1,000,000,000,000 YBN
1) We are a tiny part of a universe that is made of an infinite amount of
space, matter and time.

990,000,000,000 YBN
2) There is more space than matter.
980,000,000,000 YBN
3) All matter is made of particles of light.
970,000,000,000 YBN
11) The universe has no start or end. The same light particles that have always
been, continue to move in the space that has always been.

960,000,000,001 YBN
5) Matter and motion can never be created or destroyed. Matter can never be
converted into motion, and motion can never be converted into matter.

950,000,000,000 YBN
6) Light particles become trapped with each other and so form structures such
as protons, atoms, molecules, planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of

940,000,000,000 YBN
7) All of the billions of galaxies we see are only a tiny part of the universe.
We will never see most of the universe because no light particles from there
can ever reach us.

935,000,000,000 YBN
4) There is a pattern in the universe. Light particles move from where there is
less space to where there is more space. As an empty space becomes filled,
light particles form gas clouds called nebuli, and then galaxies of stars.
Living objects grow around stars and pull stars together to form globular
clusters and then form a globular (also called "elliptical") galaxy. Living
objects need matter to stop their decay. Globular galaxies have a regular input
and output of light particles. When a volume of space becomes very dense, more
light particles exit than enter the space. Light particles that exit to more
empty spaces form new nebulae and galaxies and so this cycle continues. Stars
at our scale may be light particles at a much larger scale, just as light
particles at our scale may be stars at a much smaller scale. This system may go
on infinitely in both larger and smaller scale.


165,000,000,000 YBN
13) The Milky Way Nebula starts to form.
33,000,000,000 YBN
6180) The first star in the Milky Way Galaxy forms.
22,000,000,000 YBN
6181) Living objects in the Milky Way Galaxy reach another star using a ship.
10,000,000,000 YBN
6182) The first globular cluster of 100,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy.
5,500,000,000 YBN
16) The star Earth orbits forms.
5,500,000,000 YBN
17) Planets form around our star. Like the star, they are red hot with liquid
rock and metals on the surface. Lighter atoms move to the surface of the
planets. Larger planets are surrounded by gas.

4,600,000,000 YBN
21) The moon of Earth is captured.
4,600,000,000 YBN
30) Planet Earth cools. Molten liquid rock turns into a solid thin crust. Water
condenses and falls to the surface, filling the lowest parts of the land to
make the first Earth oceans, lakes, and rivers.

4,400,000,000 YBN
18) Larger molecules form on Earth, like amino acids, phosphates, and sugars,
the components of living objects.

4,395,000,000 YBN
19) Nucleic acids form on Earth.
4,385,000,000 YBN
167) The first proteins on Earth. Transfer RNA molecules evolve (tRNA), and
link amino acids into proteins using other RNA molecules as a template.

4,380,000,000 YBN
40) A protein can copy RNA.
4,370,000,000 YBN
168) The ribosome evolves. The ribosome may function as a protocell, providing
a platform for more efficient protein production. A single RNA may contain all
the instructions needed to make more ribosomes.

4,365,000,000 YBN
166) First DNA. A protein allows DNA to be made from RNA.
4,360,000,000 YBN
212) A protein can copy DNA molecules.
4,355,000,000 YBN
20) The first cell on Earth (a bacterium). DNA is surrounded by a membrane made
of proteins.

This cell may form near the sunlit water surface or near underwater volcanoes.

4,350,000,000 YBN
183) Cells make the first lipids on Earth; (fats, oils, waxes).
4,340,000,000 YBN
64) Operons allow selective protein assembly.
4,335,000,000 YBN
28) Cellular respiration. Glycolysis evolves. Cells can make ATP from glucose.
4,330,000,000 YBN
44) Fermentation evolves. Cells can make lactic acid.
4,325,000,000 YBN
213) Cells make alcohol.
4,200,000,000 YBN
292) Prokaryote flagellum evolves.
4,193,000,000 YBN
77) Archaea (also called archaebacteria) evolve.
4,189,000,000 YBN
193) Bacteria "Hyperthermophiles" evolve (Aquifex, Thermotoga).
4,187,000,000 YBN
180) Archaea: Crenarchaeota (Sulfolobus).
4,187,000,000 YBN
181) Archaea: Euryarchaeota {YRE-oR-KE-O-Tu} (methanogens, halobacteria).

Earliest cell response to light.

4,112,000,000 YBN
58) Cells produce their own food (autotrophy).
4,000,000,000 YBN
43) Photosynthesis evolves in bacteria. Cells emit free Oxygen.

This is the main system responsible for producing the Oxygen now in the air of

3,950,000,000 YBN
37) (Filamentous) multicellularity evolves in prokaryotes.
3,950,000,000 YBN
316) Cell differentiation evolves in filamentous prokaryotes, creating
organisms with different kinds of cells.

3,950,000,000 YBN
322) Nitrogen fixation. Cells can make nitrogen compounds like ammonia from
Nitrogen gas in the air.

West Africa  
3,900,000,000 YBN
57) Aerobic cellular respiration. First aerobic cell. These cells use oxygen to
convert glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

3,850,000,000 YBN
36) Oldest physical evidence for life: ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12.
Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
3,850,000,000 YBN
45) Oldest sediment, the "Banded Iron Formation" begins.
Banded Iron Formation is
sedimentary rock that spans 2 billion years, made of silica with alternating
layers of black-colored reduced iron and red-colored oxidized iron, and
represents a seasonal rise and fall of free oxygen in the ocean, possibly
linked to photosynthetic organisms.

Akilia Island, Western Greenland  
3,500,000,000 YBN
39) Oldest fossil evidence of life: stromatolites.
Warrawoona, Western Australia, and, Fig Tree Group, South Africa  
3,500,000,000 YBN
287) Oldest fossils of an organism.

2.8 billion years will pass before the first animal evolves.

Warrawoona, northwestern Western Australia and Onverwacht Group, Barberton
Mountain Land, South Africa  
3,260,000,000 YBN
71) Budding evolves in prokaryotes.
Swartkoppie, South Africa  
3,200,000,000 YBN
66) Earliest acritarch fossil (unicellular microfossils with uncertain

(Moodies Group) South Africa  
2,923,000,000 YBN
178) Bacteria Firmicutes (FiRmiKYUTEZ) evolve (Gram positive bacteria: cause of
botulism, tetanus, anthrax). First endospores.

2,800,000,000 YBN
76) Proteobacteria evolve (Rickettsia {ancestor of all mitochondria},
gonorrhea, Salmonella, E. coli).

2,800,000,000 YBN
177) Gender and sex (conjugation) evolve in bacteria.
2,795,000,000 YBN
23) The first virus evolves.
2,784,000,000 YBN
176) Bacteria Planctomycetes {PlaNK-TO-mI-SETS}.
2,784,000,000 YBN
179) Bacteria Actinobacteria {aKTinO-BaK-TER-Eu} (source of streptomycin).
2,775,000,000 YBN
174) Bacteria Spirochaetes (SPIrOKETEZ) (Syphilis, Lyme disease).
2,775,000,000 YBN
175) Bacteria Bacteroidetes {BaKTRrOEDiTEZ}.
2,775,000,000 YBN
217) Bacteria Chlamydiae {Klo-mi-DE-I or Klo-mi-DE-E}.
2,775,000,000 YBN
6309) Bacteria Chlorobi (green sulphur bacteria).
2,775,000,000 YBN
6310) Bacteria Verrucomicrobia (VeR-rUKO-mI-KrO-BEo).
2,730,000,000 YBN
80) Endo and exocytosis. Cells can now eat other cells.
2,700,000,000 YBN
60) Eukaryotic cell. The first cell with a nucleus. The first protist. The
nucleus may develop from the infolding of plasma membrane.

