii
(r), a close relative of R. rickettsii,
in a cultured human endothelial cell
are located free in the cytosol. One
rickettsia is dividing by binary
fission (arrowhead). (B) These
rickettsiae can move inside the
cytoplasm of the host cell because of
the propulsive force created by the
''tail'' of host cell actin filaments
(arrow). Bars = 0.5 µm. Photo and
text courtesy of David H. Walker -
http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch038.htm
UNKNOWN AND Rickettsia prowazekii
(image with Rickettsia outside of
cell) COPYRIGHTED [1] Rickettsia
prowazekii COPYRIGHTED FAIR USE
source: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/peop
le/sosarafova/Assets/Bio307/liwoeste/Pic
tures/Walker%203%5B1%5D.jpghttp://web.ms
t.edu/~microbio/bio221_2001/Image9.jpg

3,850,000,000 YBN
7
36) Oldest physical evidence for life:
ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12.3 4

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
2. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

3. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html

4. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

5. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html

6. ^
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

7. ^ Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence
for Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html
AND
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

MORE INFO
[1] "Banded iron formation."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific
and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 11
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/banded-iron
-formation

[2] Mojzsis, S. J. et al. "Evidence for
Life on Earth Before 3,800 Million
Years Ago." Nature 384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html

AND http://www.nature.com/nature/journa
l/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf
Akilia Island, Western Greenland5 6
 

[1] Figure 1 from: Mojzsis, S. J. et
al. ''Evidence for Life on Earth Before
3,800 Million Years Ago.'' Nature
384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf


[2] Figure 1 from: Mojzsis, S. J. et
al. ''Evidence for Life on Earth Before
3,800 Million Years Ago.'' Nature
384.6604 (1996):
55–59. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v384/n6604/abs/384055a0.html COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v384/n6604/pdf/384055a0.pdf

3,850,000,000 YBN
8
45) Oldest sediment, the "Banded Iron
Formation" begins.2
Banded Iron
Formation is sedimentary rock that
spans 2 billion years, made of silica
with alternating layers of
black-colored reduced iron and
red-colored oxidized iron,3 4 and
represents a seasonal rise and fall of
free oxygen in the ocean, possibly
linked to photosynthetic organisms.5 6


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7,
1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.t
af?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
2. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov
7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.t
af?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
3. ^ Cesare Emiliani, Plant
Earth 1992:407f, and Tjeerd van Andel,
New Views on an Old Planet 2nd ed.
1994:303-05. http://books.google.com/bo
oks?id=R6b3skeNXrgC

4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Konhauser,
Kurt O. et al. “Could Bacteria Have
Formed the Precambrian Banded Iron
Formations?” Geology 30.12 (2002):
1079 -1082.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/30/12/1079.abstract

6. ^ Kappler, Andreas et al.
“Deposition of Banded Iron Formations
by Anoxygenic Phototrophic
Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria.” Geology
33.11 (2005): 865 -868.
Print. http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/33/11/865.abstract

7. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov 7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.t
af?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102,
8. ^ Mojzsis, et al. nature nov
7, 1996
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.t
af?file=/nature/journal/v384/n6604/index
.html,
2:102, {3850 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Roger Lewin, "Thread of
Life", (New York: Smithsonian Books,
1982). p102
[2]
http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~mstrick/Rogue
ComCollege/RCC_Lectures/Banded_Iron.html

[3] "Banded iron formation". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banded_iron
_formation

Akilia Island, Western Greenland7
 

[1] image of BIF from Akilia from
Nature COPYRIGHTED
source: nature 11/7/96


[2] portion taken
from: Description English: This
image shows a 2.1 billion years old
rock containing black-banded ironstone,
which has a weight of about 8.5 tons.
The approximately two meter high, three
meter wide, and one meter thick block
of stone was found in North America and
belongs to the National Museum of
Mineralogy and Geology in Dresden,
Germany. The rock is located at
+51°2'34.84''
+13°45'26.67''. Deutsch: Dieses Bild
zeigt einen etwa 8,5 Tonnen schweren
und 2,1 Milliarden Jahre alten Block
mit Bändereisenerzen. Der etwa zwei
Meter hohe, drei Meter breite und einen
Meter tiefe Gesteinsblock wurde in
Nordamerika gefunden und gehört dem
Staatlichen Museum für Mineralogie und
Geologie Dresden. Der Block befindet
sich bei den Koordinaten +51°2'34.84''
+13°45'26.67''. Camera
data Camera Nikon D70 Lens Tamron
SP AF 90mm/2.8 Di Macro 1:1 Focal
length 90 mm Aperture f/2.8 Exposure
time 1/250 s Sensivity ISO 200 Please
help translating the description into
more languages. Thanks a lot! If
you want a license with the conditions
of your choice, please email me to
negotiate terms. best new
image Date 26 August
2005 Source Own
work Author André Karwath aka
Aka CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Black-band_iron
stone_%28aka%29.jpg/1280px-Black-band_ir
onstone_%28aka%29.jpg

3,500,000,000 YBN
7 8
39) Oldest fossil evidence of life:
stromatolites.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

2. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

3. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

4. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

5. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

6. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

7. ^ Walter, M. R., R. Buick, and J. S.
R. Dunlop. "Stromatolites 3,400-3,500
Myr Old from the North Pole Area,
Western Australia." Nature 284.5755
(1980):
443–445. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v284/n5755/abs/284441a0.html

8. ^ Byerly, Gary R., Donald R. Lower,
and Maud M. Walsh. "Stromatolites from
the 3,300-3,500-Myr Swaziland
Supergroup, Barberton Mountain Land,
South Africa." Nature 319.6053 (1986):
489–491. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v319/n6053/abs/319489a0.html

Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig
Tree Group, South Africa5 6  

[1] image on left is from swaziland
source: nature feb 6


[2]
source: 1986

3,500,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12
287) Oldest fossils of an organism.3 4


2.8 billion years will pass before the
first animal evolves.5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

2. ^ Schopf, J. William et al.
"Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s
Earliest Fossils." Nature 416.6876
(2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

3. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

4. ^ Schopf, J. William et al.
"Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s
Earliest Fossils." Nature 416.6876
(2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Record ID81. Universe, Life,
Science, Future. Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Schopf, J.
William et al. "Laser-Raman Imagery of
Earth’s Earliest Fossils." Nature
416.6876 (2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html

8. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R.
Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from
the 3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group,
Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa."
Nature 314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html

9. ^ Walsh, Maud M., and Donald R.
Lowe. "Filamentous Microfossils from
the 3,500-Myr-old Onverwacht Group,
Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa."
Nature 314.6011 (1985):
530–532. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v314/n6011/abs/314530a0.html

10. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

11. ^ Schopf, J. W. Microfossils of the
Early Archean Apex chert: new evidence
of the antiquity of life. Science 260,
640−646
(1993). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/260/5108/640

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2881249

12. ^ Schopf, J. William et al.
"Laser-Raman Imagery of Earth’s
Earliest Fossils." Nature 416.6876
(2002):
73–76. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v416/n6876/abs/416073a.html


MORE INFO
[1] BIO415 (Author? University?)
Multicelluarity.pdf (t3:
multicellularity of cyanobacteria)
[2] t3:
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sab
edon/biol3018.htm
multicellularity.
"Some cyanobacteria species exist in a
truly, though primitive, multicellular
form in which cellular differentiation
occurs."
Warrawoona, northwestern Western
Australia7 and Onverwacht Group,
Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa8
 

[1] Figure 1 Optical photomicrographs
showing carbonaceous (kerogenous)
filamentous microbial fossils in
petrographic thin sections of
Precambrian cherts. Scale in a
represents images in a and c-i; scale
in b represents image in b. All parts
show photomontages, which is
necessitated by the three-dimensional
preservation of the cylindrical sinuous
permineralized microbes. Squares in
each part indicate the areas for which
chemical data are presented in Figs 2
and 3. a, An unnamed cylindrical
prokaryotic filament, probably the
degraded cellular trichome or tubular
sheath of an oscillatoriacean
cyanobacterium, from the 770-Myr
Skillogalee Dolomite of South
Australia12. b, Gunflintia grandis, a
cellular probably oscillatoriacean
trichome, from the 2,100-Myr Gunflint
Formation of Ontario, Canada13. c, d,
Unnamed highly carbonized filamentous
prokaryotes from the 3,375-Myr Kromberg
Formation of South Africa14: the poorly
preserved cylindrical trichome of a
noncyanobacterial or oscillatoriacean
prokaryote (c); the disrupted,
originally cellular trichomic remnants
possibly of an Oscillatoria- or
Lyngbya-like cyanobacterium (d). e-i,
Cellular microbial filaments from the
3,465-Myr Apex chert of northwestern
Western Australia: Primaevifilum
amoenum4,5, from the collections of The
Natural History Museum (TNHM), London,
specimen V.63164[6] (e); P. amoenum4
(f); the holotype of P.
delicatulum4,5,15, TNHM V.63165[2] (g);
P. conicoterminatum5, TNHM V63164[9]
(h); the holotype of Eoleptonema apex5,
TNHM V.63729[1] (i).
source: Nature416


[2] Fig. 3 Filamentous microfossils:
a, cylindrical microfossil from
Hooggenoeg sample; b, threadlike and
tubular filaments extending between
laminae, Kromberg sample; c,d,e,
tubular filamnets oriented subparallel
to bedding, Kromberg sample; f,
threadlike filament flattened parallel
to bedding, Kromberg sample.
source: 73 - 76 (07 Mar 2002) Letters
to Nature
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v41
6/n6876/fig_tab/416073a_F1.html

3,260,000,000 YBN
3
71) Budding evolves in prokaryotes.1
FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

2. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

3. ^ Hans D. Pflug, Earliest organic
evolution. Essay to the memory of
Bartholomew Nagy, Precambrian Research,
Volume 106, Issues 1–2, 1 February
2001, Pages 79-91, ISSN 0301-9268,
10.1016/S0301-9268(00)00126-1. (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pi
i/S0301926800001261)

Swartkoppie, South Africa2  
[1] Evolutionary relationships of model
organisms and bacteria that show
unusual reproductive strategies. This
phylogenetic tree (a) illustrates the
diversity of organisms that use the
alternative reproductive strategies
shown in (b). Bold type indicates
complete or ongoing genome projects.
Intracellular offspring are produced by
several low-GC Gram-positive bacteria
such as Metabacterium polyspora,
Epulopiscium spp. and the segmented
filamentous bacteria (SFB). Budding and
multiple fission are found in the
proteobacterial genera Hyphomonas and
Bdellovibrio, respectively. In the case
of the Cyanobacteria, Stanieria
produces baeocytes and Chamaesiphon
produces offspring by budding.
Actinoplanes produce dispersible
offspring by multiple fission of
filaments within the sporangium.
source: http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/jo
urnal/v3/n3/full/nrmicro1096_fs.html
(Nature Reviews Microbiology 3


[2] Electron micrograph of a Pirellula
bacterium from giant tiger prawn tissue
(Penaeus monodon). Notice the large
crateriform structures (C) on the cell
surface and flagella. From Fuerst et
al.
source: 214-224 (2005);
doi:10.1038/nrmicro1096)

3,200,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
66) Earliest acritarch fossil
(unicellular microfossils with
uncertain affinity1 2 ).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Acritarch." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 24 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/acritarch
2. ^ Delwiche, Charles F., "The Origin
and Evolution of Dinoflagellates", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p194.
3. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/ac
ritarch.html

4. ^ Knoll AH (1992) The early
evolution of eukaryotes: a
geological perspective. Science 256:
622-627
5. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P.
Marshall, and Andrey Bekker.
“Organic-walled microfossils in
3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature
463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html

6. ^ Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Craig P.
Marshall, and Andrey Bekker.
“Organic-walled microfossils in
3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature
463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html

{3.2 bybn}
7. ^ A. H. Knoll, E. J. Javaux, D.
Hewitt and P. Cohen, "Eukaryotic
Organisms in Proterozoic Oceans",
Philosophical Transactions: Biological
Sciences , Vol. 361, No. 1470, Major
Steps in Cell Evolution:
Palaeontological, Molecular and
Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and
Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp.
1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
0209698
{1.8 bybn}
8. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/di
noflagfr.html
{1.8 bybn}
9. ^
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/ac
ritarch.html
{1900-1600 mybn}
10. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", 8th
ed., 2006, p257. {1.6 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Knoll,
Andrew H., Walter, Malcolm,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
2003-02-01, Springer Netherlands,
Vol33, Iss1,
p75-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:102
3992712071

[2] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan,
Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean
Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short

and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

[3] Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski,
"A Molecular Time-Scale for Eukaryote
Evolution Recalibrated with the
Continuous Microfossil Record",
Proceedings: Biological Sciences , Vol.
273, No. 1596 (Aug. 7, 2006), pp.
1867-1872 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
5223537

[4] Javaux, Emmanuelle J., Andrew H.
Knoll, and Malcolm R. Walter.
“Morphological and ecological
complexity in early eukaryotic
ecosystems.” Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html

(Moodies Group) South Africa5  
[1] Figure from: Javaux, Emmanuelle
J., Craig P. Marshall, and Andrey
Bekker. “Organic-walled microfossils
in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine
siliciclastic deposits.” Nature
463.7283 (2010):
934-938. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v463/n7283/full/nature08793.html


[2] Figure from: Javaux, Emmanuelle
J., Andrew H. Knoll, and Malcolm R.
Walter. “Morphological and ecological
complexity in early eukaryotic
ecosystems.” Nature 412.6842 (2001):
66-69. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html Figur
e 1 Protistan microfossils from the
Roper Group. a, c, Tappania plana,
showing asymmetrically distributed
processes and bulbous protrusions
(arrow in a). b, detail of a, showing
dichotomously branching process. d,
Valeria lophostriata. e, Dictyosphaera
sp. f, Satka favosa. The scale bar in a
is 35 µm for a and c; 10 µm for b;
100 µm for d; 15 µm for e; and 40 µm
for f.
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v412/n6842/abs/412066a0.html

2,923,000,000 YBN
6
178) Bacteria Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ1
) evolve (Gram positive bacteria: cause
of botulism, tetanus, anthrax).2 3 4
First endospores.5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=fi
rmicutes&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886 (not
TOL)
4. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
5. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010.
Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds.
Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland,
National Council for Science and the
Environment, Washington
DC http://www.eoearth.org/article/Bacte
ria?topic=49480

6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptidoglyc
an

[2] firmicutes only bacteria to make
endospores
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endospore
[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firmicutes
[4]
http://www.earthlife.net/prokaryotes/fir
micutes.html

 
[1] Listeria monocytogenes is a
Gram-positive bacterium, in the
division Firmicutes, named for Joseph
Lister. It is motile by means of
flagella. Some studies suggest that 1
to 10% of humans may carry L.
monocytogenes in their
intestines. Researchers have found L.
monocytogenes in at least 37 mammalian
species, both domesticated and feral,
as well as in at least 17 species of
birds and possibly in some species of
fish and shellfish. Laboratories can
isolate L. monocytogenes from soil,
silage, and other environmental
sources. L. monocytogenes is quite
hardy and resists the deleterious
effects of freezing, drying, and heat
remarkably well for a bacterium that
does not form spores. Most L.
monocytogenes are pathogenic to some
degree.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Listeria.jpg


[2] These are bacteria (about 0.3 µm
in diameter) that do not have outer
walls, only cytoplasmic membranes.
However, they do have cytoskeletal
elements that give them a distinct
non-spherical shape. They look like
schmoos that are pulled along by their
heads. How they are able to glide is a
mystery.
source: http://webmac.rowland.org/labs/b
acteria/projects_glide.html

2,800,000,000 YBN
5
76) Proteobacteria evolve (Rickettsia
{ancestor of all mitochondria},
gonorrhea, Salmonella, E. coli).1 2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
4. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
5. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). {2800000000 YBN}

MORE INFO
[1] multicellularity.
http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sab
edon/biol3018.htm
multicellularity.
Multicellularity.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia
_coli
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteobacte
ria
[2] JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM,
"Gene Recombination in Escherichia
Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October
1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html

[3] "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>
[4] conjugation in protists, flagella
in eukaryotes: Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989)
[5] prokaryote
pili and archaea flagella related:
http://www.queens-pfd.ca/people/index.cf
m?meds=profile&profile=12

[6] Stackebrandt et al. Proteobacteria
classis nov., a name for the
phylogenetic taxon that includes the
"purple bacteria and their relatives".
Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1988, 38,
321–325. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/c
ontent/38/3/321.full.pdf

 
[1] Figure 1. Transmission electron
micrograph of the ELB agent in XTC-2
cells. The rickettsia are free in the
cytoplasm and surrounded by an electron
transparent halo. Original
magnification X 30,000. CDC PD
source: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/
eid/vol7no1/raoultG1.htm


[2] Caulobacter crescentus. From
http://sunflower.bio.indiana.edu/~ybrun/
L305.html COPYRIGHTED EDU was in wiki
but appears to be removed
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/4/42/Caulobacter.jpg

2,800,000,000 YBN
13
177) Gender and sex (conjugation)
evolve in bacteria.7 8 9 10 11 12

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E. L. TATUM,
"Gene Recombination in Escherichia
Coli", Nature 158, 558-558 (19 October
1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0 Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
{Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
2. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>.
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
6. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
7. ^ JOSHUA LEDERBERG, E.
L. TATUM, "Gene Recombination in
Escherichia Coli", Nature 158, 558-558
(19 October 1946) doi:10.1038/158558a0
Letter
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
158/n4016/abs/158558a0.html
{Lederberg_
Joshua_19460917.pdf}
8. ^ "conjugation." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011.
Web. 01 May. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/132820/conjugation
>.
9. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
11. ^ Tree of life,
http://tolweb.org/tree/
12. ^ David moreira, Purificacion
Lopez-Garcia, "Symbiosis Between
methanogenic Archaea and
delta-Proteobacteria as the Origin of
Eukaryotes: The Synthreophic
Hypothesis", J Mol Evol (1998)
47:517-530. eukorig6_jmol.pdf
13. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004). {2800000000 YBN}
 
[1] the fertility factor or F factor is
a very large (94,500 bp) circular dsDNA
plasmid; it is generally independent of
the host chromosome. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.mun.ca/biochem/course
s/3107/images/Fplasmidmap.gif


[2] conjugation (via pilus)
COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/16
0/conjugation.jpg

2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.2
FOOTNOTES

1. ^
http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm

2. ^
http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/rer2.htm

 
[1] Description Electron
micrograph of Bacteriophages Date
Source
en:Image:Phage.jpg Author
en:User:GrahamColm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/52/Phage.jpg

2,784,000,000 YBN
3
176) Bacteria Planctomycetes
{PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS1 }.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=planct
omycetes&submit=Submit

2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] s10
http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/5
0/6/1965

[2]
http://genomebiology.com/2002/3/6/resear
ch/0031

[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planctomyce
tes

[4] Lee, Kuo-Chang, Rick Webb, and John
Fuerst. “The Cell Cycle of the
Planctomycete Gemmata Obscuriglobus
with Respect to Cell
Compartmentalization.” BMC Cell
Biology 10.1 (2009):
4. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-21
21/10/4/

 
[1] Electron micrographs of cells of
new Gemmata-like and Isosphaera-like
isolates. (A) Negatively stained cell
of the Gemmata-like strain JW11-2f5
showing crateriform structures
(arrowhead) and coccoid cell
morphology. Bar marker, 200 nm. (B)
Negatively stained budding cell of
Isosphaera-like strain CJuql1 showing
uniform crateriform structures
(arrowhead) on the mother cell and
coccoid cell morphology. Bar marker,
200 nm. (C) Thin section of
Gemmata-like cryosubstituted cell of
strain JW3-8s0 showing the
double-membrane-bounded nuclear body
(NB) and nucleoid (N) enclosed within
it. Bar marker, 200 nm. (D) Thin
section of Isosphaera-like strain C2-3
possessing a fibrillar nucleoid (N)
within a cytoplasmic compartment
bounded by a single membrane (M) only.
Bar marker, 200 nm. Appl Environ
Microbiol. 2002 January; 68(1):
417-422. doi:
10.1128/AEM.68.1.417-422.2002.
source: http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/art
iclerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=117
72655


[2] Evolutionary distance tree derived
from comparative analysis of 16S rDNAs
from freshwater and soil isolates and
reference strains of the order
Planctomycetales. Database accession
numbers are shown in parentheses after
species, strain, or clone names.
Bootstrap values of greater than 70%
from 100 bootstrap resamplings from the
distance analysis are presented at
nodes. Thermotoga maritima was used as
an outgroup. Isolates from this study
and representative named species of the
planctomycetes are indicated in bold.
The scale bar represents 0.1 nucleotide
substitution per nucleotide
position. Appl Environ Microbiol.
2002 January; 68(1): 417-422. doi:
10.1128/AEM.68.1.417-422.2002.
source: http://florey.biosci.uq.edu.au/m
ypa/images/fuerst2.gif

2,784,000,000 YBN
7
179) Bacteria Actinobacteria
{aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu1 } (source of
streptomycin).2 3 4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ac
tinobacteria&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Nature v417 n6886, not
TOL
4. ^ "Actinobacteria". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actinobacte
ria

5. ^
http://asylumeclectica.com/malady/archiv
es/leprosy.htm

6. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
7. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] "streptomyces." Britannica
Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010.
Answers.com 04 Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/streptomyce
s

 
[1] Aerial mycelium and spore of
Streptomyces coelicolor. The mycelium
and the oval spores are about 1µm
wide, typical for bacteria and much
smaller than fungal hyphae and spores.
(Scanning electron micrograph, Mark
Buttner, Kim Findlay, John Innes
Centre). COPYRIGHT UK
source: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects
/S_coelicolor/micro_image4.shtml


[2] Frankia is a genus of
nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, which
possesses a set of features that are
unique amongst symbiotic
nitrogen-fixing microorganisms,
including rhizobia, making it an
attractive taxon to study. These
heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria
which are able to induce symbiotic
nitrogen-fixing root nodules
(actinorhizas) in a wide range of
dicotyledonous species (actinorhizal
plants), have also the capacity to fix
atmospheric nitrogen in culture and
under aerobic conditions.
source: http://www.ibmc.up.pt/webpagesgr
upos/cam/Frankia.htm

2,775,000,000 YBN
3
174) Bacteria Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ1
) (Syphilis, Lyme disease).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
www.d.umn.edu/~rhicks1/diversity/Pronunc
iation%20Guide.pdf
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ estimated from
Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic
timescale of prokaryote evolution:
insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] "spirochete." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30
Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/spirochete
 
[1] Syphilis is a complex, sexually
transmitted disease (STD) with a highly
variable clinical course. The disease
is caused by the bacterium, Treponema
pallidum. In the United States, 32,871
cases of syphilis, including 432 cases
of congenital syphilis, were detected
by public health officials in 2002.
Eight of the ten states with the
highest rates of syphilis are located
in the southern region of the United
States.
source: http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/tus
kegee/syphilis.htm


[2] unknown
source: http://uhavax.hartford.edu/bugl/
images/Treponema%20pallidum.jpg

2,775,000,000 YBN
4 5
175) Bacteria Bacteroidetes
{BaKTRrOEDiTEZ1 }.2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ba
cteroidetes+&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).. ^
4. ^ estimate from Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
5. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidet
es

[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
 
[1] Description Bacteroides
biacutis—one of many en:commensal
anaerobic en:Bacteroides spp. in the
en:gastrointestinal tract—cultured in
blood agar medium for 48
hours. Obtained from the CDC Public
Health Image Library. Image credit:
CDC/Dr. V.R. Dowell, Jr. (PHIL #3087),
1972. Date 2006-03-11 (original
upload date) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader was
MarcoTolo at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) PD-USGOV-HHS-CDC. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/Bacteroides_bia
cutis_01.jpg/1280px-Bacteroides_biacutis
_01.jpg


[2] Bacteroides fragilis . From the
Zdravotni University
source: http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microb
ial_Biorealm/bacteria/bacteroidete_chlor
ob_group/bacteroides/bacteroides.htm

2,775,000,000 YBN
3
217) Bacteria Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I
or Klo-mi-DE-E1 }.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ch
lamydiae&submit=Submit

2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicr
obia

 
[1] cell infected with Chlamydia The
Bavoil laboratory studies the
pathogenesis of the obligate
intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia, and
its bacteriophages. Specific research
areas include the role of Chlamydia
type III secretion in pathogenesis and
development, the impact of Chlamydia
phage infection on disease, the role of
the polymorphic membrane protein family
of C. trachomatis in infection and
disease and comparative genomics within
the Chlamydiaceae. [1] Chlamydia
trachomatis wiki, is copyrighted
source: http://www.dental.umaryland.edu/
sebin/p/o/chlamydia_infected_cell2.jpg


[2] wiki, public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chl
amydia_trachomatis

2,775,000,000 YBN
3 4
6309) Bacteria Chlorobi (green sulphur
bacteria).1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).. ^
3. ^ estimate from Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ estimate from Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life
[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteroidet
es

[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorobi
 
[1] Description Deutsch: Grüne
Schwefelbakterien (Chlorobiaceae) im
unteren Bereich einer
Winogradsky-Säule Date
20.03.2007 (20 March 2007
(original upload date)) Source
Transferred from de.wikipedia;
transfer was stated to be made by
User:Jacopo Werther. (Original text :
Mikrobiologie Praktikum Universität
Kassel März 2007) Author
kOchstudiO. Original uploader was
KOchstudiO at
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) Released into the public
domain (by the author). (Original text
: uneingeschränkte Nutzung) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e7/Green_d_winogradsky.j
pg


[2] Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p194. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, N.A., and J.B. Reece.
Biology. Pearson Benjamin Cummings,
2008. Alternative eText Formats Series,
p194.

2,775,000,000 YBN
3
6310) Bacteria Verrucomicrobia
(VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo1 ).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ve
rrucomicrobia&submit=Submit

2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlamydiae
[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verrucomicr
obia

 
[1] Figure 1 Transmission electron
micrographs of high-pressure frozen and
cryosubstituted Verrucomicrobium
spinosum. A. Cell prepared by
high-pressure freezing and
cryosubstitution showing prostheca
(PT), paryphoplasm (P), and an
intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM)
enclosing a pirellulosome region
containing a condensed fibrillar
nucleoid (N). Inset: enlarged view of
area of cell outlined in the white box
showing cytoplasmic membrane (CM),
paryphoplasm and ICM. B.
freeze-fracture replica of cell showing
cross-fractured paryphoplasm (P) and
fracture faces of ICM and CM. Bar –
500 nm Lee et al. BMC Microbiology
2009 9:5
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-5 CC
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2180-9-5-1-l.jpg


[2] Figure 2 Transmission electron
micrograph of high-pressure frozen and
cryosubstituted Verrucomicrobium
spinosum. Cell prepared by
high-pressure freezing and
cryosubstitution showing prostheca
(PT), ribosome-free paryphoplasm (P),
and an intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM)
enclosing a pirellulosome region
containing a condensed fibrillar
nucleoid (N). Membrane-bounded
vesicle-like compartments within some
prosthecae extensions are also present
(see arrowheads). Bar – 1 μm Lee
et al. BMC Microbiology 2009 9:5
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-9-5 CC
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2180-9-5-2-l.jpg

2,730,000,000 YBN
1 2
80) Endo and exocytosis. Cells can now
eat other cells.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "endocytosis." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 07
Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endocytosis

2. ^ guess based on Cavalier-Smith
stating that endocytosis occurs before
a cytoskeleton {Nucleus 2700 +30mybn
guess and}
 
[1] Endocytosis and Exocytosis: For
example, this electron micrograph is
showing the process of exocytosis . The
process begins by fusion of the
membranes at the peripheral pole of the
granule. Then an opening is created
which widens to look like an omicron
figure. This opening allows the
granular material to be released. The
membrane is now part of the plasma
membrane and any proteins carried with
it can be incorporated into the plasma
membrane. Note that there is no coating
on the membrane. This figure was taken
from Alberts et al, Molecular Biology
of the Cell, Garland Publishing Third
Edition, 1994 In contrast, this
micrograph shows a figure which looks
something like an omicron, however,
this view is showing receptor mediated
endocytosis of virus particles. In both
cases, the membrane is coated with
clathrin and these represent classical
receptor mediated endocytosis profiles.
Most ligands cannot be visualized by
themselves, like a virus particle.
Therefore, the cytochemist must attach
label to the ligand. Alternatively, the
cytochemist could immunocytochemically
detect the receptor with antibodies
that recognize the extracellular
domain. This figure was taken from
Endocytosis, Edited by Ira Pastan and
Mark C. Willingham, Plenum Press, N.Y.,
1985 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.cytochemistry.net/cel
l-biology/end7.jpg


[2] Pinocytosis In the process of
pinocytosis the plasma membrane froms
an invagination. What ever substance
is found within the area of
invagination is brought into the
cell. In general this material will
be dissolved in water and thus this
process is also refered to as
''cellular drinking'' to indicate that
liquids and material dissolved in
liquids are ingested by the
cell. This is opposed to the
ingestion of large particulate material
like bacteria or other cells or cell
debris. UNKNOWN
source: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.ed
u/biology/bio4fv/page/endocytb.htm

2,700,000,000 YBN
3
60) Eukaryotic cell. The first cell
with a nucleus. The first protist. The
nucleus may develop from the infolding
of plasma membrane.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p516-517.
2. ^ Campbell, Reece,
et al, "Biology", 2008, p516-517.
3. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir Kumar,
Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S Thompson and
Hidemi Wa, "A genomic timescale for the
origin of eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{split of archae and
eukaryote at c4.0 bybn, but eukaryote
{with nucleus?} at) 2.7 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levin, "The Earth
Through Time", 8th ed., 2006, p256
[2]
Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan,
Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons, "Archean
Molecular Fossils and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short

and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

[3] Alexey S. Kondrashov, "EVOLUTIONARY
GENETICS OF LIFE CYCLES", Annual Review
of Ecology and Systematics Vol. 28:
391-435 (Volume publication date
November 1997)
http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/do
i/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.391;
jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

 
[1] Campbell, Reece, et al,
''Biology'', 2008, p517. COPYRIGHTED
source: Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", 2008, p517.


[2]
http://www.regx.de/m_organisms.php#planc
to
source: http://www.regx.de/m_organisms.p
hp#plancto

2,700,000,000 YBN
62) Earliest molecular fossil evidence
of eukaryotes (sterane {STiRAN1 }
molecules).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "sterane." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 30 Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/sterane
2. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Jochen J.
Brocks, Graham A. Logan, Roger Buick,
Roger E. Summons, "Archean Molecular
Fossils and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes", Science, Vol 285, Issue
5430, 13 August 1999, p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short

and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 1033-1036 , 13
August 1999 Archean Molecular Fossils
and the Early Rise of
Eukaryotes Jochen J. Brocks, 1,2*
Graham A. Logan, 2 Roger Buick, 1 Roger
E. Summons 2
Northwestern Australia4 5  
[1] Jochen J. Brocks, Graham A. Logan,
Roger Buick, Roger E. Summons,
''Archean Molecular Fossils and the
Early Rise of Eukaryotes'', Science,
Vol 285, Issue 5430, 13 August 1999,
p1033-1036.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/285/
5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/285/5430/1033.short
and http://www.jstor.org/stable/2898534

2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves,
a membrane system that extends from the
nucleus, important in the synthesis of
proteins and lipids.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "endoplasmic reticulum."
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endoplasmic
-reticulum

 
[1] Figure 1 : Image of n, endoplasmic
reticulum and Golgi apparatus. (1)
Nucleus. (2) Nuclear pore. (3) Rough
endoplasmic reticulum (RER). (4) Smooth
endoplasmic reticulum (SER). (5)
Ribosome on the rough ER. (6) Proteins
that are transported. (7) Transport
vesicle. (8) Golgi apparatus. (9) Cis
face of the Golgi apparatus. (10) Trans
face of the Golgi apparatus. (11)
Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. I
am the copyright holder of that image
(I might even have the CorelDraw file
around somewhere:-), and I hereby place
the image and all partial images
created from it in the public domain.
So, you are free to use it any way you
like. In fact, I am delighted that one
of my drawings makes it into
print! I can mail you the .cdr file,
if you like (and if I can find it), if
you need a better resolution for
printing. Yours, Magnus
Manske Source: See also User:Magnus
Manske
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Nucleus_ER_golgi.jpg


[2] Description English: The
elongation and membrane targeting
stages of eukaryotic translation. The
ribosome is green and yellow, the tRNAs
are dark blue, and the other proteins
involved are light blue. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3c/Translation.gif

2,690,000,000 YBN
5 6
207) Cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN1 }
forms in eukaryote cytoplasm.2 3 4

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ "cytoskeleton." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 12
Feb. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cytoskeleto
n

2. ^ Cavalier-Smith, annals of Botony
2005 vol95 issue 1
3. ^ Margulis, L.
1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at
Evolution. Science Masters: Brockman
Inc, New York. Margulis, L., Dolan,
M., Guerrero, R. 2000. The Chimaeric
eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from
the karyomastigont in amitochondriate
protists. Colloquium. 97: 6954-6959.
4. ^
Symbiosis in cell evolution : microbial
communities in the Archean and
Proterozoic eons / Lynn Margulis. 1993
second edition
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong
Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A
genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 +10mybn guess
and }
6. ^ guess based on ER and golgi
made of same material as cytoskeleton,
and after first eukaryote cell {Nucleus
2700 +10mybn guess and}
 
[1] English: Endothelial cells under
the microscope. Nuclei are stained blue
with DAPI, microtubles are marked green
by an antibody bound to FITC and actin
filaments are labelled red with
phalloidin bound to TRITC. Bovine
pulmonary artery endothelial
cells http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/images
/ PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/09/FluorescentCells.jpg


[2] FIG. 7. In vitro polymerization
of cytoskeletal proteins of the
MinD/ParA superfamily. (A) Formation of
MinD filament bundles in the presence
of MinE, ATP, and phospholipid
vesicles. One end of the bundle is
markedly frayed because of the presence
of MinE. (Reprinted from reference 198
with permission of the publisher.
Copyright 2003 National Academy of
Sciences, U.S.A.) (B) Formation of a
ParApTP228(ParF) filament bundle in the
presence of ParBpTP228(ParG) and ATP.
ParBpTP228(ParG) stimulates formation
of the frayed end(s) of the
ParApTP228(ParF) bundle. (Reprinted
from reference 11 by permission from
Macmillan Publishers Ltd.) (C)
Formation of Soj filaments in the
presence of DNA and ATP. (Reprinted
from reference 116 by permission from
Macmillan Publishers Ltd.) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
articles/PMC1594594/bin/zmr0030621350007
.jpg

2,690,000,000 YBN
1
208) Eukaryote flagellum evolves.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al.,
"Biology", Eighth Edition, 2008, p114.
 