2,700,000,000 YBN
62) Earliest molecular fossil evidence of eukaryotes (sterane {STiRAN}

Northwestern Australia  
2,700,000,000 YBN
198) The endoplasmic reticulum evolves, a membrane system that extends from the
nucleus, important in the synthesis of proteins and lipids.

2,690,000,000 YBN
207) Cytoskeleton {SI-Te-SKeL-i-TN} forms in eukaryote cytoplasm.
2,690,000,000 YBN
208) Eukaryote flagellum evolves.
2,680,000,000 YBN
65) Circular chromosome in eukaryote nucleus changes into linear chromosomes.
2,670,000,000 YBN
199) Eukaryote Golgi Apparatus evolves (packages proteins and lipids into
vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations).

2,670,000,000 YBN
290) The nucleolus (a sphere in the nucleus that makes ribosomal RNA).
2,660,000,000 YBN
72) Mitosis evolves in Eukaryote cells.
2,640,000,000 YBN
73) Eukaryote sex evolves. First diploid cell (2 sets of chromosomes). First
zygote. Increase in genetic variety.

2,640,000,000 YBN
206) Meiosis (division of diploid into haploid cells).
2,610,000,000 YBN
296) Eukaryote gender. Anisogamy {aNISoGomE}, sex (cell and nucleus fusion)
between two cells that are different in size or shape.

2,570,000,000 YBN
295) Two-step meiosis (diploid DNA copies and then the cell divides twice into
four haploid cells).

2,558,000,000 YBN
171) Bacteria "Deinococcus-Thermus".
2,558,000,000 YBN
172) Bacteria Cyanobacteria {SIe-NO-BaK-TERE-u} (ancestor of all plastids).
2,558,000,000 YBN
315) Bacteria Chloroflexi evolve.
2,480,000,000 YBN
170) Bacteria live on land.
2,400,000,000 YBN
59) Start of 200 million year ice age.
2,300,000,000 YBN
48) Oldest "Red Beds". Evidence of free oxygen in the air of Earth.
2,000,000,000 YBN
63) A bacterium related to Rickettsia, is captured by a eukaryote and through
endosymbiosis, becomes the mitochondria, organelles of most eukaryotes.

1,874,000,000 YBN
61) Earliest large filamentous fossil (Grypania).
(Banded Iron Formation) Michigan, USA  
1,800,000,000 YBN
46) End of the Banded Iron Formation.
1,570,000,000 YBN
99) First homeobox genes evolve. These genes regulate the building of major
body parts.

1,570,000,000 YBN
197) The ancestor of all living eukaryotes divides into bikont and unikont
descendants. Bikonts lead to all Chromalveolates, Excavates, Rhizaria, and
Plants. Unikonts lead to all Amoebozoa, Animals and Fungi.

1,520,000,000 YBN
202) Protists Amoebozoa (amoebas and slime molds). Feeding using pseudopods.
1,520,000,000 YBN
203) Colonialism evolves in Eukaryote.
1,500,000,000 YBN
15) First "plastids". Cyanobacteria form plastids through symbiosis, within a
eukaryote cell. Like mitochondria, these organelles copy themselves and are not
made by the cell DNA.

1,500,000,000 YBN
86) First plant (ancestor of all green and red algae and land plants).
1,500,000,000 YBN
220) Protists Opisthokonts (ancestor of Fungi, Choanoflagellates and Animals).
1,400,000,000 YBN
209) Plant Glaucophyta {GlxKoFITu}.
1,300,000,000 YBN
188) Green Algae evolves (Volvox, Sea lettuce, Spirogyra).
1,300,000,000 YBN
219) Plant Red Algae evolves (Rhodophyta {rODOFITu}).
1,300,000,000 YBN
323) Protists Excavates (Giardia {JE-oR-DE-u}).
1,280,000,000 YBN
38) (Filamentous) multicellularity in Eukaryotes evolves.
(earlest red alga fossils:) (Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic
1,280,000,000 YBN
85) Differentiation in multicellular eukaryote. Gamete (or spore) cells and
somatic cells. Unlike gamete cells, somatic cells are asexual (non-fusing).
Start of death by aging.

1,280,000,000 YBN
301) Haplodiplontic life cycle (mitosis occurs in both haploid and diploid life

1,274,000,000 YBN
187) A captured red alga becomes a plastid in the ancestor of all

1,250,000,000 YBN
88) Protists "Chromalveolates" {KrOM-aL-VEO-leTS} (ancestor of Chromista
{Cryptophytes, Haptophytes and Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ}} and
Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS}).

1,250,000,000 YBN
201) Earliest certain eukaryote fossils (red algae).
(Hunting Formation) Somerset Island, arctic Canada  
1,200,000,000 YBN
221) First fungi.
1,180,000,000 YBN
6280) Protists Alveolates {aL-VEO-leTS} (ancestor of all Ciliates,
Apicomplexans, and Dinoflagellates {DInOFlaJeleTS}).

1,100,000,000 YBN
75) Fungi Microsporidia.
1,100,000,000 YBN
313) Protists Dinoflagellates {DI-nO-Fla-Je-leTS}.
1,080,000,000 YBN
87) Excavate Discicristates {DiSKIKriSTATS} (includes euglenids).
1,080,000,000 YBN
97) A eukaryote eye evolves; the first three-dimensional response to light.
1,050,000,000 YBN
169) Protists Stramenopiles {STro-meN-o-Pi-lEZ} (also called Heterokonts)
(ancestor of all brown and golden algae, diatoms, and oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu)).

1,000,000,000 YBN
324) Protists Mesomycetozoea {me-ZO-mI-SE-TO-ZO-u} (or DRIPs).
985,000,000 YBN
309) Protists Oomycota {Ou-mI-KO-Tu} (Water molds).
900,000,000 YBN
6281) Protists Rhizaria {rI-ZaR-E-u} (ancestor of all Radiolaria, Foraminifera
and Cercozoa).

850,000,000 YBN
224) Fungi "Zygomycota" (bread molds).
767,000,000 YBN
312) Protists Ciliates (paramecium).
767,000,000 YBN
314) Protists "Apicomplexa" {a-PE-KoM-PleK-Su} (Malaria).
680,000,000 YBN
326) Protists Choanoflagellates {KO-e-nO-FlaJ-e-lATS}.
670,000,000 YBN
286) Multicellularity evolves in a free moving Protist. This allows larger free
moving organisms to evolve.

660,000,000 YBN
81) First animal and first metazoan, sponges (Porifera). Metazoans are
multicellular and have differentiation (their cells perform different
functions). There are only three major kinds of metazoans: sponges, cnidarians,
and bilaterians.

660,000,000 YBN
517) Male gonad evolves in a sponge.
650,000,000 YBN
69) Cells that group as tissues evolve in metazoans.
650,000,000 YBN
79) Metazoan "Placozoa".
650,000,000 YBN
223) Fungi Chytridiomycota {KI-TriDEO-mI-KO-Tu).
Northern Russia  
640,000,000 YBN
83) First nerve cell (neuron), and nervous system evolve in a metazoan.
Earliest touch and sound detection and memory.