[1] Cilia and flagella are projections
from the cell. They are made up of
microtubules , as shown in this cartoon
and are covered by an extension of the
plasma membrane. They are motile and
designed either to move the cell itself
or to move substances over or around
the cell. The primary purpose of cilia
in mammalian cells is to move fluid,
mucous, or cells over their surface.
Cilia and flagella have the same
internal structure. The major
difference is in their length. This
figure shows a cross section of a
cilium next to a longitudinal section.
Below, we will see how the microtubules
are organized in the core (shown in the
cartoon in this figure). Also shown is
the centriole or basal body that
organizes the formation and direction
of the cilia. COPYRIGHTED
source: Description Transmission
electron microscope image, showing an
example of green algae
(Chlorophyta). Chlamydomanas
reinhardtii is a unicellular flagellate
used as a model system in molecular
genetics work and flagellar motility
studies. This image is a
longitudinal section through the
flagella area. In the cell apex is the
basal body that is the anchoring site
for a flagella. Basal bodies originate
from and have a substructure similar to
that of centrioles, with nine
peripheral microtubule triplets(see
structure at bottom center of image).
The two inner microtubules of each
triplet in a basal body become the two
outer doublets in the flagella. This
image also shows the transition region,
with its fibers of the stellate
structure. The top of the image shows
the flagella passing through the cell
wall. Date 20 September
2007 Source Source and public domain
notice at
http://remf.dartmouth.edu/imagesindex.ht
ml Author Dartmouth Electron
Microscope Facility, Dartmouth
College PD


[2] This figure shows an electron
micrograph of a cross section of a
cilium. Note that you can see the
dynein arms and the nexin links. The
dynein arms have ATPase activity. In
the presence of ATP, they can move from
one tubulin to another. They enable the
tubules to slide along one another so
the cilium can bend. The dynein
bridges are regulated so that sliding
leads to synchronized bending. Because
of the nexin and radial spokes, the
doublets are held in place so sliding
is limited lengthwise. If nexin and the
radial spokes are subjected to enzyme
digestion, and exposed to ATP, the
doublets will continue to slide and
telescope up to 9X their length.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/9/99/Chlamydomonas_T
EM_09.jpg/1280px-Chlamydomonas_TEM_09.jp
g

2,680,000,000 YBN
2
65) Circular chromosome in eukaryote
nucleus changes into linear
chromosomes.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ted Huntington.
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong
Chen, Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang,
Amanda S Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A
genomic timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 +20mybn
guess}

MORE INFO
[1] not all prokaryotes have
circle of
DNA: http://arjournals.annualreviews.or
g/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.
391;jsessionid=npo4ogeI2anbnHbeKO

[2] Jumas-Bilak E, Maugard C,
Michaux-Charachon S, Allardet-Servent
A, Perrin A, et al. 1995. Study of the
organization of the genomes of
Escherichia coli, Brucella melitensis
and Agrobacterium tumefaciens by
insertion of a unique restriction site.
Microbiology 141:2425-32 (Medline)
[3] Lezhava A,
Kameoka D, Sugino H, Goshi K, Shinkawa
H, et al. 1997. Chromosomal deletions
in Streptomyces griseus that remove the
afsA locus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 253:478-83
[4]
Marconi RT, Casjens S, Munderloh UG,
Samuels DS. 1996. Analysis of linear
plasmid dimers in Borrelia burgdorferi
sensu lato isolates: implications
concerning the potential mechanisms of
linear plasmid replication. J. Bact.
178:3357-61
 
[1] A DNA molecule is very long (a few
meters) but extremely thin (narrow;
measured in nanometers). Here is an
electron microscope photo of a DNA
strand: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
dna1.jpg


[2] [t Is this an accurate image? - Is
a chromosome made of a single wound
strand of DNA? update- no see image
8] Every cell in the human body
(except red blood cells) contains 23
pairs of chromosomes. (a) Each
chromosome is made up of a tightly
coiled strand of DNA. (b) DNA’s
uncoiled state reveals its familiar
double helix shape. If DNA is pictured
as a twisted ladder, its sides, made of
sugar and phosphate molecules, are
connected by (c) rungs made of
chemicals called bases. DNA has four
bases—adenine, thymine, guanine, and
cytosine—that form interlocking
pairs. The order of the bases along the
length of the ladder is the DNA
sequence. PD
source: https://www.llnl.gov/str/June03/
gifs/Stubbs1.gif

2,670,000,000 YBN
199) Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves
(packages proteins and lipids into
vesicles for delivery to targeted
destinations).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Golgi apparatus." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 28 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/238044/Golgi-apparatus
>.

MORE INFO
[1] "Endosome." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 28 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/endosome
 
[1] Figure 1: Image of nucleus,
endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi
apparatus: (1) Nucleus, (2) Nuclear
pore, (3) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
(RER), (4) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(SER), (5) Ribosome on the rough ER,
(6) Proteins that are transported, (7)
Transport vesicle, (8) Golgi apparatus,
(9) Cis face of the Golgi apparatus,
(10) Trans face of the Golgi apparatus,
(11) Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus,
(12) Secretory vesicle, (13) Plasma
membrane, (14) Exocytosis, (15)
Cytoplasm, (16) Extracellular space.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Nucleus_ER_golgi_ex.jpg


[2] no description UNKNOWN
source: http://sun.menloschool.org/~cwea
ver/cells/e/lysosomes/

2,670,000,000 YBN
2
290) The nucleolus (a sphere in the
nucleus that makes ribosomal RNA).1

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).: p48 nucleolus
divides
2. ^ Ted Huntington guess

MORE INFO
[1] Oxford Dictionary of
Biochemistry Oxford University Press.
Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology © 1997, 2000, 2006
All rights
reserved. http://www.answers.com/topic/
nucleolus#ixzz2VAspF99U

 
[1] Nucleolus, COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.eccentrix.com/members
/chempics/Slike/cell/Nucleolus.jpg


[2] With the combination of x-rays
from the Advanced Light Source and a
new protein-labeling technique,
scientists can see the distribution of
the nucleoli within the nucleus of a
mammary epithelial cell. USG PD
source: http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Artic
les/Archive/xray-inside-cells.html

2,660,000,000 YBN
3
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote
cells.1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).: types of
mitosis, evolution of mitosis.
2. ^ Brusca and
Brusca, "Invertebrates", 2003,
p128-129. {BruscaCh05.pdf}
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -40mybn
guess}
 
[1] Mitosis divides genetic information
during cell division Source:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer
/genetics_cell.html This image is
from the Science Primer, a work of the
National Center for Biotechnology
Information, part of the National
Institutes of Health. As a work of the
U.S. federal government, the image is
in the public domain.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mit
osis


[2] Prophase: The two round objects
above the nucleus are the centrosomes.
Note the condensed chromatin. from
Gray's Anatomy. Unless stated
otherwise, it is from the online
edition of the 20th U.S. edition of
Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body,
originally published in 1918. Online
editions can be found on Bartleby and
also on Yahoo!
source: UNKNOWN

2,640,000,000 YBN
7
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. First
diploid cell (2 sets of chromosomes).
First zygote.4 5 Increase in genetic
variety.6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of
Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
2. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition,
2008, p258.
4. ^ Sir Gavin De Beer, "Atlas of
Evolution", (London: Nelson, 1964).
5. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
6. ^ Campbell,
Reece, et al, "Biology", Eigth Edition,
2008, p258.
7. ^ estimate based on
diplomonads having sex repro, and
origin of euk being (is now) {Nucleus
2700 -60mybn guess)(was 2710mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] J. William Schopf, "Major
Events in the History of Life",
(Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett
Publishers, 1992).p57 (was)
 
[1] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg


[2] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg

2,640,000,000 YBN
3
206) Meiosis (division of diploid into
haploid cells).1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/rese
arch/clevelan.html

2. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989)., no cross over in
one-division
3. ^ Ted Huntington.

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

 
[1] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg


[2] Theoretical first eukaryote
sex adapted from image of gametic
meiosis GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Zygotic_meiosis.jpg

2,610,000,000 YBN
7
296) Eukaryote gender.2 Anisogamy
{aNISoGomE3 4 }, sex (cell and nucleus
fusion) between two cells that are
different in size or shape.5 6

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
2. ^ Michael Sleigh,
"Protozoa and Other Protists", (London;
New York: Edward Arnold, 1989).
3. ^
"anisogamy." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 29 May.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=anisog
amy&submit=Submit

5. ^ Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and
Other Protists", (London; New York:
Edward Arnold, 1989).
6. ^ "anisogamy." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 18 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/anisogamy
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -90mybn
guess}
 
[1] Combination of images: Description
English: Different types of
isogamy: A) Isogamy of motile
cells B) Isogamy of non-motile
cells C) Conjugation of
gametangia Date 30 July
2008 Source Vectorised SVG version of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Isoga
my.png Author Original bitmap version
by Tameeria, SVG version by Qef Other
versions
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:
Isogamy.png PD AND Description
Different types of en:anisogamy:
A) Anisogamy of motile gametes B)
Oogamy (non-motile egg cell, motile
sperm cell) C) Anisogamy of
non-motile gametes Date 2008-06-30
02:07 (UTC) Source
Anisogamy.png Author This
SVG version by Qef (talk)
Anisogamy.png: Original uploader was
Tameeria at en.wikipedia Later
versions were uploaded by Helix84 at
en.wikipedia. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/d/d5/Isogamy.svghttp://upl
oad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7
/Anisogamy.svg


[2] Description Different types of
en:anisogamy: A) Anisogamy of motile
gametes B) Oogamy (non-motile egg
cell, motile sperm cell) C) Anisogamy
of non-motile
gametes Date 2008-06-30 02:07
(UTC) Source Anisogamy.png Author
This SVG version by Qef
(talk) Anisogamy.png: Original
uploader was Tameeria at
en.wikipedia Later versions were
uploaded by Helix84 at
en.wikipedia. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Anisogamy.svg/1
000px-Anisogamy.svg.png

2,570,000,000 YBN
2
295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA
copies and then the cell divides twice
into four haploid cells).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfield/rese
arch/clevelan.html

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{Nucleus 2700 -130mybn
guess}
 
[1] GametoGenesis. COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/10
4/gametogenesis.jpg


[2] Sexual cycle oxymonas, identical
to saccinobaculus, one step meiosis.
haploid. COPYRIGHTED CANADA
source: http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~redfi
eld/clevelan/oxymonas.GIF

2,558,000,000 YBN
2
171) Bacteria "Deinococcus-Thermus".1
F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
 
[1] D. radiodurans growing on a
nutrient agar plate. The red color is
due to carotenoid pigment. Links to
816x711-pixel, 351KB JPG. Credit: M.
Daly, Uniformed Services University of
the Health Sciences NASA
source: http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/
headlines/images/conan/D_rad_dish.jpg


[2] Photomicrograph of Deinococcus
radiodurans, from
www.ornl.gov/ORNLReview/ v34 The Oak
Ridge National Laboratory United
States Federal Government This work
is in the public domain because it is a
work of the United States Federal
Government. This applies worldwide. See
Copyright.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Deinococcus.jpg

2,558,000,000 YBN
4 5
172) Bacteria Cyanobacteria
{SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u1 } (ancestor of all
plastids).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cyanobacterium." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cyanobacter
ia

2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic clocks and
evolutionary timescales", Trends in
Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 , April
2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
4. ^ Battistuzzi,
Feijao, Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl
es/PMC533871/
{2558 mybn}
5. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "Genomic
clocks and evolutionary timescales",
Trends in Genetics Volume 19, Issue 4 ,
April 2003, Pages 200-206, (2003).
{2558 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Tree of Life.
http://tolweb.org/tree/
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004)
[3] Journal of Molecular
Evolution Publisher: Springer-Verlag
New York ISSN: 0022-2844 (Paper)
1432-1432 (Online) Issue: Volume 42,
Number 2 Date: February 1996 Pages:
194 - 200
[4] Phylogenetic Relationships of
Nonaxenic Filamentous Cyanobacterial
Strains Based on 16S rRNA Sequence
Analysis jme_42_2_1996.pdf
[5]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacter
ia

[6] S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen, Sudhir
Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

 
[1] Oscillatoria COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.stcsc.edu/ecology/alg
ae/oscillatoria.jpg


[2] Lyngbya COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://www.stanford.edu/~bohanna
n/Media/LYNGB5.jpg

2,558,000,000 YBN
2
315) Bacteria Chloroflexi evolve.1
FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004).
2. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao,
Hedges, "A Genomic timescale of
prokaryote evolution: insights into
the origin of methanogenesis,
phototrophy, and the colonization of
land", BMC Evolutionary Biology,
(2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004)
[2] Tree of Life
http://tolweb.org/tree/
 
[1] Chloroflexus photomicrograph from
Doe Joint Genome Institute of US Dept
Energy PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Chlorofl.jpg

2,480,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11 12
170) Bacteria live on land.4 5 6
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V.
Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto
Pecoits, Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J.
Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E.
Barley, Carlos Rosìere, Phillip W.
Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker.
Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and
acid rock drainage during the Great
Oxidation Event. Nature, 2011; 478
(7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/1
0.1038/nature10511

2. ^ University of Alberta. "New
evidence for the oldest
oxygen-breathing life on land."
ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14
Jul. 2012.
3. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let there be
life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/artic
le.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

4. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V.
Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto
Pecoits, Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J.
Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E.
Barley, Carlos Rosìere, Phillip W.
Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker.
Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and
acid rock drainage during the Great
Oxidation Event. Nature, 2011; 478
(7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/1
0.1038/nature10511

5. ^ University of Alberta. "New
evidence for the oldest
oxygen-breathing life on land."
ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14
Jul. 2012.
6. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let there be
life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/artic
le.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

7. ^ Kurt O. Konhauser, Stefan V.
Lalonde, Noah J. Planavsky, Ernesto
Pecoits, Timothy W. Lyons, Stephen J.
Mojzsis, Olivier J. Rouxel, Mark E.
Barley, Carlos Rosìere, Phillip W.
Fralick, Lee R. Kump, Andrey Bekker.
Aerobic bacterial pyrite oxidation and
acid rock drainage during the Great
Oxidation Event. Nature, 2011; 478
(7369): 369 DOI:
10.1038/nature10511 http://dx.doi.org/1
0.1038/nature10511

8. ^ University of Alberta. "New
evidence for the oldest
oxygen-breathing life on land."
ScienceDaily, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 14
Jul. 2012.
9. ^ Brian Murphy, "Let there be
life", October 20,
2011. http://www.news.ualberta.ca/artic
le.aspx?id=3F6A39F722E14A6BA792EBCA6F989
604

10. ^ Battistuzzi, Feijao, Hedges, "A
Genomic timescale of prokaryote
evolution: insights into the origin of
methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the
colonization of land", BMC Evolutionary
Biology, (2004). (2600-2700my)
11. ^ University of
Tennessee at Knoxville. "Bacteria's
move from sea to land may have occurred
much later than thought." ScienceDaily,
22 Dec. 2011. Web. 14 Jul.
2012. http://www.sciencedaily.com/relea
ses/2011/12/111222195017.htm

12. ^ Florence Wisniewski-Dyé, Kirill
Borziak, Gurusahai Khalsa-Moyers,
Gladys Alexandre, Leonid O.
Sukharnikov, Kristin Wuichet, Gregory
B. Hurst, W. Hayes McDonald, Jon S.
Robertson, Valérie Barbe, Alexandra
Calteau, Zoé Rouy, Sophie Mangenot,
Claire Prigent-Combaret, Philippe
Normand, Mickaël Boyer, Patricia
Siguier, Yves Dessaux, Claudine
Elmerich, Guy Condemine, Ganisan
Krishnen, Ivan Kennedy, Andrew H.
Paterson, Victor González, Patrick
Mavingui, Igor B. Zhulin. Azospirillum
Genomes Reveal Transition of Bacteria
from Aquatic to Terrestrial
Environments. PLoS Genetics, 2011; 7
(12): e1002430 DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1002430

MORE INFO
[1] "pyrite." The American
Heritage� Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02
May. 2013.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pyrite
 
[1] Acidic waste water from a modern
mining site supports the same oxygen
using bacterial life that appeared on
Earth 2.48 billion years ago. UNKNOWN

source: http://media.news.ualberta.ca/~/
media/University%20of%20Alberta/Administ
ration/External%20Relations/ExpressNews/
Images/2011/10/111020-RocksBanner-cw.jpg


[2] Bacillus specie soil
bacteria. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.scharfphoto.com/fine_
art_prints/archives/199812-054-Soil-Bact
eria.jpg

2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of 200 million year ice age.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
 
[1] snowball Earth UNKNOWN
source: http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/fi
les/imagecache/feature/files/features/pr
int/20090528_snowball_earth.jpg


[2] Snowball Earth Snowball Earth
describes a theory that for millions of
years the Earth was entirely smothered
in ice, stretching from the poles to
the tropics. This freezing happened
over 650 million years ago in the
Pre-Cambrian, though it's now thought
that there may have been more than one
of these global glaciations. They
varied in duration and extent but
during a full-on snowball event, life
could only cling on in ice-free
refuges, or where sunlight managed to
penetrate through the ice to allow
photosynthesis. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/imag
es/ic/credit/640x395/s/sn/snowball_earth
/snowball_earth_1.jpg

2,300,000,000 YBN
48) Oldest "Red Beds". Evidence of free
oxygen in the air of Earth.3 4

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/l
ecture5.html

3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^
http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~pkoch/lectures/l
ecture5.html

 
[1]
http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Extension/redhi
lls/redhills.html
source: http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Extensi
on/redhills/redhills.html


[2] In Archean rocks, metals tend to
occur in low oxidation states (for
example, Fe2+ instead of Fe3+)
indicating a high metal:oxygen ratio in
the oceans and atmosphere. The
sediments are essentially rust-free.
After the late Proterozoic,
sedimentary deposits often have reddish
colors and are called red beds due to
the presence of iron-oxide coatings
between sand grains. From the later
Proterozoic onward, enough free oxygen
has been available to oxidize iron in
sediments. A sandstone butte outside
of Sedona, Arizona. Public domain
image by Jon Sullivan. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/38/Butte_pdphoto_roadtri
p_24_bg_021604.jpg

2,000,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
63) A bacterium related to Rickettsia,
is captured by a eukaryote and through
endosymbiosis, becomes the
mitochondria, organelles of most
eukaryotes.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4

3. ^ B. Franz Lang, Michael W. Gray,
and Gertraud Burger, "Mitochondrial
Genome Evolution and the Origin of
Eukaryotes", Annu. Rev. Genet., V33,
p351-397, p385. 1999. {2 BYBN}
4. ^ S. Blair
Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/full/nrg929.html
{average of)
2230-1840 bybn} {earliest of) 2350-1640
bybn} {average of 1995my) 2350-1640
mybn}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Hsiong Chen,
Sudhir Kumar, Daniel YC Wang, Amanda S
Thompson and Hidemi Wa, "A genomic
timescale for the origin of
eukaryotes", BMC Evolutionary Biology
2001, 1:4
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-4,
(2001). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/1/4
{1.8 bybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Michael W. Gray, et al,
"Genome structure and gene content in
protist mitochondrial DNAs", Nucl.
Acids Res. (1998) 26(4): 865-878
doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865
http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/
26/4/865.full

 
[1] Figure from: Michael W. Gray, et
al, ''Genome structure and gene content
in protist mitochondrial DNAs'',
Nucl. Acids Res. (1998) 26(4):
865-878 doi:10.1093/nar/26.4.865
http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/
26/4/865.full Phylogenetic hypothesis
of the eukaryotic lineage based on
ultrastructural and molecular data.
Organisms are divided into three main
groups distinguished by mitochondrial
cristal shape (either discoidal,
flattened or tubular). Unbroken lines
indicate phylogenetic relationships
that are firmly supported by available
data; broken lines indicate
uncertainties in phylogenetic
placement, resolution of which will
require additional data. Color coding
of organismal genus names indicates
mitochondrial genomes that have been
completely (Table 1), almost completely
(Jakoba, Naegleria and
Thraustochytrium) or partially (*)
sequenced by the OGMP (red), the FMGP
(black) or other groups (green). Names
in blue indicate those species whose
mtDNAs are currently being sequenced by
the OGMP or are future candidates for
complete sequencing. Amitochondriate
retortamonads are positioned at the
base of the tree, with broken arrows
denoting the endosymbiotic origin(s) of
mitochondria from a Rickettsia-like
eubacterium. Macrophar.,
Macropharyngomonas.
source: http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/vol26/issue4/images/gkb18201.gif


[2] Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree of
eukaryotes based on ultrastructural and
molecular data. Organisms are
sub-divided into main groups as
discussed in the text. Only a few
representative species for which
complete (or almost complete) mtDNA
sequences are known are shown in each
lineage. In some cases, line drawings
or actual pictures of the organisms are
provided (Acanthamoeba, M. Nagata; URL:
http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB/PCD3379
/htmls/21.html; Allomyces, Tom Volk;
URL:
http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/332/
Chytridiomycota/Allomyces_r_So_pa/A._arb
uscula_pit._sporangia_tjv.html;
Amoebidium, URL:
http://cgdc3.igmors.upsud.fr/microbiolog
ie/mesomycetozoaires.htm; Marchantia,
URL:
http://www.science.siu.edu/landplants/He
patophyta/images/March.female.JPEG
Scenedesmus, Entwisle et al.,
http://www.rbgsyd.gov.au/_data/page/1824
/Scenedesmus.gif). The color-coding of
the main groups (alternating between
dark and light blue) on the outer
circle corresponds to the color-coding
of the species names. Unbroken lines
indicate phylogenetic relationships
that are firmly supported by available
molecular data; broken lines indicate
uncertainties in phylogenetic
placement, resolution of which will
require additional sequence data. [t:
why not color code or add which type of
mito?]
source: http://arjournals.annualreviews.
org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev.genet.37.11
0801.142526

1,874,000,000 YBN
5
61) Earliest large filamentous fossil
(Grypania).1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han
and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old
Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan.
Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/257/5067/232

AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877
532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
2. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
3. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/257/5067/232

AND www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2877
532 {Han_Runnegar_Grypania_19920710.pdf
}
4. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
5. ^ Schneider et
al 2002. D.A. Schneider, M.E. Bickford,
W.F. Cannon, K.J. Schulz and M.A.
Hamilton, Age of volcanic rocks and
syndepositional iron formations,
Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874
mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Samuelsson, Joakim, Peter R
Dawes, and Gonzalo Vidal.
“Organic-walled Microfossils from the
Proterozoic Thule Supergroup, Northwest
Greenland.” Precambrian Research
96.1–2 (1999):
1–23. http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S0301926898001235

[2] Jacques Dumais, Kyle Serikawa and
Dina F Mandoli, "Acetabularia: A
Unicellular Model for Understanding
Subcellular Localization and
Morphogenesis during Development",
Journal of Plant Growth
Regulation Volume 19, Number 3 (2000),
253-264, DOI:
10.1007/s003440000035 http://www.oeb.ha
rvard.edu/faculty/dumais/Publications/JP
GR2000.2.pdf

(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA3
4  

[1]
file:/root/web/Grypania_spiralis_wmel000
0.htm
source: file:/root/web/Grypania_spiralis
_wmel0000.htm


[2]
http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/paleontology
/lrgGrypaniaspiralis.jpg
source: http://www.peripatus.gen.nz/pale
ontology/lrgGrypaniaspiralis.jpg

1,800,000,000 YBN
46) End of the Banded Iron Formation.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
 
[1] Ted Huntington PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/MichiganBIF.jpg


[2] Ted Huntington PD
source: Ted Huntington

1,570,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
99) First homeobox genes evolve. These
genes regulate the building of major
body parts.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p425,434.
2. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p425,434.
4. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Mukherjee K, Bürglin
TR, "MEKHLA, a novel domain with
similarity to PAS domains, is fused to
plant homeodomain-leucine zipper III
proteins.", Plant Physiol
2006;140:1142-1150. http://www.plantphy
siol.org/content/140/4/1142.full

6. ^ Mukherjee, Krishanu, Luciano
Brocchieri, and Thomas R. Bürglin.
“A Comprehensive Classification and
Evolutionary Analysis of Plant Homeobox
Genes.” Molecular Biology and
Evolution 26.12 (2009): 2775
-2794. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/26/12/2775.short
{1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown
algae}
7. ^ Jongmin Nam, Claude W.
dePamphilis, Hong Ma, and Masatoshi
Nei, "Antiquity and Evolution of the
MADS-Box Gene Family Controlling Flower
Development in Plants", Mol Biol Evol
(2003) 20(9): 1435-1447 first published
online May 30, 2003
doi:10.1093/molbev/msg152
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/
20/9/1435.abstract
{1982 mybn (at
acrasid slime molds, before brown
algae}
 
[1] {ULSF: Homeobox genes} Desajustes
en el modelo UNKNOWN
source: http://cnho.files.wordpress.com/
2010/07/hox_genes_illus.png


[2] {ULSF: Homeobox genes} UNKNOWN
source: http://cnho.files.wordpress.com/
2010/07/homeobox1.jpg

1,570,000,000 YBN
4 5
197) The ancestor of all living
eukaryotes divides into bikont and
unikont descendants. Bikonts lead to
all Chromalveolates, Excavates,
Rhizaria, and Plants. Unikonts lead to
all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.1 2 3


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T,
"The root of the eukaryote tree
pinpointed.", 2003, Curr. Biol. 13,
R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http
://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X

2. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski,
"A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the
continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short

{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
3. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
4. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short

{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
{problem with 1250 my bangia red algae
fossils)1126 mybn}
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1570 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema
E.-Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early
Eukaryote Megaevolution", J Mol Evol
(2003) 56:540 563
[2] J Mol Evol (2003)
56:540 563 Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early
Eukaryote Megaevolution Thomas
Cavalier-Smith, Ema E.-Y. Chao
 
[1] Figure 1: Figure 1. Eukaryote
phylogeny integrating ultrastructure,
sequence trees, gene fusions and
molecular cladistic markers. The
unikont topology is established, but
the branching order of the six bikont
groups remains uncertain. The single
enslavement [12] of a red alga (R) to
create chromalveolates is supported by
a plastid glyceraldehyde phosphate
dehydrogenase (GAPDH) replacement [13].
Whether there was a single enslavement
of a green alga (G) to form cabozoa or
two separate enslavements (asterisks)
to form Cercozoa and Excavata is
uncertain [12], as is the position of
Heliozoa [14]. Polyubiquitin [15] and
EF-1α[16] insertions strongly support
the clades core Rhizaria and
opisthokonts. The inset shows the BamHI
restriction fragment from H.
cantabrigiensis that was sequenced and
analysed in this study, spanning the
DHFR and the amino terminus of the TS
gene (red, introns are green). The
length of the noncoding regions
upstream and downstream of the DHFR
gene from one of the clones is
indicated. Figure 1 from: Stechmann
A, Cavalier-Smith T, ''The root of the
eukaryote tree pinpointed.'', 2003,
Curr. Biol. 13, R665–R666.
doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00602-X. http
://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article
/pii/S096098220300602X COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/sci
ence?_ob=MiamiCaptionURL&_method=retriev
e&_eid=1-s2.0-S096098220300602X&_image=1
-s2.0-S096098220300602X-gr1_lrg.jpg&_ba=
&_fmt=full&_orig=na&_issn=09609822&_pii=
S096098220300602X&_isHiQual=Y&_acct=C000
059600&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=
4422&md5=cec46b2161caca87740f4ff34545ab6
9


[2] cavalier-smith diagram COPYRIGHTED

source: cavalier_jmolevol_2003_56_540-56
3.pdf

1,520,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
202) Protists Amoebozoa (amoebas and
slime molds).1 2 Feeding using
pseudopods.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p515.
4. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1520 mybn}
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1400 my}
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1587mybn)
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1400) {c1220}
8. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c1090}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.unige.ch/sciences/biologie/bi
ani/msg/Amoeboids/Amoebozoa/Conosea.html

 
[1] SUBPHYLUM Lobosa CLASS Amoebaea
Chaos diffluens, an amoeba. Photo
released by Dr. Ralf Wagner.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Chaos_diffluens.jpg


[2] CLASS Amoebaea Mayorella (may-or
-ell-a) a medium sized free-living
naked amoeba with conical pseudopodia.
Central body is the nucleus. Phase
contrast. This picture was taken by
David Patterson of material from
Limulus-ridden sediments at Plum Island
(Massachusetts USA) in spring and
summer, 2001. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
515

1,520,000,000 YBN
1 2 3 4 5 6
203) Colonialism evolves in Eukaryote.
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "colonial." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 02
Jun. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/colonial
2. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1080
mybn}
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{1956 mybn}
4. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1999 mybn}
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
6. ^ Russell F.
Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang,
Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little,
"Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with
a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
(1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Bior
ealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

 
[1] [t Note that this Chrysophytes
{golden algae} do not evolve
genetically until much later - but I
can't find colonial euglinas or
kinetoplasts- dinobryon look very
similar to euglenas however, even with
a red eyespot- which implies a close
relation.] [1] Dinobryon, a colony of
Chrysophytes showing flagella and red
eyespots UNKNOWN
source: http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/
mag//imagsmall/Dinobryonb.jpg


[2] [t Note that this CHrysophytes
{golden algae} do not evolve
genetically until much later - but I
can't find colonial euglinas or
kinetoplasts] [2] golden algae colony
(synura) Scanning EM showing the
colony of cells covered with scales By
Joel Mancuso UNKNOWN
source: http://farm1.staticflickr.com/38
/110623789_7d189c795b_b.jpg

1,500,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
15) First "plastids". Cyanobacteria
form plastids through symbiosis, within
a eukaryote cell. Like mitochondria,
these organelles copy themselves and
are not made by the cell DNA.2

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ S. Blair
Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution of
Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1300 mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {c1600 my}
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).,
see comments {1576 MYBN}
8. ^ Knoll A,
Summons R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J,
"The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p152. {no later than)
1200 my}
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin
and Evolution of Model Organisms",
Nature Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002)., see
comments {1576 MYBN} {needs to be at
least as old as Euglenozoa since many
have plastids)1956} {Euglenozoa)1956}

MORE INFO
[1] "Plastid". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastid
[2] Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905

 
[1] Description Plagiomnium
affine, Laminazellen, Rostock Date
created 01.11.2006 Source
photographed by myself Author
Kristian Peters --
Fabelfroh Permission (Reusing this
file) GFDL
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Plagiomnium_affine_la
minazellen.jpeg

1,500,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
86) First plant (ancestor of all green
and red algae and land plants).6 7 8 9
10

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel
Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences
from picoplankton reveal unsuspected
eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
4. ^
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003).
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/abs/nrg929.html

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
8. ^ Seung Yeo Moon-van der
Staay, Rupert De Wachter, Daniel
Vaulot, "Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences
from picoplankton reveal unsuspected
eukaryotic diversity", Nature, (2001).
9. ^
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003).
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v3/n
11/abs/nrg929.html

11. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c1500)
12. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {first plastid) 1300mybn}
13. ^ Hackett JD,
Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{first plastid) c1600}
14. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1550 mybn}
15. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2
(1609 mybn)
16. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
{1580} http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/abs/nrg929.html

17. ^ Han and Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han
and B. Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic
algae from the 2.1-billion-year-old
Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan.
Science 257 (1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf {fossil Grypania) 1874my}

MORE INFO
[1] Thomas Cavalier-Smith and Ema
E. -Y. Chao, "Phylogeny of Choanozoa,
Apusozoa, and Other Protozoa and Early
Eukaryote Megaevolution", Springer New
York,
(2003). file:///home/ted/ulsf/docs/cav-
smith_apusozoa_fulltext.html
 
[1] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
3/PCD3711/htmls/86.html


[2] (See Image) COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1500)

1,500,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7
220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of
Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).1
2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
2. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1380 mybn}
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1400mybn}
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1600 mybn}
7. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{960 mybn}
 
[1] Parasite spore, SEM Z115/0073
Rights Managed Credit: EYE OF
SCIENCE/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Parasite spore.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM) of a microsporidian (Tubulinosema
ratisbonensis) spore cultured on human
lung fibroblast cells (brown).
Microsporidia are single-celled
parasites. T. ratisbonenesis is a
parasite of the fruit fly (Drosophila
melanogaster), but may also be able to
infect humans with weakened immune
systems. The spore is the infective
phase of the life cycle. It is excreted
by the old host and enters the gut of a
new host. The contents of the spore,
the sporoplasm, is injected into the
host's cell via the polar tubule. Once
in the cell the organism divides many
times with the resultant organisms
producing more spores. Magnification:
x10,000 at 10 centimetres
wide. Release details: Model and
property releases are not available
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/365473/large/Z1150073-Parasite_spore,_
SEM-SPL.jpg


[2] Parasite spore, SEM Z115/0073
Rights Managed Credit: EYE OF
SCIENCE/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Parasite spore.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM) of a microsporidian (Tubulinosema
ratisbonensis) spore cultured on human
lung fibroblast cells (brown).
Microsporidia are single-celled
parasites. T. ratisbonenesis is a
parasite of the fruit fly (Drosophila
melanogaster), but may also be able to
infect humans with weakened immune
systems. The spore is the infective
phase of the life cycle. It is excreted
by the old host and enters the gut of a
new host. The contents of the spore,
the sporoplasm, is injected into the
host's cell via the polar tubule. Once
in the cell the organism divides many
times with the resultant organisms
producing more spores. Magnification:
x10,000 at 10 centimetres
wide. Release details: Model and
property releases are not available
UNKNOWN
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/365473/large/Z1150073-Parasite_spore,_
SEM-SPL.jpg

1,400,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
209) Plant Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu1 }.2
3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glauco
phytes&submit=Submit

2. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c1400)
6. ^ Hackett
JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson
MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P,
Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119.
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150
mybn}
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007. {c1290 mybn}
9. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1225 mybn}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). (c1500my)
11. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (1558my)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P6064

 
[1] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
3/PCD3711/htmls/86.html


[2] ? COPYRIGHTED
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
/Images/Others/Glaucocystis/

1,300,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
188) Green Algae evolves (Volvox, Sea
lettuce, Spirogyra).1 2 3 4 5

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Daniel
S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1
Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence
for the Early Colonization of Land by
Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 -
1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
4. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record
2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b
5. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/
greenalgae.html

6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
7. ^ "algae."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 18 Dec.
2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/14828/algae
>.
8. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1150
mybn}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1450mybn}
10. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). (968mybn)
11. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1
David M. Geiser,2 Brooke R. Eidell,1
Rebecca L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L.
Kardos, "Molecular Evidence for the
Early Colonization of Land by Fungi and
Plants", Science 10 August 2001: Vol.
293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001).
(1061?)
12. ^ M. J. Benton, "The Fossil Record
2", (London; New York: Chapman & Hall,
1993). fr2b (1650-800mybn)
13. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/greenalgae/
greenalgae.html
(1000my)
14. ^ Herman N,
"Organic World One Billion Years Ago",
Nauka, Leningrad, 1990.
15. ^ Knoll A,
Summons R, Waldbauer J, Zumberge J,
"The Geological Succession of Primary
Producers in the Oceans", in: Falkowski
P, Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of
primary producers in the sea.",
Elsevier; 2007, p150.
 
[1] Description Flagellar pit of
Pyramimonas sp. / from Nigaku-Ike of
University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
Pref., Japan / SEM:JEOL JSM-6330F /
scale bar = 1.0μm Date 2009-05-04
18:30 (UTC) Source
Pyramimonas_sp.jpg Author
Pyramimonas_sp.jpg: ja:User:NEON /
User:NEON_ja derivative work:
Addicted04 (talk) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cb/Pyramimonas_sp_color.
jpg


[2] Micrograph of Volvox aureus.
Copyright held by Dr. Ralf Wagner,
uploaded to German Wikipedia under
GFDL. Permission is granted to copy,
distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation; with no Invariant
Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no
Back-Cover Texts. Subject to
disclaimers.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vol
vox

1,300,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
219) Plant Red Algae evolves
(Rhodophyta {rODOFITu1 }).2 3

FOOTNOTES

1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=rhodop
hyta&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1300mybn)
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1450 mybn}
6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1428mybn)
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

 
[1] Close-up of a red alga (Genus?
Laurencia), Class Florideophyceae,
Order=? a marine seaweed from Hawaii.
GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Laurencia.jpg


[2] Bangia atropurpurea Profile:
unbranched filaments in tufts. Often
forming dense fringes in the spalsh
zone. Uniseriate at base, multiseriate
above with protoplasts separate in a
firm gelatinous sheath. Stellate
chloroplasts. US NOAA PD
source: http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/seagra
nt/GLWL/Algae/Rhodophyta/Cards/Bangia.ht
ml

1,300,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
323) Protists Excavates (Giardia
{JE-oR-DE-u1 }).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=giardi
a&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P,
Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1300 mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {2000 my}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{2291} {2291 my}
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {1600} {1600
my}
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). {2230}
{2230 my}
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1594 my}
11. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{1030 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Heterokonts". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterokonts

[2] http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
 
[1] A timescale of eukaryote evolution.
The times for each node are taken from
the summary times in Table 1, except
for nodes 1 (310 Ma), 2 (360 Ma), 3
(450 Ma), and 4 (520 Ma), which are
from the fossil record [25]; nodes 8
(1450 Ma) and 16 (1587 Ma) are
phylogenetically constrained and are
the midpoints between adjacent nodes.
Nodes 12–14 were similar in time and
therefore shown as a multifurcation at
1000 Ma; likewise, nodes 21–22 are
shown as a multifurcation at 1967 Ma.
The star indicates the occurrence of
red algae in the fossil record at 1200
Ma, the oldest taxonomically
identifiable eukaryote [12]. Hedges
et al. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004
4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.biomedcentral.com/con
tent/figures/1471-2148-4-2-2.jpg


[2] Giardia lamblia, a parasitic
flagellate that causes giardiasis.
Image from public domain source at
http://www.nigms.nih.gov/news/releases/i
mages/para.jpg
source: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/news/re
leases/images/para.jpg

1,280,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in
Eukaryotes evolves.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
2. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf
3. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012.
4. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf
5. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905

6. ^ Ted Huntington.
7. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga
from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada.", Science 1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905
{Bangia) 1250 mybn}
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
9. ^ Schneider et al 2002. D.A.
Schneider, M.E. Bickford, W.F. Cannon,
K.J. Schulz and M.A. Hamilton, Age of
volcanic rocks and syndepositional iron
formations, Marquette Range Supergroup;
implications for the tectonic setting
of Paleoproterozoic iron formations of
the Lake Superior region. Can. J. Earth
Sci. 39 6 (2002), pp. 999-1012. {1874
mybn} {Grypania)1874 mybn}
10. ^ Han and
Runnegar 1992. T.-M. Han and B.
Runnegar, Megascopic eukaryotic algae
from the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee
Iron-Formation, Michigan. Science 257
(1992), pp.
232-235 science_2100_han_runnegar_algal
_cysts.pdf {1874 mybn} {Grypania)1874
mybn}
11. ^ Campbell, Reece, et al,
"Biology", Eigth Edition, 2009, p517.

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
(c850my)
[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1351my)
[3] Ted huntington, Estimate based on
origin of brown algae around
1,973,000,000
(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting
Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
Canada5  

[1] Bodanella (bow-dan-ell-a)
lauterbornii, a branching filamentous
brown alga. Nearly all brown algae are
marine organisms, but this species is
found in the bottoms of freshwater
lakes. Bright field. data on this
strain. This image is of material
from Provasoli-Guillard National Center
for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton,
images taken by David Patterson and Bob
Andersen. Image copyright: Bob Andersen
and D. J. Patterson, image used under
license to MBL
(micro*scope). NONCOMMERCIAL USE ONLY
source: http://starcentral.mbl.edu/msr/r
awdata/files/bodonella_bgz.zip


[2] Bodanella (bow-dan-ell-a)
lauterbornii, a branching filamentous
brown alga. Nearly all brown algae are
marine organisms, but this species is
found in the bottoms of freshwater
lakes. Bright field. data on this
strain. This image is of material
from Provasoli-Guillard National Center
for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton,
images taken by David Patterson and Bob
Andersen. Image copyright: Bob Andersen
and D. J. Patterson, image used under
license to MBL
(micro*scope). NONCOMMERCIAL USE ONLY
source: http://starcentral.mbl.edu/msr/r
awdata/viewable/bodonella_bgw.jpg

1,280,000,000 YBN
1 2 3
85) Differentiation in multicellular
eukaryote. Gamete (or spore) cells and
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells,
somatic cells are asexual (non-fusing).
Start of death by aging.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "cell differentiation."
McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and
Technology. The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc., 2005. Answers.com 25 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cell-differ
entiation

2. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905
{Bangia) 1250 mybn}
3. ^ Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett, "A
bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905
{Bangia) 1250 mybn}
 
[1] Volvoxcell differentiation. The
pathways leading to germ cells or
somatic cells are controlled by genes
that cause cells to follow one or the
other fate. Mutations can prevent the
formation of one of these lineages.
http://www.devbio.com/chap02/link0204.sh
tml Although all the volvocaceans,
like their unicellular relative
Chlamydomonas, reproduce predominantly
by asexual means, they are also capable
of sexual reproduction, which involves
the production and fusion of haploid
gametes. In many species of
Chlamydomonas, including the one
illustrated in Figure 2.10, sexual
reproduction is isogamous (“the same
gametes”), since the haploid gametes
that meet are similar in size,
structure, and motility. However, in
other species of Chlamydomonas—as
well as many species of colonial
volvocaceans—swimming gametes of very
different sizes are produced by the
different mating types. This pattern is
called heterogamy (“different
gametes”). But the larger
volvocaceans have evolved a specialized
form of heterogamy, called oogamy,
which involves the production of large,
relatively immotile eggs by one mating
type and small, motile sperm by the
other (see Sidelights and
Speculations) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/book
s/NBK10031/bin/ch2f12.jpg


[2] Description English: Four
Different Species of Volvocales Algae.
(A) Gonium pectorale, (B) Eudorina
elegans, (C) Pleodorina californica,
and (D) Volvox carteri. These are
unicellular organisms that live in
colonies and have both large and small
gametes. Date Published: June 15,
2004 Source Whitfield J:
Everything You Always Wanted to Know
about Sexes. PLoS Biol 2/6/2004: e183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0
020183 Author Photo courtesy of
Aurora M. Nedelcu, from the Volvocales
Information Project
(http://www.unbf.ca/vip/index.htm). Per
mission (Reusing this file) See
below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c5/Volvocales.png

1,280,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
301) Haplodiplontic life cycle (mitosis
occurs in both haploid and diploid life
stages).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ John Ringo, "Fundamental
Genetics", 2004, p201.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905


MORE INFO
[1] Mark Kirkpatrick, "The
evolution of haploid-diploid life
cycles", 1994,
p10. http://books.google.com/books?id=X
sgoLnXLIswC&pg=PA10

 
[1] Drawn by self for Biological life
cycle Based on Freeman & Worth's
Biology of Plants (p. 171). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Sporic_meiosis.png


[2] Drawn by self for Biological life
cycle Based on Freeman & Worth's
Biology of Plants (p. 171). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Sporic_meiosis.png

1,274,000,000 YBN
3 4
187) A captured red alga becomes a
plastid in the ancestor of all
chromalveolates.1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ CAVALIER-SMITH, THOMAS.
“Economy, Speed and Size Matter:
Evolutionary Forces Driving Nuclear
Genome Miniaturization and
Expansion.” Annals of Botany 95.1
(2005) : 147 -175.
Print. http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/95/1/147.short

3. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{1274 mybn}
4. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). {1280mybn}
 
[1] Fig. 2. The tree of life based
on molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae—a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red). COPYRIGHTED
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/95/1/147/F2.large.jpg


[2] Figure 3: Fig. 3. Schematic
representation of the evolutionary
relationships and divergence times for
the red, green, glaucophyte, and
chromist algae. These photosynthetic
groups are outgroup-rooted with the
Opisthokonta which putatively
ancestrally lacked a plastid. The
branches on which the cyanobacterial
(CB) primary and red algal chromist
secondary endosymbioses occurred are
shown Figure 3 from: Yoon, Hwan Su
et al. “A Molecular Timeline for the
Origin of Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.”
Molecular Biology and Evolution 21.5
(2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract COPYRIGHTED
source: http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809/F3.large.jpg

1,250,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12 13
88) Protists "Chromalveolates"
{KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS1 } (ancestor of
Chromista {Cryptophytes, Haptophytes
and Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ2
}} and Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS3 }).4 5
6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chroma
lveolates&submit=Submit

2. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=st
ramenopiles

3. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=al
veolates&submit=Submit

4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p540.
6. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full

7. ^ Baldauf, S. L. “The Deep Roots
of Eukaryotes.” Science 300.5626
(2003) : 1703
-1706. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/300/5626/1703.short

8. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{c1250 mybn}
9. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P,
Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1300 mybn}
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1665 mybn}
11. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2
(1973mybn)
12. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
13. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1600mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "Brown alga". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_alga
[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/290/5493/972.full
has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa
branch
 
[1] S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
''The TimeTree of Life'', 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.timetree.org/book.php


[2] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
''Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.'', in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
''Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.'', Elsevier; 2007, p120.
COPYRIGHTED
source: Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120.

1,250,000,000 YBN
6
201) Earliest certain eukaryote fossils
(red algae).1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett, "A bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.", Science
1990 vol 250 1990,
p104-107. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
877905

2. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3
(September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?r
equest=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.C
O%3B2

3. ^ Knoll, Summons, Waldbauer,
Zumberge, "The Geological Succession of
Primary Producers in the Oceans", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p149-150.
4. ^ Science
1990 vol 250 Butterfield N. J. A. H.
Knoll K. Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red
alga from the Proterozoic of Arctic
Canada. Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
5. ^ Paleobiology Volume 26, Issue 3
(September
2000) http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?r
equest=get-document&doi=10.1666%2F0094-8
373%282000%29026%3C0386%3ABPNGNS%3E2.0.C
O%3B2

6. ^ Science 1990 vol 250 Butterfield
N. J. A. H. Knoll K. Swett 1990 A
bangiophyte red alga from the
Proterozoic of Arctic Canada. Science
250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
{1250 mybn}
(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island,
arctic Canada4 5  

[1] Figure 4 from: Science 1990 vol
250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from
the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.
Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877
905


[2] Figure 2 from: Science 1990 vol
250 Butterfield N. J. A. H. Knoll K.
Swett 1990 A bangiophyte red alga from
the Proterozoic of Arctic Canada.
Science 250: 104-107
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877905
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2877
905

1,200,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
221) First fungi.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf}
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{c1200 mybn}
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1368 mybn}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148
/4/2
(1513mybn) {1513 mybn}
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (c1200) {c1100} {c1100 mybn}
 
[1] Microsporidia. Image from Sterling
Parasitology Microsporidia
Research. UNKNOWN
source: http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/im
ages/3/37/Micro2.jpg


[2] Penicillium [t Note: Penecillium
is a multicellular fungi.] UNKNOWN
source: http://www.mold-help.org/pages/i
mages/Penicillium.jpg

1,180,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
6280) Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS1
} (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates
{DInOFlaJeleTS2 }).3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=al
veolates&submit=Submit

2. ^ "dinoflagellate." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dinoflagell
ate

3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471
-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p538.
5. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135.
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119. {1180
mybn}
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120. {1480 my}
8. ^
S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956 my}
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1345 my}
10. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux,
Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{1000 my}
11. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{c820 my}
12. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1628}
 
[1]
Unknown http://www.genome.gov/Images/pr
ess_photos/highres/85-300.jpg PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Oxytricha_trifa
llax.jpg/1024px-Oxytricha_trifallax.jpg


[2] Description English: Unknown
species of cilliate in the last stages
of mitosis (cytokinesis), with cleavage
furrow visible. Date Source
Own work Author
TheAlphaWolf CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/55/Unk.cilliate.jpg

1,100,000,000 YBN
3 4
75) Fungi Microsporidia.1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (>1460mybn)
4. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (c1100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=93911

[2] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/290/5493/972.full

 
[1] Sporoblast of the Microsporidium
Fibrillanosema crangonycis. Electron
micrograph taken by Leon White. GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Fibrillanosema_spore.jpg


[2] Spironema
multiciliatum Spironema:
Octosporoblastic sporogony producing
horseshoe-shaped monokaryotic spores in
sporophorous vesicles; monomorphic,
diplokaryotic and monokaryotic;
merogony - last generation merozoites
are diplokaryotic; sporogony - initial
division of the sporont nuclei is
meiotic as indicated by the occurrence
of synaptonemal complexes; spores are
horse-shoe-shaped, with swollen ends in
T. variabilis and have one elongate
nucleus; exospore with three layers,
endospore is of medium thickness;
polaroplast composed of two lamellar
parts, an anterior part of closely
packed lamellae and a posterior part of
wider compartments; polar tube is
isofilar and forms, in the posterior
quarter of the spore, 3-4 coils in a
single rank (T. variabilis) or 8-10
coils in a single rank (T. chironomi);
type species Toxoglugea vibrio in
adipose tissue of larvae of Ceratopogon
sp. (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).
Spironema (spire-oh-knee-ma)
multiciliatum Klebs, 1893. Cells are
lanceolate, relatively flattened and
flexible. The cells have a spiral
groove, long kinetics and a tail, which
tapers posteriorly, and are about 15 -
21 microns without the tail. The
nucleus is located anteriorly or near
the centre of the cell. When the cells
are squashed, the cells are more
flexible. Food materials are seen under
the cell surface. Rarely observed.
This picture was taken by Won Je Lee
using conventional photographic film
using a Zeiss Axiophot microscope of
material collected in marine sediments
of Botany Bay (Sydney, Australia). The
image description refers to material
from Botany Bay. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
3928

1,100,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
313) Protists Dinoflagellates
{DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS1 }.2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dinofl
agellates&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf}
5. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H.
Knoll and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing
and Interpreting the Fossils of Early
Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and
Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33,
Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{Dinosterane molecular
fossils)1100 my}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{DNA)1040 mybn}
7. ^ A. H. Knoll, E. J.
Javaux, D. Hewitt and P. Cohen,
"Eukaryotic Organisms in Proterozoic
Oceans", Philosophical Transactions:
Biological Sciences , Vol. 361, No.
1470, Major Steps in Cell Evolution:
Palaeontological, Molecular and
Cellular Evidence of Their Timing and
Global Effects (Jun. 29, 2006), pp.
1023-1038 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2
0209698
{1.8 bybn} {Dinosterane
molecular fossils)1100 my}
8. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{940 mybn}
9. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{430 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (1973mybn)
[2] Sandra L.
Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert,
W. F. Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level
Phylogeny of Eukaryotes Based on
Combined Protein Data", Science, Vol
290, num 5493, p 972, (2000). has
heterkonts before ciliophora and
apicomplexa branch (1600mybn)
[3] Pratt, L. M.,
Summons, R. E. and Hieshima, G. B.:
1991, Sterane and Triterpane Biomarkers
in the Precambrian Nonesuch Formation,
North American Midcontinent Rift,
Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 911–916
[4] J.J.
Brocks, R.E. Summons, 8.03 -
Sedimentary Hydrocarbons, Biomarkers
for Early Life, In: Editors-in-Chief:
Heinrich D. Holland and Karl K.
Turekian, Editor(s)-in-Chief, Treatise
on Geochemistry, Pergamon, Oxford,
2003, Pages 63-115, ISBN 9780080437514,
10.1016/B0-08-043751-6/08127-5. (http:/
/www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/p
ii/B0080437516081275)

[5] Moldowan, J. Michael et al.
“Chemostratigraphic reconstruction of
biofacies: Molecular evidence linking
cyst-forming dinoflagellates with
pre-Triassic ancestors.” Geology 24.2
(1996): 159 -162.
http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/con
tent/24/2/159.abstract

AND http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/
24/2/159.full.pdf
[6] Raven, Evert, Eichhorn, "Biology of
Plants", (New York: Worth Publishers,
1992). p98-99
[7] "coenocyte." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 23
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coenocyte
 
[1] Dinoflagellate Ceratium
sp. Phylum Dinoflagellata Upper
Newport Bay, Orange County, CA.
9/22/12. © Peter J.
Bryant COPYRIGHTED
source: http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/Din
oflagellates/DSC_6886b.jpg


[2] Model of Pyrodinium bahamense, a
dinoflagellate species, in the American
Museum of Natural History Credit:
Life’s Little Mysteries Fire
water Have you ever seen glowing ocean
water, like the bright blue surf
pictured in the intro slide? The neon
water is brimming with dinoflagellates,
single-celled plankton with tails that
slosh around together in vast numbers.
These creatures have been highlighting
Earth’s coastlines for 1.2 billion
years, and for the past few millennia,
they’ve puzzled humans, who used to
attribute the glow of some ocean water
to magic or the gods.Dinoflagellates
still puzzle us; we know how they glow,
but not why. They might have evolved
bioluminescence as a way of frightening
predators, or to reveal those
predators’ locations by flashing when
touched. Alternatively, their
bioluminescence may just be a fancy way
of ridding themselves of oxygen
radicals (because the chemical reaction
requires oxygen). Whatever the answer,
they certainly make for a nice holiday
in the Bahamas. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.lifeslittlemysteries.
com/images/i/1651/original/dinoflagellat
e.jpg

1,080,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
87) Excavate Discicristates
{DiSKIKriSTATS} (includes euglenids).1
2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times
of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock",
Science, (1996).
4. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1080 mybn}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{1956 mybn}
6. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1999 mybn}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
8. ^ Russell F.
Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang,
Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little,
"Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with
a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
(1800-1900 for eukaryote/prokaryote
separation)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://biology.kenyon.edu/Microbial_Bior
ealm/eukaryotes/euglenozoa/euglenozoa.ht
m

[2]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

 
[1] euglena
source: http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/Stratf
ordLandingES/Ecology/mpages/euglena.htm


[2] euglena
source: http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/PDB
/Images/Mastigophora/Euglena/genus1L.jpg

1,080,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first
three-dimensional response to light.4 5
6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

2. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/L
abs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

3. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy,
Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome
Miniaturization and Expansion", *
Oxford Journals * Life Sciences
* Annals of Botany * Volume 95,
Number 1 *, (2005).
http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/
95/1/147.abstract

4. ^ Jékely, Gáspár. "Evolution of
phototaxis." Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short

5. ^
http://www.sidwell.edu/us/science/vlb5/L
abs/Classification_Lab/Eukarya/Protista/
Euglenozoa/

6. ^ THOMAS CAVALIER-SMITH, "Economy,
Speed and Size Matter: Evolutionary
Forces Driving Nuclear Genome
Miniaturization and Expansion", *
Oxford Journals * Life Sciences
* Annals of Botany * Volume 95,
Number 1 *, (2005).
http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/
95/1/147.abstract

7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p119.
8. ^ Yoon, Hwan
Su et al. “A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes.” Molecular Biology and
Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809 -818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{guess based on
earliest secondary plastid 1274 my and
euglena at 1410 mybn}
9. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{guess based on earliest secondary
plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410
mybn}
10. ^ my own estimate based on where
euglenozoa genetically appear to evolve
{guess based on earliest secondary
plastid 1274 my and euglena at 1410
mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Peter Hegemann, "Algal
Sensory Photoreceptors", Annual Review
of Plant Biology, Vol. 59: 167 -189
(Volume publication date June 2008)
http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/
10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092847
%40recept.2009.1.issue-1

[2] Trevor D. Lamb, Detlev Arendt, and
Shaun P. Collin, "The evolution of
phototransduction and eyes", Phil.
Trans. R. Soc. B October 12, 2009
364:2791-2793;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0106 http://rstb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1
531/2791.full

[3] Kreimer, G. (2009) The green algal
eyespot apparatus: a primordial visual
system and more? Current Genetics
55:19-43 doi:10.007/s00294-008-0224-8
PMID
19107486 http://www.springerlink.com/co
ntent/v54v124mxg52r091/

 
[1] Adapted from: Euglena is a
photosynthetic euglenoid with at least
150 described species. The cells are
cylindrical with a rounded anterior and
tapered posterior. The chloroplasts are
well-developed, bright green, and
sometimes have pyrenoids. ... Euglena
is a photosynthetic euglenoid with at
least 150 described species. The cells
are cylindrical with a rounded anterior
and tapered posterior. The chloroplasts
are well-developed, bright green, and
sometimes have pyrenoids. They are
often discoidal in shape but can also
be ovate, lobate, elongate, U-shaped,
or ribbon-shaped. Some researchers use
the structure and position of the
chloroplasts to divide the group into
three subgenera. Even though they are
able to photosynthesize, Euglena cells
also have a phagotrophic ingestion
apparatus. Euglena has one long,
protruding flagellum and a shorter
flagellum that is not usually
visible. The euglenoids can glide
and swim using their flagella, or can
ooze along a substrate with an
undulating, shape-changing, contraction
motion called metaboly. The cytoplasm
of Euglena and other euglenoids
contains many paramylon starch storage
granules. The euglenoid cells are
covered by a pellicle composed of
ribbonlike, woven strips of
proteinaceous material that cover the
cell in a helical arrangement from apex
to posterior. Freshwater euglenoids
have a contractile vacuole. Euglenoids
sense light using a red pigmented
eyespot or stigma and the paraflagellar
body located at the base of the
emergent flagella. The cytoplasm of
Euglena and other euglenoids contains
many paramylon starch storage granules.
The euglenoid cells are covered by a
pellicle composed of ribbonlike, woven
strips of proteinaceous material that
cover the cell in a helical arrangement
from apex to posterior. Freshwater
euglenoids have a contractile vacuole.
Euglenoids sense light using a red
pigmented eyespot or stigma and the
paraflagellar body located at the base
of the emergent flagella. UNKNOWN
source: http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll
.edu/Pics/Other%20Algae/Other_jpegs/Eugl
ena_Key225.jpg


[2] Figure 1. The distribution of
three-dimensional phototaxis in the
tree of eukaryotes. Red arrows indicate
the likely point of origin of
phototaxis in a given group. Question
marks indicate uncertainties regarding
independent or common origin. Figure
1 from: Jékely, Gáspár. ''Evolution
of phototaxis.'' Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 364 (October
2009):
2795–2808. http://rstb.royalsocietypu
blishing.org/content/364/1531/2795.short
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/364/1531/2795/F1.large.jp
g

1,050,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
169) Protists Stramenopiles
{STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ1 } (also called
Heterokonts) (ancestor of all brown and
golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota
{Ou-mI-KO-Tu2 )).3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=st
ramenopiles

2. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=oo
mycota&submit=Submit

3. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.
4. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

5. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{1050 mybn}
6. ^
Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield NJ,
Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D, "Plastid
endosymbiosis: Sources and timing of
the major events.", in: Falkowski P,
Knoll A, editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p119. {1180 mybn}
7. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120. {1480my}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1345 my}
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_200311
10.pdf} {1956my} {Alveolates and Plant
split)1956my}
10. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {1600 my}
{Chromalveolates)1600 my}
11. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short

{Berney_Eukaryote_phylogeny_2006.pdf}
{c775my} {c754my}
12. ^ Emmanuelle J. Javaux,
Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm Walter,
"Recognizing and Interpreting the
Fossils of Early Eukaryotes", Origins
of Life and Evolution of Biospheres,
Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{c1000my}
13. ^ Emmanuel J. P.
Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric
Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé
Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: Does a relaxed molecular
clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October
26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{872 my}
 
[1] Phylum Stramenopiles COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p153-155.


[2] S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
''The TimeTree of Life'', 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.timetree.org/book.php

1,000,000,000 YBN
3
324) Protists Mesomycetozoea
{me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u1 } (or DRIPs).2

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=mesomy
cetozoea&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {1000 MYBN (end
of Mesoproterozoic}

MORE INFO
[1] Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge
MA, Espelund M, Orr R, Ruden T, et al.
2008 Multigene Phylogeny of Choanozoa
and the Origin of Animals. PLoS ONE
3(5): e2098.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098
[2] Leonel Mendoza, John W. Taylor, and
Libero Ajello, "THE CLASS
MESOMYCETOZOEA: A Heterogeneous Group
of Microorganisms at the Animal-Fungal
Boundary", Annual Review of
Microbiology October 2002, Vol. 56:
315-344. http://www.annualreviews.org/d
oi/full/10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.
160950

 
[1] Ichthyophonus, a fungus-like
protistan that occurs in high
prevalence in Pacific Ocean perch
(Sebastes aultus) and yellowtail
rockfish (Sebastes flavedus). Note the
parasite forms branching hyphae-like
structures. Ichthyophonus hoferi has
caused massive mortalities in herring
in the Atlantic ocean, and has recently
been reported to cause disease in wild
Pacific herring from Washington through
Alaska. COPYRIGHTED EDU
source: http://oregonstate.edu/dept/salm
on/projects/images/16Ichthyophonus.jpg


[2] Microscopic appearence of the
organism is dependent on its stage of
development. The stages include (1)
spore at ''resting'' stage, (2)
germinating spore, (3) hyphal
stage. It is believed that there are
two forms of Ichthyophonus, both
belonging to one genus. One of them is
known as the ''salmon'' form, occuring
in freshwater and cold-preferring sea
fishes: this form is characterized by
its ability to produce long tubulose
germ hyphae. The other is called the
''aquarium fish'' form, typical of the
tropical freshwater fishes. This form
is completely devoid of hyphae.
Developmental cycle of Ichthyophonus
hoferi: 1-5 - development of
''daughter'' spores, 7-11 - development
of resting spore from the ''daughter''
spore, 12-19 - development of resting
spore by fragmentation. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/
003/AC160E/AC160E02.htm

985,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
309) Protists Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu1 }
(Water molds).2 3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=oomyco
ta&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full

5. ^ http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{985}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1973mybn)
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.ilmyco.gen.chicago.il.us/Term
s/coeno128.html#coeno128

[2] "Coenocyte". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coenocyte
[3]
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultrane
t/BiologyPages/P/Protists.html#Water_Mol
ds

[4]
http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/16cm05/1
116/16protists.htm

 
[1] Figure 2 from: Sandra L. Baldauf,
A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, ''A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data'', Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full Figure 2 Single-gene
phylogenies support subsets of the
combined protein tree. (A) A summary of
the tree in Fig. 1is shown with
supergroups indicated beside brackets
to the right. Multi-taxon represented
clusters are given as triangles, with
height proportional to number of taxa
and width proportional to averaged
overall branch length (1) compensated
for missing data (47). (B) Published
support for the numbered nodes in (A)
is shown for commonly used molecular
phylogenetic markers grouped as (a)
ribosomal RNAs, (b) proteins not used
in the current analysis, (c) proteins
used in the current analysis, and (d)
the combined data (Fig. 1). These
markers are, from left to right, SSU
[SSU rRNA (1–4)], LSU [LSU rRNA
(19)], LSU+SSU [combined LSU and SSU
rRNA (48)], EF-2 (10), V/A-ATPases
[vacuolar ATPases (49)], HSP70-cy
[cytosolic 70-kD heat shock protein
(50)], mito [combined mitochondrial
proteins (51)], RPB1 (52), actin (8,
16, 53), α-tubulin (8, 54), β-tubulin
(8, 54), EF-1α (15, 20), and combined
(Fig. 1). Rejected nodes are indicated
in pink and accepted nodes in green,
with checked circles indicating BP < 70% and solid circles indicating BP >
70%. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/290/5493/972/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

900,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
6281) Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u1 }
(ancestor of all Radiolaria,
Foraminifera and Cercozoa).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=rh
izaria&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Medlin, L. , Kooistra, W.
, Potter, D. , Saanders, G. and
Wandersen, R. (1997): Phylogenetic
relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes)
and their plastids , The origin of the
algae and their plastids (D
Bhattacharya, ed ) Plant systematics
and evolution (Suppl
) http://epic.awi.de/2100/
AND http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med1997c.
pdf {900 my}
4. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_
a=rhizaria&taxon_b=haptophyta&submit=Sea
rch
{900 my}
5. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my} {754 my}
6. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). {1600 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Moreira D, von der Heyden S,
Bass D, López-García P, Chao E,
Cavalier-Smith T (July 2007). "Global
eukaryote phylogeny: Combined small-
and large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees
support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria
and Excavata". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
44 (1): 255–66.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retriev
e/pii/S1055-7903(06)00433-7

[2]
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?taxon_
a=rhizaria&taxon_b=alveolates&submit=Sea
rch

[3] Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Butterfield
NJ, Sanderson MJ, Bhattacharya D,
"Plastid endosymbiosis: Sources and
timing of the major events.", in:
Falkowski P, Knoll A, editors.
"Evolution of primary producers in the
sea.", Elsevier; 2007, p120
 
[1] Figure : Maximum likelihood
phylogeny of Rhizaria inferred from SSU
rRNA gene sequences using the GTR+G+I
model of evolution. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.unige.ch/sciences/bio
logie/biani/msg/Amoeboids/Rhizaria_large
.jpg


[2] Figure 1 from: Keeling, Patrick
J. et al. “The tree of eukaryotes.”
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20.12
(2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/s
cience/article/pii/S0169534705003046
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/1-s2.0-S016953470500304
6-gr1.jpg/0?wchp=dGLbVBA-zSkWz

850,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
224) Fungi "Zygomycota" (bread molds).1
2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Daniel
S. Heckman,1 David M. Geiser,2 Brooke
R. Eidell,1 Rebecca L. Stauffer,1
Natalie L. Kardos, "Molecular Evidence
for the Early Colonization of Land by
Fungi and Plants", Science 10 August
2001: Vol. 293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 -
1133 DOI: 10.1126/science.1061457,
(2001).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics
Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
5. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1250mybn)
6. ^ Daniel S. Heckman,1 David M.
Geiser,2 Brooke R. Eidell,1 Rebecca
L. Stauffer,1 Natalie L. Kardos,
"Molecular Evidence for the Early
Colonization of Land by Fungi and
Plants", Science 10 August 2001: Vol.
293. no. 5532, pp. 1129 - 1133 DOI:
10.1126/science.1061457, (2001).
(1107mybn)
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"Genomic clocks and evolutionary
timescales", Trends in Genetics
Volume 19, Issue 4 , April 2003, Pages
200-206, (2003). (1107mybn)
8. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c850m)
 
[1] Figure 2. Zygomycota A: sporangia
of Mucor sp. B: whorl of sporangia of
Absidia sp. C: zygospore of
Zygorhynchus sp. D: sporangiophore and
sporangiola of Cunninghamella sp.
source: http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/Re
searchLabs/MallochLab/Malloch/Moulds/Cla
ssification.html


[2] Figure 3. Syncephalis, a member of
the Zygomycota parasitic on other
Zygomycota
source: http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/Re
searchLabs/MallochLab/Malloch/Moulds/Cla
ssification.html

767,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
312) Protists Ciliates (paramecium).1 2
3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^
Emmanuelle J. Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll
and Malcolm Walter, "Recognizing and
Interpreting the Fossils of Early
Eukaryotes", Origins of Life and
Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 33,
Number 1, 75-94, DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{750 my}
5. ^ Emmanuel J. P.
Douzery, Elizabeth A. Snell, Eric
Bapteste, Frédéric Delsuc, and Hervé
Philippe, "The timing of eukaryotic
evolution: Does a relaxed molecular
clock reconcile proteins and fossils?",
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 October
26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
6. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf,
A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full
has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
 
[1] Paramecium protozoan,
SEM C001/0068 Rights Managed Credit:
STEVE GSCHMEISSNER/SCIENCE PHOTO
LIBRARY Caption: Paramecium protozoan,
coloured scanning electron micrograph
(SEM). Paramecia are a group of
unicellular ciliate protozoa. They
inhabit fresh water, and feed mainly on
bacteria and smaller protozoa.
Paramecia range from about 50 to 350
micrometres in length, depending on
species. Simple cilia, which cover the
body, are moved in a synchronous motion
to allow the cell to move.
Magnification: x825 when printed at 10
centimetres wide. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nonlocal.com/hbar/par
amecium.gif


[2] Summary Description English:
Scanning electron microscope view of
Oxytricha trifallax Español: Imagen
de microscopía electrónica de barrido
de Oxytricha trifallax Date Unknown
date Source http://www.genome.gov/I
mages/press_photos/highres/85-300.jpg
Author Unknown Permission (Reusin
g this file) See below. PD [1] Fig.
1. A consensus phylogeny of eukaryotes.
The vast majority of characterized
eukaryotes, with the notable exception
of major subgroups of amoebae, can now
be assigned to one of eight major
groups. Opisthokonts (basal flagellum)
have a single basal flagellum on
reproductive cells and flat
mitochondrial cristae (most eukaryotes
have tubular ones). Eukaryotic
photosynthesis originated in Plants;
theirs are the only plastids with just
two outer membranes. Heterokonts
(different flagellae) have a unique
flagellum decorated with hollow
tripartite hairs (stramenopiles) and,
usually, a second plain one. Cercozoans
are amoebae with filose pseudopodia,
often living with in tests (hard outer
shells), some very elaborate
(foraminiferans). Amoebozoa are mostly
naked amoebae (lacking tests), often
with lobose pseudopodia for at least
part of their life cycle. Alveolates
have systems of cortical alveoli
directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/6e/Oxytricha_trifa
llax.jpg/1024px-Oxytricha_trifallax.jpg

767,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
314) Protists "Apicomplexa"
{a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su1 } (Malaria).2 3 4

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=apicom
plexa&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
4. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000). has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
5. ^
Emmanuel J. P. Douzery, Elizabeth A.
Snell, Eric Bapteste, Frédéric
Delsuc, and Hervé Philippe, "The
timing of eukaryotic evolution: Does a
relaxed molecular clock reconcile
proteins and fossils?", Proc Natl Acad
Sci U S A. 2004 October 26; 101(43):
15386–15391. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.
gov/pmc/articles/PMC524432/?report=abstr
act
{767 my}
6. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan
Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale for
eukaryote evolution recalibrated with
the continuous microfossil record",
Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{620 my}
7. ^ Emmanuelle J.
Javaux, Andrew H. Knoll and Malcolm
Walter, "Recognizing and Interpreting
the Fossils of Early Eukaryotes",
Origins of Life and Evolution of
Biospheres, Volume 33, Number 1, 75-94,
DOI:
10.1023/A:1023992712071 http://www.spri
ngerlink.com/content/j1nn04342607n57m/ex
port-citation/
{api+dino and ciliate
split)1100 my}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

[2] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1973mybn)
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003,
p135
 
[1] Description A thin-film Giemsa
stained micrograph of ring-forms, and
gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum.
From
http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/home.asp Date
2006-11-16 (original upload
date) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader was
TimVickers at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3c/Plasmodium.jpg


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

680,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11 12
326) Protists Choanoflagellates
{KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS1 }.2 3 4 5 6 7

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=choano
flagellate&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=114293

4. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
5. ^
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P2691&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&exclu
deNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

6. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano)
7. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1000 drips and 900 choano)
8. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1000 drips and 900
choano) {900 MYBN}
10. ^ Hackett JD, Yoon HS,
Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007.
{900 MYBN}
11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{1020 mybn}
12. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1513 (drips?) and 1450 choano) {1450
mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting
a Tree", Science, (2003)
[2] "Ichthyosporea".
Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://species.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthy
osporea

 
[1] Choanoflagellate single cell
(thecate) UNKNOWN
source: http://behance.vo.llnwd.net/prof
iles22/483113/projects/1558429/6ea555ab5
457e21432def0f2e6b83fe3.jpg


[2] Salpingoeca: Cells solitary or
colonial with a distinct and firm
sheath or theca usually as a cup either
sessile or with a pedicel; theca
colourless or amber; contractile
vacuoles posterior in freshwater
specie; in freshwater, brackish, and
marine habitats. Record information:
Salpingoeca (sal-ping-go-eek-a), a
collar flagellate (choanoflagellate) -
all of which have a single anterior
flagellum surrounded by a collar of
very fine pseudopodia (in cross-section
the collar seems like two arms, one on
either side of the flagellum). The
flagellum beats drawing water through
the collar and bacteria and other small
particles are trapped and then
ingested. Believed to be the source
group of the sponges and the metazoa.
Salpingoeca has an organic lorica.
Phase contrast. This picture was
taken by David Patterson, Linda Amaral
Zettler and Virginia Edgcomb of
material from the salt marsh at Little
Sippewissett (Massachusetts, USA) in
Autumn, 2000 and in Spring and summer,
2001. NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
746

670,000,000 YBN
7 8 9
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free
moving Protist.4 5 This allows larger
free moving organisms to evolve.6

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506.
2. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-506.
5. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p497-506. (c850my)
9. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). (1351my)

MORE INFO
[1] Nicholas H. Barton,
"Evolution", 2007,
p225-226. http://books.google.com/books
?id=mMDFQ32oMI8C&pg=PA225

[2] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates",
2003, 188-191
 
[1] Sponge showing several choanocyte
chambers UNKNOWN
source: http://behance.vo.llnwd.net/prof
iles22/483113/projects/1558429/43a2a4c7e
127f66b7090ed679a8da30a.jpg


[2] Combination of: Saepicula and
Sphaeroeca NONCOMMERCIAL USE
source: http://microscope.mbl.edu/script
s/microscope.php?func=imgDetail&imageID=
3229

660,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
81) First animal and first metazoan,
sponges (Porifera). Metazoans are
multicellular and have differentiation
(their cells perform different
functions). There are only three major
kinds of metazoans: sponges,
cnidarians, and bilaterians.4 5 6

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p497-501.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p497-501.
6. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).
7. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"The TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {c800my}
10. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). (1351my)
11. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (600?)