640,000,000 YBN
96) Muscle cells evolve in metazoans.
640,000,000 YBN
225) Closeable mouth evolves in metazoans.
640,000,000 YBN
414) Female gonad (ovary) evolves in metzoans.
640,000,000 YBN
523) Animals Ctenophores {TeN-o-FORZ} evolve (comb jellies).
630,000,000 YBN
82) Animals Cnidarians {NIDAREeNS} evolve (sea anemones, corals, jellyfish).
Earliest animal eye.

600,000,000 YBN
91) Start of Ediacaran {EDEoKRiN} soft-bodied invertebrate fossils.
Sonora, Mexico|Adelaide, Australia| Lesser Karatau Microcontinent,
600,000,000 YBN
107) Bilateral species evolve (two sided symmetry).
Earliest animal brain. First
triploblastic species (third embryonic layer: the mesoderm {meZuDRM}).

600,000,000 YBN
403) Earliest extant bilaterian: Acoelomorpha (acoela flat worms and

600,000,000 YBN
459) An intestine evolves in a bilaterian.
600,000,000 YBN
532) Cylindrical gut, anus, and through-put of food evolves in a bilaterian.
600,000,000 YBN
593) The genital pore, vagina, and uterus evolve in a bilaterian.
600,000,000 YBN
660) The penis evolves in a bilaterian.
590,000,000 YBN
95) Fluid filled cavity, the coelom (SEleM) evolves in a bilaterian.
590,000,000 YBN
98) The first circulatory system; blood vessels and blood evolve in a

580,000,000 YBN
93) Bilaterians Protostomes evolve. Ancestor of all Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu}
and Lophotrochozoa {LuFoTroKoZOu}.

580,000,000 YBN
105) Bilaterians Deuterostomes evolve. Ancestor of all Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS
}, Hemichordates, and Chordates.

580,000,000 YBN
131) First shell (or skeleton) evolves.
(Doushantuo Formation) Beidoushan, Guizhou Province, South China  
570,000,000 YBN
311) Bilaterians Chaetognatha {KE-ToG-nutu} (Arrow Worms).

Earliest teeth. Animals start to eat other animals.

565,000,000 YBN
345) Deuterostomes Hemichordates evolve (pterobranchs {TARuBrANKS}, acorn

The free swimming younger form of Pterobranch may evolve into tunicates and
then the first fish.

565,000,000 YBN
347) Deuterostome Phylum Chordata evolves.
Chordates are a very large group that include
all tunicates {TUNiKiTS}, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

Chordates evolve upside down compared to invertebrates, having nerve chord on
back and heart on front.

565,000,000 YBN
348) Earliest extant chordate: Tunicates {TUNiKiTS} evolve (sea squirts).
560,000,000 YBN
117) Start of small shelly fossils.
(Ara Formation) Oman|Lijiagou, Ningqiang County, Shaanxi Province  
560,000,000 YBN
318) Protostomes Ecdysozoa {eK-DiS-u-ZOu} (animals that molt {lose their outer
skin} as they grow).

560,000,000 YBN
331) Protostomes Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} evolve.
560,000,000 YBN
349) First fish.
560,000,000 YBN
6290) Earliest extant fish, Lancelets {laNSleTS}. First liver and kidney.
550,000,000 YBN
328) Ecdysozoa Round worms.
543,000,000 YBN
101) Segmentation evolves.
542,000,000 YBN
6297) The Cambrian radiation, (or "Cambrian explosion"), the rapid
diversification of multicellular animals between 542 and 530 million years ago
that results in the appearance of many of the major phyla of animals. An
increase of animals with shells.

540,000,000 YBN
104) Lophotrochozoa {Lu-Fo-Tro-Ku-ZO-u} Platyhelminthes {PlaTEheLmiNtEZ}

540,000,000 YBN
319) Protists "Radiolaria" {rADEOlaREo}.
540,000,000 YBN
321) Protists "Foraminifera" {FOraMiniFRu}.
540,000,000 YBN
340) Lophotrochozoa Nemertea {ne-mR-TEu} (ribbon worms).
540,000,000 YBN
341) Ecdysozoa Tardigrades {ToRDiGRADZ}.
540,000,000 YBN
342) Ecdysozoa Onychophorans {oniKoFereNS}.
535,000,000 YBN
114) The first heart evolves in bilaterians.
533,000,000 YBN
343) Lophotrochozoa Mollusks evolve. Mollusks includes snails, clams, mussels,
and the cephalopods: squids and octopuses.

530,000,000 YBN
338) Lophotrochozoa annelids (segmented worms).
530,000,000 YBN
339) Ecdysozoa Arthropods evolve (crustaceans, insects).
530,000,000 YBN
350) Vertebrates evolve. This Subphylum contains most fishes, and all
amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds.

530,000,000 YBN
6637) Jawless fishes.
520,000,000 YBN
133) Arthropods Chelicerata (KeliSuroTo) (horseshoe crabs, mites, spiders,

earliest (sea spider) fossils: Orsten, Sweden  
520,000,000 YBN
346) Deuterostome Echinoderms (iKIniDRMS } (sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sand
dollars, star fish).

520,000,000 YBN
6349) The arthropods trilobites evolve.
513,000,000 YBN
6351) Arthropods Crustaceans (shrimps, crabs, lobsters, barnicles).
earliest fossils: Shropshire, England  
501,000,000 YBN
6348) Arthropods Myriapoda {mEREaPeDu} (centipedes and millipedes).
earliest possible fossils: (Marine deposits)(Wheeler Formation) Utah, USA and
(Ust-Majan formation) East Siberia|(earliest fossils) Shropshire, England  
488,000,000 YBN
6314) During the Ordovician (ORDeVisiN} the number of genera {JeN-R-u} will

475,000,000 YBN
244) Non-vascular plants evolve, Bryophyta {BrIoFiTo}, (Liverworts, Hornworts,

475,000,000 YBN
398) Plants live on land.
earliest fossils: Caradoc, Libya  
472,000,000 YBN
402) The first animals live on land, arthropods Myriapoda (centipedes and

earliest arthropod tracks: Kingston, Ontario, Canada  
460,000,000 YBN
353) Jawed vertebrates evolve, Gnathostomata {no toST omoTo} First vertebrate

460,000,000 YBN
404) Jawed fishes Cartilaginous fishes (ancestor of all sharks, rays, skates,
and sawfishes).

460,000,000 YBN
458) Earliest fungi on land. Ancestor of all terrestrial fungi.
460,000,000 YBN
6414) Fungi "Glomeromycota" {GlO-mi-rO-mI-KO-Tu}.
earliest fossils: Wisconsin, USA  
440,000,000 YBN
236) Vascular plants evolve.
440,000,000 YBN
360) Bony fishes.
Ocean and fresh water  
440,000,000 YBN
6172) The first lung evolves.
Ocean (presumably)  
425,000,000 YBN
377) Lobe-fin fishes.
420,000,000 YBN
6350) Arthropod Hexapods (six legs, includes all insects).
earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Scotland  
416,000,000 YBN
6352) Insects. Bristletail and Silverfish.
400,000,000 YBN
227) Fungi "Ascomycota" {aS-KO-mI-KO-Tu} (yeasts, truffles, Penicillium, morels
{mu reLZ}).

earliest fossils: (Rhynie chert) Aberdeenshire, Scotland  
400,000,000 YBN
237) Vascular plants ferns evolve.
385,000,000 YBN
405) The first forests.
earliest fossils: Gilboa, New York, USA  
385,000,000 YBN
411) The first flying animal, an arthropod insect. Ancestor of all winged
insects (Pterygota {TARiGOTu}) (Mayflies, Dragonflies, Damselflies).

earliest fossils: (Wamsutta Formation) southeastern Massachusetts and Upper
Silesian Basin, Czech Republic  
375,000,000 YBN
380) The first tetrapods evolve (organisms with four feet), the amphibians.
First limbs (arms and legs) and fingers.

Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
363,000,000 YBN
379) The first vertebrates live on land (an amphibian).
Fresh water, Greenland (on the equator)  
360,000,000 YBN
226) Fungi "Basidiomycota" {Bo-SiDEO-mI-KO-Tu} (most mushrooms, rusts, club

earliest fossils: Indiana  
360,000,000 YBN
6353) Folding wing insects.
earliest fossils: (Archimylacris eggintoni, Coseley Lagerstätte)
Staffordshire, UK  
359,000,000 YBN
243) The first plant seed evolves. Ancestor of all seed plants.
earliest fossils: Scotland  
350,000,000 YBN
361) Ray-finned fishes, Sturgeons and Paddlefish.
350,000,000 YBN
6355) Insects Dictyoptera {DiKTEoPTRu} (Cockroaches, Termites).
340,000,000 YBN
384) The hard-shell egg evolves. The Amniota {aMnEOtu} (ancestor of reptiles,
mammals and birds).
Start of vertebrate internal fertilization.

earliest fossils: Bathgate, West Lothian, Scotland  
335,000,000 YBN
6331) The tetrapod Amniota divide into the Sauropsida {SOR-roP-SiDu} (which
includes reptiles and birds) and the Synapsida {Si-naP-Si-Du} (which includes

earliest possible Synapsid fossils: (Cumberland group, Joggins formation)
Joggins, Nova Scotia, Canada  
325,000,000 YBN
381) Amphibians: Caecilians.
320,000,000 YBN
238) Seed plants: Gymnosperms (ancestor of all Cycads, Ginkgos and the
Conifers: Pine, Fir, Spruce, Redwood, Cedar, Juniper, and Cypress).

320,000,000 YBN
6356) Insects Orthoptera (crickets, grasshoppers).
317,000,000 YBN
385) Reptiles evolve.
earliest fossils: (Joggins Formation) Nova Scotia, Canada  
310,000,000 YBN
6357) Insects Paraneoptera (Lice, cicadas, aphids).
310,000,000 YBN
6359) Holometabolous {HoLomeTaBoluS or HOlOmeTABoluS} insects (ancestor of
beetles, bees, true flies, and butterflies). Complete metamorphosis.

305,000,000 YBN
242) Amphibians: Frogs.
299,000,000 YBN
6360) Insects Coleoptera {KOlEoPTRu} (Beetles).
earliest fossils: (Pennsylvanian deposit) Mazon Creek, Illinois, USA  
290,000,000 YBN
6358) Insects Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps).
274,000,000 YBN
307) Protists: Brown Algae evolve.
266,000,000 YBN
308) Protists: Diatoms.
260,000,000 YBN
232) Earliest warm-blooded and hair growing animal.
256,000,000 YBN
6362) Insects: Diptera {DiPTRe} true flies, single pair of wings: ancestor of
mosquito, gnat, fruit fly, and house fly).

251,400,000 YBN
102) Largest mass extinction of history.
251,000,000 YBN
452) Supercontinent Pangea (PaNJEe) forms.
235,000,000 YBN
304) Protists Haptophytes {HaPTuFITu} (Coccolithophores {KoK-o-lit-O-FORZ}).
228,000,000 YBN
412) Reptiles: Dinosaurs evolve.
earliest fossils: (Ischigualasto Formation) Valley of the Moon, Ischigualasto
Provinvial Park, northwestern Argestina  
225,000,000 YBN
126) Mammals evolve. First mammary gland.
earliest fossils: (Dockum Formation) Kalgary, Crosby County, Texas, USA  
225,000,000 YBN
369) Teleost (TeLEoST) fishes evolve.
220,000,000 YBN
387) Reptiles: Turtles.
220,000,000 YBN
428) The first flying vertebrate (Pterosaur).
210,000,000 YBN
390) Reptiles: iguanas, chameleons, and spiny lizards.
210,000,000 YBN
391) Reptiles: snakes, skinks, and geckos.
200,000,000 YBN
370) Teleosts: eels and tarpons.
200,000,000 YBN
392) Reptiles: crocodiles, allegators, caimans {KAmeNS}.
190,000,000 YBN
371) Teleosts: herrings and anchovies.
190,000,000 YBN
6289) Supercontinent Pangea splits into Laurasia and Gondwana. The northern
part, Laurasia will form North America and Europe. The southern part, Gondwana
will form South America and Africa.

190,000,000 YBN
6347) Insects Lepidoptera {lePiDoPTRu} (moths, butterflies, caterpillars).
earliest fossils: Dorset, England  
180,000,000 YBN
456) Earliest extant mammals, Monotremes {moNeTrEMZ} evolve.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
170,000,000 YBN
372) Teleosts: carp, minnows, piranhas.
170,000,000 YBN
373) Teleosts: salmon, trout, pike.
170,000,000 YBN
383) Amphibians: Salamanders.
150,000,000 YBN
374) Teleosts: Lightfish and Dragonfish.
150,000,000 YBN
393) Birds evolve. The first feather.
145,000,000 YBN
245) Seed plants angiosperms. The first flowering plant. Almost all grains,
beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices come from plants with

Israel, Morocco, Libya, and possibly China  
143,000,000 YBN
6288) Earliest extant flower "Amborella".
140,000,000 YBN
247) Flowers: Nymphaeales {niM-FE-A-lEZ} (water lilies).
140,000,000 YBN
457) Marsupials evolve. First nipple and breast.
134,000,000 YBN
250) Flowers: "Magnoliids" {maGnOlEiDZ} evolve (magnolia, nutmeg, avocado,
cinnamon, black pepper).

133,000,000 YBN
253) Flowers Eudicots {YUDIKoTS} evolve (the largest lineage of flowers).
130,000,000 YBN
375) Teleosts: Perch, seahorses, flying fish, pufferfish, barracuda.
130,000,000 YBN
376) Teleosts: cod, anglerfish.
125,000,000 YBN
163) The Eutheria. Placental mammals evolve.
earliest fossils: (Daxigou) Jianchang County, Liaoning Province, China  
120,000,000 YBN
463) Neornithes {nEORnitEZ} evolve (modern birds).
112,000,000 YBN
252) Flowers Monocots evolve: Flowering plants that have a single cotyledon
(seed leaf) in the embryo.

108,000,000 YBN
254) Flowers: "Basal Eudicots" (buttercup, poppy, macadamia, sycamore).
106,000,000 YBN
267) Flowers "Core Eudicots" (cactus, caper, buckwheat, rhubarb, venus flytrap,
old world pitcher plants, beet, quinoa, spinach, grape plants).

105,000,000 YBN
491) Ancestor of all placental mammal Afrotheres evolves.
100,000,000 YBN
465) Birds "Ratites" evolve (ostrich, emu, cassowary {KaSOwaRE}, kiwis).
95,000,000 YBN
498) Placental Mammals "Xenarthrans" {ZeNoRtreNZ} evolve (Sloths, Anteaters,

South America  
93,000,000 YBN
256) Flowers: "Rosids" (pomegranate, clove, guava, allspice, eucalyptus).
93,000,000 YBN
261) Flowers "Fabales" {FoBAlEZ} evolve (beans, pea, peanut, soy, lentil).
93,000,000 YBN
265) Flowers "Base Monocots" (vanilla, orchid, asparagus, onion, garlic, agave,
aloe, lily).