MORE INFO
[1] Müller, Werner E. G. “The
Origin of Metazoan Complexity: Porifera
as Integrated Animals.” Integrative
and Comparative Biology 43.1 (2003):
3–10. http://www.jstor.org/stable/388
4834

 
[1] Summary Description English:
Marine sponge. Color adjusted (but not
color accurate) underwater photograph
taken by Dlloyd using a digital camera
at a depth of approximately 100 feet in
Cayman. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/SpongeColorCorrect.jp
g


[2]
source: http://www.museums.org.za/bio/me
tazoa.htm

660,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
517) Male gonad evolves in a sponge.2
F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p20.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p20.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c850my) {based on
evolution of sponge) c850my}
5. ^ S Blair
Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi
and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). (1351my)
6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(600?)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford
Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007.
Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglyca
n

[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p17
 
[1] Oocyte (female egg) release from
sponge, sperm release from sponge,
FIgure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Combination of image from: Brusca
and Brusca, ''Invertebrates'', Second
Edition, 2003,
http://www.oceanicresearch.org/sponges
.html and D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.museums.org.za/bio/me
tazoa.htm

650,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
69) Cells that group as tissues evolve
in metazoans.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p2-3.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750)
{c750MYBN (Ctenophores are first
metazoans with tissues}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1

 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

650,000,000 YBN
3 4
79) Metazoan "Placozoa".1 2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=11212&tree=0.1

3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {780 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Srivastava, Mansi et al.
“The Trichoplax genome and the nature
of placozoans.” Nature 454.7207
(2008) :
955-960. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v454/n7207/abs/nature07191.html

[2] Dellaporta, Stephen L. et al.
“Mitochondrial genome of Trichoplax
adhaerens supports Placozoa as the
basal lower metazoan phylum.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences 103.23 (2006) : 8751 -8756.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/103/
23/8751.full

 
[1] Description Trichoplax sp.
from Australia in light
microscopy Date February
2006 Source Oliver Voigt Author
Oliver Voigt CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c3/Trichoplax_mic.jpg


[2] from ediacara of australia
source: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/ven
dian/dickinsonia.html

650,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
223) Fungi Chytridiomycota
{KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu).1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
3. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
4. ^
http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/fungi.htm
5. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1460mybn)
6. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1000mybn)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=71577&tree=0.1

[2]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chytridiomy
cota

[3]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chytri
diomycetes&submit=Submit

[4] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of
Fungi", 2008, p142
Northern Russia3  
[1] Chytrids (Chytridiomycota): The
Primitive Fungi These fungi are
mostly aquatic, are notable for having
a flagella on the cells (a flagella is
a tail, somewhat like a tail on a sperm
or a pollywog), and are thought to be
the most primitive type of
fungi. actual photo comes
from: http://www.csupomona.edu/~jcclark
/classes/bot125/resource/graphics/chy_al
l_sph.html
source: http://www.davidlnelson.md/Cazad
ero/Fungi.htm


[2] Chytridiomycota - Blastocladiales
- zoospore of Allomyces (phase contrast
illumination) X 2000
source: http://www.mycolog.com/chapter2b
.htm

640,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
83) First nerve cell (neuron), and
nervous system evolve in a metazoan.3
Earliest touch and sound detection and
memory.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably)
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005). (presumably)
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin
J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably) {775 MYBN (estimate based
on Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN
(estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora
evolving c750mybn}
7. ^ S OOta and N Saitou,
"Phylogenetic relationship of muscle
tissues deduced from superimposition of
gene trees.", Mol Biol Evol (1999)
16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/
content/16/6/856.abstract
{Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN
(estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora
evolving c750mybn)(before
c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
8. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (presumably) {775
MYBN (estimate based on Ctenophora as
first with nerve and muscle and
Ctenophora evolving c750mybn)(before
c700MYBN}
9. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(presumably) {574mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Ghysen, A. (2003). The origin
and evolution of the nervous system.
The International journal of
developmental biology , 47 (7-8),
555-562. http://view.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p
ubmed/14756331

[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750mybn)
 
[1] English: Drawing of Purkinje cells
(A) and granule cells (B) from pigeon
cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal,
1899; Instituto Santiago Ramón y
Cajal, Madrid, Spain. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/15/PurkinjeCell.jpg


[2] figure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p39. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p39.

640,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
96) Muscle cells evolve in metazoans.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid,
Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish
and the origin of triploblasty,
Developmental Biology, Volume 282,
Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN
0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf
}
2. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid,
Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish
and the origin of triploblasty,
Developmental Biology, Volume 282,
Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN
0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf
}
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Katja Seipel, Volker Schmid,
Evolution of striated muscle: Jellyfish
and the origin of triploblasty,
Developmental Biology, Volume 282,
Issue 1, 1 June 2005, Pages 14-26, ISSN
0012-1606, DOI:
10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.03.032. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S0012160605002095)
{Schmid_20050309.pdf
} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {750 MYBN
(estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora
evolving c750mybn}
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
(c750mybn) {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN} {775 MYBN
(estimate based on Ctenophora as first
with nerve and muscle and Ctenophora
evolving c750mybn)(before
c700MYBN)(before c700MYBN}
6. ^ S OOta and N
Saitou, "Phylogenetic relationship of
muscle tissues deduced from
superimposition of gene trees.", Mol
Biol Evol (1999) 16(6):
856-867. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/
content/16/6/856.abstract
{Saitou_1999.
pdf} {775 MYBN (estimate based on
Ctenophora as first with nerve and
muscle and Ctenophora evolving
c750mybn)(before c700MYBN}
 
[1] Figure from: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p39. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p39.


[2] Derek E. G. Briggs and Richard A.
Fortey, ''Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the
Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation'', Paleobiology , Vol. 31,
No. 2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency:
Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp.
94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2548
2671 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2548
2671

640,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
225) Closeable mouth evolves in
metazoans.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p2-3.
2. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p2-3. {c750MYBN
(all metazoans but sponges have a
closable mouth}
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p491-493.
(c750) {c750MYBN (all metazoans but
sponges have a closable mouth}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=12289&tree=0.1

 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

640,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
414) Female gonad (ovary) evolves in
metzoans.3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p48.
2. ^
http://species-identification.org/specie
s.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

3. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p48.
4. ^
http://species-identification.org/specie
s.php?species_group=zsao&id=589&menuentr
y=groepen

5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
{based on evolution of cnidaria) 580my}
8. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p477-490. (c700my)
9. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Proteoglycan." The Oxford
Dictionary of Sports Science . Oxford
University Press, 1998, 2006, 2007.
Answers.com 12 Aug. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/proteoglyca
n

[2] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p18-19
[3] D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p17
[4] Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
(c850my)
[5] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1351my)
[6] Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (600?)
 
[1] From: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', Second Edition,
2003. COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003


[2] Figure 3.8 Anthozoa. (a) Anemone
(Actiniaria), showing the pharynx,
mesenteries, mesenterial filamnets and
acontia. (b) Structure of a mesenterial
filament in transverse section. (c)
Scleractinian coral, showing calcareous
skeleton and coenenchyme. (d)
Gorgonian, showing skeleton made up of
a horny axial rod and spicules in the
mesogloea (after Pearse et al 1987).
(e) Alcyonarian soft coral, showing
spicular skeleton in the
mesogloea. From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.

640,000,000 YBN
3 4
523) Animals Ctenophores {TeN-o-FORZ1 }
evolve (comb jellies).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "ctenophore." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 02 May.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/c
tenophore>.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin
J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p491-493. (c750)
 
[1] Description This is an example
of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe fosteri,
which is a mesopelagic species. Date
Source Description This is
an example of a ctenophore, Bathocyroe
fosteri, which is a mesopelagic
species. Date Source
[1] Author Photo courtesy of
Marsh Youngbluth Author Photo
courtesy of Marsh Youngbluth PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/21/Bathocyroe_fosteri.jp
g


[2] Light diffracting along the comb
rows of a Mertensia ovum. The right
lower portion of the body is
regenerating from previous damage.
Source: NOAA Photo Gallery/ Photo by
Kevin Raskoff PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/LightRefractsOf_comb-
rows_of_ctenophore_Mertensia_ovum.jpg

630,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16
82) Animals Cnidarians {NIDAREeNS}
evolve (sea anemones, corals,
jellyfish).7 8 9 10 Earliest animal
eye.11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p477-490.
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^
"Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
5. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p41.
6. ^ Megan
O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of
the box jellyfish Chiropsella
bronzie.", Journal Of Comparative
Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory
Neural And Behavioral Physiology
(2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/resear
ch/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

7. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p477-490.
9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
10. ^
"Cnidaria." The Columbia Electronic
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia
University Press., 2011. Answers.com 22
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cnidaria
11. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p41.
12. ^ Megan
O'Connor, Anders Garm, Dan-E Nilsson,
"Structure and optics of the eyes of
the box jellyfish Chiropsella
bronzie.", Journal Of Comparative
Physiology A Neuroethology Sensory
Neural And Behavioral Physiology
(2009), Volume: 195, Issue: 6, Pages:
557-569. http://www.mendeley.com/resear
ch/structure-and-optics-of-the-eyes-of-t
he-box-jellyfish-chiropsella-bronzie/

13. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p477-490. (c700my)
15. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (580my)
16. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1298my)

MORE INFO
[1] Collins, A.G. (2002).
"Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the
Evolution of Cnidarian Life Cycles"
(PDF). Journal of Evolutionary Biology
15 (3): 418–432.
doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00403.x. h
ttp://cima.uprm.edu/~n_schizas/CMOB_8676
/Collins2002.pdf

[2] Philippe, H. (April 2009).
"Phylogenomics Revives Traditional
Views on Deep Animal Relationships".
Current Biology 19: 706–712.
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.02.052. PMID
19345102. http://www.sciencedirect.com/
science/article/pii/S0960982209008057

[3] doi:10.1038/4631003b; Published
online 24 February
2010 http://www.nature.com/nature/journ
al/v463/n7284/full/4631003b.html

 
[1] Octocorals Stylatula elongata –
White Sea Pen UNKNOWN
source: http://pt-lobos.com/cnidarianimg
/white_sea_pens.jpg


[2] Sea nettles, Chrysaora
quinquecirrha CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/36/Sea_nettles.jpg

600,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
91) Start of Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN1 }
soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.2

FOOT
NOTES
1. ^ "Ediacaran." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 28
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ediacaran
2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329.
3. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996).
"Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/93/10/4990.full.pdf

4. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
5. ^ Meert, J.
G.; Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.;
Grice, W. C.; Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin,
A. (2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma
Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser
Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan".
Gondwana Research 19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005

6. ^ McMenamin, M. A. S. (1996).
"Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico".
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences (USA) 93:
4990–4993. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/93/10/4990.full.pdf

7. ^ Ben Waggoner, "The Ediacaran
Biotas in Space and Time", Integrative
and Comparative Biology , Vol. 43, No.
1 (Feb., 2003), pp.
104-113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/38
84845
{Waggoner_200302xx.pdf}
8. ^ H. J. Hofmann, G. M. Narbonne and
J. D. Aitken, "Ediacaran remains from
intertillite beds in northwestern
Canada", Geology, December, 1990, v.
18, p.
1199-1202. http://geology.gsapubs.org/c
ontent/18/12/1199.abstract
{Hofmann_Edi
acaran_Fossils_1990.pdf}
9. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New
Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/305/5684/621.short

10. ^ Knoll, Andrew H. et al. “A New
Period for the Geologic Time Scale.”
Science 305.5684 (2004): 621 –622.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/305/5684/621.short

11. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth Edition, 2006,
p258-264,329. {630 mybn}
12. ^ Richard Cowen,
"History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). {575 mybn}
13. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm
{670 mybn}
14. ^ Meert, J. G.;
Gibsher, A. S.; Levashova, N. M.;
Grice, W. C.; Kamenov, G. D.; Rybanin,
A. (2010). "Glaciation and ~770 Ma
Ediacara (?) Fossils from the Lesser
Karatau Microcontinent, Kazakhstan".
Gondwana Research 19 (4): 867–880.
doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.11.008. http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S1342937X10002005


MORE INFO
[1] Ivantsov, A. Yu (2004). "New
Proarticulata from the Vendian of the
Arkhangel'sk Region" (PDF).
Paleontological Journal 38 (3):
247–253
[2] Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.short

Sonora, Mexico3 |Adelaide, Australia4 |
Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
Kazakhsta5  

[1] A general view of the life in the
time frame from about 605 to 542
million years ago (the Vendian), is
found at this New Zealand site which
concentrates on the Ediacaran epoch; it
mentions Australian and other
geographic localities where the
assemblages have been found. The fossil
life is represented entirely by
creatures with soft parts only. It is
suggested that these may be ancestral
to later phylla observed at the
beginning of the Paleozoic. Below is a
chart presenting typical Ediacaran
fauna, followed by an artist's
depiction of life on the sea floor at
that time, and beneath that is a layout
of some actual fossils: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
800pxlife_in_the_ediacaran_sea.jpg


[2] A more general view of the life in
the time frame from about 600+ to 542
million years ago (end of Proterozoic
and Precambrian into the oldest
Cambrian), known as the Ediacaran or
Vendian, is found at this New Zealand
site; it mentions Australian and other
geographic localities where the
assemblages have been found. The fossil
life represents entirely creatures with
soft parts only and suggestions that
these may be ancestral to later phylla
observed at the beginning of the
Paleozoic. Below is an artist's sketch
of some of these creatures: UNKNOWN
source: http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/doc
s/rst/Sect20/vendintro.jpg

600,000,000 YBN
15 16 17
107) Bilateral species evolve (two
sided symmetry).8 9 10
Earliest animal
brain.11 12 First triploblastic
species (third embryonic layer: the
mesoderm {meZuDRM13 }).14

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1

3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p69.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p396-400.
6. ^ "mesoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27
Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
7. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p59.
8. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p472-476.
9. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1

10. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
11. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p69.
12. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p396-400.
13. ^ "mesoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 27
Dec. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/mesoderm
14. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p59.
15. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

16. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
17. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is
older)
 
[1] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

600,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
403) Earliest extant bilaterian:
Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and
nemertodermatida).1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476.
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201049&tree=0.1

3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
6. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is
older)

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p396
 
[1] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

600,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
459) An intestine evolves in a
bilaterian.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p61,66-67.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
5. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is
older)
 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
532) Cylindrical gut, anus, and
through-put of food evolves in a
bilaterian.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p4.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
{630my (first bilateral
species-acoelomates}
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005). (575
(fossil is older) {575 (first bilateral
species-acoelomates)(fossil record is
older}
 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
593) The genital pore, vagina, and
uterus evolve in a bilaterian.2

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p58-79.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p58-79.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J.,
and Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin
of the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
5. ^ Richard
Cowen, "History of Life", (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2005). (575 (fossil is
older)
 
[1] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001.


[2] Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush
1991, a typical mud-inhabiting acoel
that feeds on diatoms
source: ?

600,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
660) The penis evolves in a
bilaterian.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.
2. ^ Ruppert,
Fox, Barnes, "Invertebrate Zoology",
2004.
3. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p472-476. (630my)
{based on some Platyhelminthes have a
penis) 630my}
5. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of
Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
(575 (fossil is older)

MORE INFO
[1] D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001
 
[1] From: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', Second Edition,
2003 COPYRIGHTED
source: Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", Second Edition, 2003


[2] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.

590,000,000 YBN
2 3
95) Fluid filled cavity, the coelom
(SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.1

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Peterson,
Kevin J., and Nicholas J. Butterfield.
“Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing
Ecological Predictions of Molecular
Clocks Against the Proterozoic Fossil
Record.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {estimate based on
coelom being before
protostome-deutostome division, after
acoelomorph) 630-590 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] "coelom." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 24
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/body-cavity

 
[1] Example of the coleom's from 3
organisms UNKNOWN
source: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_5DLPaU
qdg2g/TBBz3rcLDOI/AAAAAAAAAGA/Z34_-_usSc
w/s1600/3927715.jpg


[2] From NATURAL HISTORY
COLLECTIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
EDINBURGH Formation of the coelom or
body cavity Acoelomates lack a
body cavity. In pseudocoelomates,
the coelom is formed from a persistent
embryonic cavity. In schizocoelous
coelomates, the coelom is formed by
splits in the embryonic mesoderm, the
middle layer of the body. In
enterocoelous coelomates, the coelom
forms within pouches of the gut
wall. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/images/c
ollections/invertebrates/intros/LgCoelom
.jpg

590,000,000 YBN
4 5
98) The first circulatory system; blood
vessels and blood evolve in a
bilaterian.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p4.
3. ^ D. T. Anderson,
"Invertebrate Zoology", Oxford
University Press, Second Edition, 2001,
p81.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on}
 
[1] D. T. Anderson, ''Invertebrate
Zoology'', Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001 AND Fig 11.1G
from: Brusca and Brusca,
''Invertebrates'', 2003,
p320. COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p320.


[2] From: D. T. Anderson,
''Invertebrate Zoology'', Oxford
University Press, Second Edition,
2001 COPYRIGHTED
source: D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001

580,000,000 YBN
13 14 15 16
93) Bilaterians Protostomes evolve.5 6
Ancestor of all Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu7 } and Lophotrochozoa
{LuFoTroKoZOu8 }.9 10 11 12

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198701

3. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A; Matus,
DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith, SA;
Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008).
"Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life".
Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/
journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html

4. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the
lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198701

7. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdyso
zoa&submit=Submit

8. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
10. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=198701

11. ^ Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A;
Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008).
"Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life".
Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/
journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html

12. ^ Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling
the lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree
of life. Philosophical Transactions of
the Royal Society B: Biological
Sciences , 363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
13. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (590my) {590 mybn}
15. ^
Cartwright, Paulyn, and Allen Collins.
“Fossils and phylogenies: integrating
multiple lines of evidence to
investigate the origin of early major
metazoan lineages.” Integrative and
Comparative Biology 47.5 (2007): 744
-751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/47/5/744.full
{543 mybn}
16. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{910 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=priapu
lids

[2] Kevin J Peterson, James A Cotton,
James G Gehling, and Davide Pisani,
"The Ediacaran emergence of
bilaterians: congruence between the
genetic and the geological fossil
records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April
27, 2008 363 (1496) 1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

 
[1] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png


[2] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png

580,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
105) Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve.
Ancestor of all Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS
3 }, Hemichordates, and Chordates.4 5

F
OOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
3. ^ "echinoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
5. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {570 mybn}
8. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{910 mybn}
9. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and
phylogenies: integrating multiple lines
of evidence to investigate the origin
of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology
47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/47/5/744.full
{367 mybn}
10. ^ Jun-Yuan
Chen, David J. Bottjer, Paola
Oliveri,Stephen Q. Dornbos, Feng Gao,
Seth Ruffins, Huimei Chi, Chia-Wei Li,
Eric H. Davidson, "Small Bilaterian
Fossils from 40 to 55 Million Years
Before the Cambrian", Science, Vol 305,
Issue 5681, 218-222, 9 July
2004 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/cont
ent/full/sci;305/5681/218


MORE INFO
[1] Kevin J Peterson, James A
Cotton, James G Gehling, and Davide
Pisani, "The Ediacaran emergence of
bilaterians: congruence between the
genetic and the geological fossil
records", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B April
27, 2008 363 (1496) 1435-1443;
doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2233 http://rstb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1
496/1435.short

 
[1] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png


[2] English: This diagram is showing
the difference of the two major types
of coelomates: the protostomes
(molluscs, annelids, arthropods, ...)
and deuterostomes (echinoderms,
vertebrates, ...). These groups differ
in several characteristics of early
development; In deuterostomes blastula
devisions is called ''radial cleavage''
because it occurs parallel or
perpendicular to the major polar axis.
In protostomes the cleavage is called
''spirale'' because division planes are
oriented obliquely to the polar major
axis. During gastrulation, protostomes
embryos' mouth was given first by the
blastopore while the anus was formed
later and vis versa for the
deuterostomes. As examples :
Squids are protostomes. Sea
urchins are deuterostomes. Date
14 October 2009 Source Own
work Author WYassineMrabetTalk✉ CC

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Protovsdeuteros
tomes.svg/1000px-Protovsdeuterostomes.sv
g.png

580,000,000 YBN
4 5
131) First shell (or skeleton)
evolves.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf}
2. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf}
3. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf}
4. ^ Li, C.-W.; et al. (2007).
"Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China". Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11

{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf} {earliest hard shell fossil -
ciliate) 580 mybn}
5. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime
E Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{Euglenozoa -pellicle) 1956 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Hamm, Smetacek, "Armor: Why,
When, and How", in Falkowski, Knoll,
"Evolution of Primary Producers in the
Sea", 2007, p311-332, p323
[2] Bengtson, S.
(2004), Early skeletal fossils, in
Lipps, J.H., and Waggoner, B.M.,
"Neoproterozoic- Cambrian Biological
Revolutions" (PDF), Paleontological
Society Papers 10: 67–78, retrieved
2008-07-18 http://www.nrm.se/download/1
8.4e32c81078a8d9249800021554/Bengtson200
4ESF.pdf

(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan,
Guizhou Province, South China3  

[1] Figure 1 from: Li, C.-W.; et al.
(2007). ''Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China''. Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP286.
11


[2] Figure 1 from: Li, C.-W.; et al.
(2007). ''Ciliated protozoans from the
Precambrian Doushantuo Formation,
Wengan, South China''. Geological
Society, London, Special Publications
286: 151–156.
doi:10.1144/SP286.11. http://dx.doi.org
/10.1144/SP286.11
{Ciliates_Fossils_Precambrian_Li_580my
bn.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP286.
11

570,000,000 YBN
8 9 10 11
311) Bilaterians Chaetognatha
{KE-ToG-nutu3 4 } (Arrow Worms).5

Earliest teeth. Animals start to eat
other animals.6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p68.
2. ^ Vannier, J.; Steiner,
M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu, S.-X.; Casanova,
J.-P. (2007). "Early Cambrian origin of
modern food webs: evidence from
predator arrow worms". Proceedings of
the Royal Society B 274 (1610):
627–633. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761.
PMC 2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/article
render.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

3. ^ "arrow worm." The Columbia
Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012.
Answers.com 21 Jan. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/chaetognath
a

4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chaeto
gnatha&submit=Submit

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^ Douglas Palmer,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p68.
7. ^ Vannier,
J.; Steiner, M.; Renvoise, E.; Hu,
S.-X.; Casanova, J.-P. (2007). "Early
Cambrian origin of modern food webs:
evidence from predator arrow worms".
Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274
(1610): 627–633.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3761. PMC
2197202. PMID 17254986.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/article
render.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2197202
.

8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (570)
9. ^ Chen, J.-Y.;
Huang, D.-Y. (2002). "A possible Lower
Cambrian chaetognath (arrow worm)".
Science 298 (5591): 187.
doi:10.1126/science.1075059. PMID
12364798.
10. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

11. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", Oxford University
Press, New York., 2009, Chap 24,
p224-225. http://timetree.org/book.php

MORE INFO
[1] Gonzalo Giribet, Daniel L.
Distel, Martin Polz, Wolfgang Sterrer,
and Ward C. Wheeler Triploblastic
Relationships with Emphasis on the
Acoelomates and the Position of
Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora,
Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: A
Combined Approach of 18S rDNA Sequences
and Morphology Syst Biol (2000) 49(3):
539-562 doi:10.1080/10635159950127385
[2] Martin Helmkampf, Iris
Bruchhaus, Bernhard Hausdorf, Multigene
analysis of lophophorate and
chaetognath phylogenetic relationships,
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution,
Volume 46, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages
206-214, ISSN 1055-7903,
10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.004. (http://ww
w.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
S105579030700317X)

[3] S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and
evolution of model organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html

[4] Brusca and Brusca, "Invertebrates",
2002, p844
 
[1] Chaetognatha UNKNOWN
source: http://content5.eol.org/content/
2010/08/09/03/74200_large.jpg


[2] Description Chatognath
Spadella cephaloptera Date
Unkown Source Own
work Author
Zatelmar Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8e/Chaetoblack.png

565,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
345) Deuterostomes Hemichordates evolve
(pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS1 }2 , acorn
worms).3

The free swimming younger form of
Pterobranch may evolve into tunicates
and then the first fish.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pterob
ranchs&submit=Submit

2. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p201.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p203.
5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Xian-guang Hou, Richard J.
Aldridge, David J. Siveter, Derek J.
Siveter, Mark Williams, Jan
Zalasiewicz, Xiao-ya Ma. A pterobranch
hemichordate zooid from the lower
Cambrian. Current Biology, 24 March
2011 DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.005 http://www.sc
iencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096
0982211002776

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p383.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=126698

 
[1] Description Eichelwurm, Exemplar
aus der Sammlung des Institutes für
Zoologie, FU Berlin. GNU
FDL Date Source Foto:
de:Benutzer:Necrophorus Author User
Necrophorus on
de.wikipedia Permission (Reusing
this file) Released under the GNU Free
Documentation License. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Eichelwurm.jpg/
1024px-Eichelwurm.jpg


[2] Pterobranchs Resembling slugs
with hairy, branching tentacles,
Pterobranchs filter food from the water
and form colonies of “clones,” much
like coral polyps, often secreting a
network of hard tubing. Individual
zooids can crawl about freely within
the colony, but are connected to one
another by thin “cables,” quickly
retracting if disturbed. What makes the
Pterobranchs even stranger than corals
is that these slimy, slithering weirdos
are “hemichordates,” closer to us
vertebrates than to invertebrates like
worms and jellyfish. Read more:
http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-colonial-o
rganisms.php#ixzz1lJRtH61S COPYRIGHTED

source: http://www.toptenz.net/wp-conten
t/uploads/2011/10/Pterobranch-colonial-o
rganisms.jpg

565,000,000 YBN
8 9
347) Deuterostome Phylum Chordata
evolves.2
Chordates are a very large
group that include all tunicates
{TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians,
reptiles, mammals, and birds.3 4

Chordates evolve upside down compared
to invertebrates, having nerve chord on
back and heart on front.5 6 7

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p368-p381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004).
p368-p381.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p399-400.
6. ^
"ventral."Answers.com 01 Apr. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ventral
7. ^ "dorsal." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Apr.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dorsal
8. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). p368-p381. {565 MYBN}
9. ^
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3208
583.stm


MORE INFO
[1] Douzery, E. J. P., Snell, E.
A., Bapteste, E., Delsuc, F., &
Philippe, H. (2004). The timing of
eukaryotic evolution: Does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and
fossils? Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America , 101 (43),
15386-15391. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.040398410
1

[2] Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng,
Simon Tsang, Glen Cho and Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times
of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock",
Science New Series, Vol. 271, No. 5248
(Jan. 26, 1996), pp.
470-477. http://www.jstor.org/stable/28
90144

[3] Pennisi, Elizabeth. “Drafting a
Tree.” Science 300.5626 (2003) :
1694.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/300/5626/1694.summary

[4] Philip C. J. Donoghue and Mark A.
Purnell, "The Evolutionary Emergence of
Vertebrates From Among Their Spineless
Relatives", EVOLUTION: EDUCATION AND
OUTREACH, Volume 2, Number 2, 204-212,
DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.sp
ringerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[5]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41451

 
[1] from adelaide, australia UNKNOWN
source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/t
ech/3208583.stm


[2] [t Note that this is a vertebrate
- not a pre-vertebrate
chordate] Portion of figure
from: D.-G. Shu, S. Conway Morris, J.
Han, Z.-F. Zhang, K. Yasui, P. Janvier,
L. Chen, X.-L. Zhang, J.-N. Liu, Y. Li
and H.-Q. Liu, ''Head and backbone of
the Early Cambrian vertebrate
Haikouichthys'', Nature 421,
526-529(30 January
2003) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v421/n6922/full/nature01264.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: https://nature.com/journal/v421/
n6922/images/nature01264-f1.2.jpg

565,000,000 YBN
3 4
348) Earliest extant chordate:
Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (sea
squirts).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p377-381.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p377-381.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p377-381. {565 mybn}
4. ^ Chen,
Jun-Yuan et al. “The First Tunicate
from the Early Cambrian of South
China.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences 100.14 (2003): 8314
–8318.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/100/
14/8314.full

 
[1] Description Clavelina
moluccensis, the bluebell
tunicate English: Tunicate colony.
(Clavelina moluccensis) Date
04/17/05 Source Own
work Author Nhobgood CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/98/Bluebell_tunicates_Ni
ck_Hobgood.jpg


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9
117) Start of small shelly fossils.1
FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of
the Earth", sixth edition, 2002, p210.
2. ^
SW Grant, "Shell structure and
distribution of Cloudina, a potential
index fossil for the terminal
Proterozoic.", Source: American journal
of science (1990) volume: 290-A
(Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/
1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf

3. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and
LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics
in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p.
454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2
http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782

4. ^ Donald Prothero, "Evolution What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p163-170.
5. ^ Dott, Prothero, "Evolution
of the Earth", 6th edition 2002, p212.
6. ^
Adam C. Maloof, Susannah M. Porter,
John L. Moore, Frank Ö. Dudás, Samuel
A. Bowring, John A. Higgins, David A.
Fike, and Michael P. Eddy, "The
earliest Cambrian record of animals and
ocean geochemical change", Geological
Society of America Bulletin, November
2010, v. 122, p. 1731-1774,
doi:10.1130/B30346.1 http://gsabulletin
.gsapubs.org/content/122/11-12/1731.full

7. ^ SW Grant, "Shell structure and
distribution of Cloudina, a potential
index fossil for the terminal
Proterozoic.", Source: American journal
of science (1990) volume: 290-A
(Special volume) page: 261
-94 http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/
1990/11.1990.10SpecialConway.pdf

8. ^
http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/neoproter
ozoic/ediacaran/ediacaran2.htm

9. ^ HONG HUA, BRIAN R. PRATT, and
LU-YI ZHANG, "Borings in Cloudina
Shells: Complex Predator-Prey Dynamics
in the Terminal Neoproterozoic",
PALAIOS, October 2003, v. 18, p.
454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2
http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/3515782


MORE INFO
[1] Philip W. Signor and Mark A.
S. McMenamin "The Early Cambrian Worm
Tube Onuphionella from California and
Nevada", Journal of Paleontology , Vol.
62, No. 2 (Mar., 1988), pp.
233-240 Published by: Paleontological
Society Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/1305228
[2] MATTHEWS, S. C., AND V. V.
MISSARZHEVSKY. 1975. "Small shelly
fossils of late Precambrian and early
Cambrian age: a review of recent work."
Journal of the Geological Society,
131:289-304 http://jgs.geoscienceworld.
org/content/131/3/289.abstract

[3] GRANT, S. W. F. 1990. "Shell
structure and distribution of Cloudina,
a potential index fossil for the
terminal Proterozoic." American Journal
of Science, 290(A):261-294
(Ara Formation) Oman2 |Lijiagou,
Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province3
 

[1] Cloudina COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaeos.com/proterozoic/n
eoproterozoic/ediacaran/images/Cloudina.
jpg


[2] Cloudina from: HONG HUA, BRIAN R.
PRATT, and LU-YI ZHANG, ''Borings in
Cloudina Shells: Complex Predator-Prey
Dynamics in the Terminal
Neoproterozoic'', PALAIOS, October
2003, v. 18, p. 454-459,
doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2003)018<0454:BICSCP>2.0.CO;2
http://palaios.geoscienceworld.org/citmg
r?gca=palaios;18/4-5/454 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaios.geoscienceworld.o
rg/content/vol18/issue4-5/images/large/i
0883-1351-018-04-0454-f03.jpeg

560,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
318) Protostomes Ecdysozoa
{eK-DiS-u-ZOu1 } (animals that molt
{lose their outer skin} as they grow).2
3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ecdyso
zoa&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History
of Life", (Malden, MA: Blackwell,
2005),p390-394.
4. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas
J. Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c580) {c580 mybn}
6. ^
Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005),p388-394.
(560) {560 mybn}
7. ^ S. Blair Hedges and
Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life",
2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{790 mybn}
8. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and
phylogenies: integrating multiple lines
of evidence to investigate the origin
of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology
47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/47/5/744.full
{530 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Dunn et al., CW; Hejnol, A;
Matus, DQ; Pang, K; Browne, WE; Smith,
SA; Seaver, E; Rouse, GW et al. (2008).
"Broad phylogenomic sampling improves
resolution of the animal tree of life".
Nature 452 (7188): 745–749.
doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID
18322464. http://www.nature.com/nature/
journal/v452/n7188/abs/nature06614.html

[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the
lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513
[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p390-394
[4] Telford, Maximilian J et
al. “The Evolution of the
Ecdysozoa.” Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society B:
Biological Sciences 363.1496 (2008):
1529 –1537.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1529.long

 
[1] Description English: Life
restoration of Ottoia in natural
environment with nearby
Haplophrentis. Date 11-29-08 Source
Own work Author Smokeybjb GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/10/Ottoia_burrowing.jpg


[2] Description
en:category:Caenorhabditis
elegans Date 2006-09-06 (original
upload date) (Original text :
09/05/2006) Source Originally from
en.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. (Original text : Donated by
Zeynep F. Altun) Author Original
uploader was Kbradnam at
en.wikipedia (Original text : Zeynep
F. Altun, Editor of
www.wormatlas.org) Permission (Reusing
this file) CC-BY-SA-2.5. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/cc/Adult_Caenorhab
ditis_elegans.jpg/1280px-Adult_Caenorhab
ditis_elegans.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
331) Protostomes Lophotrochozoa
{Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u1 } evolve.2 3

FOOTNO
TES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi,
"Drafting a Tree", Science, (2003).
4. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c547) {c580 mybn}
6. ^
Elizabeth Pennisi, "Drafting a Tree",
Science, (2003). (550) {550 mybn}
7. ^ S.
Blair Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The
TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p224-225. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{790 mybn}
8. ^ Cartwright, Paulyn, and
Allen Collins. “Fossils and
phylogenies: integrating multiple lines
of evidence to investigate the origin
of early major metazoan lineages.”
Integrative and Comparative Biology
47.5 (2007): 744 -751.
Print. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/47/5/744.full
{538 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=202032

 
[1] A rotifer. The cilia around
this rotifer's mouth are unusually
long; they reach as far as the strand
of spirogyra to the right. 10×
objective, 15× eyepiece. The numbered
ticks on the scale are 122 µM apart.
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencephoto.com/imag
e/121893/530wm/C0058380-Rotifer_SEM-SPL.
jpg


[2] Description Clams Date
Source Own work Author
Marlith CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8f/Clams.JPG

560,000,000 YBN
349) First fish.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004),p372-376.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41451

 
[1] Lancelet (Branchiostoma
lanceolatum) Description
Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas,
1774) English: Amphioxus from course
sandy sediments (600µm) on the Belgian
continental shelf. Length: ~22
mm. Geo-location not applicable as the
picture was taken in the
lab. Français : Branchiostoma
lanceolatum, un céphalochordé,
récolté dans des sédiments de sable
grossier (600µm) sur le Plateau
continental belge. Longueur totale: 22
mm environ. Date 1997 Source
Own work Author (Hans
Hillewaert) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/47/Branchiostoma_lanceol
atum.jpg

560,000,000 YBN
6290) Earliest extant fish, Lancelets
{laNSleTS1 }.2 First liver and
kidney.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "lancelet." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 11
Feb. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/lancelet
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004),p372-376.
3. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What
the Fossils Say and Why It Matters",
2007, p205.