93,000,000 YBN
266) Monocots "Commelinids" {KomelIniDZ} evolve (palms, coconut, corn, rice,
barley, oat, wheat, rye, sugarcane, bamboo, grass, pineapple, papyrus, turmeric
{TRmRiK}, banana, ginger).

93,000,000 YBN
275) Flowers: "Ericales" {AReKAlEZ} (kiwi, ebony, persimmon, blueberry,
cranberry, brazil nut, new world pitcher plants, tea).

93,000,000 YBN
283) Flowers "Apiales" {APEAlEZ} (dill, celery, cilantro, carrot, parsnip,
fennel, parsley, ivy).

93,000,000 YBN
285) Flowers "Asterales" {aSTRAlEZ} (tarragon, daisy, artichoke, sunflower,
lettuce, dandelion).

91,000,000 YBN
259) Flowers: "Malpighiales" {maLPiGEAlEZ} (coca, rubber tree, cassava,
poinsettia, willow, poplar, aspen).

90,000,000 YBN
270) Flowers "Brassicales" {BraSiKAlEZ} (horseradish, mustard, cabbage,
broccoli, radish, papaya).

89,000,000 YBN
262) Flowers "Rosales" {ROZAlEZ} (hemp, hop, jackfruit, fig, strawberry, rose,
raspberry, apple, pear, plum, cherry, peach, almond).

89,000,000 YBN
279) Flowers "Gentianales" {JeNsinAlEZ} evolve (oleander, coffee).
86,000,000 YBN
278) Flowers "Solanales" {SOlanAlEZ} evolve (bell pepper, tomato, tobacco,
potato, eggplant).

85,000,000 YBN
263) Flowers "Cucurbitales" (KYUKRBiTAlEZ} evolve (melon, cucumber, pumpkin,
squash, zucchini).

85,000,000 YBN
264) Flowers "Fagales" {FaGAlEZ} (Birch, Hazel {nut}, Chestnut, Beech {nut},
Oak, Walnut, Pecan, Hickory).

85,000,000 YBN
466) Birds "Galliformes" {GaLliFORmEZ} evolve (Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant,
Peacock, Quail).

85,000,000 YBN
467) Birds "Anseriformes" {aNSRiFORmEZ} evolve (ducks, geese, swans).
85,000,000 YBN
499) The ancestor of all placental mammal "Laurasiatheres" evolves.
82,000,000 YBN
271) Flowers "Malvales" {moLVAlEZ} evolve (okra, cotton, cacao {KoKoU}).
82,000,000 YBN
272) Flowers "Sapindales" {SaPiNDAlEZ} (maple, citris, cashew, mango,

82,000,000 YBN
500) Laurasiatheres "Insectivora" evolves (shrews, moles, hedgehogs).
80,000,000 YBN
482) Marsupials: New World Opossums.
75,000,000 YBN
492) Afrotheres: Aardvark.
74,000,000 YBN
280) Flowers "Lamiales" {lAmEAlEZ} (mint, basil, oregano, rosemary, sage,
thyme, sesame, olive, ash, lilac, jasmine).

73,000,000 YBN
484) Marsupials: Bandicoots and Bilbies {BiLBEZ}.
70,000,000 YBN
507) Placental Mammals: Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas {PIKuZ}.
70,000,000 YBN
516) Placental Mammals: Tree Shrews and Colugos {KolUGOZ}.
65,500,000 YBN
129) Mass extinction.
65,000,000 YBN
468) Birds "Gruiformes" {GrUiFORmEZ} (cranes and rails).
65,000,000 YBN
485) Marsupial moles.
65,000,000 YBN
486) Marsupials: Tasmanian Devil, Numbat {nuMBaT}.
65,000,000 YBN
488) Marsupials "Diprotodontia" {DIPrOTODoNsEu} evolve (Wombats, Kangeroos,
Possums, Koalas).

65,000,000 YBN
508) Placental Mammals Rodents evolve (rats, mice, gerbils, voles {VOLZ},
lemmings, hamsters).

63,000,000 YBN
587) Primates evolve. Opposable thumb.
Africa or India  
60,000,000 YBN
470) Birds "Strigiformes" {STriJiFORmEZ} evolve (owls).
60,000,000 YBN
504) Laurasiatheres "Carnivora" {KoRniVRu} (Cats, Dogs, Bears, Weasels, Hyenas,
Seals, Walruses).

58,000,000 YBN
524) Primates: Tarsiers {ToRSERZ}.
55,000,000 YBN
471) Birds "Apodiformes" {oPoD-i-FORmEZ} (hummingbirds, swifts).
55,000,000 YBN
476) Birds "Piciformes" {PESiFORmEZ} (woodpeckers, toucans).
55,000,000 YBN
477) Birds "Passeriformes" {PaSRiFORmEZ} (perching songbirds) evolve. This
order includes many common birds: crows, jays, sparrows, warblers,
mockingbirds, robins, orioles, bluebirds, vireos {VEREOZ}, larks, finches.

earliest fossils: Australia|Gondwana  
55,000,000 YBN
495) Afrotheres: Elephants.
Algeria, Africa|Africa  
55,000,000 YBN
502) Laurasiatheres "Cetartiodactyla" {SiToRTEODaKTilu} evolve (ancestor of all
Artiodactyla {oRTEODaKTiLu}: camels, pigs, ruminants, hippos, and all Cetacea
{SiTASEu or SiTAsEu}: Whales, Dolphins).

55,000,000 YBN
503) Laurasiatheres "Perissodactyla" {PeriSODaKTilu} (Horses, Tapirs {TAPRZ },

55,000,000 YBN
509) Rodents: Beavers.
55,000,000 YBN
511) Rodents: Squirrels.
54,000,000 YBN
810) Last common ancestor between hippos with dolphins and whales.
52,000,000 YBN
501) Laurasiatheres "Chiroptera" {KIroPTRu} (fruit bats, echolocating bats).
51,000,000 YBN
513) Rodents: Old World Porcupines.
49,000,000 YBN
474) Birds "Falconiformes" {FaLKoNiFORmEZ} (falcons, hawks, eagles, Old World

49,000,000 YBN
515) Rodents: New World porcupines, guinea pigs, capybaras {KaPuBoRoZ}.
40,000,000 YBN
525) Primates: New World Monkeys (Sakis, Spider, Howler and Squirrel monkeys,
Capuchins {KaP YU CiNZ}, Tamarins).

37,000,000 YBN
475) Birds: Cuculiformes {KUKUliFORmEZ} evolve (cuckoos, roadrunners).
30,000,000 YBN
520) Primates: True Lemurs.
25,000,000 YBN
531) Primates: Old World Monkeys (Macaques, Baboons, Mandrills, Proboscis and
Colobus {KoLiBeS} monkeys).

(perhaps around Lake Victoria) Africa  
24,000,000 YBN
662) The ancestor of all Hominoids (Gibbons and Hominids) loses its tail.
23,000,000 YBN
478) Monotreme: Echidna.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea  
23,000,000 YBN
479) Monotreme: Duck-Billed Platypus.
Australia and Tasmania  
18,000,000 YBN
537) Primates: Gibbons.
South-East Asia  
14,000,000 YBN
542) Earliest extant Hominid: Orangutans.
South-East Asia  
10,000,000 YBN
543) Hominids: Gorillas evolve.
6,000,000 YBN
544) Chimpanzees evolve. Last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.
4,400,000 YBN
546) Hominid: Ardipithecus. Earliest bipedal primate.
Lukeino Formation, Tugen Hills, Kenya, Africa  
4,000,000 YBN
547) Hominid: Australopithecus (x-STrA-lO-PitiKuS}.
Sterkfontein, South Africa  

3,390,000 YBN
269) Hominids use stones as tools.
Dikika, Ethiopia  
2,700,000 YBN
564) Hominid: Paranthropus {Pa raN tru PuS} evolves.
2,500,000 YBN
455) Oldest formed stone tools.
Gona, Ethiopia  
2,200,000 YBN
447) Humans. Hominids: Homo habilis evolve (earliest member of the genus

This is when the human brain begins to get bigger.

(Kenya and Tanzania) Africa  
2,000,000 YBN
545) Hominids: Bonobos {BunOBOZ}.
1,800,000 YBN
563) Homo erectus {hOmO ireKTuS}.
Lake Turkana, East Africa  
1,700,000 YBN
449) Homo erectus moves into Eurasia from Africa.
1,500,000 YBN
583) Controlled use of fire.
(Swartkrans cave) Swartkrans, South Africa  
1,000,000 YBN
589) Homo erectus evolves less body hair.
970,000 YBN
200) Humans wear clothing.
Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK  
400,000 YBN
615) Spear.
Kathu Pan 1, South Africa|(Schöningen, Germany.)  
200,000 YBN
548) Homo sapiens evolve.
Ethiopia, Africa  
200,000 YBN
590) Human language of thirty short sounds begins to develop. All words are
single syllable.

130,000 YBN
450) Homo Neanderthalensis.
Europe and Western Asia  
101,000 YBN
[99000 BC]
594) Homo sapiens move out of Africa into Eurasia. Beginning of differences in

100,000 YBN
[98000 BC]
6333) Theory of Gods.
(Es-Skhul) Mount Carmel, Israel  
61,000 YBN
[59000 BC]
614) Bow and arrows.
Sibudu Cave, South Africa  
46,000 YBN
[44000 BC]
577) Earliest water ship. Sapiens reach Australia.
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
604) Oil lamp.
Southwest France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
1262) Painting.
(The Panel de las Manos) El Castillo Cave, Spain|Southern France  
40,000 YBN
[38000 BC]
5871) Earliest musical instrument, a flute.
Hohle Fels Cave, Germany  
32,000 YBN
[30000 BC]
602) Weaving and textiles.
Dzudzuana Cave, Georgia  
31,700 YBN
[29700 BC]
42) Humans raise dogs.
Goyet cave, Belgium  
29,000 YBN
[27000 BC]
6215) Ceramics.
Dolni Věstonice, Czechoslovakia  
23,000 YBN
[21000 BC]
6231) Stone wall.
(Theopetra Cave) Kalambaka, Greece  
19,000 YBN
[17000 BC]
6175) Cereal gathering.
Near East (Southwest Asia Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Saudi
18,000 YBN
[16000 BC]
603) Pottery.
(Yuchanyan cave), Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China  
17,000 YBN
[15000 BC]
6225) Rope.
Lascaux, France  
13,000 YBN
[11000 BC]
578) Humans enter America.
Mexico City and Arlington Canyon on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA  
11,000 YBN
[9000 BC]
606) Oldest city, Jericho.
Jericho, (modern West Bank) Palestine  
9,500 YBN
[7500 BC]
612) Wheat grown.
Tell Abu Hureyra, Syria|southeastern Turkey and northern Syria (Nevali Cori,
9,240 YBN
[7240 BC]
1478) Squash grown.
Paiján, Peru  
8,000 YBN
[6000 BC]
6220) Earliest drum.
Moravia, Czeck Republic  
7,700 YBN
[5700 BC]
719) Rice grown.
Kuahuqiao, Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang Province|Yangtze (in Hubei and Hunan
provinces), China  
7,100 YBN
[5100 BC]
720) Corn grown.
San Andrés, Mexico|(Oaxaca, Mexico)  
7,000 YBN
[5000 BC]
627) Metal melting and casting (copper).
Belovode, Eastern Serbia  
6,000 YBN
[4000 BC]
6232) Mud brick house.
Ur, Mesopotamia (modern Iraq)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
233) Writing (on clay objects). First numbers. First stamp (or seal).
Mesopotamia (Babylonia)|Sumer (Syria, Sumer, Highland Iran)  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
294) Timekeeping device.
China and Chaldea  
5,500 YBN
[3500 BC]
646) The wheel (for pottery).
Mesopotamia (and a similar pottery wheel from Choga Mish, Iran)  
5,490 YBN
[3490 BC]
702) Cotton grown.
Northwestern Peru|Indus valley  
5,350 YBN
[3350 BC]
1261) Writing on clay tablets.
5,310 YBN
[3310 BC]
704) Animal pulled vehicles.
(TRB - Funnel Beaker culture) Bronocice, Krakow, Poland  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
569) Stringed musical instrument (lyre and harp).
Sumer (modern Iraq)  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
596) Phonetic writing.
Jemdet Nasr  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
628) Bronze casting.
Tell Judaidah, Turkey|Egypt  
5,000 YBN
[3000 BC]
6222) Inclined plane.
4,500 YBN
[2500 BC]
635) Iron melted and casted.
Alaca Höyük in northern Anatolia (modern Turkey)|Palestine|Tell Hammeh
(az-Zarqa), Jordan|Central Europe and north Assyria  
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
667) Glass making.
4,300 YBN
[2300 BC]
1271) Earliest written stories.
4,130 YBN
[2130 BC]
6234) Musical horn.
Lagash, Mesopotamia  
4,000 YBN
[2000 BC]
733) Lock and key.
Nineveh, Assyria on the Tigris River  
3,531 YBN
[1531 BC]
639) Planets are recognized.
3,500 YBN
[1500 BC]
723) Pulley.
Nimroud, Assyria  
2,785 YBN
[785 BC]
771) Eclipses predicted.
2,529 YBN
[529 BC]
772) Earth described as a sphere.
Croton, Italy  
2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
836) That stars are other Suns is known.
Clazomenae (75 miles/120 km north of Miletus)|Athens|Did not move to Athens
until around 462 bce  
2,467 YBN
[467 BC]
1894) Particle (or wireless) communication.
Argos, Greece  
2,460 YBN
[460 BC]
841) Theory that all matter is made of atoms.
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
663) Lever.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
822) Screw.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,260 YBN
[260 BC]
882) The rotation of the Earth around its own axis once a day and around the
Sun once a year is understood.