MORE INFO
[1] Philip C. J. Donoghue and
Mark A. Purnell, "The Evolutionary
Emergence of Vertebrates From Among
Their Spineless Relatives", EVOLUTION:
EDUCATION AND OUTREACH, Volume 2,
Number 2, 204-212, DOI:
10.1007/s12052-009-0134-3 http://www.sp
ringerlink.com/content/l48138g81qv4m18k/
export-citation/

[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41451

 
[1] Lancelet (Branchiostoma
lanceolatum) Description
Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas,
1774) English: Amphioxus from course
sandy sediments (600µm) on the Belgian
continental shelf. Length: ~22
mm. Geo-location not applicable as the
picture was taken in the
lab. Français : Branchiostoma
lanceolatum, un céphalochordé,
récolté dans des sédiments de sable
grossier (600µm) sur le Plateau
continental belge. Longueur totale: 22
mm environ. Date 1997 Source
Own work Author (Hans
Hillewaert) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/47/Branchiostoma_lanceol
atum.jpg


[2] Lancelet COPYRIGHTED
source: http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/
16cm05/1116/34-04b-Lancelet.jpg

550,000,000 YBN
3
328) Ecdysozoa Round worms.1 2
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=126691

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c550)
 
[1] Description English: Priapulid
worm Priapulus caudatus in a Petry
dish. The specimen was found in the
intertidal of the Russian coast of the
Barents Sea. Русский:
Приапулида Priapulus caudatus
в чашке Петри. Особь
найдена в
приливно-отливной
зоне на российском
побережье Баренцева
моря. Date between 2005 and
2007 Source kindly granted by the
author Author Dmitry
Aristov Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/62/Priapulus_caudatus.jp
g


[2] Giribet, G. (2008). Assembling the
lophotrochozoan (=spiralian) tree of
life. Philosophical Transactions of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ,
363 (1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

543,000,000 YBN
5
101) Segmentation evolves.3 4
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
2. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004),p622-624.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {537 MYBN (based on
Annaleda - segmented worns} {543 MYBN
(based on arthropods, annelids -
segmented worns=537}
 
[1] Dikinsonia grew to a length of as
much as two feet (60 cm), which made it
one of the larger complex organisms of
the Vendian. It's body is segmented
with midline symmetry dividing it's
body. Its body may have been denser
than modern jellyfish or worms. [Atlas
of Prehistoric World, Discovery
Books Reconstruction of Dickinsonia,
based on images from Atlas of the
Prehistoric World, Discovery Channel
Books and Kingfisher Illustrated
Dinosaur Encyclopedia UNKNOWN
source: http://paleontology.edwardtbabin
ski.us/vendian/dickinsonia.jpg


[2] Spriggina Spriggina was
definitely a predator of the seas of
that time. UNKNOWN
source: http://www.museum.toulouse.fr/IM
G/jpg/spriginna_72dpi_680.jpg

542,000,000 YBN
5 6
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or
"Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular
animals between 542 and 530 million
years ago that results in the
appearance of many of the major phyla
of animals.1 2 3 An increase of
animals with shells.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Cambrian Explosion." The
American Heritage® Dictionary of the
English Language, Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004.
Answers.com 26 Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/cambrian-ex
plosion

2. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
3. ^
"Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/90620/Cambrian-explosion
>.
4. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
5. ^
"Cambrian explosion." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2011. Web. 26 Dec. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/90620/Cambrian-explosion
>. {542-530
mybn}
6. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth edition, 2006, p329-333.
{535 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Derek E. G. Briggs and
Richard A. Fortey, "Wonderful Strife:
Systematics, Stem Groups, and the
Phylogenetic Signal of the Cambrian
Radiation", Paleobiology , Vol. 31, No.
2, Supplement. Macroevolution:
Diversity, Disparity, Contingency:
Essays in Honor of Stephen Jay Gould
(Spring, 2005), pp.
94-112 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2548
2671

 
[1] Artist drawing of the bottom of the
Cambrian shallow sea floor, showing
trilobites (imagine these crawling
around on the Cambrian sea floor at
Devil's Lake state park 550 m.y. ago!)
(above). UNKNOWN
source: http://www.geology.wisc.edu/home
pages/g100s2/public_html/Geologic_Time/L
3_Cambrian_Life_More.jpg


[2] Description English: Fossil
specimen of Opabinia regalis from the
Burgess shale on display at the
Smithsonian in Washington, DC. This
appears to be the exact specimen
pictured in Fig. 42 of 'The Crucible of
Creation: The Burgess Shale and the
Rise of Animals', by Simon Conway
Morris, Oxford University Press,
1998. Date 12 April 2009 (original
upload date) Source Transferred
from en.wikipedia; transferred to
Commons by User:FunkMonk using
CommonsHelper. Author Original
uploader was Jstuby at en.wikipedia PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/50/Opabinia_smithsonian.
JPG

540,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
104) Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u1
} Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ}
(flatworms).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lophot
rochozoa&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)
4. ^ Douzery,
Emmanuel J. P. et al. “The Timing of
Eukaryotic Evolution: Does a Relaxed
Molecular Clock Reconcile Proteins and
Fossils?” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 101.43 (2004): 15386
-15391.
Print. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/
43/15386

5. ^ Peterson, Kevin J et al. “The
Ediacaran Emergence of Bilaterians:
Congruence Between the Genetic and the
Geological Fossil Records.”
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences 363.1496
(2008): 1435 -1443.
Print. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1435.full

 
[1] Description English: The
flatworm Pseudoceros dimidiatus. North
Horn, Osprey Reef, Coral Sea. Date
August 9, 2005 Source
Flickr Author Richard
Ling CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1e/Pseudoceros_dimidiatu
s.jpg


[2] Two turbellarians mating by penis
fencing. Each has two penises, the
white spikes on the undersides of their
heads. Description English: Two
Individuals of Pseudobiceros bedfordi
about to have a Sperm Battle. –
Species of the flatworm genus
Pseudobiceros are hermaphroditic and
have two penises that are used to
inject sperm into the partner. P.
bedfordi is exceptional in that it
applies sperm onto the partner's skin
rather than injecting it. Deutsch:
Zwei Plattwürmer (Pseudobiceros
bedfordi) vor der Begattung. Der
doppelte Penis ist bei beiden
Individuen gut sichtbar. Date
Published: 2004-06-15 Source
Whitfield J: Everything You Always
Wanted to Know about Sexes. PLoS Biol
2/6/2004: e183.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020183.g001,
photo page Author Photo courtesy
of Nico Michiels. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/38/Flatworm_sex.png

540,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
319) Protists "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo1
}.2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Radiolaria." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 30 Mar. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/radiolaria-
2

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). 1600mybn for excavates,
discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ A.
Braun, J. Chen, D. Waloszek and A.
Maas, "First Early Cambrian
Radiolaria", Geological Society,
London, Special Publications 2007, v.
286, p.
143-149. http://sp.lyellcollection.org/
content/286/1/143.short

and http://www.core-orsten-research.de/
Publications/PDF_Paper/ulm_team/2007b_Br
aun_etal.pdf {Earliest radiolaria
fossils) 540 mybn}
5. ^ Cédric Berney and
Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale
for eukaryote evolution recalibrated
with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
6. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_
taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). 1600mybn for
excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates (1600my)
[2] Keeling, Patrick J.
et al. "The tree of eukaryotes." Trends
in Ecology & Evolution 20.12 (2005):
670-676. http://www.sciencedirect.com/s
cience/article/pii/S0169534705003046

[3] Delsuc, Frederic, Henner Brinkmann,
and Herve Philippe. "Phylogenomics and
the reconstruction of the tree of
life." Nat Rev Genet 6.5 (2005):
361-375. http://www.nature.com/nrg/jour
nal/v6/n5/abs/nrg1603.html

[4]
http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/Bio-h
ome/Pratt/boo305.htm

[5]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

[6]
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/ra
diolaria.html

[7] "Polycystine". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polycystine

 
[1] FIG. 2. The tree of life based on
molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae-a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red).
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cg
i/content/full/95/1/147/FIG2


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group.
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

540,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
321) Protists "Foraminifera"
{FOraMiniFRu1 }.2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=forami
nifera&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). has 1600mybn for
excavates, discricristales, rhizaria,
chromalveolates
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Brusca
and Brusca, "Invertebrates", Second
Edition, 2003, p165-167. {earliest
fossils, lower Cambrian) c540 my}
5. ^
Culver, S. J. (1991) Science 254,
689–691.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijlink?linkTyp
e=ABST&journalCode=sci&resid=254/5032/68
9

and http://www.sciencemag.org/content/2
54/5032/689.full.pdf {earliest fossils,
lower Cambrian) c540 my}
6. ^ Culver, S. J.
(1994) J. Foraminiferal Res. 24,
191–202. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/ijli
nk?linkType=ABST&journalCode=gsjfr&resid
=24/3/191
{earliest fossils, lower
Cambrian) c540 my}
7. ^ Cédric Berney and
Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular time-scale
for eukaryote evolution recalibrated
with the continuous microfossil
record", Proc. R. Soc. B August 7, 2006
273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{804 my}
8. ^
http://www.timetree.org/index.php?found_
taxon_a=65574
{804 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). has 1600mybn
for excavates, discricristales,
rhizaria, chromalveolates (1600mybn)
[2]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

[3]
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GeolSci/micropal/fo
ram.html

[4] "Allogromiida". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allogromiid
a

[5] "Fusulinid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fusulinid
[6] "Globigerinida". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globigerini
da

[7] "Miliolid". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miliolid
[8] "Rotaliida". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotaliida
[9] "Textulariida". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textulariid
a

[10]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P4356&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&exclu
deNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

[11]
http://microscope.mbl.edu/scripts/protis
t.php?func=integrate&myID=P2007&chinese_
flag=&system=&version=&documentID=&exclu
deNonLinkedIn=&imagesOnly=

 
[1] FIG. 2. The tree of life based on
molecular, ultrastructural and
palaeontological evidence. Contrary to
widespread assumptions, the root is
among the eubacteria, probably within
the double-enveloped Negibacteria, not
between eubacteria and archaebacteria
(Cavalier-Smith, 2002b); it may lie
between Eobacteria and other
Negibacteria (Cavalier-Smith, 2002b).
The position of the eukaryotic root has
been nearly as controversial, but is
less hard to establish: it probably
lies between unikonts and bikonts (Lang
et al., 2002; Stechmann and
Cavalier-Smith, 2002, 2003). For
clarity the basal eukaryotic kingdom
Protozoa is not labelled; it comprises
four major groups (alveolates, cabozoa,
Amoebozoa and Choanozoa) plus the small
bikont phylum Apusozoa of unclear
precise position; whether Heliozoa are
protozoa as shown or chromists is
uncertain (Cavalier-Smith, 2003b).
Symbiogenetic cell enslavement occurred
four or five times: in the origin of
mitochondria and chloroplasts from
different negibacteria, of
chromalveolates by the enslaving of a
red alga (Cavalier-Smith, 1999, 2003;
Harper and Keeling, 2003) and in the
origin of the green plastids of
euglenoid (excavate) and chlorarachnean
(cercozoan) algae-a green algal cell
was enslaved either by the ancestral
cabozoan (arrow) or (less likely) twice
independently within excavates and
Cercozoa (asterisks) (Cavalier-Smith,
2003a). The upper thumbnail sketch
shows membrane topology in the
chimaeric cryptophytes (class
Cryptophyceae of the phylum Cryptista);
in the ancestral chromist the former
food vacuole membrane fused with the
rough endoplasmic reticulum placing the
enslaved cell within its lumen (red) to
yield the complex membrane topology
shown. The large host nucleus and the
tiny nucleomorph are shown in blue,
chloroplast green and mitochondrion
purple. In chlorarachneans (class
Chlorarachnea of phylum Cercozoa) the
former food vacuole membrane remained
topologically distinct from the ER to
become an epiplastid membrane and so
did not acquire ribosomes on its
surface, but their membrane topology is
otherwise similar to the cryptophytes.
The other sketches portray the four
major kinds of cell in the living world
and their membrane topology. The upper
ones show the contrasting ancestral
microtubular cytoskeleton (ciliary
roots, in red) of unikonts (a cone of
single microtubules attaching the
single centriole to the nucleus, blue)
and bikonts (two bands of microtubules
attached to the posterior centriole and
an anterior fan of microtubules
attached to the anterior centriole).
The lower ones show the single plasma
membrane of unibacteria (posibacteria
plus archaebacteria), which were
ancestral to eukaryotes and the double
envelope of negibacteria, which were
ancestral to mitochondria and
chloroplasts (which retained the outer
membrane, red).
source: http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cg
i/content/full/95/1/147/FIG2


[2] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group.
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703

540,000,000 YBN
3
340) Lophotrochozoa Nemertea
{ne-mR-TEu1 } (ribbon worms).2

FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nemert
ea&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c541)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201563

 
[1] Description English: Basiodiscus
mexicanus was photographed at Los
Arcos, near Puerto Vallarta,
Mexico Date Source University
of California Museum of Paleology:
Introduction to the Nemertini Author
Chris Meyer and Allen
Collins Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Nemertea_Basiodiscus_
mexicanus.png


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

540,000,000 YBN
3
341) Ecdysozoa Tardigrades {ToRDiGRADZ1
}.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "tardigrade." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05
Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tardigrade
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?pos=0

 
[1] Description Willow Gabriel and
Bob Goldstein,
http://tardigrades.bio.unc.edu/ Date
2007-05-20 (original upload
date) CC
source: http://28.media.tumblr.com/tumbl
r_limfh2NXtC1qc6j5yo1_400.jpg


[2] from Giribet 2007
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/65/Hypsibiusdujardini.jp
g

540,000,000 YBN
3
342) Ecdysozoa Onychophorans
{oniKoFereNS1 }.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "onychophoran." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 05
Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/velvet-worm

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?pos=0

 
[1] Euperipatoides kanangrensis on a
eucalyptus log, in which it normally
resides. Description English:
Cropped version of File:Euperipatoides
kanangrensis.jpg Date 13 October
2009 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/67/Euperipatoides_kanang
rensis_crop.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

535,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6
114) The first heart evolves in
bilaterians.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ D. T. Anderson, "Invertebrate
Zoology", Oxford University Press,
Second Edition, 2001, p124-125.
2. ^ D. T.
Anderson, "Invertebrate Zoology",
Oxford University Press, Second
Edition, 2001, p124-125.
3. ^ Brusca and Brusca,
"Invertebrates", 2003, p 73.
4. ^ Palmer,
et. al., "Prehistoric Life", p66.
5. ^
Peterson, Kevin J., and Nicholas J.
Butterfield. “Origin of the
Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

6. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {based on} {539 MYBN
(based on mollusca}
 
[1] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.


[2] From: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
''Invertebrate Zoology'',
2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Ruppert, Fox, Barnes,
"Invertebrate Zoology", 2004.

533,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
343) Lophotrochozoa Mollusks evolve.
Mollusks includes snails, clams,
mussels, and the cephalopods: squids
and octopuses.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges
and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree of
Life", 2009,
p224-229. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c539)
5. ^ Caron,
Jean-Bernard et al. "A soft-bodied
mollusc with radula from the Middle
Cambrian Burgess Shale." Nature
442.7099 (2006):
159-163. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v442/n7099/full/nature04894.html


MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201563

 
[1] From: Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S.,
and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate
Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp.
284–291. ISBN 0030259827. PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mol
lusca


[2] Description Clams Date
Source Own work Author
Marlith CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8f/Clams.JPG

530,000,000 YBN
2
338) Lophotrochozoa annelids (segmented
worms).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). (c537)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201563

 
[1] An earthworm's clitellum they have
a unique reproductive organ, the
ring-shaped clitellum (''pack saddle'')
round their bodies, which produces a
cocoon that stores and nourishes
fertilized eggs until they
hatch Description Regenwurm mit
Clitellum - (sattelförmige Verdickung
im vorderen Drittel).Das Sekret der
Clitellum-Drüsen dient u. a. zur
Bildung dieses Ei-Kokons. Français :
Ver de terre (Oligochaeta,
Lumbricina) Svenska: Daggmask
(Lumbricus spec.) Русский:
Дождевой червь (род
Лумбрикус) Date Source
first upload in de wikipedia on
09:58, 16. Feb 2005 by Michael
Linnenbach Author Michael
Linnenbach GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/30/Regenwurm1.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/363/1496/1513

530,000,000 YBN
3 4
339) Ecdysozoa Arthropods evolve
(crustaceans, insects).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). (c543)
4. ^
Palmer, et. al., "Prehistoric Life",
p66.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?pos=0

 
[1] Extinct and modern
arthropods English: Arthropoda
collage. From left to right and from
top to bottom: Kolihapeltis,
Stylonurus, Scorpion, Crab, Centipede,
Butterfly CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/80/Arthropoda.jpg


[2] Figure from: Giribet, G. (2008).
Assembling the lophotrochozoan
(=spiralian) tree of life.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal
Society B: Biological Sciences , 363
(1496), 1513-1522. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2007.2241
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/363/1496/1513 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://rstb.royalsociorg/content
/363/1496/1513

530,000,000 YBN
350) Vertebrates evolve.2 This
Subphylum contains most fishes, and all
amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and
birds.

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41579

 
[1] Description Lampetra
fluviatilis from the german
northsea Date 2004 Source
Germany Author
M.Buschmann Permission (Reusing
this file) Author is owner CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3f/Lampetra_fluviatilis.
jpg


[2] Description Clockwise,
starting from top left: 1. Fire
Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) 2.
Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus
porosus) 3. Southern Cassowary
(Casusarius casuarius) 4.
Black-and-rufus Giant Elephant Shrew
(Rhynchocyon petersi) 5. Ocean Sunfish
(Mola mola) Date CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/ec/Vertebrates.png

530,000,000 YBN
2
6637) Jawless fishes.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p364-371.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p364-371.

MORE INFO
[1] William Patten, "New
Ostracoderms from Oesel", Science, New
Series, Vol. 73, No. 1903 (Jun. 19,
1931), pp.
671-673 http://www.jstor.org/stable/165
5241

[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=41579

 
[1] Description English: Pacific
hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) in a hole
at 150 meters depth. Latitude 37 58 N.,
Longitude 123 27 W. Location:
California, Cordell Bank National
Marine Sanctuary. Date Last Updated:
September 30, 2009. Source
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/sanc
1692.htm
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/bigs/sanc16
92.jpg Author Linda Snook, National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) / Cordell Bank National Marine
Sanctuary (CBNMS) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Eptatretus_stou
tii.jpg/1280px-Eptatretus_stoutii.jpg


[2] Description Lampetra
fluviatilis from the german
northsea Date 2004 Source
Germany Author
M.Buschmann Permission (Reusing
this file) Author is owner CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/3f/Lampetra_fluviatilis.
jpg

520,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
133) Arthropods Chelicerata
(KeliSuroTo1 ) (horseshoe crabs, mites,
spiders, scorpions).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=chelic
erata&submit=Submit

2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ J. W. Shultz (2007).
"A phylogenetic analysis of the
arachnid orders based on morphological
characters". Zoological Journal of the
Linnean Society 150: 221–265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1096-364
2.2007.00284.x

4. ^ D. Waloszek, J.A. Dunlop, "A
larval sea spider (Arthropoda:
Pycnogonida) from the Upper Cambrian
‘Orsten’ of Sweden and the
phylogenetic position of pycnogonids",
Palaeontology, 45 (2002), pp.
421–446 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.co
m/doi/10.1111/1475-4983.00244/abstract

5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p168.
6. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of
the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
7. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p66-67.
8. ^ Hedges and Kumar,
"TimeTree of Life", 2009, p251-253.

MORE INFO
[1] Charbonnier, S, J Vannier,
and B Riou. “New Sea Spiders from the
Jurassic La Voulte-sur-Rhône
Lagerstätte.” Proceedings of the
Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
274, no. 1625 (October 22, 2007): 2555
–2561. http://rspb.royalsocietypublis
hing.org/content/274/1625/2555.full

[2] Dunlop and Seldon, "The Early
History and Phylogeny of the
Chelicerates", in Fortey and Thomas,
"Arthropod Relatioinships", 1997, p231
earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten,
Sweden4  

[1] Description English: Horseshoe
crab dorsal and ventral Italiano:
Limulus polyphemus dorsale e
ventrale Date 10 April 2009 Source
Own work Author Ricce PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Limulo_dorsale_
e_ventrale.jpg/1280px-Limulo_dorsale_e_v
entrale.jpg


[2] taken from en:Image:Horseshoe crab
female.jpg Dead female horseshoe crab
from NOAA Photo Library: Image ID:
line2632, America's Coastlines
Collection Location: Patuxent River,
Maryland Photo Date: 2002 August
17 Photographer: Mary Hollinger,
NESDIS/NODC biologist, NOAA PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1b/Horseshoe_crab_female
.jpg

520,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7
346) Deuterostome Echinoderms
(iKIniDRMS 1 } (sea cucumbers, sea
urchins, sand dollars, star fish).2

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ "echinoderm." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 29
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/echinoderm
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Adam M. English, Loren E.
Babcock, Census of the Indian Springs
Lagerstätte, Poleta Formation
(Cambrian), western Nevada, USA,
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology,
Palaeoecology, Volume 295, Issues
1–2, 1 September 2010, Pages 236-244,
ISSN 0031-0182,
10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.05.041. (http://w
ww.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S0031018210003287)

4. ^ J. Wyatt Durham, "Notes on the
Helicoplacoidea and Early Echinoderms",
Journal of Paleontology , Vol. 41, No.
1 (Jan., 1967), pp.
97-102 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1301
905

5. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric Life",
2009, p66.
6. ^ Peterson, Kevin J., and
Nicholas J. Butterfield. “Origin of
the Eumetazoa: Testing Ecological
Predictions of Molecular Clocks Against
the Proterozoic Fossil Record.”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 102.27 (2005):
9547–9552. http://www.pnas.org/conten
t/102/27/9547.full.pdf+html

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p384.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=126698

 
[1] Kachemak Bay National Estuarine
Research Reserve. A beautiful array of
starfish , sea urchins and mussel
shells in the rocky intertidal zone of
Kachemak Bay. Image ID: nerr0878,
NOAA National Estuarine Research
Reserve Collection from NOAA:
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/nerr/nerr08
78.htm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/e/e9/Nerr0878.jpg/10
24px-Nerr0878.jpg


[2] Description English: The first
in a sequence of three photos that show
a brittle star flipping itself
rightside-up. Date 1 May
2011 Source Own work Author
Alexcooper1 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/A_brittle_star_
flipping_itself_rightside-up.jpg/1024px-
A_brittle_star_flipping_itself_rightside
-up.jpg

520,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
6349) The arthropods trilobites
evolve.1 2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Xiao, S., Yang, Z. & Knoll, A. H.
Nature 391, 553-558 (1998). Article
ISI ChemPort
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage
.taf?file=/nature/journal/v391/n6667/ful
l/391553a0_fs.html
(not clear that
these are trilobite...this needs to be
checked)
2. ^
http://www.nature.com0/nature/journal/v4
27/n6971/full/427205a.html
(here it is
claimed they are trilobite embryos)
3. ^ Patel,
N.H. (1994). Developmental evolution:
insights from studies of insect
segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/con
tent/266/5185/581.abstract
{science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%
27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my
4. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/
trilobita/trilobitafr.html

5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p168.
6. ^ Dott and Prothero, "Evolution of
the Earth", sixth edition, 2002,
p210-211.
7. ^ Patel, N.H. (1994). Developmental
evolution: insights from studies of
insect segmentation. Science 266(5185):
581--590. http://www.sciencemag.org/con
tent/266/5185/581.abstract
{science_266
_5185_oldest_trilo.pdf}
AND http://patelweb.berkeley.edu/Nipam%
27s%20Own%20Articles.PDFs/Patel1994A.pdf
has 510my {510 mybn}
8. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/arthropoda/
trilobita/trilobitafr.html
{540 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.trilobites.info/biostratigrap
hy.htm

[2]
http://www.trilobites.info/origins.htm
[3] Babcock, L.E., S Peng, G. Geyer, &
J.H. Shergold. 2005. Changing
perspectives on Cambrian
chronostratigraphy and progress toward
subdivision of the Cambrian System.
Geosci. Journal
9(2):101-6. http://www.springerlink.com
/content/t7062n5744462260/

[4] Niles Eldredge, "Trilobites and
Evolutionary Patterns", p305-332 in
Anthony Hallam, "Patterns of evolution
as illustrated by the fossil record,
Volume 5", 1977,
p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=
q7GjDIyyWegC

[5] Hughes, N. 2007. The evolution of
trilobite body patterning. Annu. Rev.
Earth Planet. Sci. 2007.
35:401–34. http://www.annualreviews.o
rg/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.earth.35.0313
06.140258

[6] Richard A. Fortey "Trilobite
Systematics: The Last 75 Years",
Journal of Paleontology , Vol. 75, No.
6, 75th Anniversary Issue (Nov., 2001),
pp.
1141-1151 http://www.jstor.org/stable/1
307082

[7]
http://www.palaeos.org/Cambrian_Stage_3
 
[1] example of earliest trilobites
(e.g., Fallotaspis longa) UNKNOWN
source: http://www.trilobites.info/biost
ratfallon.jpg


[2] Niles Eldredge, ''Trilobites and
Evolutionary Patterns'', p305-332 in
Anthony Hallam, ''Patterns of evolution
as illustrated by the fossil record,
Volume 5'', 1977,
p322. http://books.google.com/books?id=
q7GjDIyyWegC COPYRIGHTED
source: http://books.google.com/books?id
=q7GjDIyyWegC

513,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
6351) Arthropods Crustaceans (shrimps,
crabs, lobsters, barnicles).1

FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
2. ^ David J. Siveter,
Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek, "An
early Cambrian phosphatocopid
crustacean with three-dimensionally
preserved soft parts from Shropshire,
England", Special Papers in
Paleontology, 70, 2003
3. ^ Siveter, David
J., Mark Williams, and Dieter Waloszek.
“A Phosphatocopid Crustacean with
Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.”
Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001):
479
–481. http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/293/5529/479.abstract

4. ^ David J. Siveter, Mark Williams,
and Dieter Waloszek, "An early Cambrian
phosphatocopid crustacean with
three-dimensionally preserved soft
parts from Shropshire, England",
Special Papers in Paleontology, 70,
2003
5. ^ Siveter, David J., Mark Williams,
and Dieter Waloszek. “A
Phosphatocopid Crustacean with
Appendages from the Lower Cambrian.”
Science 293, no. 5529 (July 20, 2001):
479
–481. http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/293/5529/479.abstract

6. ^ Palmer, "Primitive Life", 2009,
p66-67.
7. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
8. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395


MORE INFO
[1]
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles
/Fossilgroups/Crustacea/fossils.html

[2]
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/
2001/07/0719_crustacean.html

earliest fossils: Shropshire, England2
3  

[1] Canadaspis perfecta (ROM 61119) –
Part and counterpart. Complete specimen
showing phosphatized gut diverticulae
and posterior dark stain (probably
representing decay fluids), lateral
view. Left images, complete slab (part)
showing associated species; Yohoia
tenuis (bottom right), Waptia
fieldensis (left, partially covered by
a disarticulated carapace of
Canadaspis), Burgessia bella (far
left). Right images, details of the
counterpart. Specimen length = 72 mm.
Specimen dry – direct light (top
row), dry – polarized light (bottom
left), wet – polarized light (bottom
right). Walcott Quarry. © Royal
Ontario Museum. Photos: Jean-Bernard
Caron COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.burgess-shale.rom.on.
ca/images/zoomify/canadaspis-rom-61119.j
pg


[2] 3D model of Canadaspis
perfecta. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://burgess-shale.rom.on.ca/v
ideo/fossil-gallery/0b1-canadaspis-turnt
able.jpg

501,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
6348) Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu1
} (centipedes and millipedes).2

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ "Myriapoda." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 05 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/myriapoda-1

2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Robison, Richard A.
“Earliest-known Uniramous
Arthropod.” Nature 343.6254 (1990):
163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html

{Robison_19900111.pdf}
4. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod
Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
5. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I.,
2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from
the Upper Cambrian of East Siberia:
Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0302
2596
{Budd_2001.pdf}
6. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A.
Selden, and Dianne Edwards. “Land
Animals in the Silurian: Arachnids and
Myriapods from Shropshire, England.”
Science 250, no. 4981 (November 2,
1990): 658
–661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmg
r?gca=sci;250/4981/658

7. ^ Robison, Richard A.
“Earliest-known Uniramous
Arthropod.” Nature 343.6254 (1990):
163–164.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
343/n6254/abs/343163a0.html

{Robison_19900111.pdf}
8. ^ Fortey and Thomas, "Arthropod
Relationships", 1998, p212-213.
9. ^ Budd, G.E.,
Högström, A.E.S., and Gogin, I.,
2001, A myriapod-like arthropod from
the Upper Cambrian of East Siberia:
Paläontologische Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0302
2596
{Budd_2001.pdf}
10. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B.,
Jennifer M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple,
Simon J. Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and
Terrence D. Lukie. “First Steps on
Land: Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

11. ^ Budd, G.E., Högström, A.E.S.,
and Gogin, I., 2001, A myriapod-like
arthropod from the Upper Cambrian of
East Siberia: Paläontologische
Zeitschrift, v. 75p.
37-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0302
2596

12. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

13. ^ Jeram, Andrew J., Paul A. Selden,
and Dianne Edwards. “Land Animals in
the Silurian: Arachnids and Myriapods
from Shropshire, England.” Science
250, no. 4981 (November 2, 1990): 658
–661. http://www.sciencemag.org/citmg
r?gca=sci;250/4981/658

14. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/

15. ^ William A Shear, Andrew J Jeram
and Paul Selden, "Centiped legs
(Arthropoda,
Chilopoda, Scutigeromorpha) from the
Silurian and Devonian of Britain and
the Devonian of North America.",
American Museum novitates 3231:1-16
(1998)
http://biostor.org/reference/30111
16. ^ Grimaldi, Engels, "Evolution of
the Insects", 2005, p107-108.
17. ^ Hedges and
Kumar, "TimeTree of Life", 2009,
p251-253.
18. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p111.
earliest possible fossils: (Marine
deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA3
4 and (Ust-Majan formation) East
Siberia5 |(earliest fossils)
Shropshire, England6  

[1] Description Lithobius
forficatus Deutsch: Steinläufer Date
9 August 2005 Source Own
work Author Darkone CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/79/Steinl%C3%A4ufer_%28L
ithobius_forficatus%29_3.jpg


[2] Description Tachypodoiulus
niger Date 2007-06-28 Source Own
work Author Stemonitis CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/8/86/Tachypodoiulus_
niger_1.jpg/1280px-Tachypodoiulus_niger_
1.jpg

488,000,000 YBN
4
6314) During the Ordovician (ORDeVisiN1
} the number of genera {JeN-R-u2 } will
quadruple.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Ordovician." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 30
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/ordovician
2. ^ "genera." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Aug.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/g
enera>.
3. ^ "Ordovician radiation."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec.
2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/1312376/Ordovician-radiation
>.
4. ^ "Ordovician radiation."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Encyclopædia
Britannica Inc., 2011. Web. 30 Dec.
2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/1312376/Ordovician-radiation
>.