(Mousion of Alexandria) Alexandria, Egpyt  
2,246 YBN
[246 BC]
898) The size of Earth correctly calculated.
Alexandria, Egypt  
2,231 YBN
[231 BC]
833) Earliest gears.
Syracuse, Sicily  
2,160 YBN
[160 BC]
6477) Law of inertia (a body preserves its motion).
(before 141 BC) Bithynia (presumably Nicaea)|(observatory on) Island of Rhodes,
2,140 YBN
[140 BC]
1070) Paper.
Pa-chhiao near Sian in the Shensi province of China|Xian, China  
2,056 YBN
[56 BC]
1045) Theory that light is made of atoms that move very fast.
Rome, Italy  
1,950 YBN
[50 AD]
1078) Steam engine.
Alexandria, Egypt  
1,917 YBN
[83 AD]
766) Compass.
China (more specific)  
1,400 YBN
[600 AD]
1111) Windmill.
Persia (Iran)  
1,150 YBN
[850 AD]
1144) Gunpowder.
1,080 YBN
[920 AD]
6183) Norwegian explorers reach North America.
L'Anse Aux Meadows, Newfoundland  
1,040 YBN
[960 AD]
6186) Rocket.
868 YBN
[1132 AD]
1146) Gun.
Ta-tsu, Szechuan Province, China  
772 YBN
[1228 AD]
1392) Theory that all matter is made of light.
Oxford, England  
508 YBN
[10/12/1492 AD]
1450) Humans from Europe reach America.
(probably) San Salvador  
478 YBN
[09/08/1522 AD]
1475) Humans circumnavigate the Earth.
Seville, Spain  
408 YBN
[1592 AD]
1613) Thermometer.
Padua, Italy  
392 YBN
[1608 AD]
1618) Telescope.
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland) (modern: Netherlands)  
391 YBN
[1609 AD]
1619) That planets have elliptical orbits is understood.
Weil der Stadt (now part of the Stuttgart Region in the German state of
Baden-Württemberg, 30 km west of Stuttgart's center)  
390 YBN
[01/??/1610 AD]
1605) Moons of Jupiter seen and their period determined.
(University of Padua) Padua, Venice, Italy  
390 YBN
[1610 AD]
6488) Microscope.
Middleburgh, Zeeland (Holland) (modern: Netherlands)  
369 YBN
[1631 AD]
1664) Speed of sound measured.
Paris, France (presumably)  
365 YBN
[1635 AD]
1660) Frequencies of sounds measured.
Paris, France (presumably)  
357 YBN
[1643 AD]
1692) Vacuum.
Florence, Italy  
337 YBN
[1663 AD]
2247) Static electricity generator.
Magdeburg, Germany (presumably)  
324 YBN
[1676 AD]
1851) Speed of light measured.
(Paris Observatory) Paris, France  
322 YBN
[1678 AD]
3592) Direct neuron activation. Human contracts muscle with electricity.
Amsterdam, Netherlands (presumably)  
313 YBN
[1687 AD]
1845) Law of gravitation, matter attracts with a force that is the product of
their masses, and the inverse of their distance squared.

Cambridge, England (presumably)  
255 YBN
[11/04/1745 AD]
1972) Storage of electricity.
(University of Wittenburg) Wittenburg, Germany(was for von Kleist: Pomerania?,
Prussia) (coast of Baltic Sea between Germany and Poland)  
231 YBN
[1769 AD]
1206) Self-propelled vehicle.
209 YBN
[1791 AD]
2175) Remote neuron activation (muscle contracted remotely by light particles).
Bologna, Italy  
200 YBN
[03/20/1800 AD]
2250) Electric battery.
Pavia, Italy  
200 YBN
[03/27/1800 AD]
2179) Invisible light recognized.
Slough, England  
199 YBN
[11/12/1801 AD]
2405) Frequencies of light measured.
London, England  
191 YBN
[1809 AD]
2481) Electric light.
London, England  
185 YBN
[11/??/1815 AD]
2544) Theory that all atoms are multiples of hydrogen.
London, England (presumably)  
180 YBN
[04/21/1820 AD]
2454) Electricity understood to cause magnetism. First electromagnet.
Copenhagen, Denmark  
180 YBN
[1820 AD]
3374) Gas combustion engine.
(Magdalen College) Cambridge, England  
179 YBN
[09/11/1821 AD]
2701) Electric motor.
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
174 YBN
[1826 AD]
2355) The first photograph.
Chalon-sur-Saône, France  
171 YBN
[03/27/1829 AD]
2844) Electricity produced by moving a wire near a magnet.
Pavia, Italy  
170 YBN
[1830 AD]
4003) Sound recorded mechanically.
(University of) Göttingen, Germany  
169 YBN
[02/17/1831 AD]
2702) Electrical transformer.
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
169 YBN
[09/??/1831 AD]
2705) The (dynamic) electric generator (constant current produced).
(Royal Institution in) London, England  
168 YBN
[1832 AD]
2514) Plastic.
Nancy, France  
161 YBN
[07/29/1839 AD]
3308) Light converted to electricity (photoelectric effect).
(University of Paris) Paris, France  
155 YBN
[04/??/1845 AD]
2839) Humans recognize spiral galaxies.
(Birr Castle) Parsonstown, Ireland  
154 YBN
[09/23/1846 AD]
3073) Planet Neptune seen.
Berlin, Germany (and Paris, France)  
142 YBN
[07/01/1858 AD]
3033) Theory of evolution. Humans understand their descent from a single
ancestor and the process of natural selection.

(Linnean Society), London, England  
141 YBN
[10/20/1859 AD]
3087) Humans understand that light spectra can be used to determine atomic

(University of Heidelberg), Heidelberg, Germany  
139 YBN
[10/26/1861 AD]
3997) Microphone, speaker, and telephone. Sound converted to electricity and
back to sound again.

(built in workshop behind Reis's house and cabinet in Garnier's Institute,
Friedrichsdorf, demonstrated before Physical Society) Frankfort, Germany  
125 YBN
[08/28/1875 AD]
5575) Direct neuron reading. Electricity in nerve cells measured.
Liverpool, England  
120 YBN
[1880 AD]
5839) Artificial muscle.
(University of Giessen) Giessen, Germany  
118 YBN
[03/24/1882 AD]
3620) Invisible particle communication (radio).
(employed at Tuft's College) Sommerville, Massachusetts, USA  
111 YBN
[06/21/1889 AD]
4021) Motion picture camera.
(Piccadilly) London, England  
105 YBN
[11/05/1895 AD]
3936) X-rays.
(University of Würzburg) Würzburg, Germany  
102 YBN
[1898 AD]
4698) Magnetic writing and reading of data.
(Copenhagen Telephone Company) Copenhagen, Denmark  
97 YBN
[03/23/1903 AD]
4493) Airplane.
Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, USA  
94 YBN
[12/21/1906 AD]
4788) Electric switch and amplifier.
(De Forest Radio Telephone Company) New York City, New York, USA  
93 YBN
[05/??/1907 AD]
4269) Mass spectrometer, atoms separated by mass.
(Cambridge University) Cambridge, England   
93 YBN
[11/13/1907 AD]
354) Helicopter.
92 YBN
[06/06/1908 AD]
3616) Image sent and received by radio.
London, England  
82 YBN
[06/21/1918 AD]
6199) Electronic read and write memory.
(City and Guilds Technical College) London, UK  
81 YBN
[04/??/1919 AD]
4750) Atomic transmutation and atomic fusion; Nitrogen changed into Oxygen.
(University of Manchester) Manchester, England  
68 YBN
[04/16/1932 AD]
5182) Atomic fission.
(Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University) Cambridge, England  
63 YBN
[05/22/1937 AD]
5515) Picture of individual atoms.
(Siemens and Halske) Berlin, Germany  
62 YBN
[06/22/1938 AD]
5448) Image of virus.
(Berliner Medizinischen Gesellschaft/Berlin Medical Society) Berlin,
61 YBN
[04/30/1939 AD]
5835) Bipedal robot.
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation) Mansfield, Ohio, USA  
47 YBN
[04/02/1953 AD]
5660) Double helix structure of DNA understood.
(Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge) Cambridge, England  
46 YBN
[05/05/1954 AD]
5649) The MASER.
(Columbia University) New York City, New York, USA  
43 YBN
[10/04/1957 AD]
5486) The first human-made satellite.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam) Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
41 YBN
[09/14/1959 AD]
5597) A ship impacts the moon.
(Baikonur Cosmodrome) Tyuratam, Kazakhstan, U.S.S.R.  
40 YBN
[04/22/1960 AD]
5768) The LASER.
(Hughes Research Laboratories) Malibu, California  
39 YBN
[04/12/1961 AD]
5601) Human orbits the Earth.
Saratovskaya oblast, U.S.S.R.  
38 YBN
[10/26/1962 AD]
6201) Laser writing and reading of data.
(Winston Research Corporation) Los Angeles, California, USA  
34 YBN
[03/01/1966 AD]
5613) Ship impacts Venus.
Planet Venus  
31 YBN
[07/21/1969 AD]
655) Humans land and walk on the moon of Earth.
Moon of Earth  
29 YBN
[11/14/1971 AD]
5618) Ship orbits another planet (Mars).
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[11/27/1971 AD]
5619) Ship impacts Mars.
Planet Mars  
29 YBN
[12/02/1971 AD]
5620) Ship lands on Mars.
Planet Mars  
27 YBN
[12/03/1973 AD]
5622) Ship reaches Jupiter.
Planet Jupiter  
25 YBN
[10/20/1975 AD]
5623) Ship lands on Venus.
Planet Venus  
21 YBN
[09/01/1979 AD]
388) Ship reaches Saturn.
Planet Saturn  
14 YBN
[01/24/1986 AD]
5628) Ship reaches Uranus.
Planet Uranus  
12 YBN
[12/14/1988 AD]
6194) Microscopic motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
11 YBN
[08/25/1989 AD]
5629) Ship reaches Neptune.
Planet Neptune  
10 YBN
[01/17/1990 AD]
6191) Individual atoms moved.
(IBM Research Division, Almaden Research Center) San Jose, California,
[12/07/1995 AD]
396) Ship orbits Jupiter.
[06/28/2001 AD]
6192) Microscopic radio chip (RFID).
(Hitachi) Japan  
[04/04/2003 AD]
6195) Nanometer scale motor.
(University of California at Berkeley), Berkeley, California, USA  
[07/01/2004 AD]
5641) Ship orbits Saturn.
Planet Saturn  
[12/10/2008 AD]
3886) Remote neuron reading. Image of what the eyes are seeing captured

(Collaboration between researchers at two Japanese Universities, two research
Institutes, and ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories) Kyoto, Japan  
15 YAN
[2015 AD]
332) Sound a brain hears is recorded remotely.
18 YAN
[2018 AD]
6208) Radio device functions as cell organelle.
20 YAN
[2020 AD]
6197) Microscopic flying device.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
337) Remote neuron writing using microscopic devices in neurons.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6193) Microscopic camera.
25 YAN
[2025 AD]
6198) Microscopic flying camera.
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
365) Thought-audio recorded and played out loud. Humans start to communicate by
thought-image and thought-sound only.

30 YAN
[2030 AD]
366) Artificial muscle bipedal robot.
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
680) Thought-images recorded and shown publicly.
30 YAN
[2030 AD]
6391) Nanometer scale camera.
50 YAN
[2050 AD]
790) Humans walk around with robot servants.
55 YAN
[2055 AD]
6302) Cancer stopped by microscopic devices.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
367) Most humans communicate only by images and sounds of thought.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
793) Helicopter-cars form a second line of traffic above the streets.
100 YAN
[2100 AD]
794) 100 ships with humans orbit Earth.
140 YAN
[2140 AD]
687) Large scale transmutation: common atoms like Iron converted into more
useful atoms like Hydrogen and Oxygen using particle colliders.

150 YAN
[2150 AD]
6304) Nucleic Acid changed by microscopic devices.
180 YAN
[2180 AD]
4594) Humans live on Mars.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
792) Robots have replaced humans in most manual labor tasks (including driving,
cleaning, and food planting, harvesting, preparing and serving).

200 YAN
[2200 AD]
795) 1000 human-filled ships orbit earth.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
4607) Humans live on Mercury.
200 YAN
[2200 AD]
6305) Microscopic devices repair, regrow, and reshape damaged cells.
250 YAN
[2250 AD]
4611) Humans land on a moon of Jupiter.
280 YAN
[2280 AD]
4620) Humans land on a moon of Saturn.
300 YAN
[2300 AD]
4627) Humans land on a moon of Uranus.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
4630) Humans land on a moon of Neptune.
350 YAN
[2350 AD]
6393) Ship reaches other star (Alpha Centauri). First close up pictures of
of a different star.

370 YAN
[2370 AD]
6209) Living objects on planets of another star identified (bacteria made of

Alpha Centauri  
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
683) Removal of Venus atmosphere is started.
500 YAN
[2500 AD]
686) End of death by aging.
600 YAN
[2600 AD]
6547) Ship reaches Sirius.
650 YAN
[2650 AD]
4619) Humans create atoms from light particles (photon fusion).
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
24) Humans consume an asteroid.
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4615) Humans live on Venus.
800 YAN
[2800 AD]
4628) Humans change the motion of a moon.
850 YAN
[2850 AD]
4580) Humans change the motion of a planet.
900 YAN
[2900 AD]
29) Ship impacts the surface of Jupiter. First image of the surface of Jupiter.
1,150 YAN
[3150 AD]
4638) Ships reach Barnard's star.
Barnard's Star  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4614) Ship from Centauri reaches Earth with objects.
Earth System  
1,200 YAN
[3200 AD]
4637) Humans reach a different star, Centauri.
Alpha Centauri  
1,500 YAN
[3500 AD]
684) Atmosphere of Venus completely removed.
2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4644) Atmosphere of Jupiter removed.
2,000 YAN
[4000 AD]
4646) Humans have ships at 10 star systems.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4579) Venus atmosphere like Earth.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4655) Humans live on Jupiter.
2,500 YAN
[4500 AD]
4662) Motion of all planets under human control.
3,100 YAN
[5100 AD]
4671) The first image of advanced living objects that evolved around a
different star.

3,500 YAN
[5500 AD]
6176) Motion of star controlled. Star of Earth moved in direction of Centauri.
4,000 YAN
[6000 AD]
4675) Humans touch advanced living objects that evolved around a different

5,000 YAN
[7000 AD]
678) One trillion humans.
25,000 YAN
[27000 AD]
4677) Humans inhabit 100 stars and form a globular cluster of 10 stars.
45,000 YAN
[47000 AD]
4679) Humans inhabit 1000 stars and form a globular cluster of 100 stars.
63,000 YAN
[65000 AD]
6171) Humans reach the center of the Earth.
65,000 YAN
[67000 AD]
6174) Earth is completely filled with living objects.
70,000 YAN
[72000 AD]
4684) Humans inhabit 10,000 stars and form a globular cluster of 1,000 stars.
90,000 YAN
[92000 AD]
6210) Human-made globular cluster of 10,000 stars leaves the plane of the Milky
Way Galaxy.

138,000 YAN
4678) All planets of Star of Earth consumed.
148,000 YAN
100) The star of Earth is consumed.
205,000 YAN
6317) Sirius consumed.
630,000 YAN
106) Ten to the power 100 humans.
30,000,000,000 YAN
4687) The Milky Way Globular Galaxy integrates with the Magellanic Cloud

Milky Way Galaxy  
40,000,000,000 YAN
4688) The Milky Way and Andromeda globular galaxies join.
Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy  
"Universe, Life, Science, Future" is published under the GNU license, except where otherwise indicated or determined to be fair use, copyrighted, public domain, CC, GDFL or other license.
Main Page