MORE INFO
[1] Harold Levine, "The Eath
Through Time", 2006, p333
 
[1] Recreation of life during the
Ordovician UNKNOWN
source: http://ferrebeekeeper.files.word
press.com/2010/11/ordovician.jpg


[2] A second peak time in the
abundance of shell-surviving life forms
was in the Upper Ordovician (by this
time also, the first larger
vertebrates, fossil fish, had
appeared). Below are two illustrations:
the first, an artist' conception of
marine invertebrate life in the late
Ordovician; the second, a typical slab
of Ordovician limestone (from Indiana)
containing the fossil types listed in
its caption: PD
source: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect20/
ordovicsea.jpg

475,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
244) Non-vascular plants evolve,
Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo3 }, (Liverworts,
Hornworts, Mosses).4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^
"Bryophyta." Webster's Revised
Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 01
Jan. 2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/B
ryophyta>.
4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
6. ^ Palmer, et
al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p82.
7. ^ S26
(c475)
8. ^ S15 (c475)

MORE INFO
[1] "Bryophyte". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryophyte
[2] "Bryophyta." McGraw-Hill Dictionary
of Scientific and Technical Terms.
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
Answers.com 22 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/bryophyta-1

 
[1] Phaeoceros laevis (L.) Prosk. gnu
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Anthoceros_levis.jpg


[2] English: A closeup shot of moss on
a rock in Beacon Hill Park, Victoria,
Canada. Sony Alpha A100 Date 25
March 2007 Source Own
work Author KirinX at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) CC-BY-SA-2.5. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/1c/Moss_closeup.jpg

475,000,000 YBN
8 9
398) Plants live on land.4 5 6
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A.
J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10
(4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL
>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-
cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
2. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L.
Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin.
“Fragments of the earliest land
plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html

3. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
4. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian
land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4),
197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL
>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-
cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
5. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L.
Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin.
“Fragments of the earliest land
plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html

6. ^ Richard Cowen, "History of Life",
(Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005).
7. ^ Gray, J.,
Massa, D., & Boucot, A. J. Caradocian
land plant microfossils from libya.
Geology , April 1982, 10 (4),
197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL
>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org
/content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-
cfd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_
198204xx.pdf}
8. ^ Wellman, Charles H., Peter L.
Osterloff, and Uzma Mohiuddin.
“Fragments of the earliest land
plants.” Nature 425.6955 (2003) :
282-285. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v425/n6955/full/nature01884.html

{475 MYBN}
9. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p82.
earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya7
 

[1] Gray, J., Massa, D., & Boucot, A.
J. Caradocian land plant microfossils
from libya. Geology , April 1982, 10
(4), 197-201. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1982
)10<197:CLPMFL>2.0.CO;2 http://geology.gsapubs.org/
content/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-c
fd4-4eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4 {Gray_Jane_1
98204xx.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://geology.gsapubs.org/conte
nt/10/4/197.abstract?sid=dadb8801-cfd4-4
eb4-b70e-95cb217113e4


[2] Phaeoceros laevis (L.) Prosk. gnu

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Anthoceros_levis.jpg

472,000,000 YBN
8 9 10
402) The first animals live on land,
arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and
millipedes).4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

2. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p109-110.
3. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and
Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda)
from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan.,
2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847
{Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
4. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p109-110.
6. ^ Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, "Morphology and
Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda)
from Scotland", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan.,
2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847
{Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
7. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

8. ^ MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391

9. ^ Heather M. Wilson and Lyall I.
Anderson, "Morphology and Taxonomy of
Paleozoic Millipedes (Diplopoda:
Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from
Scotland", Journal of Paleontology,
Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847
{Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf}
10. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p67.
earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston,
Ontario, Canada7  

[1] Figure 4. Field photographs of
representative trackways. Scale bars
represent 5 cm. A: Trackway with
central drag and well-defined appendage
marks. Bottom surface. B: Trackway with
central drag and poorly defined
appendage marks. Top surface. Surface
dips to top of photograph; note downdip
offset of central drag. C: Robust
trackway with well-developed appendage
marks and no central drag. Note
push-ups of sand (arrows) associated
with appendage impressions. Figure 4
from: MacNaughton, Robert B., Jennifer
M. Cole, Robert W. Dalrymple, Simon J.
Braddy, Derek E.G. Briggs, and Terrence
D. Lukie. “First Steps on Land:
Arthropod Trackways in
Cambrian-Ordovician Eolian Sandstone,
Southeastern Ontario, Canada.”
Geology 30, no. 5 (May 2002): 391
–394. http://geology.geoscienceworld.
org/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391 COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://geology.geoscienceworld.o
rg/citmgr?gca=geology;30/5/391


[2] Figure 2 from: Heather M. Wilson
and Lyall I. Anderson, ''Morphology and
Taxonomy of Paleozoic Millipedes
(Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda)
from Scotland'', Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 78, No. 1 (Jan.,
2004), pp.
169-184 http://www.jstor.org/stable/409
4847 {Anderson_Lyall_200401xx.pdf} COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4094
847?&Search=yes&searchText=MILLIPEDES&se
archText=TAXONOMY&searchText=MORPHOLOGY&
searchText=PALEOZOIC&list=hide&searchUri
=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DMOR
PHOLOGY%2BAND%2BTAXONOMY%2BOF%2BPALEOZOI
C%2BMILLIPEDES%26acc%3Don%26wc%3Don&prev
Search=&item=2&ttl=43&returnArticleServi
ce=showFullText

460,000,000 YBN
5
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve,
Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo2 } First
vertebrate teeth.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^ "Gnathostomata."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific
and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 29
Dec. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/gnathostoma
ta-1

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p360-363.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363. {460 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Douglas Palmer, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p106,110
[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl
Oceans4  
[1] Image from: Palmer, D. The
Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Animals: A
Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500
Species. New Line Books,
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Palmer, D. The Marshall
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive
Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New
Line Books, 2002.


[2] Kardong, ''Vertebrates'', Third
Edition, 2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Kardong, "Vertebrates", Third
Edition, 2002.

460,000,000 YBN
2 3
404) Jawed fishes Cartilaginous fishes
(ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates,
and sawfishes).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
2. ^ Miller, Randall
F., Richard Cloutier, and Susan Turner.
“The Oldest Articulated
Chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian
Period.” Nature 425.6957 (2003):
501–504. Web. 23 May
2012. http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html
{M
iller_Chondrichthyans_2003.pdf}
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363.
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p360-363. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p360-363.


[2] Miller, Randall F., Richard
Cloutier, and Susan Turner. “The
Oldest Articulated Chondrichthyan from
the Early Devonian Period.” Nature
425.6957 (2003): 501–504. Web. 23 May
2012. http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html {M
iller_Chondrichthyans_2003.pdf} COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v425/n6957/full/nature02001.html

460,000,000 YBN
2 3
458) Earliest fungi on land. Ancestor
of all terrestrial fungi.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

2. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

3. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

 
[1] Earliest Glomerales fossil fig 1
from: Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). ''Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician''. Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3077
684


[2] Phylogenetic tree from: Richard
Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's Tale'',
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p511. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p511.

460,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9
6414) Fungi "Glomeromycota"
{GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu1 }.2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomer
omycota&submit=Submit

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The
Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849; doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ S
Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair, Maria L
Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A molecular
timescale of eukaryote evolution and
the rise of complex multicellular
life", BMC Evolutionary Biology 2004,
4:2 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004).
5. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

6. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (c750mybn)
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges,
"The Origin and Evolution of Model
Organisms", Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (2002); doi:10.1038/nrg929,
(2002). (c1460 to 1210mybn)
9. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(estimate that between 947 and 968)

MORE INFO
[1]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=glomer
omycetes&submit=Submit

[2] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of
Fungi", 2008, p142
[3] Redecker, Dirk, and
Philipp Raab. "Phylogeny of the
Glomeromycota (arbuscular Mycorrhizal
Fungi): Recent Developments and New
Gene Markers." Mycologia 98.6
(November): 2006, p885
–895. http://www.mycologia.org/conten
t/98/6/885.abstract

earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA5
 

[1] Gigaspora margarita in association
with Lotus corniculatus Description
Lotus corniculatus var. japonicus
kolonisiert durch Gigaspora
margarita Date 18 September
2007 Source Own work Author
Mike Guether GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/c/c7/Gigaspora_marga
rita.JPG/1024px-Gigaspora_margarita.JPG


[2] germinating Gigaspora decipiens
source: http://pages.unibas.ch/bothebel/
people/redecker/ff/glomero.htm

440,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
236) Vascular plants evolve.3 4
FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ Palmer et
al, "Primitive Life", 2009, p96.
6. ^
Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis
and Mark W. Chase, "The plant tree of
life: an overview and some points of
view", American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (c400)
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
7. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004). (c390)
 
[1] Description Equisetum telmateia
(Equisetopsida) at Cambridge Botanic
Garden Date 18 May 2008 Source Own
work Author Rror Other versions
Derivative works of this file:
species on earth.jpg GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/7c/Equisetopsida.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

440,000,000 YBN
4 5
360) Bony fishes.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p338-363.
3. ^ "bony fish." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Jul.
2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/osteichthye
s

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363. {440 MYBN}
5. ^
Palmet et al, "Primitive Life", 2009,
p97.

MORE INFO
[1] "teleost." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 26
Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/teleost
Ocean and fresh water2 3  
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] A sturgeon
(pt:esturjāo). esturgeon noir
d'Amérique (Acipenser oxyrinchus
oxyrinchus) http://images.fws.gov/ PD

source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c2/Sturgeon2.jpg

440,000,000 YBN
4
6172) The first lung evolves.2
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p338-363.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p338-363.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p338-363. {440 MYBN (guess based on
ray-finned fish evolving}

MORE INFO
[1] Farmer, C.G. 1999. The
evolution of the vertebrate
cardio-pulmonary system. Annual Review
of Physiology
61:573-592 http://biologylabs.utah.edu/
farmer/publications%20pdf/1999%20AnnuRev
Physiol61.pdf

Ocean (presumably)3  
[1] Image from: Palmer, D. The
Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of
Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Animals: A
Comprehensive Color Guide to Over 500
Species. New Line Books,
2002. COPYRIGHTED
source: Palmer, D. The Marshall
Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs &
Prehistoric Animals: A Comprehensive
Color Guide to Over 500 Species. New
Line Books, 2002.


[2] Earliest fish with lung in
existance?[t] Nile Bichir (Polypterus
bichir bichir) from Günther, A.C.L.G.,
1880. An introduction to the study of
fishes. Today & Tomorrow's Book Agency,
New Delhi. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e8/Nile_bichir.png

425,000,000 YBN
2
377) Lobe-fin fishes.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p335-338.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p335-338.

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=89942

[2]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=42376

 
[1] Description Preserved
specimen of chalumnae (Also known as
Coelacanth [1]) in the Natural History
Museum, Vienna, Austria. Believed
to have been extinct for 70 million
years, this specimen was caught the 18
October of 1974, next to
Salimani/Selimani (Grande Comore,
Comoros Islands) 11°48′40.7″S
43°16′3.3″E Length: 170 cm -
Weight: 60 kg Obtained by stiching
3 HiRes images and removing the
background with image
post-processing. Date August
2007 Source Own work Author
Alberto Fernandez Fernandez GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/fa/Latimeria_Chalumnae_-
_Coelacanth_-_NHMW.jpg

420,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
6350) Arthropod Hexapods (six legs,
includes all insects).1 2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Timothy Duane Schowalter, "Insect
Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach", 2006,
p781. http://books.google.com/books?id=
LQqHWCtj0F0C&pg=PA781

2. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005,
p66,116.
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the
Insects, 2005, p146.
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005,
p66,116.
6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of
Life", 2009, p251-253.
7. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395


MORE INFO
[1] Blaxter, Mark.
“Evolutionary Biology: Sum of the
Arthropod Parts.” Nature 413.6852
(2001):
121–122. http://www.nature.com/nature
/journal/v413/n6852/full/413121a0.html

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert)
Scotland3  

[1] Description Protura specimen,
taken under stereo microscope (40x).
Acerentomon sp. Date 7 December 2008,
03:13 Source Protura Uploaded
by Richard001 Author Gregor
?nidar CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/bc/Protura_specimen_(Ace
rentomon_species)_micrograph.jpg


[2] Description English: Campodea
staphylinus, a dipluran. Photo by
Michel Vuijlsteke. Taken on May 9, 2006
at 4.09pm CEST in Gent, Belgium. Date
2007-07-08 (original upload
date) Source Transferred from
en.wikipedia Author Original uploader
was Mvuijlst at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2e/Diplura.jpg

416,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
6352) Insects.1 2 Bristletail and
Silverfish.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the
Insects, 2005, p146.
2. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, Evolution of the
Insects, 2005, p146.
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
Evolution of the Insects, 2005, p146.
5. ^
Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of
Life", 2009, p250-254.
7. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005,
p1. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ql
6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA1

 
[1] Description Français : Groupe
de Petrobius maritimus sur falaise
supralittorale, Toull ar C'Hrabanoù,
Goulien, Finistère, Bretagne,
France Date 2 June 2010 Source Own
work Author Jymm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a4/Petrobius_maritimus_2
010-06-02.jpg


[2] Description Archaeognatha:
Machilidae, collected from Anglesey,
UK Date 2006-12-28 Source Own work
(own photo) Author
User:Stemonitis Permission (Reusing
this file) CC Attribution
ShareAlike 2.5 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/42/Archaeognatha.jpg

400,000,000 YBN
7 8 9 10 11
227) Fungi "Ascomycota"
{aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu1 } (yeasts, truffles,
Penicillium, morels {mu reLZ2 }).3 4 5


FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=ascomy
cota&submit=Submit

2. ^ "morel." The American Heritage®
Dictionary of the English Language,
Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004. Answers.com 01 Jul.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/morel
3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
5. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
6. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp,
"The oldest fossil ascomycetes", Nature
399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com
/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

7. ^ T. N. Taylor, H. Hass & H. Kerp,
"The oldest fossil ascomycetes", Nature
399, 648 (17 June 1999),
doi:10.1038/21349 http://www.nature.com
/nature/journal/v399/n6737/full/399648a0
.html

8. ^ Redecker D, Kodner R, Graham LE.
(2000). "Glomalean fungi from the
Ordovician". Science 289 (5486):
1920–21. Bibcode 2000Sci...289.1920R.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID
10988069. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3
077684

9. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1009my)
10. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1140my)
11. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] Kirk, et al., "Dictionary of
Fungi", 2008, p142
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert)
Aberdeenshire, Scotland6  

[1] white truffle
cutted photographed by
myself GNU head Permission is
granted to copy, distribute and/or
modify this document under the terms of
the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.2 or any later version
published by the Free Software
Foundation; with no Invariant Sections,
no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
Texts. A copy of the license is
included in the section entitled ''Text
of the GNU Free Documentation
License.''
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/fd/Truffle_washed_and_cu
tted.jpg


[2] EColi-Scerevisiae.jpg (50KB, MIME
type: image/jpeg) Wikimedia Commons
logo This is a file from the Wikimedia
Commons. The description on its
description page there is shown
below. Escherichia coli (little
forms) & Saccharomyces cerevisiae (big
forms) by MEB Public domain This file
has been released into the public
domain by the copyright holder, its
copyright has expired, or it is
ineligible for copyright. This applies
worldwide. brewer's yeast/baker's
yeast
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:EColi-Scerevisiae.jpg

400,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5
237) Vascular plants ferns evolve.1
FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
2. ^ Palmer et al, "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p110.
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer,
Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase,
"The plant tree of life: an overview
and some points of view", American
Journal of Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). (c390 (360 for living species)
4. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c390)
5. ^
Taylor, Thomas N.; Edith L. Taylor.
(1993). The Biology and Evolution of
Fossil Plants. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall. pp. 332–334. ISBN
0-13-651589-4.

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full
(318mybn)
[2] Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah
D. Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(350mybn)
 
[1] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

385,000,000 YBN
6 7 8
405) The first forests.3 4
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

2. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

3. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

4. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

5. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

6. ^ William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
"Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa", Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html

{385 mybn}
7. ^ Palmet et al, "Primitive
Life", 2009, p111.
8. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm
{380mybn}
earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York,
USA5  

[1] a, General view of the crown
portion, showing longitudinal ranks of
branch bases on the trunk proximally,
and attached branches with digitate
ramification and speckled surface
pattern distally. Scale bar, 20 cm. b,
Line drawing of the specimen as
recovered including trunk and crown;
the box shows the portion in a, and the
arrow indicates the branch in c. Scale
bar, 10 cm. c, Close-up of a distal
branch showing speckled texture and
lateral appendages. Scale bar, 20
mm. figure 1 from: William E. Stein1,
Frank Mannolini2, Linda VanAller
Hernick2, Ed Landing2 & Christopher M.
Berry3, ''Giant cladoxylopsid trees
resolve the enigma of the Earth's
earliest forest stumps at Gilboa'',
Nature 446, 904-907 (19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v446/n7138/images/nature05705-f1.2.
jpg


[2] a, Composite image of large trunk
specimen, a cast with upper and lower
counterparts, NYSM 17040. Arrows at the
distal end (top) correspond to the
region in Fig. 3a; arrows at the
proximal end (bottom) correspond to the
region in Fig. 3b. b, Line drawing
showing the architecture of Wattieza
attached to Eospermatopteris. The
length of the trunk is not firmly
established, so the minimum tree height
is shown. Light branches right, also in
Fig. 1a right, appear in life position
but are not definitively attached.
Scale bar, 1 m for both panels. figure
2 from: William E. Stein1, Frank
Mannolini2, Linda VanAller Hernick2, Ed
Landing2 & Christopher M. Berry3,
''Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the
enigma of the Earth's earliest forest
stumps at Gilboa'', Nature 446, 904-907
(19 April
2007) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v446/n7138/full/nature05705.html CO
PYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v446/n7138/images/nature05705-f2.2.
jpg

385,000,000 YBN
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
411) The first flying animal, an
arthropod insect. Ancestor of all
winged insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu4 })
(Mayflies, Dragonflies, Damselflies).5
6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157

2. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect
evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152

AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
3. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

4. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=pteryg
ota&submit=Submit

5. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p148. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA157

6. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect
evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152

AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
7. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

8. ^ Knecht, R. J., Engel, M. S., &
Benner, J. S. (2011). Late
carboniferous paleoichnology reveals
the oldest full-body impression of a
flying insect. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences , 108
(16),
6515-6519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pn
as.1015948108

9. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I (2005)
Discovery of the oldest known Pterygota
in the Lower Carboniferous of the
Upper Silesian Basin in the Czech
Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

10. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of
the Insects", 2005, p146
11. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution
of the Insects", 2005,
p163. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA163

12. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p142.
13. ^ Prokop J, Nel A,
Hoch I (2005) Discovery of the oldest
known Pterygota in the
Lower Carboniferous of the Upper
Silesian Basin in the Czech Republic
(Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
14. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm
{315 MYBN}
15. ^ Regier, et al,
"Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are
terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods
are not monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci.
2005 February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

16. ^ Palmer, et al., "Prehistoric
Life", 2009, p142.

MORE INFO
[1] Engel MS, Grimaldi DA (2004)
New light shed on the oldest insect.
Nature 427: 627–630
[2] Grimaldi D, Engel MS (2005)
Evolution of the Insects (Cambridge
Univ. Press, Cambridge)
[3] Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known
Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous
of the Upper Silesian Basin in the
Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archoaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8

[4] "Orthoptera." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/orthoptera-
1

[5] David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p159. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA159

earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation)
southeastern Massachusetts8 and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic9  

[1] English: A female subimago of March
Brown (Rhithrogena germanica) of family
Heptageniidae. Mayflies are insects
which belong to the Order Ephemeroptera
(from the Greek ephemeros, short-lived
and pteron, wing, referring to the
short life span of adults). They have
been placed into an ancient group of
insects termed the Paleoptera, which
also contains the dragonflies and
damselflies. They are aquatic insects
whose immature stage (called naiad or,
colloquially, nymph) usually lasts one
year in fresh water. The rests on Rough
Horsetail or Scouringrush Horsetail
(Equisetum hyemale) Date 8 January
2008 Source Own work Author Richard
Bartz, Munich aka Makro Freak
Image:MFB.jpg CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/49/Rhithrogena_germanica
_subimago_on_Equisetum_hyemale.jpg


[2] FIGURE 2—Preliminary hypothesis
of phylogenetic relationships among
major and interesting groups of living
and extinct hexapods and
basal pterygote Insecta. Numbers refer
to synapomorphies (see Table 1); empty
boxes are homoplasious synapomorphies.
Some significant fossils
are-CSCO-3h--F3.large denoted by
circled letters (see Table 2), but many
fossils are not listed for most groups.
Thick lines indicate the approximate
chronology of lineages. The number of
lineages depicted for paraphyletic
lineages
(‘‘Protodonata,’’‘‘Protortho
ptera,’’ Blattaria [Blattoptera])
are arbitrary, and simply indicate
multiple, unresolved lineages. The
names of orders with freshwater aquatic
larvae are shaded (a presumed ancestral
habit). Relationships are based on
Kristensen (1975, 1991, 1999), Willmann
(1997, 1999), Grimaldi (1997, for
Dictyoptera), Engel and Grimaldi (2000,
Zoraptera and related orders), and
others. Figure 2 from: Grimaldi, D.
2001. Insect evolutionary history from
Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond.
Journal of Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152
AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf COPYRIGHTED
source: www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2
000_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_hist
ory.pdf

375,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
380) The first tetrapods evolve
(organisms with four feet), the
amphibians.3 First limbs (arms and
legs) and fingers.4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Ted Huntington.
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p302-329.
4. ^ Ted Huntington.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p302-329.
6. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The origin and
evolution of model organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html
{Hedges_2002.p
df} {375(360+-15) mybn}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p302-329. {340 mybn}
8. ^ P. E. Ahlberg,
"Tetrapod or near-tetrapod fossils from
the Upper Devonian of Scotland", Nature
354, 298 - 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html
{368
mybn (fossil}
9. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates
/tetrapods/amphibfr.html
{368 mybn
(fossil}
10. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles
/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{368 mybn (fossil}
Fresh water, Greenland (on the
equator)5  

[1] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg


[2] Reconstructions of (a)
Acanthostega and (b) Ichthyostega, from
Benton, 1997. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Pal
aeofiles/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/amphibpic
s/ichthyostega.jpg

363,000,000 YBN
4 5
379) The first vertebrates live on land
(an amphibian).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p302-329.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
4. ^
http://palaeo.gly.bris.ac.uk/Palaeofiles
/Fossilgroups/Amphibia/fossilrecord.html
{363mybn}
5. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates
/tetrapods/tetrafr.html
{360mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] P. E. Ahlberg, "Tetrapod or
near-tetrapod fossils from the Upper
Devonian of Scotland", Nature 354, 298
- 301 (28 November
1991) http://www.nature.com/nature/jour
nal/v354/n6351/abs/354298a0.html

[2]
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates
/tetrapods/amphibfr.html

Fresh water, Greenland (on the
equator)3  

[1] Yes, it's time for the Palaeozoic
scenes of Life before Man. Or some of
them, anyway - if you really want to
see a load of trilobites, you're
probably Richard Fortey, and I will
ignore any comments that claim
otherwise. (Also, I can't include
everything - otherwise we'd have to
rename this blog Love in the Time of
Burian, which sounds a bit rubbish.) My
bias is most definitely towards
vertebrates and, in particular,
tetrapods, and the below scene -
featuring Ichthyostega - marks their
first appearance in the book. This
painting is perhaps unique in this book
as it combines the elements of the
animal-free landscapes with, well, some
animals. Burian's skill is in making
this scene, filled as it is with flora
so utterly different to what we are
accustomed to seeing today, look as if
he just took a casual stroll out into
the country to paint it. UNKNOWN
source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-Zdvegv
1Fny4/UCk-Z929irI/AAAAAAAABM8/_7c21BO7T1
s/s1600/Ichthyostega.jpg


[2] Timeline of phylogeny of animals,
figure 6 from: S. Blair Hedges, ''The
origin and evolution of model
organisms'', Nature Reviews Genetics 3,
838-849 (November
2002) http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal
/v3/n11/full/nrg929.html {Hedges_2002.p
df} a) The relationships and
divergence times (millions of years ago
(Mya) plusminus one standard error) of
selected model animals are shown, based
on recent multigene and multiprotein
studies51, 61, 84. The fossil
divergence time of birds and mammals
(310 Mya) was used to calibrate the
molecular clock. Branch lengths are not
proportional to time. b ) The
relationships and numbers of living
species, from a diversity of sources in
most of the main groups. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journa
l/v3/n11/images/nrg929-f6.jpg

360,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10
226) Fungi "Basidiomycota"
{Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu1 } (most mushrooms,
rusts, club fungi).2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=basidi
omycota&submit=Submit

2. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
3. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
5. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck
CB (1985) Studies of Paleozoic fungi.
V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon
newberryi from the Upper Devonian. Am
J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.k
u.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%
20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734

6. ^ Stubblefield SP, Taylor TN, Beck
CB (1985) Studies of Paleozoic fungi.
V. Wood-decaying fungi in Callixylon
newberryi from the Upper Devonian. Am
J Bot
72:1765–1774 http://paleobotany.bio.k
u.edu/taylorPDFs%5C%5B1985%5D%20Stubblef
ield%20et%20al.-Wood%20decaying%20fungi%
20in%20Callixylon%20newberryi%20from%20t
he%20Upper%20Devonian.pdf

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2443734

7. ^ Michael Krings, Nora Dotzler, Jean
Galtier and Thomas N. Taylor, "Oldest
fossil basidiomycete clamp
connections", Mycoscience, Volume 52,
Number 1 (2011), 18-23, DOI:
10.1007/s10267-010-0065-4 http://www.sp
ringerlink.com/content/725614321xj0604w/

8. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(968my)
9. ^ S. Blair Hedges, "The Origin and
Evolution of Model Organisms", Nature
Reviews Genetics 3, 838-849 (2002);
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002). (1210my)
10. ^
Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (700my)

MORE INFO
[1] "Basidiomycota". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basidiomyco
ta

[2] McLAUGHLIN, DAVID J., ALAN BECKETT,
and KWON S. YOON. “Ultrastructure and
Evolution of Ballistosporic
Basidiospores.” Botanical Journal of
the Linnean Society 91.1-2 (1985):
253–271. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.c
om/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1985.tb01149.
x/abstract

earliest fossils: Indiana5  
[1] Amanita muscaria
(Homobasidiomycetes)
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Agaricales.jpg


[2] Basidiomycete Life Cycle tjv
source: http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/ima
ges/332/Basidiomycota/General_basidio/Ba
sidiomycete_Life_Cycle_tjv.php?highres=t
rue

360,000,000 YBN
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
6353) Folding wing insects.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect
evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152

AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
2. ^ Garwood, Russell, and Mark Sutton.
“X-ray Micro-tomography of
Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: New
Insights into Early Insects.” Biology
Letters 6.5 (2010): 699 –702.
Print. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/6/5/699.full

3. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p146.
4. ^ David A.
Grimaldi, Michael S. Engel, "Evolution
of the Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191

5. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular
clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and
biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol
Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/con
tent/19/5/748.full.pdf
{Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
6. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life",
2009, p143.
7. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known
Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous
of the Upper Silesian Basin in the
Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
8. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect
evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152

AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
9. ^ Regier, et al, "Pancrustacean
phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial
crustaceans and maxillopods are not
monophyletic", Proc Biol Sci. 2005
February 22; 272(1561): 395–401.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/272/1561/395

10. ^ Garwood, Russell, and Mark
Sutton. “X-ray Micro-tomography of
Carboniferous stem-Dictyoptera: New
Insights into Early Insects.” Biology
Letters 6.5 (2010): 699 –702.
Print. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/6/5/699.full


MORE INFO
[1] Video: Virtual fossil of
Archimylacris eggintoni,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yR-_nq2
UsOc

earliest fossils: (Archimylacris
eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK2  

[1] Stonefly in the genus Dinotoperla.
Taken in Swifts Creek, Victoria in
November 2007 GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/e/e6/Stonefly_-_dinotoperl
a.jpg


[2] Nymph of unidentified
stonefly Description Deutsch:
Steinfliegenlarve Date 16 June
2006 Source Own work Author
böhringer friedrich CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/b/b1/SteinfliegenLar
ve2.JPG/1280px-SteinfliegenLarve2.JPG

359,000,000 YBN
11 12
243) The first plant seed evolves.
Ancestor of all seed plants.5 6 7 8

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W.
Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler.
“The earliest seeds.” Nature
293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html

2. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed
Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142,
No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/17
11577

3. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc.
Edinburgh V64, 29, 201, 261 (1960);
ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
4. ^
"Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosper
ms

5. ^ Gillespie, William H., Gar W.
Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler.
“The earliest seeds.” Nature
293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html

6. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed
Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142,
No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/17
11577

7. ^ A. G. Long, Trans. Royal Soc.
Edinburgh V64, 29, 201, 261 (1960);
ibid, V64, 281 (1961), V64, 401.
8. ^
"Pteridosperms." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pteridosper
ms

9. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed
Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142,
No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/17
11577

10. ^ "Genomosperma kidstonii."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online Academic Edition.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 27
Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/229254/Genomosperma-kidstonii
>.
11. ^ Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed
Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142,
No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/17
11577
{359 MYBN (Lower Carboniferous}
12. ^
"Genomosperma kidstonii." Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia
Britannica, 2011. Web. 27 Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/229254/Genomosperma-kidstonii
>. {359
MYBN (Lower Carboniferous}

MORE INFO
[1] "Gymnosperms". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperms

[2] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/412
3845

[3] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
(c320 (360 for living species)
[4] Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350
(300 for radiation)
[5] Dr. Singh, Dr. Pande & Dr.
Jain, "Diversity and Systematics of
Seed Plants",
2005. http://books.google.com/books?id=
GTUgfghg80gC

[6] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/412
3845

earliest fossils: Scotland9 10  
[1] Henry N. Andrews, ''Early Seed
Plants'', Science, New Series, Vol.
142, No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/17
11577 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1711
577


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

350,000,000 YBN
2
361) Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and
Paddlefish.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {350 MYBN}
 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.

350,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9
6355) Insects Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu1
} (Cockroaches, Termites).2 3

FOOTNOTES

1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=dictyo
ptera&submit=Submit

2. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life",
2009, p143.
3. ^ Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect
evolutionary history from Handlirsch to
Hennig, and beyond. Journal of
Paleontology
75:1152-1160. http://jpaleontol.geoscie
nceworld.org/content/75/6/1152

AND www.online-keys.net/sciaroidea/2000
_/Grimaldi_2001_insect_evolution_history
.pdf
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p146.
5. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191

6. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life",
2009, p143.
7. ^ Prokop J, Nel A, Hoch I
(2005) Discovery of the oldest known
Pterygota in the Lower Carboniferous
of the Upper Silesian Basin in the
Czech Republic (Insecta:
Archaeorthoptera). Geobios
38:383–387. http://www.sciencedirect.
com/science/article/pii/S001669950500028
8
{324 MYBN}
8. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect
molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with
palaeontological and biogeographic
landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/con
tent/19/5/748.full.pdf
{Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
9. ^ Palmer, et al, "Prehistoric Life",
2009, p283.

MORE INFO
[1] "orthopteran". Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2012. Web. 06 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecke
d/topic/433540/orthopteran/39576/Evoluti
on-and-paleontology
>
 
[1] Description English: Juvenile,
Madagascar hissing cockroach at the
Atlanta Botanical Garden. Taken
9/23/2007. Date 25 September 2007
(original upload date) Source
Transferred from en.wikipedia;
transferred to Commons by
User:Sreejithk2000 using
CommonsHelper. Author Original
uploader was Almabes at
en.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) Released into the public
domain (by the author). Other versions
Derivative works of this file:
Female Madagascar hissing
cockroach2.jpg PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/46/Female_Madagascar_his
sing_cockroach.JPG


[2] Figure 4.11. German Cockroaches,
Various Stages and Ages PD
source: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/publicat
ions/books/housing/Graphics/chapter_04/F
igure4.11.jpg

340,000,000 YBN
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
384) The hard-shell egg evolves.5 The
Amniota {aMnEOtu6 } (ancestor of
reptiles, mammals and birds).7
Start of
vertebrate internal fertilization.8

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=am
niota&submit=Submit

3. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1

4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p234.
5. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
6. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=am
niota&submit=Submit

7. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=50568&tree=0.1

8. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p234.
9. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest
known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678
(07 December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html

10. ^ JOHN NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest
Reptile Fossil Reported Found in
Scotland", NY Times, Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17
/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html

11. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.
12. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest
known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678
(07 December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html
{338
MYBN (oldest reptil fossil}
13. ^ JOHN NOBLE
WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil
Reported Found in Scotland", NY Times,
Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17
/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html
{338 MYBN (oldest
reptil fossil}
14. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {310 MYBN}
15. ^
"Eryops". Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eryops
{295 MYBN (verify}
16. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time
Tree", 2009.
17. ^ Benton, Michael J., and
Philip C. J. Donoghue.
“Paleontological Evidence to Date the
Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and
Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/24/1/26.abstract


MORE INFO
[1] Romer, Alfred Sherwood,
Price, Llewellyn Ivor, "The oldest
vertebrate egg", Am J Sci 1939 237:
826-829. http://www.ajsonline.org/cgi/c
ontent/abstract/237/11/826?maxtoshow=&hi
ts=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&title=The+oldest+ve
rtebrate+egg&andorexacttitle=and&andorex
acttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&s
earchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevanc
e&resourcetype=HWCIT

[2] Karl F. Hirsch, "The Oldest
Vertebrate Egg?", Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 53, No. 5 (Sep.,
1979), pp.
1068-1084. http://www.jstor.org/stable/
1304086

[3] Robert R. Reisz, Johannes Müller,
Molecular timescales and the fossil
record: a paleontological perspective,
Trends in Genetics, Volume 20, Issue 5,
1 May 2004, Pages 237-241, ISSN
0168-9525,
10.1016/j.tig.2004.03.007. (http://www.
sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0
168952504000757)

[4] "fenestrae." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 08 Jul.
2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/f
enestrae>
[5] "orbit." Dictionary.com Unabridged.
Random House, Inc. 08 Jul. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/o
rbit>
earliest fossils: Bathgate, West
Lothian, Scotland9 10  

[1] Figure 2 from: [t Note that this
egg is only of Permian age: 299-251
mybn] Karl F. Hirsch, ''The Oldest
Vertebrate Egg?'', Journal of
Paleontology, Vol. 53, No. 5 (Sep.,
1979), pp.
1068-1084. http://www.jstor.org/stable/
1304086 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1304
086


[2] Prothero, ''Bringing Fossils To
Life'', 2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Prothero, "Bringing Fossils To
Life", 2004. COPYRIGHTED

335,000,000 YBN
5 6
6331) The tetrapod Amniota divide into
the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu1 } (which
includes reptiles and birds) and the
Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du2 } (which
includes mammals).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=saurop
sida&submit=Submit

2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=synaps
ida&submit=Submit

3. ^ Kardong, "Vertebrates", 2002,
p108.
4. ^ Carroll, R.L., 1964, The ear1iest
reptiles: Jour. Linn. Soc (Zool.), v.
45, p.
61-83. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/d
oi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1964.tb00488.x/ab
stract

5. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.
6. ^ Benton, Michael J., and Philip C.
J. Donoghue. “Paleontological
Evidence to Date the Tree of Life.”
Molecular Biology and Evolution 24.1
(2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/24/1/26.abstract


MORE INFO
[1] Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p271
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p263
[3] Reisz RR.
Pelycosaurian reptiles from the Middle
Pennsylvanian of North America. Bull
Mus Comp Zool Harv
1972;144:27-62. http://digitool.library
.mcgill.ca/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object
_id=47789&local_base=GEN01-MCG02

[4] "reptile." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 27 Jul.
2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/reptile
earliest possible Synapsid fossils:
(Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada4  

[1] Prothero, ''Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters'', 2007,
p232. COPYRIGHTED
source: Prothero, "Evolution What the
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2007,
p232.


[2] Prothero, ''Bringing Fossils To
Life'', 2004. COPYRIGHTED
source: Prothero, "Bringing Fossils To
Life", 2004. COPYRIGHTED

325,000,000 YBN
2 3
381) Amphibians: Caecilians.1
FOOTNOTES

1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p302-329.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {325
MYBN}
3. ^ Roelants, K., Gower, D. J.,
Wilkinson, M., Loader, S. P., Biju, S.
D., Guillaume, K., Moriau, L., &
Bossuyt, F. (2007). Global patterns of
diversification in the history of
modern amphibians. Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences , 104 (3),
887-892. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.060837810
4
{370 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Andrea E. Feller, S. Blair
Hedges, Molecular Evidence for the
Early History of Living Amphibians,
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution,
Volume 9, Issue 3, June 1998, Pages
509-516, ISSN 1055-7903, DOI:
10.1006/mpev.1998.0500. (http://www.sci
encedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055
790398905000)

 
[1] Description Eocaecilia
micropodia, an early caecilian from the
Lower Jurassic of Arizona, pencil
drawing Date 22 August
2007 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com Permission (Reusi
ng this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/27/Eocaecilia_BW.jpg


[2] Figure 1 from: Roelants, K.,
Gower, D. J., Wilkinson, M., Loader, S.
P., Biju, S. D., Guillaume, K., Moriau,
L., & Bossuyt, F. (2007). Global
patterns of diversification in the
history of modern amphibians.
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences , 104 (3), 887-892. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.060837810
4 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0
608378104

320,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
238) Seed plants: Gymnosperms (ancestor
of all Cycads, Ginkgos and the
Conifers: Pine, Fir, Spruce, Redwood,
Cedar, Juniper, and Cypress1 2 ).3 4

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ "conifer." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 23 May.
2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/conifer
2. ^ "Pinophyta." The Columbia
Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.
Columbia University Press., 2012.
Answers.com 23 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/pinophyta
3. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.jstor.org/stable/412
3845
{Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
4. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004).
5. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N.
Taylor, and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The
Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants.
Elsevier Science, 2008.
6. ^ Norstog K,
Nicholls TJ. 1997.The biology of
cycads. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Press.
7. ^ Pant, D.D., R. Osborne, and Birbal
Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany. An
Introduction to Gymnosperms, Cycas, and
Cycadales. Birbal Sahni Institute of
Palaeobotany, 2002. BSIP
Monograph. http://books.google.com/book
s?ei=twN6UJqpA5D2qQGvhYHoAQ

8. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 {
Chase_Mark_2004.pdf} (c320 (360 for
living species)
9. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D.
Hackett, Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele
Pinto and Debashish, "A Molecular
Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004). (c350
(300 for radiation)

MORE INFO
[1] "Gymnosperms". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnosperms

[2] Gillespie, William H., Gar W.
Rothwell, and Stephen E. Scheckler.
“The earliest seeds.” Nature
293.5832 (1981) :
462-464. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v293/n5832/abs/293462a0.html

[3] Henry N. Andrews, "Early Seed
Plants", Science, New Series, Vol. 142,
No. 3594 (Nov. 15, 1963), pp.
925-931. http://www.jstor.org/stable/17
11577

[4]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Main/Overview/
3213.htm

 
[1] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg


[2] Fig. 2. Chronogram showing
estimates of phylogenetic relationships
and divergence times among the major
groups of extant land plants. The
estimate of relationships is
synthesized from the following papers
in this issue: Burleigh and Mathews
(2004) , Pryer et al. (2004) , Shaw and
Renzaglia (2004) , and Soltis and
Soltis (2004) . Divergence time
estimates are mostly based on analyses
of molecular data with fossil
constraints (Wikström et al., 2001 ;
Pryer et al., 2004 ) and are augmented
by fossil evidence (Kenrick and Crane,
1997 ; Wellman et al., 2003 ).
Estimates of the number of species in
each group are from Judd et al. (2002)
and W. S. Judd (personal
communication). Groups covered by a
particular article in this special
issue are circled and connected to the
names of the article's authors. ''Other
conifers'' refers to the clade
consisting of all conifers except for
Pinaceae (see Burleigh and Mathews,
2004 ). ''Lepto. ferns'' refers to
leptosporangiate ferns fig 2
from: Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, ''The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view'', American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.full {Chase_Mark_2004.pdf}
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.amjbot.org/content/91
/10/1437/F2.large.jpg

320,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
6356) Insects Orthoptera (crickets,
grasshoppers).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191

2. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005,
p191. http://books.google.com/books?id=
Ql6Jl6wKb88C&pg=PA191

3. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular
clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and
biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol
Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/con
tent/19/5/748.full.pdf
{Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
4. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p208.

MORE INFO
[1] "orthopteran". Encyclopædia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.,
2012. Web. 06 May.
2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecke
d/topic/433540/orthopteran/39576/Evoluti
on-and-paleontology
>
[2]
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/t
ext02/orthopteroids.html#A

 
[1] African Field cricket Gryllus
bimaculatus at Bristol Zoo, Bristol,
England. Photographed by Adrian
Pingstone in February 2005 and released
to the public domain. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/2/27/African.field.c
ricket.arp.jpg/1200px-African.field.cric
ket.arp.jpg


[2] Description
grasshopper Source self
made Date unknown Author
Stephen Friedt PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/thumb/3/3c/Grasshopper_%2827%29
.JPG/1280px-Grasshopper_%2827%29.JPG

317,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
385) Reptiles evolve.2
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Benton, Michael
J., and Philip C. J. Donoghue.
“Paleontological Evidence to Date the
Tree of Life.” Molecular Biology and
Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26 -53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/24/1/26.abstract

4. ^ Prothero, "Evolution What The
Fossils Say and Why It Matters", 2009,
p232.
5. ^ T. R. Smithson, "The earliest
known reptile", Nature 342, 676 - 678
(07 December
1989). http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v342/n6250/abs/342676a0.html

{338MYBN (oldest reptile fossil}
6. ^ JOHN
NOBLE WILFORD, "Oldest Reptile Fossil
Reported Found in Scotland", NY Times,
Nov 17,
1988. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/11/17
/us/oldest-reptile-fossil-reported-found
-in-scotland.html
{338MYBN (oldest
reptile fossil}
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {310 MYBN}
8. ^
Benton, Michael J., and Philip C. J.
Donoghue. “Paleontological Evidence
to Date the Tree of Life.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 24.1 (2007): 26
-53.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/24/1/26.abstract

earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation)
Nova Scotia, Canada3  

[1] from: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.
COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Description English: Reptilia
(reptiles), based on:
File:Buberel cayman 3.jpg
File:Crotalus adamanteus (5).jpg
File:Karettschildkroete 01.jpg
File:Henry at Invercargill.jpg All
of them are either under a free licence
already in Wikicommons or in the public
domain Date 3/2/09 Source
Compilation made by myself Author
see respective profiles of
photos PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/67/Reptiles.jpg

310,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5 6 7
6357) Insects Paraneoptera (Lice,
cicadas, aphids).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/t
ext02/hemipteroids.html

2. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p146.
3. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C.
“Evidence for an Earliest Late
Carboniferous Divergence Time and the
Early Larval Ecology and
Diversification of Major Holometabola
Lineages.” Entomologica Americana
117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/1
0.1664/10-RA-011.1

4. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/t
ext02/hemipteroids.html

5. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular
clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and
biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol
Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/con
tent/19/5/748.full.pdf
{Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p286.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p321.
 
[1] Description Tibicen
linnei English: Annual cicada. Date
22 June 2003 Source Own work
http://www.cirrusimage.com/homoptera_cic
ada_T_linnei.htm Author Bruce
Marlin CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/Tibicen_linnei.
jpg/1142px-Tibicen_linnei.jpg


[2] Description English: Pea aphids
extracting sap from the stem and leaves
of garden peas. Date February
2010 Source PLoS Biology, February
2010 direct link to the image
description Author Shipher Wu
(photograph) and Gee-way Lin (aphid
provision), National Taiwan
University CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/20/Acyrthosiphon_pisum_%
28pea_aphid%29-PLoS.jpg

310,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
6359) Holometabolous {HoLomeTaBoluS or
HOlOmeTABoluS1 2 } insects (ancestor of
beetles, bees, true flies, and
butterflies). Complete metamorphosis.3


FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "holometabolous." Dictionary.com
Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 05 Jan.
2013.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/h
olometabolous>.
2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=holome
tabolous+&submit=Submit

3. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p146,331.
4. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael
S. Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p146.
5. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/t
ext02/holometabola.html

6. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of
Life", 2009, p260-263.
7. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C.
“Evidence for an Earliest Late
Carboniferous Divergence Time and the
Early Larval Ecology and
Diversification of Major Holometabola
Lineages.” Entomologica Americana
117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/1
0.1664/10-RA-011.1

 
[1] Description wespenpoppen in
verschillende ontwikkelstadia Eigen
foto's Date 2005-06-13 (original
upload date) Source Originally from
nl.wikipedia; description page is/was
here. Author Original uploader was
Asaf at
nl.wikipedia Permission (Reusing this
file) SELF2 GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/7/79/Ontwikkelstadia_wespe
npoppen.jpg


[2] Miomoptera- viewed by many as
stem-group Holometabola. UNKNOWN
source: http://wdict.net/img/miomoptera,
2.jpg

305,000,000 YBN
2
242) Amphibians: Frogs.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {305 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Neil H. Shubin and Farish A.
Jenkins, Jr (7 September 1995). "An
Early Jurassic jumping frog". Nature
377 (6544): 49–52.
doi:10.1038/377049a0.http://www.nature.c
om/nature/journal/v377/n6544/full/377049
a0.html

[2] "Pliensbachian Stage."
Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online Academic Edition.
Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011. Web. 27
Jul. 2011.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/464801/Pliensbachian-Stage
>
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 303. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 303.


[2] Description English: A green
frog on a palm frond. Date 18
October 2003 Source Burning
Well Author Leon Brooks PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/8d/Frog_on_palm_frond.jp
g

299,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8
6360) Insects Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu1 2
} (Beetles).3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "Coleoptera." McGraw-Hill
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical
Terms. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
2003. Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/coleoptera-
2

2. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=coleop
tera&submit=Submit

3. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of
Life", 2009, p260-263.
4. ^ Béthoux, Olivier.
“The Earliest Beetle Identified.”
Journal of Paleontology 83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/ab
s/10.1666/08-158.1

5. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C. “Evidence
for an Earliest Late Carboniferous
Divergence Time and the Early Larval
Ecology and Diversification of Major
Holometabola Lineages.” Entomologica
Americana 117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/1
0.1664/10-RA-011.1

6. ^ Béthoux, Olivier. “The Earliest
Beetle Identified.” Journal of
Paleontology 83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/ab
s/10.1666/08-158.1

7. ^ David A. Grimaldi, Michael S.
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p146.
8. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree
of Life", 2009, p260-263.
earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian
deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA4
 

[1] Figure 1. 1–7, Adiphlebia lacoana
Scudder, 1885. 1, 2, holotype specimen
(USNM 38143), reconstruction of the
wing venation (1), and photograph
(negative imprint, light-mirrored,
composite; 2); 3, specimen USNM 38140,
photograph (negative imprint,
light-mirrored, composite); 4,5,
specimen FMNH PE 3416, reconstruction
of the wing venation (forewings
separated; 4) and photograph (negative
imprint, composite; 5); 6, 7, specimen
FMNH PE 60291, reconstruction of the
wing venation (6) and photograph
(positive imprint; 7); 8, 9, details of
forewing main and intercalary veins
(black and white arrows, respectively)
in Adiphlabia lacoana (specimen FMNH PE
3416, right forewing; 8) and
Tetraphalerus bruchi Heller, 1913 (♀,
ventral view; 9). Abbreviations: LFW,
left forewing; RFW, right forewing;
ScP, posterior Subcosta; R, Radius; RA,
anterior Radius; RP, posterior Radius;
M, Media; CuA, anterior Cubitus; CuP,
posterior Cubitus; AA: anterior anal
vein. Color-coding: Subcosta, yellow;
Radius, blue; Media, red; Cubitus,
green; Analis, yellow. from Béthoux,
Olivier. “The Earliest Beetle
Identified.” Journal of Paleontology
83.6 (2009):
931–937. http://www.bioone.org/doi/ab
s/10.1666/08-158.1 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://jpaleontol.geoscienceworl
d.org/content/vol83/issue6/images/large/
i0022-3360-83-6-931-f01.jpeg


[2] {ULSF: Early Permian fossil
beetles see {Kukalová (1969), in
particular pl. 1; Ponomarenko (1969),
in particular figs. 16, 31, 32, 36, 40
41, 43, 44} and representatives of the
beetle sub-order Archostemata,
represented nowadays, exhibit
intercalary veins (Fig. 1.9) similar to
those exhibited by A.
lacoana} Archostemata is the smallest
suborder of beetles, consisting of
fewer than fifty known species
organized into five families.
Archostemata is an ancient lineage with
a number of primitive characteristics.
They are similar in morphology to the
first beetles, which appear in the
fossil record approximately 250 million
years ag Description
Tenomerga mucida (Chevrolat, 1829)
(Coleoptera: Cupedidae) - female.
Loc: Yokohama, kanagawa, japan.
ja: ナガヒラタムシ(鞘翅目:
ナガヒラタムシ科)のメス。
浜市内。産卵管をさかんに
し入れし、朽木の割れ目に挿
し込もうとしていたことから
産卵に来ていたものと思わ
る。 Date 13 July 2005 Source
my own file Author me PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/68/Tenomerga_mucida01.jp
g

290,000,000 YBN
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
6358) Insects Hymenoptera (bees, ants,
wasps).1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of
Life", 2009, p260-263.
2. ^ David A. Grimaldi,
Michael S. Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p146.
3. ^ Labandeira, Conrad
C. “Evidence for an Earliest Late
Carboniferous Divergence Time and the
Early Larval Ecology and
Diversification of Major Holometabola
Lineages.” Entomologica Americana
117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/1
0.1664/10-RA-011.1

4. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/t
ext02/holometabola.html

5. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of
Life", 2009, p260-263.
6. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.
7. ^ Palmer,
et al., "Prehistoric Life", 2009, p283.
8. ^
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/t
ext02/holometabola.html

 
[1] {ULSF: Xyelidae saw flies are the
most primitive of the
hymenoptera} Hymenoptera, Xyelidae,
dorsal - Macroxyela ferruginea -
Female Ames - Tullamore, Story County,
Iowa, USA April 30, 2008 Size: 11
mm It's a big one. (11 mm includes the
ovipositor) Oak hickory maple basswood
woodland malaise, April 23-30,
2008. Photo - still floating in
alcohol. Copyright © 2008 MJ
Hatfield COPYRIGHTED Fig. 2
Placement of fossil evidence for the
earliest Holometabola within a
phylogenetic context. Geologic time
line at left is after Ogg, et al.
(2008); note that the Mississippian is
equivalent to the Early Carboniferous
and Pennsylvanian equivalent to the
Late Carboniferous. Earliest reliable
occurrences of taxa (solid dots,
followed by a thick black line) are
after various sources mentioned in the
text; major localities for the initial
diversification of the Holometabola
are: Elmo, Kansas, the “insect bed”
of the Wellington Formation from the
Artinskian Stage of the Early Permian;
Calhoun, the Calhoun Coal Member of the
Mattoon Formation, from the Kasimovian
Stage of the Late Pennsylvanian; Mazon
Creek of the Francis Creek Shale Member
of the Carbondale Formation, from the
Moscovian Stage of the Middle
Pennsylvanian; and the Terril Shale at
Pas-de-Calais, Bruay-la-Bussière,
France, from the Bashkirian Stage of
the Early Pennsylvanian. The horizontal
stippled bar at bottom represents the
initial diversification and the
earliest fossil occurrences of
holometabolan insects in the fossil
record. Labandeira, Conrad C.
“Evidence for an Earliest Late
Carboniferous Divergence Time and the
Early Larval Ecology and
Diversification of Major Holometabola
Lineages.” Entomologica Americana
117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/1
0.1664/10-RA-011.1 COPYRIGHTED
source: http://bugguide.net/images/raw/S
H8RHHPR0H7RDZHZULYLULRZ2LLZTLSZBLQZKH4RH
H7ZVL4RVL0ZALSZBLXZKH8RVLXZHHPRLHQRLH.jp
g


[2] Macroxyela ferruginea
Trusted Creative Commons Attribution
Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC
BY-NC-SA 3.0) ©
SusanneSchulmeister Source:
Morphbank Image Repository
COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.bioone.org/na101/home
/literatum/publisher/bioone/journals/con
tent/nynt.1/2011/19475144-117.1/10-ra-01
1.1/production/images/large/i1947-5144-1
17-1-9-f02.jpeg

274,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8 9
307) Protists: Brown Algae evolve.1 2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110
.pdf}

2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
3. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000).
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/290/
5493/972.full
{Baldauf_Doolittle_199911
17.pdf} has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch
4. ^ Linda
Medlin, et al, "Phylogenic
relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes)
and their plastids", Plant Systematics
and Evolution (Supplement), v11, 1997,
p187-219. http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med
1997c.pdf
{genetic) 274 mybn}
5. ^ Cédric
Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A molecular
time-scale for eukaryote evolution
recalibrated with the continuous
microfossil record", Proc. R. Soc. B
August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{genetic) 200 mybn}
6. ^ Zhu
Shixing and Chen Huineng, "Megascopic
Multicellular Organisms from the
1700-Million-Year-Old Tuanshanzi
Formation in the Jixian Area, North
China", Science , New Series, Vol. 270,
No. 5236 (Oct. 27, 1995), pp.
620-622. http://www.jstor.org/stable/28
88330
{Shixing_Huineng_19950331.pdf}
{Fossil) 1600-1800 mybn}
7. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{Alveolates) 1956mybn} {Alveolates and
Plants) 1956mybn}
8. ^ S. Blair Hedges and Sudhir
Kumar, "The TimeTree of Life", 2009.
http://www.timetree.org/book.php
{1345 my}
9. ^ Cécile Gueidan, Constantino
Ruibal, G.S. de Hoog, Harald Schneider,
Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during
periods of dry climate in the late
Devonian and middle Triassic, Fungal
Biology, Volume 115, Issue 10, October
2011, Pages 987-996, ISSN 1878-6146,
10.1016/j.funbio.2011.04.002. (http://w
ww.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii
/S1878614611000675)
{822.5 my}

MORE INFO
[1] Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J.
Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972,
(2000). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/290/5493/972.full
has heterkonts
before ciliophora and apicomplexa
branch
[2] Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. et al.
“The timing of eukaryotic evolution:
Does a relaxed molecular clock
reconcile proteins and fossils?”
Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences of the United States of
America 101.43 (2004): 15386
-15391. http://www.pnas.org/content/101
/43/15386.long

[3] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[4] Hackett JD, Yoon
HS, Butterfield NJ, Sanderson MJ,
Bhattacharya D, "Plastid endosymbiosis:
Sources and timing of the major
events.", in: Falkowski P, Knoll A,
editors. "Evolution of primary
producers in the sea.", Elsevier; 2007,
p120
[5] "Phaeophyta". Wikipedia. Wikipedia,
2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaeophyta
[6] Michael Sleigh, "Protozoa and Other
Protists", (London; New York: Edward
Arnold, 1989)
[7] "Brown algae". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_algae

[8]
http://www.sirinet.net/~jgjohnso/apbio30
.html

 
[1] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703


[2] Pacific Rockweed (Fucus distichus)
in Olympic National Park Cropped from
PhotoCD image, from Kodak ISO 800 film,
taken by k.lee June 2004, hereby
released under GFDL.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Pacific_rockweed%2C_Olympic_National_
Park%2C_USA.jpg

266,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
308) Protists: Diatoms.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin,
L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A
reconstruction of their age from small
subunit rRNA coding regions and the
fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a
rticle/pii/S1055790396900883

2. ^ Kooistra, W. H. C. F. and Medlin,
L. K. (1996). Evolution of the diatoms
(Bacillariophyta) : IV. A
reconstruction of their age from small
subunit rRNA coding regions and the
fossil record. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
6, 391-407.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/a
rticle/pii/S1055790396900883
{no
earlier than) 266 MYBN}
3. ^ S Blair Hedges,
Jaime E Blair, Maria L Venturi and
Jason L Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
{Hedges_Venturi_Shoe_20031110.pdf} (1
973mybn) {Alveolates) 1956mybn}
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). (1600mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2,
(2004). http://www.biomedcentral.com/14
71-2148/4/2

 
[1] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group COPYRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703


[2] Figure 1. Phylogenetic hypothesis
of the eukaryotic lineage based on
ultrastructural and molecular data.
Organisms are divided into three main
groups distinguished by mitochondrial
cristal shape (either discoidal,
flattened or tubular). Unbroken lines
indicate phylogenetic relationships
that are firmly supported by available
data; broken lines indicate
uncertainties in phylogenetic
placement, resolution of which will
require additional data. Color coding
of organismal genus names indicates
mitochondrial genomes that have been
completely (Table 1), almost completely
(Jakoba, Naegleria and
Thraustochytrium) or partially (*)
sequenced by the OGMP (red), the FMGP
(black) or other groups (green). Names
in blue indicate those species whose
mtDNAs are currently being sequenced by
the OGMP or are future candidates for
complete sequencing. Amitochondriate
retortamonads are positioned at the
base of the tree, with broken arrows
denoting the endosymbiotic origin(s) of
mitochondria from a Rickettsia-like
eubacterium. Macrophar.,
Macropharyngomonas. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/cg
i/content/full/26/4/865

260,000,000 YBN
3 4 5
232) Earliest warm-blooded and hair
growing animal.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of
endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.or
g/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

2. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of
endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.or
g/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441

3. ^ Willem J. Hillenius, "Turbinates
in Therapsids: Evidence for Late
Permian Origins of Mammalian
Endothermy", Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 2
(Apr., 1994), pp. 207-229. Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2410089
4. ^ Ruben J.A. 1995. The evolution of
endothermy in mammals and birds: from
physiology to fossils. Ann Rev Physiol
57:69–95. http://www.annualreviews.or
g/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.0
00441
{c250 MYBN (Late Permian}
5. ^ Ted
Huntington. {230 MYBN (between
crocodilia 240mybn and pterosaur
220mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Schweitzer, Mary Higby, and
Cynthia Lee Marshall. “A molecular
model for the evolution of endothermy
in the theropod-bird lineage.”
Journal of Experimental Zoology 291.4
(2001) :
317-338. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com
/doi/10.1002/jez.1132/abstract

 
[1] Description English: Life
restoration of Purlovia maxima. Based
on figures 8-10 of ''Permian and
Triassic therocephals (Eutherapsida) of
Eastern Europe'' by M. F. Ivakhnenko
(Paleontological Journal 45 (9):
981-1144). Date 8 January
2012 Source Own
work Author Smokeybjb CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a5/Purlovia_maxima.jpg


[2] Description Bauria , a
therocephalian therapsid from the early
Middle Triassic of South Africa, pencil
drawing Date 20 February
2007 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/c0/Bauria_BW.jpg

256,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7 8
6362) Insects: Diptera1 {DiPTRe2 }
true flies, single pair of wings:
ancestor of mosquito, gnat, fruit fly,
and house fly)3 .

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of
Life", 2009, p260-263.
2. ^ "Diptera."
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific
and Technical Terms. McGraw-Hill
Companies, Inc., 2003. Answers.com 07
May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
3. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
4. ^ Hedges and Kumar, "Time Tree of
Life", 2009, p260-263.
5. ^ Labandeira, Conrad C.
“Evidence for an Earliest Late
Carboniferous Divergence Time and the
Early Larval Ecology and
Diversification of Major Holometabola
Lineages.” Entomologica Americana
117.1 & 2 (2011):
9–21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/1
0.1664/10-RA-011.1

6. ^ "Diptera." McGraw-Hill
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.
Answers.com 07 May. 2012.
http://www.answers.com/topic/diptera
7. ^ Wiegmann, Brian M. et al.
“Episodic Radiations in the Fly Tree
of Life.” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences (2011): n.
pag. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/
2011/03/15/1012675108.full.pdf+html

8. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p469.

MORE INFO
[1] Palmer, et al, "Primitive
Life", 2009, p197
 
[1] Nymphomyia alba adult UNKNOWN
source: http://whyevolutionistrue.files.
wordpress.com/2011/03/nymphomyia-alba.jp
g


[2] Nymphomyia alba larva UNKNOWN
source: http://whyevolutionistrue.files.
wordpress.com/2011/03/nymphomyia.jpg

251,400,000 YBN
2 3 4
102) Largest mass extinction of
history.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil
Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol.
344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary
Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/5614
8

2. ^ Jin YG, Wang Y, Wang W, Shang QH,
Cao CQ, Erwin DH (2000). "Pattern of
Marine Mass Extinction Near the
Permian–Triassic Boundary in South
China". Science 289 (5478): 432–436.
Bibcode 2000Sci...289..432J.
doi:10.1126/science.289.5478.432. PMID
10903200. {251.4 MYBN}
3. ^ Bowring SA, Erwin
DH, Jin YG, Martin MW, Davidek K, Wang
W (1998). "U/Pb Zircon Geochronology
and Tempo of the End-Permian Mass
Extinction". Science 280 (5366):
1039–1045.
doi:10.1126/science.280.5366.1039.
{251.4 MYBN}
4. ^ David Jablonski and W. G.
Chaloner,"Extinctions in the Fossil
Record (and Discussion)", Philosophical
Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol.
344, No. 1307, Estimating Extinction
Rates: Sir Joseph Banks Anniversary
Meeting (Apr. 29, 1994), pp.
11-17. http://www.jstor.org/stable/5614
8
{245 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

[2]
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/200
6/06/060601174729.htm

[3]
http://www.ia.ucsb.edu/pa/display.aspx?p
key=1073

 
[1] Description English:
Description: Illustration of an
en:impact event. Source Made by
Fredrik. Cloud texture from public
domain NASA image. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cb/Impact_event.jpg


[2] Timeline of mass extinctions.
COPYRIGHTED Benjamin
Cummings. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/
16cm05/1116/16macro.htm

251,000,000 YBN
452) Supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe)
forms.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

 
[1] 260 Ma Late Permian UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/260
_Permian_2globes.jpg


[2] In geologic terms, a plate is a
large, rigid slab of solid rock. The
word tectonics comes from the Greek
root ''to build.'' Putting these two
words together, we get the term plate
tectonics, which refers to how the
Earth's surface is built of plates. The
theory of plate tectonics states that
the Earth's outermost layer is
fragmented into a dozen or more large
and small plates that are moving
relative to one another as they ride
atop hotter, more mobile material.
Before the advent of plate tectonics,
however, some people already believed
that the present-day continents were
the fragmented pieces of preexisting
larger landmasses
(''supercontinents''). The diagrams
below show the break-up of the
supercontinent Pangaea (meaning ''all
lands'' in Greek), which figured
prominently in the theory of
continental drift -- the forerunner to
the theory of plate tectonics. PD
source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic
/graphics/Fig2-5globes.gif

235,000,000 YBN
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
304) Protists Haptophytes {HaPTuFITu1 }
(Coccolithophores {KoK-o-lit-O-FORZ2
}).3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=haptop
hyta&submit=Submit

2. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=co
ccolithophores&submit=Submit

3. ^ S Blair Hedges, Jaime E Blair,
Maria L Venturi and Jason L Shoe, "A
molecular timescale of eukaryote
evolution and the rise of complex
multicellular life", BMC Evolutionary
Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
4. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).
5. ^ Sandra L. Baldauf, A. J. Roger, I.
Wenk-Siefert, W. F. Doolittle, "A
Kingdom-Level Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Based on Combined Protein Data",
Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p 972,
(2000).has heterkonts before ciliophora
and apicomplexa branch
6. ^ Taylor, E.L., T.N.
Taylor, and M. Krings. Paleobotany: The
Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants.
Elsevier Science, 2008,
p145. http://books.google.com/books?id=
_29tNNeQKeMC

7. ^ Yoon, Hwan Su et al. “A
Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes.” Molecular
Biology and Evolution 21.5 (2004): 809
-818.
Print. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/co
ntent/21/5/809.abstract
{c1050 mybn}
8. ^
Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski, "A
molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the
continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{920 mybn}
9. ^ S. Blair
Hedges and Sudhir Kumar, "The TimeTree
of Life", 2009,
p117-118. http://www.timetree.org/book.
php
{genetic)1382 mybn}
10. ^ De Vargas,
Aubry, Probert, Young, "Origin and
Evolution of Cocolithophores: From
Coastal Hunters to Oceanic Farmers",
Chapter 12, p251. in: Paul G.
Falkowski, Andrew H. Knoll, "Evolution
of primary producers in the sea",
2007. http://books.google.com/books?id=
5tRSAr1JMhwC
{DNA)1900mybn}
{genetic)1900mybn}
11. ^ Linda Medlin, et al, "Phylogenic
relationships of the 'golden algae'
(haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes)
and their plastids", Plant Systematics
and Evolution (Supplement), v11, 1997,
p187-219. http://epic.awi.de/2100/1/Med
1997c.pdf
{DNA)1750 mybn} {genetic)1750
mybn}
12. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/p
rymnesiophyta.html
{possible fossil)
318mybn}
13. ^ Cédric Berney and Jan Pawlowski,
"A molecular time-scale for eukaryote
evolution recalibrated with the
continuous microfossil record", Proc.
R. Soc. B August 7, 2006 273:1867-1872;
doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3537 http://rspb.
royalsocietypublishing.org/content/273/1
596/1867.short
{genetic) 920 mybn}
14. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/
{possible fossil) 318mybn}
15. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/p
rymnesiophyta.html
{certain fossil)
201mybn}
16. ^
http://www.geosociety.org/science/timesc
ale/
{certain fossil) 201mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] S Blair Hedges, Jaime E
Blair, Maria L Venturi and Jason L
Shoe, "A molecular timescale of
eukaryote evolution and the rise of
complex multicellular life", BMC
Evolutionary Biology 2004, 4:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-4-2, (2004).
(1973mybn)
[2] Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (1600mybn)
[3] Sandra L. Baldauf,
A. J. Roger, I. Wenk-Siefert, W. F.
Doolittle, "A Kingdom-Level Phylogeny
of Eukaryotes Based on Combined Protein
Data", Science, Vol 290, num 5493, p
972, (2000). (has heterkonts before
ciliophora and apicomplexa branch)
[4]
http://www.life.umd.edu/labs/delwiche/PS
life/lectures/Haptophyta.html

 
[1] Fig. 1. A consensus phylogeny of
eukaryotes. The vast majority of
characterized eukaryotes, with the
notable exception of major subgroups of
amoebae, can now be assigned to one of
eight major groups. Opisthokonts (basal
flagellum) have a single basal
flagellum on reproductive cells and
flat mitochondrial cristae (most
eukaryotes have tubular ones).
Eukaryotic photosynthesis originated in
Plants; theirs are the only plastids
with just two outer membranes.
Heterokonts (different flagellae) have
a unique flagellum decorated with
hollow tripartite hairs (stramenopiles)
and, usually, a second plain one.
Cercozoans are amoebae with filose
pseudopodia, often living with in tests
(hard outer shells), some very
elaborate (foraminiferans). Amoebozoa
are mostly naked amoebae (lacking
tests), often with lobose pseudopodia
for at least part of their life cycle.
Alveolates have systems of cortical
alveoli directly beneath their plasma
membranes. Discicristates have discoid
mitochondrial cristae and, in some
cases, a deep (excavated) ventral
feeding groove. Amitochondrial
excavates lack substantial molecular
phylogenetic support, but most have an
excavated ventral feeding groove, and
all lack mitochondria. The tree shown
is based on a consensus of molecular
(1-4) and ultrastructural (16, 17) data
and includes a rough indication of new
ciPCR ''taxa'' (broken black lines)
(7-11). An asterisk preceding the taxon
name indicates probable paraphyletic
group
source: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/co
ntent/full/300/5626/1703


[2] Emiliania huxleyi, a
coccolithophore. Photo courtesy Dr.
Markus Geisen - photographer, and The
Natural History Museum. PD
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Emiliania_huxleyi_3.jpg

228,000,000 YBN
10 11 12
412) Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.4 5 6 7

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate
Paleontology", 2005, p154.
2. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

3. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al.
“Primitive dinosaur skeleton from
Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html

4. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology",
2005, p154.
5. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm

6. ^ "dinosaur." Britannica Concise
Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica,
Inc., 1994-2010. Answers.com 25 Dec.
2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/dinosaur
7. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al.
“Primitive dinosaur skeleton from
Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html

8. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al.
“Primitive dinosaur skeleton from
Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html

9. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate Paleontology",
2005, p154.
10. ^ Sereno, Paul C. et al.
“Primitive dinosaur skeleton from
Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html
{228
MYBN}
11. ^
http://www.uky.edu/KGS/education/timelin
e2.htm
{228 MYBN}
12. ^ Benton, "Vertebrate
Paleontology", 2005, p154. {230-220
MYBN}
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto
Formation) Valley of the Moon,
Ischigualasto Provinvial Park,
northwestern Argestina8 9  

[1] Figure 2 from: Sereno, Paul C. et
al. “Primitive dinosaur skeleton from
Argentina and the early evolution of
Dinosauria.” Nature 361.6407 (1993) :
64-66. http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html COPYR
IGHTED
source: http://www.nature.com/nature/jou
rnal/v361/n6407/abs/361064a0.html


[2] Eoraptor was a genus of small,
slender theropod native to northwest
Argentina. It was quite possibly the
earliest theropod genus and has not
been classified in any family.
UNKNOWN
source: http://images.wikia.com/deadtime
s/images/a/a2/Eoraptor.jpg

225,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
126) Mammals evolve.2 First mammary
gland.3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo,
"Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic
of West Texas: The Oldest Mammal",
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology,
Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp.
309-334 Published by: Taylor &
Francis, Ltd. on behalf of The Society
of Vertebrate Paleontology Article
Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
2. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo,
"Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic
of West Texas: The Oldest Mammal",
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology,
Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp.
309-334 Published by: Taylor &
Francis, Ltd. on behalf of The Society
of Vertebrate Paleontology Article
Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
3. ^ Ted Huntington.
4. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and
Zhexi Luo, "Adelobasileus from the
Upper Triassic of West Texas: The
Oldest Mammal", Journal of Vertebrate
Paleontology, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23,
1993), pp. 309-334 Published by:
Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of The
Society of Vertebrate
Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
5. ^ Spencer G. Lucas and Zhexi Luo,
"Adelobasileus from the Upper Triassic
of West Texas: The Oldest Mammal",
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology,
Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23, 1993), pp.
309-334 Published by: Taylor &
Francis, Ltd. on behalf of The Society
of Vertebrate Paleontology Article
Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514
{225 MYBN}
6. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive
Life", 2009, p197.
7. ^ Palmer, Tree of Life,
2009. http://timetree.org/pdf/Shedlock2
009Chap52.pdf


MORE INFO
[1]
http://www.abqtrib.com/albq/nw_science/a
rticle/0,2668,ALBQ_21236_4546322,00.html

earliest fossils: (Dockum Formation)
Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA4
 

[1] Figure 6 from: Spencer G. Lucas
and Zhexi Luo, ''Adelobasileus from the
Upper Triassic of West Texas: The
Oldest Mammal'', Journal of Vertebrate
Paleontology, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Sep. 23,
1993), pp. 309-334 Published by:
Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of The
Society of Vertebrate
Paleontology Article Stable URL:
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523514 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4523
514


[2] [t Note that this image is not
clearly from a scholarly
source] Description English:
Adelobasileus cromptoni, a mammaliaform
from the Late Triassic of Texas.
Digital. Date 9 September
2008 Source Own work Author
Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com Permission (Reusi
ng this file) See below. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/2/2f/Adelobasileus_BW.jpg

225,000,000 YBN
2 3
369) Teleost (TeLEoST) fishes evolve.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p197.
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004).

MORE INFO
[1] Inoue, JG, Miya, M,
Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M (2003) "Basal
actinopterygian relationships: A
mitogenomic perspective on the
phylogeny of the ldquoancient
fish.rdquo" Mol Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S1055790302003317

 
[1] Fig. 2. The single
most-parsimonious (MP) tree derived
from unweighted analysis of mitogenomic
data comprising concatenated nucleotide
sequences from 12 protein-coding
(excluding the ND6 gene and third codon
positions) and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)
genes (stem regions only) from all 28
species examined. Tree length, 12,709
steps; consistency index, 0.355;
retention index, 0.471; and rescaled
consistency index, 0.167. Numbers above
and below internal branches indicate
jackknife values obtained for 500
replicates using the heuristic search
option in PAUP*4.0b10 (Swofford, 2002)
with 20 random-addition sequences being
performed in each replication and decay
indices, respectively. The scale
indicates 100 changes. from: Inoue,
JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M
(2003) ''Basal actinopterygian
relationships: A mitogenomic
perspective on the phylogeny of the
ldquoancient fish.rdquo'' Mol
Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S1055790302003317 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/B6WNH-475B9D7-6-1K/0?wc
hp=dGLbVlz-zSkzk


[2] Arapaima gigas at the Smithsonian
Zoo. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/b/b1/Arapaima_gigas.jpg

220,000,000 YBN
2 3
387) Reptiles: Turtles.1
FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p196.
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004), p262. {300 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] "terrapin." Britannica
Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc., 1994-2010.
Answers.com 27 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/terrapin
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 262.


[2] English: Odontochelys
semitestacea, from the Late Triassic of
China, the oldest known turtle.
Digital. ‪中文(简体)‬:
半甲齿龟,已知最为古老的乌
,于2007年在中国贵州境内发
。(三维模拟图) Date 4
December 2008 Source Own
work Author Nobu Tamura
email:nobu.tamura@yahoo.com
www.palaeocritti.com GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/3/39/Odontochelys_BW.jpg

220,000,000 YBN
7 8
428) The first flying vertebrate
(Pterosaur).4 5 6

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Éric Buffetaut, "Evolution and
palaeobiology of pterosaurs",
Geological Society, 2003,
p107. http://books.google.com/books?id=
8CKYxcylOycC

2. ^ Steven M. Stanley, "Earth System
History", Third edition, 2009, p390.
3. ^
Unwin, David M. “Pterosaurs: back to
the traditional model?” Trends in
Ecology & Evolution 14.7 (1999) :
263-268. http://www.sciencedirect.com/s
cience/article/pii/S0169534799016055

4. ^ Éric Buffetaut, "Evolution and
palaeobiology of pterosaurs",
Geological Society, 2003,
p107. http://books.google.com/books?id=
8CKYxcylOycC

5. ^ Steven M. Stanley, "Earth System
History", Third edition, 2009, p390.
6. ^
Unwin, David M. “Pterosaurs: back to
the traditional model?” Trends in
Ecology & Evolution 14.7 (1999) :
263-268. http://www.sciencedirect.com/s
cience/article/pii/S0169534799016055

7. ^ Peter Wellnhofer, "Pterosaurs",
1991, p59-60,166. {220MYBN}
8. ^
http://www.dinodata.net/DNM/dallav.htm
{215 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://dipbsf.uninsubria.it/paleo/dvecch
ia.htm

[2] Eberhard Frey, Helmut Tischlinger,
Marie-Céline Buchy, and David M.
Martill, "New specimens of Pterosauria
(Reptilia) with soft parts with
implications for pterosaurian anatomy
and locomotion ", Geological Society,
London, Special Publications 2003,
217:233-266;
doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.217.01.14
 
[1] Eudimorphon and Peteinosaurus
from: Wellnhofer, ''Pterosaurs'',
1991, p60-61. COPYRIGHTED
source: Wellnhofer, "Pterosaurs", 1991,
p60-61.


[2] Eudimorphon and Peteinosaurus
from: Wellnhofer, ''Pterosaurs'',
1991, p60-61. COPYRIGHTED
source: Wellnhofer, "Pterosaurs", 1991,
p60-61.

210,000,000 YBN
2
390) Reptiles: iguanas, chameleons, and
spiny lizards.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p261-301. {210 MYBN}
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 262.


[2] Description Iguana sp. Foto
tomada en el Zoo de Madrid. Date
Summer 2007 Source Own
work Author Manuel de Corselas
ARS SUMMUM, Centro para el Estudio y
Difusión Libres de la Historia del
Arte PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/5/57/AA_Iguana_Fot_Ars_Sum
mum.JPG

210,000,000 YBN
2
391) Reptiles: snakes, skinks, and
geckos.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {210 MYBN}
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 262.


[2] Description Deutsch:
Versteinerung eines Archaeophis proavus
Massalongo - aus Monte Bolca. Museum
für Naturkunde (Berlin). English:
Fossil of a Archaeophis proavus
Massalongo, Monte Bolca. Museum für
Naturkunde (Berlin). Date 22 July
2007 Source Own work Author
Raymond - Raimond
Spekking Permission (Reusing this
file) See
below. Attribution (required by the
license) © Raimond Spekking /
CC-BY-SA-3.0 CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f1/Naturkundemuseum_Berl
in_-_Archaeophis_proavus_Massalongo_-_Mo
nte_Bolca.jpg

200,000,000 YBN
2
370) Teleosts: eels and tarpons.1
FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {200 MYBN}
 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.

200,000,000 YBN
2 3 4
392) Reptiles: crocodiles, allegators,
caimans {KAmeNS}.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301.
2. ^ "crocodile."
Encyclop�dia Britannica.
Encyclop�dia Britannica Online.
Encyclop�dia Britannica Inc., 2013.
Web. 29 Jan. 2013.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topi
c/143679/crocodile
>.
3. ^ Cracraft, J., and M.J. Donoghue.
Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford
University Press, USA, 2004. Nueva
Colecci�n Labor,
p452. http://books.google.com/books?id=
6lXTP0YU6_kC&pg=PA452

4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p261-301. {245 MYBN}
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Nile crocodile, taken at the Le
Bonheur Crocodile Farm near
Stellenbosch, South Africa. CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/8/81/NileCrocodile.jpg

190,000,000 YBN
2
371) Teleosts: herrings and anchovies.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {190 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1]
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=201773&tree=0.1

 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Description Northern
anchovies are important prey for marine
mammals and game fish Image ID:
nur00009, National Undersearch Research
Program (NURP) Collection Location:
Pacific Ocean. Credit: OAR/National
Undersea Research Program
(NURP) Downloaded from:
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/nur00
009.htm Note: Another image from this
collection had fish described as
northern anchovies, with the scientific
name Engraulis mordax, or Californian
anchovy. The species may be
misidentified. Date 2006-12-08
(original upload date) PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/0/0f/Anchovy_closeup.jpg

190,000,000 YBN
3
6289) Supercontinent Pangea splits into
Laurasia and Gondwana. The northern
part, Laurasia will form North America
and Europe. The southern part, Gondwana
will form South America and Africa.1

FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ Harold Levin, "The Earth Through
Time", Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375.
2. ^
Harold Levin, "The Earth Through Time",
Eighth Edition, 2006, p176,375.
3. ^ Harold
Levin, "The Earth Through Time", Eighth
Edition, 2006, p176,375. {190 mybn}
Pangea2  
[1] 200 Ma Early Jurassic UNKNOWN
source: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~rcb7/200
_Jurassic_2globes.jpg


[2] In geologic terms, a plate is a
large, rigid slab of solid rock. The
word tectonics comes from the Greek
root ''to build.'' Putting these two
words together, we get the term plate
tectonics, which refers to how the
Earth's surface is built of plates. The
theory of plate tectonics states that
the Earth's outermost layer is
fragmented into a dozen or more large
and small plates that are moving
relative to one another as they ride
atop hotter, more mobile material.
Before the advent of plate tectonics,
however, some people already believed
that the present-day continents were
the fragmented pieces of preexisting
larger landmasses
(''supercontinents''). The diagrams
below show the break-up of the
supercontinent Pangaea (meaning ''all
lands'' in Greek), which figured
prominently in the theory of
continental drift -- the forerunner to
the theory of plate tectonics. PD
source: http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic
/graphics/Fig2-5globes.gif

190,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9 10
6347) Insects Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu1
} (moths, butterflies, caterpillars).2
3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=lepido
ptera&submit=Submit

2. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect molecular
clock dates the origin of the insects
and accords with palaeontological and
biogeographic landmarks.", Mol Biol
Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/con
tent/19/5/748.full.pdf
{Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
3. ^ Douzery et al., "The timing of
eukaryotic evolution: does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and
fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
2004. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/4
3/15386.abstract

4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p556.
5. ^ Palmer, et al,
"Prehistoric Life", 2009, p224.
6. ^
Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p556.
7. ^ Grimaldi, Engel,
"Evolution of the Insects", 2005, p469.
8. ^
Hedges and Kumar, "TimeTree of Life",
2009, p262.
9. ^ Douzery et al., "The timing
of eukaryotic evolution: does a relaxed
molecular clock reconcile proteins and
fossils?", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A,
2004. http://www.pnas.org/content/101/4
3/15386.abstract

10. ^ Gaunt et al., "An insect
molecular clock dates the origin of the
insects and accords with
palaeontological and biogeographic
landmarks.", Mol Biol Evol,
2002. http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/con
tent/19/5/748.full.pdf
{Gaunt_Insects_2
002.pdf}
earliest fossils: Dorset, England4
 

[1] Description Photograph of a male
Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus en
). This butterfly was stationary on a
leaf with his wings outstretched in an
attempt to show off and attract a mate.
The picture was taken in the butterfly
house at the Tyler Arboretum. Camera
and Exposure Details: Camera: Nikon
D50 Lens: Nikon Nikkor ED AF-S DX
18-55mm f/3.5-5.6G Exposure: 55mm
(82.5mm in 35mm equivalent) f/9 @ 1/125
s. Date 9 September 2006 Source Own
work (Own Picture) Author Photo
(c)2006 Derek Ramsey
(Ram-Man) Permission (Reusing this
file) You may NOT use this image
on your own web site or anywhere else
unless you release this image and any
derivative works (which may include the
web page or other medium where this
image is used, if it is not considered
a ''collective work'') by following the
terms of the following license. Any
other use will be considered a breach
of copyright law. Please do not copy
this image illegally by ignoring the
terms of the license, as it is not in
the public domain. If you would like
special permission to use, license, or
purchase the image or prints of the
image, or for use in any other fashion
or would simply like a copy of the
original file, please contact me or
email me first to ask. Please see the
non-legalese usage guide for more
information. Note: While you are not
required to do so by the license,
please consider letting me know when
you reuse one of my photograph images,
as a courtesy. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Monarch_Butterf
ly_Showy_Male_3000px.jpg/1280px-Monarch_
Butterfly_Showy_Male_3000px.jpg


[2] Description Photograph of a
female Monarch Butterflyen (Danaus
plexippus en ) laying an egg on a
Mexican Milkweeden (Asclepias
curassavica en 'Silky Gold'). The
picture was taken in Aston Township,
Pennsylvania. Camera and Exposure
Details: Camera: Nikon D50 Lens:
Sigma 70mm f/2.8 EX DG Macro Exposure:
70mm (105mm in 35mm equivalent) f/8 @
1/160 s. (200 ISO) Date Friday,
August 8, 2008 Source Own
Picture. Author Photo by and (c)2009
Derek Ramsey
(Ram-Man) Permission (Reusing this
file) You may NOT use this image
on your own web site or anywhere else
unless you release this image and any
derivative works (which may include the
web page or other medium where this
image is used, if it is not considered
a ''collective work'') by following the
terms of the following license. Any
other use will be considered a breach
of copyright law. Please do not copy
this image illegally by ignoring the
terms of the license, as it is not in
the public domain. If you would like
special permission to use, license, or
purchase the image or prints of the
image, or for use in any other fashion
or would simply like a copy of the
original file, please contact me or
email me first to ask. Please see the
non-legalese usage guide for more
information. Note: While you are not
required to do so by the license,
please consider letting me know when
you reuse one of my photograph images,
as a courtesy. GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Monarch_Butterf
ly_Danaus_plexippus_Laying_Eggs.jpg/1096
px-Monarch_Butterfly_Danaus_plexippus_La
ying_Eggs.jpg

180,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
456) Earliest extant mammals,
Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ1 } evolve.2

FOOTN
OTES
1. ^ "monotreme." The American
Heritage® Dictionary of the English
Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 06
Sep. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/monotreme
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 238-260.
3. ^ "monotreme."
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,
1994-2010. Answers.com 28 Jul. 2011.
http://www.answers.com/topic/monotreme
4. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {180 MYBN}
5. ^ Palmer, et
al., "Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
6. ^
Hedges, Tree of Life,
2009 http://timetree.org/pdf/Madsen2009
Chap68.pdf


MORE INFO
[1] "Monotremata". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotremata

Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea3
 

[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
239. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 239.


[2] Description Photo: model of
Steropodon galmani at the Australian
Museum, Sydney. Date 20 April
2008 Source Own work Author
Matt Martyniuk
(Dinoguy2) Permission (Reusing this
file) See below. Other versions
Derivative works of this file:
Prototheria collage.png GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f8/Steropodon_model_aus.
jpg

170,000,000 YBN
2
372) Teleosts: carp, minnows,
piranhas.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {170 MYBN}
 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Commo
n_carp.jpg Common carp (Cyprinus
carpio). Public domain image from USFWS
National Image Library. Created by
Duane Raver. PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/a/a8/Common_carp.jpg

170,000,000 YBN
2
373) Teleosts: salmon, trout, pike.1
FO
OTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Fig. 2. The single
most-parsimonious (MP) tree derived
from unweighted analysis of mitogenomic
data comprising concatenated nucleotide
sequences from 12 protein-coding
(excluding the ND6 gene and third codon
positions) and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)
genes (stem regions only) from all 28
species examined. Tree length, 12,709
steps; consistency index, 0.355;
retention index, 0.471; and rescaled
consistency index, 0.167. Numbers above
and below internal branches indicate
jackknife values obtained for 500
replicates using the heuristic search
option in PAUP*4.0b10 (Swofford, 2002)
with 20 random-addition sequences being
performed in each replication and decay
indices, respectively. The scale
indicates 100 changes. from: Inoue,
JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M
(2003) ''Basal actinopterygian
relationships: A mitogenomic
perspective on the phylogeny of the
ldquoancient fish.rdquo'' Mol
Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S1055790302003317 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://www.sciencedirect.com/cac
he/MiamiImageURL/B6WNH-475B9D7-6-1K/0?wc
hp=dGLbVlz-zSkzk

170,000,000 YBN
2 3
383) Amphibians: Salamanders.1
FOOTNOTE
S
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p225.
3. ^ Richard
Dawkins, "The Ancestor's Tale",
(Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company,
2004). {305 MYBN}
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), 303. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), 303.


[2] Description central
Pennsylvania Spotted Salamander
(Ambystoma maculatum) Source
self-made Date 25 March
2008 Author Camazine (talk) Scott
Camazine web.mac.com/camazine CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/en/b/b2/SpottedSalamander.jpg

150,000,000 YBN
2
374) Teleosts: Lightfish and
Dragonfish.1

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {150 MYBN}
 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Description English: This
deep-sea fish, Photostomias guernei,
has a built-in bioluminescent
''flashlight'' it uses to help it see
in the dark. Date 1999 Source
Photostomias.jpg Author
derivative work: Una Smith
Photostomias.jpg: Edith
Widder/HBOI PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/63/Photostomias2.jpg

150,000,000 YBN
3
393) Birds evolve. The first feather.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004).
3. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004). {245
MYBN} {245 MYBN (bird and croc split}

MORE INFO
[1] Xu, X., Z. Tang, and X. Wang.
1999a. A therizinosauroid dinosaur with
integumentary structures from China.
Nature, 399350-354
[2] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and
RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order
phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda,
Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative
anatomy. II. Analysis and
discussion.” Zoological Journal of
the Linnean Society 149.1 (2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/do
i/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full

[3] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763

[4] Hedges, S. Blair et al.
“Continental breakup and the ordinal
diversification of birds and
mammals.” Nature 381.6579 (1996) :
226-229. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v381/n6579/abs/381226a0.html

[5] Ivanov, M., Hrdlickova, S. &
Gregorova, R. (2001) The Complete
Encyclopedia of Fossils. Rebo
Publishers, Netherlands. pp. 312
[6] Zhang,
Z., Gao, C., Meng, Q., Liu, J., Hou,
L., & Zheng, G. (2009). Diversification
in an early cretaceous avian genus:
evidence from a new species of
Confuciusornis from china. Journal of
Ornithology , 150 (4), 783-790. URL
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10336-009-039
9-x

[7] Hou L, Zhou Z, Gu Y, Zhang H
(1995a) Confuciusornis sanctus, a new
Late Jurassic sauriurine bird from
China. Chin Sci Bull 40:1545–1551
 
[1] Richard Dawkins, ''The Ancestor's
Tale'', (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.


[2] Description English:
Archaeopteryx lithographica, specimen
displayed at the Museum für Naturkunde
in Berlin. (This image shows the
original fossil - not a
cast.) Deutsch: Archaeopteryx
lithographica, Exemplar im Museum für
Naturkunde in Berlin. (Dieses Bild
zeigt das Original-Fossil, keinen
Abguss.) Date 5 July 2009 Source
Own work Author H. Raab
(User:Vesta) CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/9/9d/Archaeopteryx_lithogr
aphica_%28Berlin_specimen%29.jpg

145,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13
245) Seed plants angiosperms. The first
flowering plant.5 6 7 Almost all
grains, beans, nuts, fruits,
vegetables, herbs and spices come from
plants with flowers.8

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445.,
(2004). http://www.amjbot.org/content/9
1/10/1437.short

2. ^ Hwan Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett,
Claudia Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and
Debashish, "A Molecular Timeline for
the Origin of Photosynthetic
Eukaryotes", Molecular Biology and
Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc
/articles/PMC1088868/

4. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/
anthophyta.html

5. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
6. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
7. ^ N Wikstrom,
V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of
the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
8. ^
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/
anthophyta.html

9. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p607-613.
10. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
11. ^ Jeffrey
D. Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark
W. Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.short
(175mybn) {Gymno-angio spilt)
320 mybn (radiation at 180my}
12. ^ Hwan Su
Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution,
(2004). http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/c
ontent/21/5/809.abstract
(c100mybn)
{320-290 mybn (radiation at 100 mybn}
13. ^
Kumar and Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009,
p135. http://timetree.org/pdf/Magallon2
009Chap11.pdf


MORE INFO
[1] "Fruit". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit
[2] THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP.
“An Update of the Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group Classification for the
Orders and Families of Flowering
Plants: APG III.” Botanical Journal
of the Linnean Society 161.2 (2009):
105–121. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339
[3] Kumar, Hedges, "Time Tree of Life",
2009. http://timetree.org/book.php
Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly
China 

[1] Description
辽宁古果(Archaefructus
liaoningensis),为迄今发现的最
早的花(早白垩纪),于北京
然博物馆 Date 17:15, 18 October
2006 (UTC) Source Own work Author
Shizhao CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/thumb/7/7f/Archaefructus_l
iaoningensis.jpg/1280px-Archaefructus_li
aoningensis.jpg


[2] Figure 2 from: Sun, G. , Dilcher,
D. L. , Zheng, S.-L. & Zhou, Z.-K. In
search of the first flower: A Jurassic
angiosperm, Archaefructus, from
northeast China. Science 282,
1692–1695
(1998). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/282/5394/1692
AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2896858
COPYRIGHTED
source: Sun, G. , Dilcher, D. L. ,
Zheng, S.-L. & Zhou, Z.-K. In search of
the first flower: A Jurassic
angiosperm, Archaefructus, from
northeast China. Science 282,
1692–1695
(1998). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/282/5394/1692http://www.jstor.org/sta
ble/2896858

143,000,000 YBN
5 6 7 8 9
6288) Earliest extant flower
"Amborella".1 2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
3. ^ N Wikstrom,
V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of
the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ Grimaldi,
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p612.
5. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution
of the Insects", 2005, p612.
6. ^ Kumar and
Hedges, "Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (175mybn) {179mybn}
8. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004). (175mybn)
9. ^ Hwan
Su Yoon, Jeremiah D. Hackett, Claudia
Ciniglia, Gabriele Pinto and Debashish,
"A Molecular Timeline for the Origin of
Photosynthetic Eukaryotes", Molecular
Biology and Evolution, (2004).
(c100mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] "Fruit". Wikipedia.
Wikipedia, 2008.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit
[2] Sun, G. , Dilcher, D. L. , Zheng,
S.-L. & Zhou, Z.-K. In search of the
first flower: A Jurassic angiosperm,
Archaefructus, from northeast China.
Science 282, 1692–1695
(1998). http://www.sciencemag.org/conte
nt/282/5394/1692

AND http://www.jstor.org/stable/2896858

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] Photo of Amborella trichopoda
(Amborellaceae; photo © Sangtae Kim).
source: http://tolweb.org/tree?group=ang
iosperms

140,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
247) Flowers: Nymphaeales
{niM-FE-A-lEZ1 } (water lilies).2 3

FOO
TNOTES
1. ^ based on:
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=nympha
eaceae

2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
3. ^ N
Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and Hedges,
"Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (171mybn)
7. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas
E. Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
(165mybn)
 
[1] Nymphaea alba Nymphaea alba -
image taken on 29 August 2004 in the
outdoor botanical garden of Technion -
Haifa, Israel public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nym
phaeaceae


[2] Nymphaea colorata from
Africa presume is gnu or pd
source: same

140,000,000 YBN
9 10 11 12 13 14
457) Marsupials evolve.3 First nipple
and breast.4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p230-237.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237.
4. ^ Williams, W.R. A
Monograph on Diseases of the Breast:
Their Pathology and Treatment, with
Special Reference to Cancer. Bale,
1894,
p9. http://books.google.com/books?id=QB
01AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA9

5. ^ Loke, Y.W. Life�s Vital Link:
The Astonishing Role of the Placenta.
OUP Oxford,
2013. http://books.google.com/books?id=
ELoP_omQfkoC&pg=PP34

6. ^ Rincon, Paul (2003-12-12).
"Rincon, P., Oldest Marsupial Ancestor
Found, BBC, Dec 2003". BBC News.
Retrieved
2010-03-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/
science/nature/3311911.stm

7. ^ "Pickrell, J., Oldest Marsupial
Fossil Found in China, National
Geographic, December 2003".
News.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved
2010-03-16.
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/new
s/2003/12/1215_031215_oldestmarsupial.ht
ml

8. ^ "Vertebrate Paleontology:
Sinodelphys szalayi". Carnegie Museum
of Natural History. Retrieved
2010-10-21. http://www.carnegiemnh.org/
vp/sinodelphys.html

9. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p230-237. {140 MYBN}
10. ^
Luo Z, Yuan C, Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), "A
Jurassic eutherian mammal and
divergence of marsupials and
placentals", Nature 476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf} {165MYBN}
11. ^ Hedges, Tree
of Life,
2009 http://timetree.org/pdf/Madsen2009
Chap68.pdf

12. ^ van Rheede, T. et al. The
platypus is in its place: nuclear genes
and Indels confirm the sister group
relation of monotremes and therians.
Mol. Biol. Evol. 23, 587–597 (2006).
{143-178MYBN}
13. ^ Phillips, M. J., Bennett, T. H. &
Lee, M. S. Y. Molecules, morphology,
and ecology indicate a recent,
amphibious ancestry for echidnas. Proc.
Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 17089–17094
(2009). {193-186}
14. ^ Palmer, et al.,
"Primitive Life", 2009, p282.
China6 7 8  
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p231. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p231.


[2] Description English: Virginia
Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in a
juniper tree in northeastern
Ohio. Date 27 December
2008 Source Own work Author
Wilson44691 Permission (Reusing
this file) See below. Other versions
PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/6/6a/Possum122708.JPG

134,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
250) Flowers: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ1
} evolve (magnolia, nutmeg, avocado,
cinnamon, black pepper).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "magnoliid>.". Dictionary.com
Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
"magnoliid." The American Heritage®
Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 20 May. 2012.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/m
agnoliid>.
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.amjbot.org/content/91/10/14
37.short

3. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articl
es/PMC1088868/

4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and Hedges,
"Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). entire group is called
magnoliids {179 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
(128mybn)
 
[1] Magnolia This photo is a part of
the Wikipedia:Plant photo collection
I. Downloaded URL:
http://tencent.homestead.com/files/magno
lia.jpg Warning sign This image has
no source information. Source
information must be provided so that
the copyright status can be verified by
others. Unless the copyright status is
provided and a source is given, the
image will be deleted seven days after
this template was added (see page
history). If you just added this
template, please use {{no source
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mag
noliales


[2] ~~~~~}} (to include the date
here). Please consider using
source: same

133,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
253) Flowers Eudicots {YUDIKoTS1 }
evolve (the largest lineage of
flowers).2 3

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ "eudicot>.". Dictionary.com
Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc.
"eudicot." The American Heritage®
Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin
Company. 29 Dec. 2011.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/e
udicot>.
2. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
3. ^ N
Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and Hedges,
"Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (153mybn) {155 mybn}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
(128mybn)
[2]
http://howjsay.com/index.php?word=eudico
t&submit=Submit

 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, ''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract

130,000,000 YBN
3
375) Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying
fish, pufferfish, barracuda.1 2

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^
http://sn2000.taxonomy.nl/Taxonomicon/Ta
xonTree.aspx?id=44719&tree=0.1

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). {130 MYBN}
 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Seahorse - Hippocampus
sp. Image ID reef2027, The
Coral Kingdom Collection Location
Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea Photographer
Mr. Mohammed Al Momany, Aqaba,
Jordan Source
http://www.photolib.noaa.gov/htmls/reef2
027.htm PD
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/4/4b/Hippocampus.jpg

130,000,000 YBN
2
376) Teleosts: cod, anglerfish.1
FOOTNO
TES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004).
2. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004). {130 MYBN}
 
[1] Adapted from: Richard Dawkins,
''The Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p339. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p339.


[2] Fig. 2. The single
most-parsimonious (MP) tree derived
from unweighted analysis of mitogenomic
data comprising concatenated nucleotide
sequences from 12 protein-coding
(excluding the ND6 gene and third codon
positions) and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)
genes (stem regions only) from all 28
species examined. Tree length, 12,709
steps; consistency index, 0.355;
retention index, 0.471; and rescaled
consistency index, 0.167. Numbers above
and below internal branches indicate
jackknife values obtained for 500
replicates using the heuristic search
option in PAUP*4.0b10 (Swofford, 2002)
with 20 random-addition sequences being
performed in each replication and decay
indices, respectively. The scale
indicates 100 changes. from: Inoue,
JG, Miya, M, Tsukamoto, K, Nishida, M
(2003) ''Basal actinopterygian
relationships: A mitogenomic
perspective on the phylogeny of the
ldquoancient fish.rdquo'' Mol
Phylogenet Evol 26:
110-120 http://www.sciencedirect.com/sc
ience/article/pii/S1055790302003317 COP
YRIGHTED
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/c/cf/Gadus_morhua-Cod-2-At
lanterhavsparken-Norway.JPG

125,000,000 YBN
4 5 6 7
163) The Eutheria. Placental mammals
evolve.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Russell F. Doolittle, Da-Fei
Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho, Elizabeth
Little, "Determining Divergence Times
of the Major Kingdoms of Living
Organisms with a Protein Clock",
Science, (1996).
2. ^ Russell F. Doolittle,
Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang, Glen Cho,
Elizabeth Little, "Determining
Divergence Times of the Major Kingdoms
of Living Organisms with a Protein
Clock", Science, (1996).
3. ^ Luo Z, Yuan C,
Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), "A Jurassic
eutherian mammal and divergence of
marsupials and placentals", Nature
476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf}
4. ^ Luo Z, Yuan C, Meng Q & Ji Q
(2011), "A Jurassic eutherian mammal
and divergence of marsupials and
placentals", Nature 476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf} {160MYBN}
5. ^ Russell F.
Doolittle, Da-Fei Feng, Simon Tsang,
Glen Cho, Elizabeth Little,
"Determining Divergence Times of the
Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms with
a Protein Clock", Science, (1996).
{130MYBN}
6. ^ Palmer, et al., "Primitive Life",
2009, p282.
7. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p225.

MORE INFO
[1] Nature. "Ji, Q., et al., The
Earliest Known Eutherian Mammal,
Nature, 416, Pages 816-822, Apr 2002".
Nature.com.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v
416/n6883/full/416816a.html

earliest fossils: (Daxigou) Jianchang
County, Liaoning Province, China3
 

[1] Description English:
Juramaia Date 30 April 2012 Source
Own work Author Nobu Tamura
http://paleoexhibit.blogspot.com/
http://spinops.blogspot.com/
http://www.palaeocritti.com CC
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/1/15/Juramaia_NT.jpg


[2] Figure 1 from: Luo Z, Yuan C,
Meng Q & Ji Q (2011), ''A Jurassic
eutherian mammal and divergence of
marsupials and placentals'', Nature
476(7361): p.
42–45. http://www.nature.com/nature/j
ournal/v476/n7361/full/nature10291.html
{nature10291.pdf} COPYRIGHTED
source: http://nature.com/nature/journal
/v476/n7361/carousel/nature10291-f1.2.jp
g

120,000,000 YBN
3
463) Neornithes {nEORnitEZ1 } evolve
(modern birds).2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^
http://www.howjsay.com/index.php?word=ne
ornithes&submit=Submit

2. ^
http://www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units
/350Aves/350.800.html#Neornithes

3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004). (estimate from) {120
MYBN (estimate from}

MORE INFO
[1] LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C., and
RICHARD L. ZUSI. “Higher-order
phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda,
Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative
anatomy. II. Analysis and
discussion.” Zoological Journal of
the Linnean Society 149.1 (2007) :
1-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/do
i/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00293.x/full

[2] Hackett, Shannon J. et al. “A
Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals
Their Evolutionary History.” Science
320.5884 (2008) : 1763 -1768.
Print. http://www.sciencemag.org/conten
t/320/5884/1763

[3] Brown, Joseph, Joshua Rest, Jaime
G. Moreno, Michael Sorenson, and David
Mindell. "Strong mitochondrial DNA
support for a Cretaceous origin of
modern avian lineages." BMC Biology 6
(January 2008):
6:6. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-
7007/6/6

 
[1] aepyornis The same image appears
in: Palmer, The Marshall Illustrated
Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and
Prehistoric Animals, 1999,
p176. COPYRIGHTED
source: http://photo.starnet.ru/Thematic
_Wallpapers/Zhizn/Dikie_zhivotnye/dinosa
urs_fossils/images/aepyornis.jpg


[2] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p262. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p262.

112,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
252) Flowers Monocots evolve: Flowering
plants that have a single cotyledon
(seed leaf) in the embryo.1 2 3

FOOTNOT
ES
1. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
2. ^ N
Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
"Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001).
3. ^ "Monocotyledon", Oxford Dictionary
of Biochemistry,
http://www.answers.com/topic/monocotyled
on

4. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution of the
Insects", 2005, p612.
5. ^ Kumar and Hedges,
"Time Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
6. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (154mybn)

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
(128mybn)
 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, ''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract

108,000,000 YBN
5 6 7
254) Flowers: "Basal Eudicots"
(buttercup, poppy, macadamia,
sycamore).1 2 3 4

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*,
"An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and
families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
2. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
4. ^ Jeffrey D.
Palmer, Douglas E. Soltis and Mark W.
Chase, "The plant tree of life: an
overview and some points of view",
American Journal of Botany.
2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
5. ^ Grimaldi,
Engel, "Evolution of the Insects",
2005, p612.
6. ^ Kumar and Hedges, "Time
Tree", 2009.
http://timetree.org/book.php
7. ^ N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, "Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree", Proc Biol
Sci. 2001 Nov 7;268(1482):2211-20.,
(2001). (145mybn) {147 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
(128mybn)
[2] wiki
 
[1] Creeping butercup (Ranunculus
repens). GNU
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima
ge:Creeping_butercup_close_800.jpg


[2] Clematis hybrid from
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/phot
os/ public domain
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cle
matis

106,000,000 YBN
6 7
267) Flowers "Core Eudicots" (cactus,
caper, buckwheat, rhubarb, venus
flytrap, old world pitcher plants,
beet, quinoa, spinach, grape plants).1
2 3 4 5

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP*,
"An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group classification for the orders and
families of flowering plants: APG II",
Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society Volume 141 Page 399 - April
2003 doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339, (2003).
2. ^ S.
Blair Hedges, "The Origin and Evolution
of Model Organisms", Nature Reviews
Genetics 3, 838-849;
doi:10.1038/nrg929, (2002).
3. ^ N Wikstrom, V
Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of the
angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract

4. ^ Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845
5. ^ wiki
6. ^ Grimaldi, Engel, "Evolution
of the Insects", 2005, p612.
7. ^ N Wikstrom,
V Savolainen, MW Chase, "Evolution of
the angiosperms: calibrating the family
tree", Proc Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract
(145my)
{124 MYBN}

MORE INFO
[1] Jeffrey D. Palmer, Douglas E.
Soltis and Mark W. Chase, "The plant
tree of life: an overview and some
points of view", American Journal of
Botany. 2004;91:1437-1445., (2004).
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123845 (
128mybn)
 
[1] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW Chase,
''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract


[2] N Wikstrom, V Savolainen, MW
Chase, ''Evolution of the angiosperms:
calibrating the family tree'', Proc
Biol Sci. 2001 Nov
7;268(1482):2211-20., (2001).
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org
/content/268/1482/2211.abstract COPYRIG
HTED
source: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishi
ng.org/content/268/1482/2211.abstract

105,000,000 YBN
4 5 6
491) Ancestor of all placental mammal
Afrotheres evolves.2

FOOTNOTES
1. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p224-229.
2. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p224-229.
3. ^ Richard Dawkins, "The Ancestor's
Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
Company, 2004), p224-229.
4. ^ Richard Dawkins,
"The Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p224-229. {105 MYBN}
5. ^ Mark S. Springer,
William J. Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, and
Stephen J. O'Brien, "Placental mammal
diversification and the
Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary",
PNAS,Feb. 4 2003,100,3,1056-1061,
(2003).
6. ^ Michael J. Benton and Francisco J.
Ayala, "Dating the Tree of Life",
Science, (2003).
Africa3  
[1] From: Richard Dawkins, ''The
Ancestor's Tale'', (Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004),
p225. COPYRIGHTED
source: Richard Dawkins, "The
Ancestor's Tale", (Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004), p225.


[2] Description Afrotheria Date
18 December 2007 Source
self-made, based on:
Image:Orycteropus afer.jpg
Image:Dugong.jpg Image:Elephant
Shrew.jpg Image:Manatee Looking at
the Camera.jpg Image:Taupe
doree.jpg Image:Klippschliefer
Suedafrika Hermanus.jpg
Image:Elefante Lake Manyara Park.jpg
Image:Tanrek.jpg Author
Esculapio GNU
source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wiki
pedia/commons/f/f0/Afrotheria.jpg

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465) Birds "Ratites" evolve (ostrich,
emu, cassowary {KaSOwaRE1 }, kiwis).2

F
OOTNOTES
1.